Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Assam

Assam

Overview
Assam also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province (British India), is a northeastern state of India
North-East India
Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal...

 and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country. Assam though one of the original provinces of British ruled Indian sub-continent and present day India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 having its legislature that dates back to 1937, the present day Assam; had undergone numerous territory alignment changes with its state map being altered highest number of times when compared to any other provincial level changes that has happened in Independent India.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Assam'
Start a new discussion about 'Assam'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
Assam also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province (British India), is a northeastern state of India
North-East India
Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal...

 and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country. Assam though one of the original provinces of British ruled Indian sub-continent and present day India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 having its legislature that dates back to 1937, the present day Assam; had undergone numerous territory alignment changes with its state map being altered highest number of times when compared to any other provincial level changes that has happened in Independent India. Known for exquisite natural resources
Natural Resources
Natural Resources is a soul album released by Motown girl group Martha Reeves and the Vandellas in 1970 on the Gordy label. The album is significant for the Vietnam War ballad "I Should Be Proud" and the slow jam, "Love Guess Who"...

, geography
Geography
Geography is the science that studies the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of Earth. A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes...

 and its important role in India's freedom struggle; Assam has its capital as Dispur, an especialized city circuit region located on the outskirts of its largest metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

, Guwahati
Guwahati
Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

. Located south of the eastern Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

, Assam comprises the Brahmaputra and the Barak
Barak River
The Barak River is one of the major rivers of southern Assam and is a part of the Surma-Meghna River System. It is the biggest and the most important of all the rivers in the Manipur hill territory, from where it originates....

 river valleys along with the Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong District
Karbi Anglong district is the largest amongst the 27 administrative districts of Assam state in north-eastern India. The district is bounded by Golaghat district on the east, Meghalaya state and Marigaon district on the west, Nagaon and Golaghat districts on the north and Dima Hasao district and...

 and the Dima Hasao district
Dima Hasao district
Dima Hasao district is an administrative district in the state of Assam in north-eastern India. As of 2011 it is the least populous district of Assam .-History:...

  with an area of 30285 square miles (78,437.8 km²). Assam is surrounded by six of the other Seven Sister States
Seven Sister States
The Seven Sister States also called "Paradise Unexplored" is a name given to the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland & Tripura in northeastern India. These states cover an area of about 250,000 sq. km. or about 7 percent of India's total area. They...

: Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

, Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

, Manipur
Manipur
Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. Manipur is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south and Assam to the west; it also borders Burma to the east. It covers an area of...

, Mizoram
Mizoram
Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the...

, Tripura
Tripura
Tripura is a state in North-East India, with an area of . It is the third smallest state of India, according to area. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, south, and west. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east. The capital is Agartala and the main languages spoken are...

 and Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Meghalaya is a state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means the Abode of Clouds in Sanskrit and other Indic languages. Meghalaya is a hilly strip in the eastern part of the country about 300 km long and 100 km wide, with a total area of about 8,700 sq mi . The...

. These states are connected to the rest of India via a narrow strip in West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

 called the Siliguri Corridor or "Chicken's Neck". Assam also shares international borders with Bhutan
Bhutan
Bhutan , officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked state in South Asia, located at the eastern end of the Himalayas and bordered to the south, east and west by the Republic of India and to the north by the People's Republic of China...

 and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

; and cultures, peoples and climate with South-East Asia – important elements in India’s Look East policy
Look East policy
India's "Look East" Policy, which was initiated in 1991, marked a strategic shift in India’s perspective of the world. It was developed and enacted during the government of Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and rigorously pursued by the successive governments of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan...

.
Assam became a part of India after the British occupied the region following the First Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–1826.
  • Known for Assam tea
    Assam tea
    Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production, Assam, in India. Assam tea is manufactured specifically from the plant Camellia sinensis var. assamica . This tea, most of which is grown at or near sea level, is known for its body, briskness, malty flavor, and strong, bright color...

    , large and old petroleum resources, Assam silk
    Assam Silk
    Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden Muga, white Pat and warm Eri silk. The Assam silk industry, now centered in Sualkuchi, is a labor intensive industry.-Muga silk:...

     and for its rich biodiversity
    Biodiversity of Assam
    The Biodiversity of Assam, a state in North-East India, makes it a biological hotspot with many rare and endemic plant and animal species. The greatest success in recent years has been the conservation of the Indian rhinoceros at the Kaziranga National Park, but a rapid increase in human...

    , Assam gets royalty from the government of India
    Government of India
    The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

     for its contribution to tea and other resources.
    However, the royalty contribution may not be in equal ratio with respect to production if compared against the recent price hikes in fuels and current market trends
    Market trends
    A market trend is a putative tendency of a financial market to move in a particular direction over time. These trends are classified as secular for long time frames, primary for medium time frames, and secondary for short time frames...

    .

  • When comes to wildlife
    Wildlife
    Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative....

    , Assam too has successfully conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros
    Indian Rhinoceros
    The Indian Rhinoceros is also called Greater One-horned Rhinoceros and Asian One-horned Rhinoceros and belongs to the Rhinocerotidae family...

     from near extinction, along with the tiger and numerous species of birds, and it provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant
    Asian Elephant
    The Asian or Asiatic elephant is the only living species of the genus Elephas and distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east. Three subspecies are recognized — Elephas maximus maximus from Sri Lanka, the Indian elephant or E. m. indicus from mainland Asia, and E. m....

    . It is becoming an increasingly popular destination for wildlife tourism, and Kaziranga and Manas
    Manas National Park
    Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a Wildlife Sanctuary, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National park in Bhutan...

     are both World Heritage Sites.
  • Assam was also known for its Sal tree forests and forest products, much depleted now. A land of high rainfall, Assam is endowed with lush greenery and the mighty river Brahmaputra, whose tributaries and oxbow lake
    Oxbow lake
    An oxbow lake is a U-shaped body of water formed when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off to create a lake. This landform is called an oxbow lake for the distinctive curved shape, named after part of a yoke for oxen. In Australia, an oxbow lake is called a billabong, derived...

    s provide the region with a unique hydro-geomorphic and aesthetic environment.

