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The Story of Civilization

The Story of Civilization

Encyclopedia
The Story of Civilization, by husband and wife Will
Will Durant
William James Durant was a prolific American writer, historian, and philosopher. He is best known for The Story of Civilization, 11 volumes written in collaboration with his wife Ariel Durant and published between 1935 and 1975...

 and Ariel Durant
Ariel Durant
Ariel Durant was the co-author of The Story of Civilization.-Biography:Durant was born in Proskurov as Chaya Kaufman to Ethel Appel Kaufman and Joseph Kaufman. The family emigrated to the United States in 1901. She met her future husband, Will Durant, while a student at Ferrer Modern School in...

, is an eleven-volume set of books covering Western history for the general reader. The volumes sold well for many years, and sets of them were frequently offered by book clubs.

The series was written over a span of more than four decades, and it totals four million words across nearly 10,000 pages, but is incomplete. In the first volume (Our Oriental Heritage, which covers the history of the East
Eastern world
__FORCETOC__The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems of Eastern Asia or geographically the Eastern Culture...

 through 1933), Will Durant stated that he wanted to include the history of the West
Western world
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident , is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe , the countries of the Americas, as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand...

 through the early 20th century. However, the series ends with The Age of Napoleon because the Durants both died in the 1980s – she in her 80s and he in his 90s – before they could complete additional volumes.

The first six volumes of The Story of Civilization are credited to Will Durant, with Ariel receiving recognition in the acknowledgement
Acknowledgment (creative arts)
In the creative arts and scientific literature, an acknowledgment is an expression of gratitude for assistance in creating a literary or artistic work....

s. In later volumes, beginning with The Age of Reason Begins, Ariel is credited as a co-author.

I. Our Oriental Heritage (1935)



This volume covers Near Eastern history until the fall of the Persian Empire in the 330s BC, and the history of India, China, and Japan up to the 1930s.
“Every chapter, every paragraph in this book will offend or amuse some patriotic or esoteric soul: the orthodox Jew will need all his ancestral patience to forgive the pages on Yahveh; the metaphysical Hindu will mourn this superficial scratching of Indian philosophy; The Chinese or Japanese sage will smile indulgently at these brief and inadequate selections from the wealth of Far Eastern literature and thought. ... Meanwhile a weary author may sympathize with Tai T’ung, who in the thirteenth century issued his ‘’History of Chinese Writing’‘ with these words: ‘Were I to await perfection, my book would never be finished.’” (p.ix)

  1. The Establishment of Civilization
    Civilization
    Civilization is a sometimes controversial term that has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such civilizations are generally...

    1. The Conditions of Civilization
    2. The Economic Elements of Civilization
    3. The Political Elements of Civilization
    4. The Moral Elements of Civilization
    5. The Mental Elements of Civilization
    6. The Prehistoric
      Prehistory
      Prehistory is the span of time before recorded history. Prehistory can refer to the period of human existence before the availability of those written records with which recorded history begins. More broadly, it refers to all the time preceding human existence and the invention of writing...

       Beginnings of Civilization
      “The moulders of the world’s myths were unsuccessful husbands, for they agreed that woman was the source of all evil.” (page 70)
  2. The Near East
    Near East
    The Near East is a geographical term that covers different countries for geographers, archeologists, and historians, on the one hand, and for political scientists, economists, and journalists, on the other...

    1. Sumer
      Sumer
      Sumer was a civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age....

      ia
    2. Egypt
      Ancient Egypt
      Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

    3. Babylonia
      Babylonia
      Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia , with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as a major power when Hammurabi Babylonia was an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), with Babylon as its capital. Babylonia emerged as...

    4. Assyria
      Assyria
      Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

    5. A Motley of Nations
    6. Judea
      Judea
      Judea or Judæa was the name of the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel from the 8th century BCE to the 2nd century CE, when Roman Judea was renamed Syria Palaestina following the Jewish Bar Kokhba revolt.-Etymology:The...

    7. Persia 
      “For barbarism is always around civilization, amid it and beneath it, ready to engulf it by arms, or mass migration, or unchecked fertility. Barbarism is like the jungle; it never admits its defeat; it waits patiently for centuries to recover the territory it has lost.” (page 265)
  3. India and Her Neighbors
    History of South Asia
    The term South Asia refers to the contemporary political entities of the Indian subcontinent and associated island. These are the states of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and the island nations of Sri Lanka and the Maldives....

    1. The Foundations of India
      History of India
      The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from...

    2. Buddha
      Gautama Buddha
      Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

    3. From Alexander to Aurangzeb
      Aurangzeb
      Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

    4. The Life of the People
    5. The Paradise of the Gods
    6. The Life of the Mind
    7. The Literature
      Indian literature
      Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter. The Republic of India has 22 officially recognized languages....

       of India
      India
      India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    8. Indian Art
      Indian art
      Indian Art is the visual art produced on the Indian subcontinent from about the 3rd millennium BC to modern times. To viewers schooled in the Western tradition, Indian art may seem overly ornate and sensuous; appreciation of its refinement comes only gradually, as a rule. Voluptuous feeling is...

    9. A Christian
      Christian
      A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

       Epilogue
      On the fall of India to the Moguls: “The bitter lesson that may be drawn from this tragedy is that eternal vigilance is the price of civilization. A nation must love peace, but keep its powder dry.” (page 463)
  4. The Far East
    Far East
    The Far East is an English term mostly describing East Asia and Southeast Asia, with South Asia sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.The term came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 19th century,...

    1. The Age of the Philosophers
    2. The Age of the Poets
    3. The Age of the Artists
    4. The People and the State
    5. Revolution and Renewal
      On China in 1935: “No victory of arms, or tyranny of alien finance, can long suppress a nation so rich in resources and vitality. The invader will lose funds or patience before the loins of China will lose virility; within a century China will have absorbed and civilized her conquerors, and will have learned all the technique of what transiently bears the name of modern industry; roads and communications will give her unity, economy and thrift will give her funds, and a strong government will give her order and peace.” (page 823)
  5. Japan
    History of Japan
    The history of Japan encompasses the history of the islands of Japan and the Japanese people, spanning the ancient history of the region to the modern history of Japan as a nation state. Following the last ice age, around 12,000 BC, the rich ecosystem of the Japanese Archipelago fostered human...

