1497 Vasco da Gama sets sail on the first direct European voyage to India.
1565 Battle of Talikota, fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Islamic sultanates of the Deccan, leads to the subjugation, and eventual destruction of the last Hindu kingdom in India, and the consolidation of Islamic rule over much of the Indian subcontinent.
1690 Calcutta, India is founded.
1830 The General Assembly's Institution, now the Scottish Church College, one of the pioneering institutions that ushered the Bengal Renaissance, is founded by Alexander Duff and Raja Ram Mohan Roy, in Calcutta, India.
1839 A cyclone slams India with high winds and a 40 foot storm surge, destroying the port city of Coringa (which has never been completely rebuilt). The storm wave sweeps inland, taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths result from the disaster.
1857 Indian Mutiny: Indian rebels seize Delhi from the British.
1866 The Allahabad High Court (then Agra High Court) is established in India.
1876 A monster cyclone ravages India, resulting in over 200,000 deaths.
1897 British colonial officers Charles Walter Rand and Lt. Charles Egerton Ayerst are assassinated in Pune, Maharashtra, India by the Chapekar brothers and Mahadeo Vinayak Ranade, who are later caught and hanged.
1905 The Partition of Bengal in India takes place.
1911 Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.
1913 Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.
1929 Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people.
1931 New Delhi becomes the capital of India.
1931 The British Viceroy of India, Governor-General Edward Frederick Lindley Wood and Mohandas Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) meet to sign an agreement envisaging the release of political prisoners and allowing salt to be freely used by the poorest members of the population.
1931 Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru and Sukhdev Thapar are hanged during the Indian struggle for independence. Their request to be executed by firing squad is refused. The day is now remembered in India as Shahidi divas or Martyr's day.
1933 Mohandas Gandhi begins a 21-day fast in protest against British oppression in India.
1939 In Mumbai, Mohandas Gandhi begins to fast in protest at the autocratic rule in India.
1940 Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose is arrested and detained in Calcutta.
1943 Subhas Chandra Bose raises the flag of Indian independence at Port Blair.
1964 Cold War: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appeals to the United States and the Soviet Union to end nuclear testing and to start nuclear disarmament, stating that such an action would "save humanity from the ultimate disaster".
1965 Hindi becomes the official language of India.
1965 China announces that it will reinforce its troops on the Indian border.
1971 Himachal Pradesh becomes the 18th Indian state.
1975 The State of Emergency is declared in India.
1975 Indira Gandhi establishes emergency rule in India.
1981 Bihar train disaster A passenger train travelling between Mansi and Saharsa, India, jumps the tracks at a bridge crossing the Bagmati river. The government places the official death toll at 268 plus another 300 missing; however, it is generally believed that the actual figure is closer to 1,000 killed.
1983 The Sri Lankan Civil War begins with the killing of 13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Terrorist group. In the subsequent riots of Black July, about 1,000 Tamils are slaughtered, some 400,000 Tamils flee to neighbouring Tamil Nadu, India and many find refuge in Europe and Canada.
1984 Operation Bluestar, a military offensive, is launched by the Indian government at Harmandir Sahib, also known as Golden Temple, the holiest shrine for the Sikhs, in Amritsar. The operation continues until June 6 with casualties, most of them civilians, in excess of 5,000.
1984 Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000–600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
1993 Several bombs explode in Bombay (Mumbai), India, killing about 300 and injuring hundreds more.
1995 A truck-bomb explodes outside of a US-operated Saudi Arabian National Guard training center in Riyadh, killing five Americans and two Indians. A group called the Islamic Movement for Change claims responsibility.
1998 Pakistan tests medium-range missiles capable of reaching India.
1999 Australian missionary Graham Staines and his two sons are burned alive by radical Hindus while sleeping in their car in Eastern India.
1999 A large cyclone devastates Orissa, India.
2002 A military MiG-21 aircraft crashes into the Bank of Rajasthan in India, killing eight.
2004 Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India.
2004 A 9.3 magnitude earthquake creates a tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing over 250,000 people including over 1700 on a moving train
2007 Pratibha Patil is sworn in as India's first woman president.
2008 56 people were killed and over 200 people were injured in 21 bomb blasts in Ahmedabad bombing in India.
2008 India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.