Etymology


Assam was known as Pragjyotisha
Pragjyotisha Kingdom
Pragjyotisha was a mythological kingdom first mentioned in the Hindu epics and later Hindu literature. According to later versions of the epic, King Bhagadatta ruled the kingdom during the time of the Kurukshetra War where he met his death. In historical times, it came to be named as the Kamarupa...

 in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

; and Kamarupa in the 1st millennium which ruled Assam for almost 800 years. The academic consensus is that the current name is associated with the Ahom rulers who reigned for nearly six hundred years, as evidenced from Satyendra Nath Sarma's quote from Banikanta Kakati:

"While the Shan invaders called themselves Tai, they came to be referred to as Āsām, Āsam and sometimes as Acam by the indigenous people of the country. The modern Assamese word Āhom by which the Tai people are known is derived from Āsām or Āsam. The epithet applied to the Shan conquerors was subsequently transferred to the country over which they ruled and thus the name Kāmarūpa was replaced by Āsām, which ultimately took the Sanskritized form Asama, meaning 'unequalled, peerless or uneven'."


While a different school of thought emphasis that it derived from Sanskrit word "Asama" meaning unequal as referring to its geology which is equal mix of river valleys and hills. The British province after 1838 and the Indian state after 1947 came to be known as Assam.

For the many theories on the origin of the name, see the main article Etymology of Assam
Etymology of Assam
The Etymology of Assam is an issue that often comes up for debate in the Indian state of Assam. In the latest instance, the Government of Assam under the Indian National Congress has sought to change the name of the state from Assam to Asom...

.

On 27 February 2006, the Government of Assam
Government of Assam
The Government of Assam is the provincial governing authority of the state of Assam in the Republic of India.It consists of the Governor as the head of the state, who is nominated by the Government of India. The head of government is the Chief Minister, who is the leader of the group that commands...

 started a process to change the name of the state to Asom or Axom, a controversial move that has been opposed by the people and political organizations.

Physical geography


Geomorphic studies conclude that the Brahmaputra, the life-line of Assam is an antecedent river, older than the Himalayas. The river with steep gorges
Canyon
A canyon or gorge is a deep ravine between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river. Rivers have a natural tendency to reach a baseline elevation, which is the same elevation as the body of water it will eventually drain into. This forms a canyon. Most canyons were formed by a process of...

 and rapids in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

 entering Assam, becomes a braided river
Braided river
A braided river is one of a number of channel types and has a channel that consists of a network of small channels separated by small and often temporary islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots. Braided streams occur in rivers with high slope and/or large sediment load...

 (at times 10 mi/16 km wide) and with tributaries, creates a flood plain (Brahmaputra Valley: 50–60 mi/80–100 km wide, 600 mi/1000 km long). The hills of Karbi Anglong, North Cachar and those in and close to Guwahati (also Khasi-Garo Hills) now eroded and dissected are originally parts of the South Indian Plateau system. In the south, the Barak
Barak River
The Barak River is one of the major rivers of southern Assam and is a part of the Surma-Meghna River System. It is the biggest and the most important of all the rivers in the Manipur hill territory, from where it originates....

 originating in the Barail Range (Assam-Nagaland border) flows through the Cachar district
Cachar District
Cachar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India.-Etymology:The name "Cachar" has derived from the words 'kacha' & 'har'.The district headquarters are located at Silchar...

 with a 25–30 miles (40–50 km) wide valley and enters Bangladesh with the name Surma.

Assam is endowed with petroleum, natural gas, coal, limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 and other minor minerals such as magnetic quartzite
Quartzite
Quartzite is a hard metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is usually white to gray, though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink...

, kaolin, sillimanite
Sillimanite
Sillimanite is an alumino-silicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. Sillimanite is named after the American chemist Benjamin Silliman . It was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in Chester, Middlesex County, Connecticut, USA....

s, clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

 and feldspar
Feldspar
Feldspars are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust....

. A small quantity of iron ore is available in western districts. Discovered in 1889, all the major petroleum-gas reserves are in Upper parts. A recent USGS estimate shows 399 Moilbbl of oil, 1178 Gcuft of gas and 67 Moilbbl of natural gas liquids in the Assam Geologic Province.

With the “Tropical Monsoon Rainforest Climate”, Assam is temperate (summer max. at 95–100 °F or 35–38 °C and winter min. at 43–46 °F or 6–8 °C) and experiences heavy rainfall and high humidity. The climate is characterized by heavy monsoon downpours reducing summer temperatures and affecting foggy nights and mornings in winters. Thunderstorm
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the...

s known as Bordoicila are frequent during the afternoons. Spring (Mar–Apr) and Autumn (Sept–Oct) are usually pleasant with moderate rainfall and temperature.

Assam is one of the richest biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions...

 zones in the world and consists of tropical rainforest
Rainforest
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions based on a minimum normal annual rainfall of 1750-2000 mm...

s
, deciduous forests, riverine grasslands, bamboo
Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

 orchards and numerous wetland
Wetland
A wetland is an area of land whose soil is saturated with water either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands are categorised by their characteristic vegetation, which is adapted to these unique soil conditions....

 ecosystems; Many are now protected as national parks and reserved forests. The Kaziranga
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. A World Heritage Site, the park hosts two-thirds of the world's Great One-horned Rhinoceroses. Kaziranga boasts the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world and was...

, home of the rare Indian Rhinoceros
Indian Rhinoceros
The Indian Rhinoceros is also called Greater One-horned Rhinoceros and Asian One-horned Rhinoceros and belongs to the Rhinocerotidae family...