    1. The Makers of Japan
    2. The Political and Moral Foundations
    3. The Mind and Art
      Japanese art
      Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper and more recently manga, cartoon, along with a myriad of other types of works of art...

       of Old Japan
    4. The New Japan
      On Japan in 1935: "By every historical precedent the next act will be war
      Second Sino-Japanese War
      The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States...

      ."

II. The Life of Greece (1939)



This volume covers Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 and the Hellenistic Near East down to the Roman conquest.
  1. Aegean
    Aegean Sea
    The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

     Prelude: 3500–1000 BC
    1. Crete
      Crete
      Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits...

    2. Before Agamemnon
      Agamemnon
      In Greek mythology, Agamemnon was the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra, and the father of Electra and Orestes. Mythical legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area...

    3. The Heroic Age
  2. The Rise of Greece: 1000–480 BC
    1. Sparta
      Sparta
      Sparta or Lacedaemon, was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the River Eurotas in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese. It emerged as a political entity around the 10th century BC, when the invading Dorians subjugated the local, non-Dorian population. From c...

    2. Athens
      History of Athens
      Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 7000 years. Situated in southern Europe, Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the first millennium BCE and its cultural achievements during the 5th century BCE laid the foundations...

    3. The Great Migration
    4. The Greeks in the West
    5. The Gods of Greece
      Greek mythology
      Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

    6. The Common Culture of Early Greece
    7. The Struggle for Freedom
      "The realization of self-government was something new in the world; life without kings had not yet been dared by any great society. Out of this proud sense of independence, individual and collective, came a powerful stimulus to every enterprise of the Greeks; it was their liberty that inspired them to incredible accomplishments in arts and letters, in science and philosophy." (p. 233)
  3. The Golden Age: 480–399 BC
    1. Pericles
      Pericles
      Pericles was a prominent and influential statesman, orator, and general of Athens during the city's Golden Age—specifically, the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars...

       and the Democratic
      Athenian democracy
      Athenian democracy developed in the Greek city-state of Athens, comprising the central city-state of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, around 508 BC. Athens is one of the first known democracies. Other Greek cities set up democracies, and even though most followed an Athenian model,...

       Experiment
    2. Work and Wealth in Athens
      Athens
      Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

    3. The Morals and Manners of the Athenians
    4. The Art
      Art in Ancient Greece
      The arts of ancient Greece have exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries all over the world, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was largely derived from Greek models...

       of Periclean Greece
    5. The Advancement of Learning
    6. The Conflict of Philosophy and Religion
    7. The Literature
      Ancient Greek literature
      Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language until the 4th century.- Classical and Pre-Classical Antiquity :...

       of the Golden Age
    8. The Suicide of Greece
      "As surprising as anything else in this civilization is the fact that it was brilliant without the aid or stimulus of women." (p. 305)
  4. The Decline and Fall of Greek Freedom: 399–322 BC
    1. Philip
      Philip II of Macedon
      Philip II of Macedon "friend" + ἵππος "horse" — transliterated ; 382 – 336 BC), was a king of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was the father of Alexander the Great and Philip III.-Biography:...

    2. Letters and Arts in the Fourth Century
    3. The Zenith of Philosophy
      Greek philosophy
      Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued through the Hellenistic period, at which point Ancient Greece was incorporated in the Roman Empire...

    4. Alexander
      "The class war had turned democracy into a contest in legislative looting." (p. 554)
  5. The Hellenistic
    Hellenistic Greece
    In the context of Ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by Rome in 146 BC...

     Dispersion: 322–146 BC
    1. Greece and Macedon
      Macedon
      Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south....

      ia
    2. Hellenism and the Orient
    3. Egypt
      Egypt
      Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

       and the West
    4. Books
    5. The Art of the Dispersion
    6. The Climax of Greek Science
      History of science in Classical Antiquity
      The history of science in classical antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy...

    7. The Surrender of Philosophy
    8. The Coming of Rome
      Roman Empire
      The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

       
      ”We have tried to show that the essential cause of the Roman conquest of Greece was the disintegration of Greek civilization from within. No great nation is ever conquered until it has destroyed itself.” (p. 659)
Epilogue: Our Greek Heritage

III. Caesar and Christ (1944)



The volume covers the history of Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 and of Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 until the time of Constantine the Great.
  1. Introduction: Origins
    1. Etruscan
      Etruscan civilization
      Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci...

       Prelude: 800–508 BC
  2. The Republic
    Roman Republic
    The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

    : 508–30 BC
    1. The Struggle for Democracy
      Democracy
      Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

      : 508–264 BC
    2. Hannibal
      Hannibal Barca
      Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca Hannibal's date of death is most commonly given as 183 BC, but there is a possibility it could have taken place in 182 BC. was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician. He is generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history...

       Against Rome: 264 BC-202 BC
    3. Stoic
      Stoicism
      Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early . The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions.Stoics were concerned...

       Rome: 508–202 BC
    4. The Greek Conquest: 201 BC-146 BC
      ”The new generation, having inherited world mastery, had no time or inclination to defend it; that readiness for war which had characterized the Roman landowner disappeared now that ownership was concentrated in a few families and a proletariat without stake in the country filled the slums of Rome.” (p. 90)
  3. The Revolution: 145–30 BC
    1. The Agrarian Revolt: 145–78 BC
    2. The Oligarchic
      Oligarchy
      Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with an elite class distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, commercial, and/or military legitimacy...

       Reaction: 77–60 BC
    3. Literature
      Latin literature
      Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings of the ancient Romans. In many ways, it seems to be a continuation of Greek literature, using many of the same forms...

       Under the Revolution: 145–30 BC
    4. Caesar
      Julius Caesar
      Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

      : 100–44 BC
    5. Antony
      Mark Antony
      Marcus Antonius , known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar...

      : 44–30 BC
      ”Children were now luxuries which only the poor could afford.” (p. 134)
  4. The Principate
    Principate
    The Principate is the first period of the Roman Empire, extending from the beginning of the reign of Caesar Augustus to the Crisis of the Third Century, after which it was replaced with the Dominate. The Principate is characterized by a concerted effort on the part of the Emperors to preserve the...

    : 30 BC-AD
    Anno Domini
    and Before Christ are designations used to label or number years used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars....

