that grew on the Italian Peninsula
as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea
and centered on the city of Rome
, it expanded to one of the largest empire
s in the ancient world
In its centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy
to an aristocratic republic
to an increasingly autocratic
. It came to dominate Southern Europe
, Western Europe
, Asia Minor
, North Africa
and parts of Eastern Europe
752 BC Romulus, first king of Rome, celebrates the first Roman triumph after his victory over the Caeninenses, following The Rape of the Sabine Women.
69 Emperor Vitellius is captured and murdered by the Gemonian stairs in Rome.
109 The Aqua Traiana is inaugurated by emperor Trajan, the aqueduct channels water from Lake Bracciano, 40 kilometers (25 miles) north-west of Rome.
138 Emperor Hadrian dies after a heart failure at Baiae, he is buried at Rome in the Tomb of Hadrian beside his late wife, Vibia Sabina.
410 The sacking of Rome by the Visigoths ends after three days.
455 Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire.
538 Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving the city in the hands of the victorious Roman general, Belisarius.