, and Manas
Manas National Park
Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a Wildlife Sanctuary, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National park in Bhutan...

 are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Assam. The state is the last refuge for numerous other endangered species such as the Golden Langur (Presbetis geei), White-winged Wood Duck
White-winged Wood Duck
The White-winged Duck or White-winged Wood Duck is a large species of duck, formerly placed in the genus Cairina and allied with the dabbling ducks...

 or Deohanh (Cairina scutulata), Bengal Florican
Bengal Florican
The Bengal Florican , also called Bengal Bustard, is a very rare bustard species from tropical southern Asia. It is the only member of the genus Houbaropsis...

, Black-breasted Parrotbill
Black-breasted Parrotbill
The Black-breasted Parrotbill is a 19 cm long, large, thick-billed parrotbill with black patches on the head-sides and throat...

, Pygmy Hog
Pygmy Hog
Pygmy hog is an endangered species of small wild pig, previously spread across India, Nepal, and Bhutan but now only found in Assam. The current world population is about 150 individuals or fewer...

, Greater Adjutant
Greater Adjutant
The Greater Adjutant is a member of the stork family, Ciconiidae. Its genus includes the Lesser Adjutant of Asia and the Marabou Stork of Africa...

 and so on. Some other endangered species with significant population in Assam are the tiger, elephant, Hoolock gibbon
Hoolock gibbon
The hoolock gibbons , also known as hoolocks, are two primate species from the family of the gibbons .Hoolocks are the second largest of the gibbons, after the Siamang. They reach a size of 60 to 90 cm and weigh 6 to 9 kg...

, Jerdon's Babbler
Jerdon's Babbler
Jerdon's Babbler is an endangered passerine bird from South Asia. Formerly placed in the Timaliidae family – hence the common name "babbler" –, the genus Chrysomma and its relatives are actually closer to the typical warblers and parrotbills in the Sylviidae.-Description:Measuring...

 and so on to name a few. For the State Bird, the White-winged Wood Duck, Assam is a globally important area.
Assam is also known for orchids
Orchidaceae
The Orchidaceae, commonly referred to as the orchid family, is a morphologically diverse and widespread family of monocots in the order Asparagales. Along with the Asteraceae, it is one of the two largest families of flowering plants, with between 21,950 and 26,049 currently accepted species,...

. The state has the largest population of the Wild Water Buffalo in the world.
The state also has the highest diversity of birds in India with around 820 species. With subspecies the number is as high as 946.
The mammal diversity in Assam is also high with around 190 species

The region is prone to natural disasters with annual floods and frequent mild earthquakes. Strong earthquakes are rare; three of which were recorded in 1869, 1897 (8.1 on the Richter scale
Richter magnitude scale
The expression Richter magnitude scale refers to a number of ways to assign a single number to quantify the energy contained in an earthquake....

); and in 1950 (8.6).




Pre-history


Assam and adjoining regions have evidences of human settlements from all the periods of the Stone age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

s. The hills at the height of 1,500–2,000 feet (460 to 615 m) were popular habitats probably due to availability of exposed doleritic basalt useful for tool-making.

According to the Kalika Purana (c.17th–18th AD
Anno Domini
and Before Christ are designations used to label or number years used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars....

), written in Assam, the earliest ruler of Assam was Mahiranga Danav followed by Hatak, Sambar, Ratna and Ghatak; Naraka removed this line of rulers and established his own Naraka dynasty
Naraka dynasty
The Naraka dynasty is a mythological dynasty of Assam that has been sourced to mentions in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Kalika Purana, the Yogini Tantra and local lore. There are no indications when they might have ruled, but they are probably true rulers whose accounts have been greatly...

. It mentions that the last of the Naraka-bhauma rulers, Narak, was slain by Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

. Naraka's son Bhagadatta, mentioned in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

, fought for the Kaurava
Kaurava
The term Kaurava is a Sanskrit term, that means the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahābhārata.The term is used in the Mahābhārata with two meanings:...

s in the battle of Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra war
According to the Indian epic poem Mahābhārata, a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins of an Indo-Aryan kingdom called Kuru, the Kauravas and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura resulted in the Kurukshetra War in which a number of ancient kingdoms participated as allies of...

 with an army of kiratas, chinas
Chinas
The Chinas or Chīnaḥ are a people mentioned in ancient Indian literature from the first millennium BC, such as the Mahabharata, Laws of Manu, as well the Puranic literature...

and dwellers of the eastern coast. Later rulers of Kamarupa frequently drew their lineage from the Naraka rulers. However, there are lots of evidences to say that Mahayana Buddhism was prominent in ancient Assam. After Hi-uen Shang's visit Mahayana Buddhism came to Assam. Relics of Tezpur, Malini Than, Kamakhya and Madan Kam Dev Temple are the evidences of Mahayana Buddhism.

Ancient and medieval


Ancient Assam, known as Kamarupa, was ruled by powerful dynasties: the Varmanas
Varman dynasty
The Varman dynasty ruled Kamarupa from 350 to 650. Pushyavarman the first historical ruler of Assam established this dynasty in c350 AD...

 (c. 350–650 AD), the Salstambhas (Xalostombho, c. 655–900 AD) and the Kamarupa-Palas (c. 900–1100 AD). In the reign of the Varman king, Bhaskaravarman (c. 600–650 AD), the Chinese traveler Xuan Zang visited the region and recorded his travels. Later, after weakening and disintegration (after the Kamarupa-Palas), the Kamarupa tradition was somewhat extended till c. 1255 AD by the Lunar I (c. 1120–1185 AD) and Lunar II (c. 1155–1255 AD) dynasties.

Two later dynasties, the Ahoms
Ahom Dynasty
The Ahom Dynasty ruled the Ahom Kingdom in present-day Assam for nearly 600 years. The dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai mountains...

 and the Koch
Koch dynasty
The Koch dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch tribe, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498...

 left larger impacts. The Ahoms, a Tai
Tai peoples
The Tai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from Hainan to eastern India and from southern Sichuan to Laos, Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including...

 group, ruled Assam for nearly 600 years (1228–1826 AD) and the Koch
Koch dynasty
The Koch dynasty of Assam and Bengal, named after the Koch tribe, emerged as the dominant ruling house in the Kamata kingdom in 1515 after the fall of the Khen dynasty in 1498...