     192
    1. Augustan
      Augustus
      Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

       Statesmanship: 30 BC-AD 14
    2. The Golden Age: 30 BC-AD 18
    3. The Other Side of Monarchy
      Monarchy
      A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

      : AD 14–96
    4. The Silver Age: AD 14–96
    5. Rome at Work: AD 14–96
    6. Rome and Its Art
      Roman art
      Roman art has the visual arts made in Ancient Rome, and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Major forms of Roman art are architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work...

      : 30 BC-AD 96
    7. Epicurean
      Epicureanism
      Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom...

       Rome: 30 BC-AD 96
    8. Roman Law
      Roman law
      Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, and the legal developments which occurred before the 7th century AD — when the Roman–Byzantine state adopted Greek as the language of government. The development of Roman law comprises more than a thousand years of jurisprudence — from the Twelve...

      : 146 BC-AD 192
    9. The Philosopher Kings
      Philosopher king
      Philosopher kings are the rulers, or Guardians, of Plato's Utopian Kallipolis. If his ideal city-state is to ever come into being, "philosophers [must] become kings…or those now called kings [must]…genuinely and adequately philosophize" .-In Book VI of The Republic:Plato defined a philosopher...

      : AD 96–180
    10. Life and Thought in the Second Century: AD 96–192
      ”If Rome had not engulfed so many men of alien blood in so brief a time, if she had passed all these newcomers through her schools instead of her slums, if she had treated them as men with a hundred potential excellences, if she had occasionally closed her gates to let assimilation catch up with infiltration, she might have gained new racial and literary vitality from the infusion, and might have remained a Roman Rome, the voice and citadel of the West.” (p. 366)
  5. The Empire
    Roman Empire
    The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

    : AD 146-AD 192
    1. Italy
      History of Italy
      Italy, united in 1861, has significantly contributed to the political, cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean region. Many cultures and civilizations have existed there since prehistoric times....

    2. Civilizing the West
      Western world
      The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident , is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe , the countries of the Americas, as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand...

    3. Roman Greece
    4. The Hellenistic
      Hellenistic civilization
      Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

       Revival
    5. Rome and Judea
      Judea
      Judea or Judæa was the name of the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel from the 8th century BCE to the 2nd century CE, when Roman Judea was renamed Syria Palaestina following the Jewish Bar Kokhba revolt.-Etymology:The...

      : 132 BC-AD 135
  6. The Youth of Christianity
    Christianity
    Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

    : 4 BC-AD 325
    1. Jesus
      Jesus
      Jesus of Nazareth , commonly referred to as Jesus Christ or simply as Jesus or Christ, is the central figure of Christianity...

      : 4 BC-AD 30
    2. The Apostles: AD 30–95
    3. The Growth of the Church
      Early Christianity
      Early Christianity is generally considered as Christianity before 325. The New Testament's Book of Acts and Epistle to the Galatians records that the first Christian community was centered in Jerusalem and its leaders included James, Peter and John....

      : AD 96–305
    4. The Collapse of the Empire
      Decline of the Roman Empire
      The decline of the Roman Empire refers to the gradual societal collapse of the Western Roman Empire. Many theories of causality prevail, but most concern the disintegration of political, economic, military, and other social institutions, in tandem with foreign invasions and usurpers from within the...

      : AD 193–305
    5. The Triumph of Christianity
      Christianity
      Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

      : AD 306–325
Epilogue
”Rome was not destroyed by Christianity, any more than by barbarian invasion; it was an empty shell when Christianity rose to influence and invasion came.” (p.667-668)

IV. The Age of Faith (1950)



This volume covers the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 in both Europe and the Near East, from the time of Constantine I
Constantine I
Constantine the Great , also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was Roman Emperor from 306 to 337. Well known for being the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, Constantine and co-Emperor Licinius issued the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious tolerance of all...

 to that of Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
Durante degli Alighieri, mononymously referred to as Dante , was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia ...

.
  1. The Byzantine
    Byzantine Empire
    The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

     Zenith: AD 325–565
    1. Julian the Apostate
      Julian the Apostate
      Julian "the Apostate" , commonly known as Julian, or also Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer....

      : 332-63
    2. The Triumph of the Barbarian
      Barbarian
      Barbarian and savage are terms used to refer to a person who is perceived to be uncivilized. The word is often used either in a general reference to a member of a nation or ethnos, typically a tribal society as seen by an urban civilization either viewed as inferior, or admired as a noble savage...

      s: 325–476
    3. The Progress of Christianity
      History of Christianity
      The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, its followers and the Church with its various denominations, from the first century to the present. Christianity was founded in the 1st century by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth who they believed to be the Christ or chosen one of God...

      : 364–451
    4. Europe Takes Form: 325–529
    5. Justinian
      Justinian I
      Justinian I ; , ; 483– 13 or 14 November 565), commonly known as Justinian the Great, was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the classical Roman Empire.One of the most important figures of...

      : 527-65
    6. Byzantine
      Byzantine Empire
      The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

       Civilization: 337–565
    7. The Persians
      Persian people
      The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

      : 224–641
      "Historically, the conquest destroyed the outward form of what had already inwardly decayed; it cleared away with regrettable brutality and thoroughness a system of life which, with all its gifts of order, culture, and law, had worn itself into senile debility, and had lost the powers of regeneration and growth." (p. 43)
  2. Islamic
    Muslim history
    Muslim history is the history of Muslim people. In the history of Islam the followers of the religion of Islam have impacted political history, economic history, and military history...

     Civilization: AD 569–1258
    1. Mohammed
      Muhammad
      Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

      : 569–632
    2. The Koran
      Qur'an
      The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

    3. The Sword of Islam
      Islam
      Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

      : 632–1058
    4. The Islamic Scene: 632–1058
    5. Thought and Art
      Islamic art
      Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations...

       in Eastern Islam: 632–1058
    6. Western Islam: 641–1086
    7. The Grandeur and Decline of Islam: 1058–1258
      “Moslems seem to have been better gentlemen than their Christian peers; they kept their word more frequently, showed more mercy to the defeated, and were seldom guilty of the brutality as marked the Christian capture of Jerusalem in 1099.” (p. 341)
  3. Judaic
    Jewish history
    Jewish history is the history of the Jews, their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Since Jewish history is over 4000 years long and includes hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes...

