Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries (since 1923, the name "Ottoman Empire" is preferred to avoid confusion with the Republic of Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, see Names of the Ottoman Empire
Names of the Ottoman Empire
The state of the Ottomans which began as part of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate and became an independent Empire, has been known historically by different names at different periods and in various languages...

or Sublime Ottoman State (Ottoman Turkish
Ottoman Turkish language
The Ottoman Turkish language or Ottoman language is the variety of the Turkish language that was used for administrative and literary purposes in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows extensively from Arabic and Persian, and was written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script...

: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i ʿAliyye-yi ʿOsmâniyye, (also عثمانلى دولتى Osmanlı Devleti),After 1800s this phrase was being widely used by Ottoman citizens and officials.

1302    Battle of Bapheus: decisive Ottoman victory over the Byzantines opening up Bithynia for Turkish conquest.

1389    Battle of Kosovo: The Ottoman Empire defeats Serbs and Bosnians.

1389    The Ottomans defeat the Serbian army in the bloody Battle of Kosovo, opening the way for the Ottoman conquest of Southeastern Europe (see Vidovdan).

1444    Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka ''Ulaszlo I of Hungary'' and ''Wladyslaw III of Poland'') are crushed by the Turks under Sultan Murad II and Vladislaus is killed.

1448    Second Battle of Kosovo, where the mainly Hungarian army led by John Hunyadi is defeated by an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II.

1451    Sultan Mehmed II inherits the throne of the Ottoman Empire.

1453    Fall of Constantinople: Ottoman armies under Sultan Mehmed II Fatih capture Constantinople after a 53-day siege, ending the Byzantine Empire. Although the date of May 29, 1453 is that of the Julian Calendar, the event is commemorated in Istanbul on this day of the present Gregorian calendar.

1475    Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui.

1480    Battle of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam.

1493    Battle of Krbava field, a decisive defeat of Croats in Croatian struggle against the invasion by the Ottoman Empire.