, a Tibeto-Burmese
Tibeto-Burman languages
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Chinese members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken thoughout the highlands of southeast Asia, as well as lowland areas in Burma ....

, established sovereignty in c. 1510 AD. The Koch kingdom in western Assam and present North Bengal was at its zenith in the early reign of Naranarayana (c. 1540–1587 AD). It split into two in c. 1581 AD, the western part as a Moghul vassal and the eastern as an Ahom satellite state. Since c. 13th AD, the nerve centre of Ahom polity was upper Assam; the kingdom was gradually extended till Karatoya River
Karatoya River
Karatoya River , a small stream in Rajshahi Division of Bangladesh, was once a large and sacred river. A channel of it presently flows by the ancient ruins of Mahasthangarh in Bogra District. The Karatoya mahatmya bears testimony to its past greatness...

 in the c. 17th–18th AD. It was at its zenith during the reign of Sukhrungpha or Sworgodeu Rudra Simha (c. 1696–1714 AD). Among other dynasties, the Sutiya Kingdom ruled north-eastern Assam and parts of present Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

 and the Kacharis
Kachari Kingdom
The Kachari Kingdom was a powerful kingdom in medieval Assam. The rulers belonged to the Dimasa people, part of the greater Bodo-Kachari ethnic group...

 ruled from Dikhow River to central and southern Assam. With expansion of Ahom kingdom, by c. 1520 AD the Sutiyas areas were annexed and since c. 1536 AD Kacharis remained only in Cachar and North Cachar more as an Ahom ally then a competing force. Despite numerous invasions, mostly by the Muslim rulers, no western power ruled Assam until the arrival of the British. Though the Mughals
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 made seventeen attempts to invade they were not successful. The most successful invader Mir Jumla
Mir Jumla II
Mir Jumla II was a prominent subahdar of Bengal in Eastern India under the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. An Iranian by birth, his original name was Mir Muhammad Saeed Ardestani...

, a governor of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

, briefly occupied Garhgaon
Garhgaon
Garhgaon was the capital of the Ahom kingdom for many years. It was built by the Ahom king Suklenmung in 1540. It lies 13 km east of present-day Sibsagar town. The palace structures were made of wood and stones...

 (c. 1662–63 AD), the then capital, but found it difficult to control people making guerrilla
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare and refers to conflicts in which a small group of combatants including, but not limited to, armed civilians use military tactics, such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, the element of surprise, and extraordinary mobility to harass a larger and...

 attacks on his forces, forcing them to leave. The decisive victory of the Assamese led by the great general Lachit Borphukan
Lachit Borphukan
Lachit Borphukan was a commander and Borphukan in the Ahom kingdom known for his leadership in the 1671 Battle of Saraighat that thwarted a drawn out attempt by Mughal forces under the command of Ramsingh I to take back Kamrup...

 on the Mughals, then under command of Raja Ram Singha at Saraighat
Saraighat
Saraighat is a place near Guwahati in Assam, on the north bank of the river Brahmaputra. Sarai was a small village where the old abandoned N.F. Railway station of Amingaon was located. The famous Battle of Saraighat was fought near this place on the river....

 (1671) had almost ended Mughal ambitions in this region. Mughals were finally expelled in c. 1682 AD from lower Assam
Lower Assam
Lower Assam or Western Assam is a region of Bharat situated in the great plains of the Brahmaputra valley. It was home to the mighty kingdom of Kamarupa . Guwahati, the largest city of North-East India is located here while Dispur, the capital of Assam is in Guwahati.-History:Ancient Lower Assam,...

.

British Assam


Ahom palace intrigue and political turmoil due to the Moamoria rebellion
Moamoria rebellion
The Moamoria rebellion was the 18th century conflict between the Morans, adherents of the Moamara Sattra, and the Ahom kings. This led to widespread popular discontent against the Ahom king and the nobles and to two periods in which the Ahom king lost control of the capital...

 aided the Burmese
Konbaung dynasty
The Konbaung Dynasty was the last dynasty that ruled Burma from 1752 to 1885. The dynasty created the second largest empire in Burmese history, and continued the administrative reforms begun by the Toungoo dynasty, laying the foundations of modern state of Burma...

 to invade Assam and install Chandra Kanta Singh as a puppet king in 1817. In 1821, Singh switched his allegiance to the British, leading the Burmese to invade again. The Burmese defeated the Assamese army in 1822, and made Assam a Burmese province under a military governor-general. With the Burmese having reached the East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

’s borders, the First Anglo-Burmese War ensued in 1824. The war ended under the Treaty of Yandabo
Treaty of Yandabo
The Treaty of Yandabo was the peace treaty that ended the First Anglo-Burmese War. The treaty was signed on 24 February 1826, nearly two years after the war formally broke out on 5 March 1824, by General Sir Archibald Campbell on the British side, and by Governor of Legaing Maha Min Hla Kyaw Htin...

 in 1826, with the Company taking control of Lower Assam and installing Purander Singh as king of Upper Assam in 1833. The arrangement lasted till 1838 and thereafter the British gradually annexed the entire region. Initially Assam was made a part of the Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
The Bengal Presidency originally comprising east and west Bengal, was a colonial region of the British Empire in South-Asia and beyond it. It comprised areas which are now within Bangladesh, and the present day Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Orissa and Tripura.Penang and...

, then in 1906 it was a part of Eastern Bengal and Assam
Eastern Bengal and Assam
Eastern Bengal and Assam was a province of British India, constituted of the eastern portion of the erstwhile province of Bengal and the Chief Commissioner's province of Assam. The new province came into being on 16th October 1905, following a partition of Bengal. The Bengali Hindu people agitated...

 province, and in 1912 it was reconstituted into a Chief Commissioners' province. In 1913, a Legislative Council and in 1937 the Assam Legislative Assembly were formed in Shillong, the erstwhile capital of the region. The British tea planters imported labour from central India adding to the demographic canvas. After few initial unsuccessful attempts to free Assam during the 1850s, the Assamese since early 20th century joined and actively supported the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 against the British.