     Civilization: AD 135-1300
    1. The Talmud
      Talmud
      The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

      : 135–500
    2. The Medieval Jews: 500–1300
    3. The Mind and Heart of the Jew: 500–1300
  4. The Dark Ages: AD 566–1095
    1. The Byzantine World: 566–1095
    2. The Decline of the West: 566–1066
    3. The Rise of the North
      Nordic countries
      The Nordic countries make up a region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic which consists of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and their associated territories, the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Åland...

      : 566–1066
    4. Christianity in Conflict: 529–1085
    5. Feudalism
      Feudalism
      Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

       and Chivalry
      Chivalry
      Chivalry is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood which has an aristocratic military origin of individual training and service to others. Chivalry was also the term used to refer to a group of mounted men-at-arms as well as to martial valour...

      : 600–1200
  5. The Climax of Christianity
    History of Christianity
    The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, its followers and the Church with its various denominations, from the first century to the present. Christianity was founded in the 1st century by the followers of Jesus of Nazareth who they believed to be the Christ or chosen one of God...

    : 1095–1300
    1. The Crusades
      Crusades
      The Crusades were a series of religious wars, blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church with the main goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem...

      : 1095–1291
    2. The Economic Revolution: 1066–1300
    3. The Recovery of Europe: 1095–1300
    4. Pre-Renaissance Italy: 1057–1308
    5. The Roman Catholic Church
      Roman Catholic Church
      The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

      : 1095–1294
    6. The Early Inquisition
      Inquisition
      The Inquisition, Inquisitio Haereticae Pravitatis , was the "fight against heretics" by several institutions within the justice-system of the Roman Catholic Church. It started in the 12th century, with the introduction of torture in the persecution of heresy...

      : 1000–1300
    7. Monk
      Monk
      A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, while always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose...

      s and Friar
      Friar
      A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders.-Friars and monks:...

      s: 1095–1300
    8. The Morals and Manners of Christendom
      Christendom
      Christendom, or the Christian world, has several meanings. In a cultural sense it refers to the worldwide community of Christians, adherents of Christianity...

      : 700–1300
    9. The Resurrection of the Arts
      Medieval art
      The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art history in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa...

      : 1095–1300
    10. The Gothic
      Gothic architecture
      Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

       Flowering: 1095–1300
    11. Medieval Music
      Medieval music
      Medieval music is Western music written during the Middle Ages. This era begins with the fall of the Roman Empire and ends sometime in the early fifteenth century...

      : 326–1300
    12. The Transmission of Knowledge: 1000–1300
    13. Abélard
      Peter Abelard
      Peter Abelard was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician. The story of his affair with and love for Héloïse has become legendary...

      : 1079–1142
    14. The Adventure of Reason
      Reason
      Reason is a term that refers to the capacity human beings have to make sense of things, to establish and verify facts, and to change or justify practices, institutions, and beliefs. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, ...

      : 1120–1308
    15. Christian Science: 1095–1300
    16. The Age of Romance
      Romance (genre)
      As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a style of heroic prose and verse narrative that was popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe. They were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures, often of a knight errant portrayed as...

      : 1100–1300
    17. Dante
      Dante Alighieri
      Durante degli Alighieri, mononymously referred to as Dante , was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia ...

      : 1265–1321
      "All in all, the picture we form of the medieval Latin Church is that of a complex organization doing its best, despite the human frailties of its adherents and leaders, to establish moral and social order, and to spread an uplifting and consoling faith, amid the wreckage of an old civilization and the passions of an adolescent society." (p. 818)
Epilogue: The Medieval
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 Legacy

V. The Renaissance (1953)



This volume covers the history of Italy from c.1300 to the mid 16th century, focusing on the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 13th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe...

.
  1. Prelude: 1300–77
    1. The Age of Petrarch
      Petrarch
      Francesco Petrarca , known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar, poet and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism"...

       and Boccaccio
      Giovanni Boccaccio
      Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian author and poet, a friend, student, and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist and the author of a number of notable works including the Decameron, On Famous Women, and his poetry in the Italian vernacular...

      : 1304–75
    2. The Popes in Avignon
      Avignon Papacy
      The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon, in modern-day France. This arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown....

      : 1309–77
      "Venetian merchants invaded every market from Jerusalem to Antwerp; they traded impartially with Christians and Mohammedans, and papal excommunications fell upon them with all the force of dew upon the earth." (p. 39)
  2. The Florentine
    Florence
    Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

     Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

    : 1378–1534
    1. The Rise of the Medici
      Medici
      The House of Medici or Famiglia de' Medici was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside,...

      : 1378–1464
    2. The Golden Age: 1464–92
    3. Savonarola
      Girolamo Savonarola
      Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian Dominican friar, Scholastic, and an influential contributor to the politics of Florence from 1494 until his execution in 1498. He was known for his book burning, destruction of what he considered immoral art, and what he thought the Renaissance—which began in his...

       and the Republic: 1492–1534
      “But it took more than a revival of antiquity to make the Renaissance. And first of all it took money—smelly bourgeois money: ... of careful calculations, investments and loans, of interest and dividends accumulated until surplus could be spared from the pleasures of the flesh, from the purchase of senates, signories, and mistresses, to pay a Michaelangelo or a Titian to transmute wealth into beauty, and perfume a fortune with the breath of art. Money is the root of all civilization.” (p. 67-68)
  3. Italian Pageant: 1378–1534
    1. Milan
      Milan
      Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

    2. Leonardo da Vinci
      Leonardo da Vinci
      Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance...

    3. Tuscany
      Tuscany
      Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

       and Umbria
      Umbria
      Umbria is a region of modern central Italy. It is one of the smallest Italian regions and the only peninsular region that is landlocked.Its capital is Perugia.Assisi and Norcia are historical towns associated with St. Francis of Assisi, and St...

    4. Mantua
      Mantua
      Mantua is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province of the same name. Mantua's historic power and influence under the Gonzaga family, made it one of the main artistic, cultural and notably musical hubs of Northern Italy and the country as a whole...

    5. Ferrara
      Ferrara
      Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital city of the Province of Ferrara. It is situated 50 km north-northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km north...

    6. Venice
      Republic of Venice
      The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in...

       and Her Realm
    7. Emilia
      Emilia (region of Italy)
      Emilia is a historical region of northern Italy which approximately corresponds to the western and north-eastern portions of today’s Emilia-Romagna region...

       and the Marche
      Marche
      The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona , and lowest in the province of Macerata...

      s
    8. The Kingdom of Naples
      Kingdom of Naples
      The Kingdom of Naples, comprising the southern part of the Italian peninsula, was the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after secession of the island of Sicily as a result of the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. Known to contemporaries as the Kingdom of Sicily, it is dubbed Kingdom of...


      "He was not handsome; like most great men, he was spared this distracting handicap." (p. 185)
  4. The Roman
    Rome
    Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

     Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

    : 1378–1521
    1. The Crisis in the Church
      Roman Catholic Church
      The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

      : 1378–1521
    2. The Renaissance Captures Rome: 1447–92
    3. The Borgias
      Borgia
      The Borgias, also known as the Borjas, Borjia, were a European Papal family of Italian and Spanish origin with the name stemming from the familial fief seat of Borja belonging to their Aragonese Lords; they became prominent during the Renaissance. The Borgias were patrons of the arts, and their...

    4. Julius II: 1503–13
    5. Leo X: 1513–21
  5. Debacle
    1. The Intellectual Revolt
    2. The Moral Release
    3. The Political Collapse: 1494–1534
  6. Finale: 1534–76
    1. Sunset in Venice
      Venice
      Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

    2. The Waning of The Renaissance
      Renaissance
      The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

  7. Envoi

VI. The Reformation (1957)



This volume covers the history of Europe outside of Italy from around 1300 to 1564, focusing on the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

.
  1. From John Wyclif to Martin Luther
    Martin Luther
    Martin Luther was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517...

    : 1300–1517
    1. The Roman Catholic Church
      Roman Catholic Church
      The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

      : 1300–1517
    2. England, Wyclif, Chaucer
      Geoffrey Chaucer
      Geoffrey Chaucer , known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey...

      , and the Great Revolt: 1308–1400
    3. France Besieged: 1300–1461
    4. Gallia Phoenix: 1453–1515
    5. England in the Fifteenth Century: 1399–1509
    6. Episode in Burgundy
      Duchy of Burgundy
      The Duchy of Burgundy , was heir to an ancient and prestigious reputation and a large division of the lands of the Second Kingdom of Burgundy and in its own right was one of the geographically larger ducal territories in the emergence of Early Modern Europe from Medieval Europe.Even in that...

      : 1363–1515
    7. Middle Europe
      Central Europe
      Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

      : 1300–1460
    8. The Western Slavs
      West Slavs
      The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. They include Poles , Czechs, Slovaks, Lusatian Sorbs and the historical Polabians. The northern or Lechitic group includes, along with Polish, the extinct Polabian and Pomeranian languages...

      : 1300–1516
    9. The Ottoman
      Ottoman Empire
      The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

       Tide: 1300–1516
    10. Portugal Inaugurates the Commercial Revolution
      Commercial Revolution
      The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 16th century until the early 18th century. It was succeeded in the mid-18th century by the Industrial Revolution. Beginning with the Crusades, Europeans...

      : 1300–1517
    11. Spain: 1300–1517
    12. The Growth of Knowledge: 1300–1517
    13. The Conquest of the Sea: 1492–1517
    14. Erasmus
      Desiderius Erasmus
      Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus , known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, and a theologian....

       the Forerunner: 1469–1517
    15. Germany on the Eve of Luther
      Martin Luther
      Martin Luther was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517...

      : 1453–1517
  2. The Religious Revolution
    Protestant Reformation
    The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

    : 1517–64
    1. Luther
      Martin Luther
      Martin Luther was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517...

      : The Reformation in Germany: 1517–24
    2. The Social Revolution: 1522–36
    3. Zwingli
      Huldrych Zwingli
      Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism...

      : The Reformation in Switzerland: 1477–1531
    4. Luther and Erasmus: 1517–36
    5. The Faiths at War: 1525–60
    6. John Calvin
      John Calvin
      John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530...

      : 1509–64
    7. Francis I
      Francis I of France
      Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death. During his reign, huge cultural changes took place in France and he has been called France's original Renaissance monarch...

       and the Reformation in France: 1515–59
    8. Henry VIII
      Henry VIII of England
      Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

       and Cardinal Wolsey: 1509–29
    9. Henry VIII and Thomas More
      Thomas More
      Sir Thomas More , also known by Catholics as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. He was an important councillor to Henry VIII of England and, for three years toward the end of his life, Lord Chancellor...

      : 1529–35
    10. Henry VIII and the Monasteries
      Dissolution of the Monasteries
      The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England, Wales and Ireland; appropriated their...

      : 1535–47
    11. Edward VI
      Edward VI of England
      Edward VI was the King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. The son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first monarch who was raised as a Protestant...

       and Mary Tudor
      Mary I of England
      Mary I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547...

      : 1547–58
    12. From Robert Bruce
      Robert I of Scotland
      Robert I , popularly known as Robert the Bruce , was King of Scots from March 25, 1306, until his death in 1329.His paternal ancestors were of Scoto-Norman heritage , and...

       to John Knox
      John Knox
      John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who brought reformation to the church in Scotland. He was educated at the University of St Andrews or possibly the University of Glasgow and was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1536...

      : 1300–1561
    13. The Migrations of Reform: 1517–60
  3. The Strangers in the Gate: 1300–1566
    1. The Unification of Russia: 1300–1584
    2. The Genius of Islam
      Islam
      Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

      : 1258–1520
    3. Suleiman the Magnificent
      Suleiman the Magnificent
      Suleiman I was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. He is known in the West as Suleiman the Magnificent and in the East, as "The Lawgiver" , for his complete reconstruction of the Ottoman legal system...

      : 1520–66
    4. The Jews: 1300–1564
  4. Behind the Scenes: 1517–1564
    1. The Life of the People
    2. Music: 1300–1564
    3. Literature in the Age of Rabelais
      François Rabelais
      François Rabelais was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, bawdy jokes and songs...

    4. Art in the Age of Holbein
      Hans Holbein the Younger
      Hans Holbein the Younger was a German artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century. He also produced religious art, satire and Reformation propaganda, and made a significant contribution to the history...