At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor. The Assam Province was one amongst those major eight provinces of British India. The following table lists their areas and populations (but does not include those of the dependent Native States): 

During the partition of Bengal (1905–1911), a new province, Assam and East Bengal, was created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became: Assam, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

Table hereafter shows the major original provinces during British India that includes the Assam Province:
Province of British India Area (in thousands of square miles) Population (in millions of inhabitants) Chief Administrative Officer
Burma  170 9 Lieutenant-Governor
Bengal  151 75 Lieutenant-Governor
Madras
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 
142 38 Governor-in-Council
Bombay
Bombay Presidency
The Bombay Presidency was a province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as a trading post for the English East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula.At its greatest...

 
123 19 Governor-in-Council
United Provinces
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of...

 
107 48 Lieutenant-Governor
Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar
The Central Provinces and Berar was a province of British India. The province comprised British conquests from the Mughals and Marathas in central India, and covered much of present-day Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra states. Its capital was Nagpur. The Central Provinces was formed in...

 
104 13 Chief Commissioner
Punjab
Punjab (British India)
Punjab was a province of British India, it was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British rule. With the end of British rule in 1947 the province was split between West Punjab, which went to Pakistan, and East Punjab, which went to India...

 
97 20 Lieutenant-Governor
Assam  49 6 Chief Commissioner


In 1947, Assam including the present Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

, Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

, Mizoram
Mizoram
Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the...

 and Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Meghalaya is a state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means the Abode of Clouds in Sanskrit and other Indic languages. Meghalaya is a hilly strip in the eastern part of the country about 300 km long and 100 km wide, with a total area of about 8,700 sq mi . The...

 became a state of the Union of India (princely states, Manipur and Tripura became Group C provinces) and a district of Assam, Sylhet
Sylhet
Sylhet , is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh. It is the main city of Sylhet Division and Sylhet District, and was granted metropolitan city status in March 2009. Sylhet is located on the banks of the Surma Valley and is surrounded by the Jaintia, Khasi and Tripura hills...

, chose to join Pakistan.

Post British


Since 1947, with increasing economic problems in the region, separatist groups began forming along ethnic lines, and demands for autonomy and sovereignty grew, resulting into fragmentation of Assam.

Since the mid-20th century, people from present Bangladesh have been migrating to Assam. In 1961, the Government of Assam passed a legislation making use of Assamese language
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

 compulsory. It had to be withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam Agitation
Assam Agitation
The Assam Agitation was a popular movement against undocumented migrants in Assam between 1979 and 1985. It is regarded as one of the most vibrant democratic mass movements of independent India...

 triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls. It tried to force the government to identify and deport foreigners illegally migrating from neighboring Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 and changing the demographics. The agitation ended after an accord between its leaders and the Union Government, which remained unimplemented, causing simmering discontent.

The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups like United Liberation Front of Asom
United Liberation Front of Asom
The United Liberation Front of Asom is a separatist group from Assam, among many other such groups in North-East India. It seeks to establish a sovereign Assam via an armed struggle in the Assam Conflict...

 (ULFA) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland
National Democratic Front of Bodoland
The National Democratic Front of Bodoland, also known as NDFB or the Bodo Security Force, is a terrorist outfit which seeks to obtain a sovereign Bodoland for the Bodo people in Assam, India. The founder of the organization, Ransaigra Nabla Daimary, alias Ranjan Daimary has been arrested and...

 (NDFB). In November 1990, the Government of India deployed the Indian army, after which low-intensity military conflicts and political homicides have been continuing for more than a decade. In recent times, ethnicity based militant groups (UPDS, HPDC etc.) have also mushroomed. Regional autonomy has been ensured for Bodo-kacahri community in Bodoland Territorial Council Areas (BTC) and for the Karbis in Karbi Anglong after agitation of the communities due to sluggish rate of development and general apathy of successive state governments towards indigenous communities.

Tea history




After discovery of Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis
Camellia sinensis is the species of plant whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce Chinese tea. It is of the genus Camellia , a genus of flowering plants in the family Theaceae. White tea, green tea, oolong, pu-erh tea and black tea are all harvested from this species, but are processed...

 (1834) in Assam followed by its tests in 1836–37 in London, the British allowed companies to rent land since 1839. Thereafter tea plantations mushroomed in Upper Assam, where the soil and the climate were most suitable. Problems with the imported laborers from China and hostilities of native Assamese resulted into migration of forced laborers from central-eastern parts of India. After initial trial and error with planting the Chinese and the Assamese-Chinese hybrid varieties, the planters later accepted the local Camellia assamica as the most suitable one for Assam. By 1850s, the industry started seeing some profits. Industry saw initial growth, when in 1861, investors were allowed to own land in Assam and it saw substantial progress with invention of new technologies and machinery for preparing processed tea during 1870s. The cost of Assam tea was lowered down many folds and became more competitive than its Chinese variant.

Despite the commercial success, tea laborers continued to be exploited, working and living under poor conditions. Fearful of greater government interference, the tea growers formed the Indian Tea Association in 1888 to lobby to retain the status quo. The organization was very successful in this, and even after India’s independence conditions of the laborers have improved very little.

Subdivisions



Assam is divided into 27 administrative districts
Districts of India
A district is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory. Districts are further subdivided, in some cases into Sub-Divisions, and otherwise directly into tehsils or talukas.District officials include:...

. More than half of these districts were carved out during 80s and 90s from original 1. Lakhimpur, 2. Jorhat, 3. Karbi Anglong, 4. Darrang, 5. Nagaon
Nagaon
Nagaon , is a medium sized city and a municipal board in Nagaon district in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated east of Guwahati. An older spelling of the name is Nowgong.It is one of the fastest growing cities of the northeast.-History:...

, 6. Kamrup, 7. Goalpara, 8. North Cachar and 9. Cachar districts, delineated by the British. Earlier, during 70s, Dibrugarh was separated out from original Lakhimpur district.

These districts are further sub-divided into 49 “Sub-divisions” or Mohkuma
Tehsil
A Tehsil or Tahsil/Tahasil , also known as Taluk and Mandal, is an administrative division of some country/countries of South Asia....

. Every district is administered from a district head quarter with the office of the District Collector
District collector
The District Collector is the district head of administration of the bureaucracy in a state of India. Though he/she is appointed and is under general supervision of the state government, he/she has to be a member of the elite IAS recruited by the Central Government...

, District Magistrate, Office of the District Panchayat and usually with a district court
District Courts of India
The District Courts of India are the district courts established by the State governments in India for every district or for one or more districts together taking into account the number of cases, population distribution in the district. They administer justice in India at a district level...

.

The districts are delineated on the basis of the features such as the rivers, hills, forests, etc. and majority of the newly constituted districts are sub-divisions of the earlier districts. For the present districts of Assam and their location, refer the attached map.

The local governance
Local Governance in India
Urban Local Bodies of India are the constitutionally provided administrative units that provide basic infrastructure and services in cities and towns...

 system is organised under the jila-parishad (District Panchayat) for a district, panchayat
Panchayati Raj
The panchayat raj is a South Asian political system mainly in India, Pakistan, and Nepal. "Panchayat" literally means assembly of five wise and respected elders chosen and accepted by the local community. Traditionally, these assemblies settled disputes between individuals and villages...

 for group of or individual rural areas and under the urban local bodies for the towns and cities. Presently there are 2489 village panchayats covering 26247 villages in Assam. The 'town-committee' or nagar-somiti for small towns, 'municipal board' or pouro-sobha for medium towns and municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

 or pouro-nigom for the cities consist of the urban local bodies.

For the revenue purposes, the districts are divided into revenue circles and mouzas; for the development projects, the districts are divided into 219 'development-blocks' and for law and order these are divided into 206 police stations or thana.

Demographics


Total population of Assam was 26.66 million with 4.91 million households in 2001. Higher population concentration was recorded in the districts of Kamrup, Nagaon, Sonitpur, Barpeta, Dhubri, Darang and Cachar. Assam's population was estimated at 28.67 million in 2006 and at 30.57 million by 2011, 34.18 million by 2021 and 35.60 million by 2026.

In 2001, the census recorded literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

 in Assam at 63.3% with male literacy at 71.3% and female at 54.6%. Urbanisation rate was recorded at 12.9%.

Growth of population in Assam has experienced a very high trajectory since the mid-decades of the 20th century. Population grew steadily from 3.29 million in 1901 to 6.70 million in 1941, while it has increased unprecedentedly to 14.63 million in 1971 and 22.41 million in 1991 to reach the present level. The growth in the western and southern districts was of extreme high in nature mostly attributable to rapid influx of population from the then East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

 or Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

.

Assam has many ethnic groups and the People of India project has studied 115 of these. Out of which 79 (69%) identify themselves regionally, 22 (19%) locally, and 3 trans-nationally. The earliest settlers were Austroasiatic, followed by Tibeto-Burman, Indo-Aryan speakers
Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan languages constitutes a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family...

, and Tai–Kadai speakers. Forty-five languages are spoken by different communities, including three major language families: Austroasiatic (5), Sino-Tibetan
Sino-Tibetan languages
The Sino-Tibetan languages are a language family comprising, at least, the Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia. They are second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of the number of native speakers...

 (24) and Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 (12). Three of the spoken languages do not fall in these families. There is a high degree of bilingualism.

Religions


According to the 2001 census, there were 17,296,455 Hindus
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, 8,240,611 Muslims
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, 986,589 Christians, 22,519 Sikhs
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

, 51,029 Buddhists
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, 23,957 Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 and 22,999 belonging to other religious communities. The latter includes Animism
Animism
Animism refers to the belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or at least embody some kind of life-principle....

 (Khamti
Khamti
The Khamti, whose name is also spelled as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Burma as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Smaller numbers can be found in parts of Assam...

, Phake
Phake
Tai Phake, also known as Phakial or simply Phake belong to the Tai-speaking tribal group living in Dibrugarh district and Tinsukia district of Assam, principally along the areas of Dihing river as well as adjacent parts of Lohit and Changlang districts in Arunachal Pradesh...

, Aiton, etc. communities).

Out of the 3,308,570 Assamese tribals reported in the 2001 Census, 90.7% were Hindus and 8.8% were Christians. There were 6,267 Muslims, 5,153 Buddhists and 3,574 Animists.

Hinduism



The Hindus of Assam perform several dances to practice their devotion to their Gods. One category of them is the Sattriya Dances.

Kamakhya
Kamakhya
Kamakhya is an important Tantric mother goddess closely identified with Kali and Maha Tripura Sundari, according to the Tantric texts that are the basis for her worship at the Kamakhya temple, a 16th century temple in the Kamrup district of Assam...

, dedicated to Goddess Durga
Durga
For the 1985 Hindi Film of Rajesh Khanna see DurgaaIn Hinduism, Durga ; ; meaning "the inaccessible" or "the invincible"; , durga) or Maa Durga "one who can redeem in situations of utmost distress" is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having eighteen arms, riding a lion...

, is the eastern-most pilgrimage of Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

.

Popular forms of God in Assam are Durga
Durga
For the 1985 Hindi Film of Rajesh Khanna see DurgaaIn Hinduism, Durga ; ; meaning "the inaccessible" or "the invincible"; , durga) or Maa Durga "one who can redeem in situations of utmost distress" is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having eighteen arms, riding a lion...

, Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

, Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

 and Narayana
Narayana
Narayana or Narayan or Naraina is an important Sanskrit name for Vishnu, and in many contemporary vernaculars a common Indian name. Narayana is also identified as the original man, Purusha. The Puranas present divergent views on Narayana...