    5. Science in the Age of Copernicus
      Nicolaus Copernicus
      Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe....


      ”People then, as now, were judged more by their manners than by their morals; the world forgave more readily the sins that were committed with the least vulgarity and the greatest grace. Here, as in everything but artillery and theology, Italy led the way.” (p. 766)
  5. The Counter Reformation
    Counter-Reformation
    The Counter-Reformation was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 as a response to the Protestant Reformation.The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort, composed of four major elements:#Ecclesiastical or...

    : 1517–65
    1. The Church and Reform
    2. The Popes and the Council
      Council of Trent
      The Council of Trent was the 16th-century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trent between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods...

Epilogue: Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment

VII. The Age of Reason Begins (1961)



This volume covers the history of Europe and the Near East from 1559 to 1648.
  1. The English Ecstasy
    English Renaissance
    The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the late 15th and early 16th centuries to the early 17th century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that is usually regarded as beginning in Italy in the late 14th century; like most of northern...

    : 1558–1648
    1. The Great Queen
      Elizabeth I of England
      Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty...

      : 1558–1603
    2. Merrie England: 1558–1625
    3. On the Slopes of Parnassus: 1558–1603
    4. William Shakespeare
      William Shakespeare
      William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon"...

      : 1564–1616
    5. Mary, Queen of Scots: 1542–87
    6. James VI and I
      James I of England
      James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

      : 1567–1625
    7. The Summons to Reason
      Reason
      Reason is a term that refers to the capacity human beings have to make sense of things, to establish and verify facts, and to change or justify practices, institutions, and beliefs. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, ...

      : 1558–1649
    8. The Great Rebellion
      English Civil War
      The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists...

      : 1625–49
      “Witches were burned, and Jesuits were taken down from the scaffold to be cut to pieces alive. The milk of human kindness flowed sluggishly in the days of Good Queen Bess.” (p. 54)
  2. The Faiths Fight For Power: 1556–1648
    1. Alma Mater Italia
      Italy
      Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

      :
      1564–1648
    2. Grandeur and Decadence of Spain: 1556–1665
    3. The Golden Age of Spanish Literature
      Spanish literature
      Spanish literature generally refers to literature written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain...

      : 1556–1665
    4. The Golden Age of Spanish Art
      Spanish Golden Age
      The Spanish Golden Age is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. El Siglo de Oro does not imply precise dates and is usually considered to have lasted longer than an actual century...

      : 1556–1682
    5. The Duel for France: 1559–74
    6. Henry IV
      Henry IV of France
      Henry IV , Henri-Quatre, was King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France....

      : 1553–1610
    7. Richelieu: 1585–1642
    8. France Beneath the Wars: 1559–1643
    9. The Revolt of the Netherlands: 1558–1648
    10. From Rubens to Rembrandt: 1555–1660
    11. The Rise of the North
      Northern Europe
      Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. Northern Europe typically refers to the seven countries in the northern part of the European subcontinent which includes Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Finland and Sweden...

      : 1559–1648
    12. The Islamic Challenge: 1566–1648
    13. Imperial Armageddon: 1564–1648
      "The stones in his bladder bothered him more than the wars of France."(p. 411)
  3. The Tentatives of Reason: 1558–1648
    1. Science in the Age of Galileo
      Galileo Galilei
      Galileo Galilei , was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism...

      : 1558–1648
    2. Philosophy Reborn: 1564–1648
      "Is Christianity dying? ... If this is so, it is the basic event of modern times, for the soul of a civilization is its religion, and it dies with its faith." (p. 613)

VIII. The Age of Louis XIV (1963)



This volume covers the period of Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

 in Europe and the Near East.
  1. The French Zenith: 1643–1715
    1. The Sun Rises: 1643–84
    2. The Crucible of Faith: 1643–1715
    3. The King and the Arts: 1643–1715
    4. Molière
      Molière
      Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature...

      : 1622–73
    5. The Classic Zenith in French Literature: 1643–1715
    6. Tragedy in the Netherlands: 1649–1715
      “It was an age of strict manners and loose morals.” (p. 27)
      ”Like the others, he came from the middle class; the aristocracy is too interested in the art of life to spare time for the life of art.” (p. 144)

  1. England: 1649–1714
    1. Cromwell
      Oliver Cromwell
      Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader who overthrew the English monarchy and temporarily turned England into a republican Commonwealth, and served as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland....

      : 1649–60
    2. Milton
      John Milton
      John Milton was an English poet, polemicist, a scholarly man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell...

      : 1608–74
    3. The Restoration
      English Restoration
      The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms...

      : 1660–85
    4. The Glorious Revolution
      Glorious Revolution
      The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau...

      : 1685–1714
    5. From Dryden
      John Dryden
      John Dryden was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the Age of Dryden.Walter Scott called him "Glorious John." He was made Poet...

       to Swift
      Jonathan Swift
      Jonathan Swift was an Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer , poet and cleric who became Dean of St...

      : 1660–1714
  2. The Periphery: 1648–1715
    1. The Struggle for the Baltic
      Baltic countries
      The term Baltic states refers to the Baltic territories which gained independence from the Russian Empire in the wake of World War I: primarily the contiguous trio of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania ; Finland also fell within the scope of the term after initially gaining independence in the 1920s.The...

      : 1648–1721
    2. Peter the Great
      Peter I of Russia
      Peter the Great, Peter I or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are Old Style. All other dates in this article are New Style. ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his half-brother, Ivan V...

      : 1698–1725
    3. The Changing Empire: 1648–1715
    4. The Fallow South: 1648–1715
    5. The Jewish Enclaves: 1564–1715
  3. The Intellectual Adventure: 1648–1715
    1. From Superstition to Scholarship: 1648–1715
    2. The Scientific Quest: 1648–1715
    3. Isaac Newton
      Isaac Newton
      Sir Isaac Newton PRS was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived."...

      : 1642–1727
    4. English Philosophy: 1648–1715
    5. Faith and Reason in France: 1648–1715
    6. Spinoza
      Baruch Spinoza
      Baruch de Spinoza and later Benedict de Spinoza was a Dutch Jewish philosopher. Revealing considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was not fully realized until years after his death...

      : 1632–77
    7. Leibniz
      Gottfried Leibniz
      Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He wrote in different languages, primarily in Latin , French and German ....

      : 1646–1716
  4. France Against Europe: 1683–1715
    1. The Sun Sets

IX. The Age of Voltaire (1965)



This volume covers the period of the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in church and state...

, as exemplified by Voltaire
Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet , better known by the pen name Voltaire , was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, free trade and separation of church and state...

, focusing on the period between 1715 and 1756 in France, Britain, and Germany.
  1. France: The Regency
    Régence
    The Régence is the period in French history between 1715 and 1723, when King Louis XV was a minor and the land was governed by a Regent, Philippe d'Orléans, the nephew of Louis XIV of France....

  2. England: 1714–56
    1. The People
    2. The Rulers
    3. Religion
      Religion
      Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

       and Philosophy
      Philosophy
      Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

    4. Literature
      Literature
      Literature is the art of written works, and is not bound to published sources...

       and the Stage
      Drama
      Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action" , which is derived from "to do","to act" . The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a...

    5. Art
      Art
      Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

       and Music
      Music
      Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

  3. France: 1723–56
    1. The People and the State
    2. Morals and Manners
    3. The Worship of Beauty
    4. The Play of the Mind
    5. Voltaire
      Voltaire
      François-Marie Arouet , better known by the pen name Voltaire , was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, free trade and separation of church and state...

       in France
      ”Women, when on display, dressed as in our wondering youth, when the female structure was a breathless mystery costly to behold.” (p. 75)
  4. Middle Europe: 1713–56
    1. The Germany of Bach
      Bạch
      Bạch is a Vietnamese surname. The name is transliterated as Bai in Chinese and Baek, in Korean.Bach is the anglicized variation of the surname Bạch.-Notable people with the surname Bạch:* Bạch Liêu...

    2. Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa
      Maria Theresa of Austria
      Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma...

    3. Switzerland and Voltaire
      Voltaire
      François-Marie Arouet , better known by the pen name Voltaire , was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, free trade and separation of church and state...

  5. The Advancement of Learning: 1715–89
    1. The Scholars
    2. The Scientific
      Science
      Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

       Advance
    3. Medicine
      Medicine
      Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

  6. The Attack Upon Christianity
    Christianity
    Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

    : 1730–74
    1. The Atheists
      Atheism
      Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities. In a narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities...

    2. Diderot
      Denis Diderot
      Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopédie....

       and the Encyclopedie
      Encyclopédie
      Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It was edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert...

    3. Diderot
      Denis Diderot
      Denis Diderot was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopédie....

       Proteus
    4. The Spreading Campaign
    5. Voltaire
      Voltaire
      François-Marie Arouet , better known by the pen name Voltaire , was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, free trade and separation of church and state...

       and Christianity
      Christianity
      Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

    6. The Triumph of the Philosophe
      Philosophe
      The philosophes were the intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment. Few were primarily philosophers; rather they were public intellectuals who applied reason to the study of many areas of learning, including philosophy, history, science, politics, economics and social issues...

      s

X. Rousseau and Revolution (1967)



This volume centers on Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th-century Romanticism. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological and educational thought.His novel Émile: or, On Education is a treatise...

 and his times. It received the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction
Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction
The Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction has been awarded since 1962 for a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in another category.-1960s:...

 in 1968.
  1. Prelude
    1. Rousseau Wanderer: 1712–56
    2. The Seven Years' War
      Seven Years' War
      The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines...

      : 1756–63
  2. France Before the Deluge: 1757–74
    1. The Life of the State
    2. The Art of Life
    3. Voltaire
      Voltaire
      François-Marie Arouet , better known by the pen name Voltaire , was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, free trade and separation of church and state...

       Patriarch: 1758–78
    4. Rousseau Romantic: 1756–62
    5. Rousseau Philosopher
    6. Rousseau Outcast: 1762–67
  3. The Catholic
    Roman Catholic Church
    The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

     South: 1715–89
    1. Italia
      Italy
      Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

       Felix:
      1715–59
    2. Portugal and Pombal: 1706–82
    3. Spain and the Enlightenment
      Enlightenment Spain
      The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with a new Bourbon dynasty after the decay of the Spanish economy, bureaucracy, and empire in the latter years of the former Habsburg dynasty...

      : 1700–88
    4. Vale, Italia: 1760–89
    5. The Enlightenment in Austria: 1756–90
    6. Music Reformed
    7. Mozart
      Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
      Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

       
      “Lovers under a window plucked at a guitar or mandolin and a maiden’s heart.” (p. 220)
  4. Islam
    Islam
    Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

     and the Slavic East: 1715–96
    1. Islam: 1715–96
    2. Russian Interlude: 1725–62
    3. Catherine the Great
      Catherine II of Russia
      Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great , Empress of Russia, was born in Stettin, Pomerania, Prussia on as Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg...

      : 1762–96
    4. The Rape of Poland: 1715–95
  5. The Protestant
    Protestantism
    Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

     North: 1756–89
    1. Frederick's
      Frederick II of Prussia
      Frederick II was a King in Prussia and a King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty. In his role as a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he was also Elector of Brandenburg. He was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel...

       Germany
      Prussia
      Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

      : 1756–86
    2. Kant
      Immanuel Kant
      Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher from Königsberg , researching, lecturing and writing on philosophy and anthropology at the end of the 18th Century Enlightenment....

      : 1724–1804
    3. Roads to Weimar
      Weimar
      Weimar is a city in Germany famous for its cultural heritage. It is located in the federal state of Thuringia , north of the Thüringer Wald, east of Erfurt, and southwest of Halle and Leipzig. Its current population is approximately 65,000. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899...

      : 1733–87
    4. Weimar
      Weimar
      Weimar is a city in Germany famous for its cultural heritage. It is located in the federal state of Thuringia , north of the Thüringer Wald, east of Erfurt, and southwest of Halle and Leipzig. Its current population is approximately 65,000. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899...

       in Flower: 1775–1805
    5. Goethe Nestor: 1805–32
    6. The Jews: 1715–89
    7. From Geneva
      Geneva
      Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

       to Stockholm
      Stockholm
      Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

       
      “He concluded that history is an excellent teacher with few pupils.” (p. 529)
  6. Johnson's
    Samuel Johnson
    Samuel Johnson , often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English author who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer...