, although several tribes practice devotion to local deities as well.

Well-known saints and philosophers from Assam include Gurudev Kalicharan, Madhab, Mahadeb, and very likely Kumarila Bhatta.

Brahmo Samaj


Assam is the home of Kalicharan Mech
Kalicharan Brahma
Kalicharan Brahma , originally Kalicharan Mech, was a 20th century social and religious reformer of Bodo society. He joined a new religion called Brahmo Dharma / Brahmoism Adi Brahmo Samaj faction in Calcutta around 1906, and he is reverentially called Gurudev or Guru Brahma by Bodo people of...

, a Bodo Hindu who stopped the British Christian missionaries, spread ahimsa
Ahimsa
Ahimsa is a term meaning to do no harm . The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hims – to strike; himsa is injury or harm, a-himsa is the opposite of this, i.e. non harming or nonviolence. It is an important tenet of the Indian religions...

 and vegetarianism. He was deeply influenced by the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj is the societal component of the Brahmo religion which is mainly practiced today as the Adi Dharm after its eclipse in Bengal consequent to the exit of the Tattwabodini Sabha from its ranks in 1859. It was one of the most influential religious movements responsible for the making of...

. He later became known as "Gurudev Kalicharan Brahmachari" or "Guru Brahma". His principles were established as the Brahma Dharma. Perhaps his teachings can be summarized by his given phrase, "Chandrama Surya Narayans Jyoti", meaning, "the light (jyoti) from the sun is capable from dispelling darkness and taking people to Brahma
Brahman
In Hinduism, Brahman is the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe. Brahman is sometimes referred to as the Absolute or Godhead which is the Divine Ground of all being...

 (Narayan
Narayan
Narayan may refer to:*Narayana, an Indian name, an important Sanskrit name for Vishnu*Narayanan, an Indian name*Narain, an Indian name- People :*Aditya Narayan, Indian television show host*Anand Narayan, Indian television personality...

s)."

From the teachings of Guru Brahma, the "Bodo-Brahmas" (the Bodos of this sect) have boycotted alcohol, heavy dowry
Dowry
A dowry is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings forth to the marriage. It contrasts with bride price, which is paid to the bride's parents, and dower, which is property settled on the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage. The same culture may simultaneously practice both...

 as well as meat-eating.

This sect is written by scholars to be Vedic
Historical Vedic religion
The religion of the Vedic period is a historical predecessor of Hinduism. Its liturgy is reflected in the mantra portion of the four Vedas, which are compiled in Sanskrit. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites...

 and Upanishadic. As per Vedic rituals, the priests perform Horn Yajna, which was begun by Guru Brahma to organize the Bodos.

While the Bodo Christians today are laying stress on adopting a Roman script for the Bodo community, the Bodo-Brahmas prefer the traditional Bengali-Ahomi script.

Islam


Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Assam with about 10,240,611 persons, 34.7% (2011 census) of the Assam population. Amongst Indian provinces, Assam has the third largest proportion of Muslims; only the Union Territory of Lakshaweep Islands and Jammu and Kashmir have a higher proportion.

The history of the indigenous Muslims of Assam is a long one, though many details are obscure, especially for the Assamese Muslims. A Brahmin priest from Kamrup (near the geographical middle of Assam) was reported to have converted to Islam around the 13th century.

Later in the 16th century, an Islamic saint Ajan Fakir
Ajan Fakir
Ajan Fakir, born Shah Miran, also known as Azan Pir, Hazrat Shah Miran, and Shah Milan , was a Sufi Syed, poet, Muslim preacher and saint from the 17th century who came from Baghdad to settle in the Sibsagar area of Assam in the north-eastern part of India, where he helped to unify the people of...

 Shah Miran (also known as Ghiyasuddin Auliya) came from Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

 to Assam to preach Islam in the area. The Masjid constructed by him is known as the Pao Mecca mosque. Pao Mecca literally means one-fourth of Mecca. It is believed that the foundation was laid upon a handful of earth brought from Mecca. The Pao Mecca mosque was partially destroyed by a strong earthquake that occurred in 1897 and the dargah on the 750 ft (229 m) high Gaurachol hills. Ghiyasuddin Auliya Ajan Fakir
Ajan Fakir
Ajan Fakir, born Shah Miran, also known as Azan Pir, Hazrat Shah Miran, and Shah Milan , was a Sufi Syed, poet, Muslim preacher and saint from the 17th century who came from Baghdad to settle in the Sibsagar area of Assam in the north-eastern part of India, where he helped to unify the people of...

 was buried on the hills of Gaurachol. The tomb on the hill is considered sacrosanct not only by the Muslims but by people of other faiths as well.

Panchpeer Dargaha, Dhurbi District, Assam is the Mazar Sharif of five Sufi saints who accompanied Raja Ram Singh during his invasion to Assam. Mass immigration from Bangladesh has increased the number of Muslims significantly.

Christianity


The Bible was translated into Assamese in 1819. In 1827, an attempt was made to start a Baptist church in Guwahati, but it made no permanent converts in the area. Later the American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society was able to make some headway in Guwahati. Although these earliest Christian missionary endeavors which were focused in the north-east of India, were in Modern Assam, the great success of Protestant missionaries in North-East India which they achieved in late 19th and the 20th Centuries was primarily in areas such as Nagaland
Nagaland
Nagaland is a state in the far north-eastern part of India. It borders the state of Assam to the west, Arunachal Pradesh and part of Assam to the north, Burma to the east and Manipur to the south. The state capital is Kohima, and the largest city is Dimapur...

, Mizoram and Meghalaya
Meghalaya
Meghalaya is a state in north-eastern India. The word "Meghalaya" literally means the Abode of Clouds in Sanskrit and other Indic languages. Meghalaya is a hilly strip in the eastern part of the country about 300 km long and 100 km wide, with a total area of about 8,700 sq mi . The...

 which are not part of Assam anymore.