     England: 1756–89
    1. The Industrial Revolution
      Industrial Revolution
      The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times...

    2. The Political Drama: 1756–92
    3. The English People: 1756–89
    4. The Age of Reynolds
      Joshua Reynolds
      Sir Joshua Reynolds RA FRS FRSA was an influential 18th-century English painter, specialising in portraits and promoting the "Grand Style" in painting which depended on idealization of the imperfect. He was one of the founders and first President of the Royal Academy...

      : 1756–90
    5. England's Neighbors: 1756–89
    6. The Literary Scene: 1756–89
    7. Samuel Johnson
      Samuel Johnson
      Samuel Johnson , often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English author who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer...

      : 1709–84
  7. The Collapse of Feudal
    Feudalism
    Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for ordering society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.Although derived from the...

     France: 1774–89
    1. The Final Glory: 1774–83
    2. Death and the Philosophers: 1774–1807
    3. On the Eve: 1774–89
    4. The Anatomy of Revolution: 1774–89
    5. The Political Debacle: 1783–89
  8. Envoi

XI. The Age of Napoleon (1975)



This volume centers on Napoleon I of France
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 and his times.
  1. The French Revolution
    French Revolution
    The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

    : 1789–99
    1. The Background of Revolution: 1774–89
    2. The National Assembly
      National Constituent Assembly
      The National Constituent Assembly was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. It dissolved on 30 September 1791 and was succeeded by the Legislative Assembly.-Background:...

      : May 4, 1789 – September 30, 1791
    3. The Legislative Assembly: October 1, 1791 – September 20, 1792
    4. The Convention: September 21, 1792 – October 26, 1795
    5. The Directory
      French Directory
      The Directory was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate...

      : November 2, 1795 – November 9, 1799
    6. Life Under the Revolution: 1789–99
  2. Napoleon Ascendant: 1799–1811
    1. The Consulate: November 11, 1799 – May 18, 1804
    2. The New Empire: 1804–07
    3. The Mortal Realm: 1807–11
    4. Napoleon
      Napoleon I of France
      Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

       Himself
    5. Napoleonic France: 1800–1815
    6. Napoleon and the Arts
    7. Literature versus Napoleon
    8. Science and Philosophy under Napoleon
      "It was a typical Napoleonic campaign: swift, victorious, and futile." (p. 228)
  3. Britain
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    : 1789–1812
    1. England at Work
    2. English Life
    3. The Arts in England
    4. Science in England
    5. English Philosophy
    6. Literature in Transition
    7. The Lake Poets
      Lake Poets
      The Lake Poets are a group of English poets who all lived in the Lake District of England at the turn of the nineteenth century. As a group, they followed no single "school" of thought or literary practice then known, although their works were uniformly disparaged by the Edinburgh Review...

      : 1770–1850
    8. The Rebel Poets: 1788–1824
    9. England's Neighbors: 1789–1815
    10. Pitt
      William Pitt the Younger
      William Pitt the Younger was a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24 . He left office in 1801, but was Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806...

      , Nelson
      Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
      Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, KB was a flag officer famous for his service in the Royal Navy, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of...

      , and Napoleon: 1789–1812
  4. The Challenged Kings: 1789–1812
    1. Iberia
      Iberian Peninsula
      The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

    2. Italy and Its Conquerors: 1789–1813
    3. Austria: 1780–1812
    4. Beethoven
      Ludwig van Beethoven
      Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential composers of all time.Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of...

      : 1770–1827
    5. Germany and Napoleon: 1786–1811
    6. The German People: 1789–1812
    7. German Literature: 1789–1815
    8. German Philosophy: 1789–1815
    9. Around the Heartland
      The Geographical Pivot of History
      "The Geographical Pivot of History" was an article submitted by Halford John Mackinder in 1904 to the Royal Geographical Society that advanced his Heartland Theory...

      : 1789–1812
    10. Russia: 1796–1812
      " ... she entered upon a series of adventures, in one of which she was surprised with motherhood." (p. 633)
  5. Finale: 1811–1815
    1. To Moscow
      Moscow
      Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

      : 1811–12
    2. To Elba
      Elba
      Elba is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino. The largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago, Elba is also part of the National Park of the Tuscan Archipelago and the third largest island in Italy after Sicily and Sardinia...

      : 1813–14
    3. To Waterloo
      Battle of Waterloo
      The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands...

      : 1814–15
    4. To St. Helena
      Saint Helena
      Saint Helena , named after St Helena of Constantinople, is an island of volcanic origin in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha which also includes Ascension Island and the islands of Tristan da Cunha...

    5. To the End
    6. Afterward: 1815–40

Criticism


The Story of Civilization has been criticized by some for simplifications, rash judgments colored by personal convictions, and allegedly careless dabbling in historical scholarship.

The counter to such criticism is that Durant’s purpose in writing the series was not to create a definitive scholarly production but to make a large amount of information accessible and comprehensible to the educated public in the form of a comprehensive "composite history." Given the massive undertaking in creating these 11 volumes over 50 years, errors and incompleteness were inevitable by Durant's own reckoning; but no other historical survey matches let alone exceeds the breadth and depth of his project.

As Durant says in the preface to his first work, Our Oriental Heritage:

See also

  • A Study of History
    A Study of History
    A Study of History is the 12-volume magnum opus of British historian Arnold J. Toynbee, finished in 1961, in which the author traces the development and decay of all of the major world civilizations in the historical record...

  • The Cartoon History of the Universe
    The Cartoon History of the Universe
    The Cartoon History of the Universe is a book series about the history of the world. It is written and illustrated by American cartoonist, professor, and mathematician Larry Gonick. The final two volumes, published in 2007 and 2009, are named The Cartoon History of the Modern World volumes one and...

  • Civilisation (TV series)
  • The Outline of History
    The Outline of History
    The Outline of History, subtitled either "The Whole Story of Man" or "Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind", is a book by H. G. Wells published in 1919...

  • The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community
    The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community
    The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community is a popular work by Canadian historian William H. McNeill...

  • The Story of Philosophy
    The Story of Philosophy
    The Story of Philosophy: the Lives and Opinions of the Greater Philosophers is a book by Will Durant that profiles several prominent Western philosophers and their ideas, beginning with Plato and on through Friedrich Nietzsche...