As of 1991 only Tripura
Tripura
Tripura is a state in North-East India, with an area of . It is the third smallest state of India, according to area. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, south, and west. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east. The capital is Agartala and the main languages spoken are...

 of the seven eastern states of India had a lower percentage of Christians than Assam. There were more Christians in Assam than in Mizoram
Mizoram
Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the...

 even though Mizoram was the second most Christian state in India at the time.

Besides the Protestants there are also Catholics. There is a Roman Catholic Archdiocese in Shillong
Shillong
-Connectivity:Although well connected by road, Shillong has no rail connection and a proper air connection. Umroi Airport exists but has only limited flights.-Roadways:Shillong is well connected by roads with all major north eastern states...

.

According to the 2001 Census, there are 986,589 Christians in Assam. Out of this, 291,000 (29.5%) are tribals.

Sikhism


The first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Nanak Dev
Guru Nanak was the founder of the religion of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. The Sikhs believe that all subsequent Gurus possessed Guru Nanak’s divinity and religious authority, and were named "Nanak" in the line of succession.-Early life:Guru Nanak was born on 15 April 1469, now...

, had visited Kamrup (Assam) in 1505 as recorded in the his first visit in Purantan Janam Sakhi (the historical papers related to the visits and daily recorded activities of the Guru). Guru Nanak met Srimanta Shankardeva (the founder of the Mahapuruxiya Dharma) as the Guru traveled from Dhaka to Assam. But no sangat or historical shrine dedicated to him survives as to date.

The ninth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Tegh Bahadur, visited Assam in 1668. This place is famous for the Sikh Gurdwara Thara Sahib or Gurdwara Damdama Sahib
Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib
Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib is the famous Gurdwara of Sikhs situated in Dhubri town on the bank of river mighty Brahmaputra in Assam, India. The first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev visited this place in 1505 AD and met Srimanta Sankardeva on his way when he travelled from Dhaka to Assam...

 which was constructed in memory atop the hillock place of meditation of the Guru in Dhubri
Dhubri
Dhubri is the headquarters of Dhubri district India. It is a small old town on the bank of the Brahmaputra and Gadadhar Rivers. In 1883, the town was first constituted as a Municipal Board and is situated about west from Guwahati, the state capital.Dhubri was an important commercial centre and...

, Kamrup. The historical site and places of interest of the Gurdwara are many times referred to as Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib
Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib
Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib is the famous Gurdwara of Sikhs situated in Dhubri town on the bank of river mighty Brahmaputra in Assam, India. The first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak Dev visited this place in 1505 AD and met Srimanta Sankardeva on his way when he travelled from Dhaka to Assam...

 situated in Dhubri (Assam) by the banks of the Brahmaputra. The grateful Ahom King invited Guruji to the Kamakhya
Kamakhya
Kamakhya is an important Tantric mother goddess closely identified with Kali and Maha Tripura Sundari, according to the Tantric texts that are the basis for her worship at the Kamakhya temple, a 16th century temple in the Kamrup district of Assam...

 shrine, where he was honoured with great respect.

In the year 1820, a few hundred Sikh soldiers went to Assam at the initiative of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 to help Ahom rulers in a war. Their descendants are mostly concentrated in Lanka in Nagaon district of Assam. Sikhs have been living in Assam for approximately two hundred years.

Buddhism


The religion is practised by 51,029 persons in Assam. Among them are the Chakma
Chakma people
The Chakmas , also known as the Changhma , are a community that inhabits the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and the North-East India. The Chakmas are the largest ethnic group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, making up more than half the tribal population. Chakmas are divided into 46 clans or...

 and Boruas
Barua (Bangladesh)
Barua are a Bengali speaking Buddhist community in Bangladesh . They mainly live in the Chittagong region. Many moved to Kolkata, India after partition of India in 1947; many also moved to England in the 1950s and 1960s...

. The Chakmas of Assam are mostly in Chachar and Karbi Anglong with very lesser presence in Nagaon
Nagaon
Nagaon , is a medium sized city and a municipal board in Nagaon district in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated east of Guwahati. An older spelling of the name is Nowgong.It is one of the fastest growing cities of the northeast.-History:...

 district. Guwahati has many Buddhist temples, the most prominent being the Bamunimaidan Buddhist temple.

The indigenous Tai
Tai peoples
The Tai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from Hainan to eastern India and from southern Sichuan to Laos, Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including...

 tribes like Tai Phake, Tai Aiton
Tai Aiton
Tai Aitons are one among the six Indigenous Tai communities of Assam. They are Buddhist by religion. The Assamese people commonly term them as Shyams or the people from Siam i.e. Thailand....

, Khamyang
Khamyang
Khamyang, also known as Shyam, is a tribal group found primarily in Tinsukia, Jorhat and Sivasagar districts of Assam as well as adjacent parts of Arunachal Pradesh. They have a population of 35,000, of which only a small minority speak the native Tai-based language...

, Turung, Singpho and Khampti are also Buddhist. They mainly inhabit Upper Assam
Upper Assam
River Bramhaputra is a major river and lifeline of the state of Assam. Assam is divided into two broad categories based on the flow of the mighty Bramhaputra, namely Upper Assam and Lower Assam. The logic behind this categorisation is that a river flows from high land to low land...

 and Karbi Anglong.

There is also a small Bhutanese
Demographics of Bhutan
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bhutan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population....

 and Tibetan
Tibetan people
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet, which is mostly in the People's Republic of China. They number 5.4 million and are the 10th largest ethnic group in the country. Significant Tibetan minorities also live in India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

 population in Assam.

Culture and its evolution


Assamese culture is traditionally a hybrid
Hybridity
Hybridity refers in its most basic sense to mixture. The term originates from biology and was subsequently employed in linguistics and in racial theory in the nineteenth century. Its contemporary uses are scattered across numerous academic disciplines and is salient in popular culture...

 one developed due to assimilation of ethno-cultural groups in the past. Therefore, both local elements or the local elements in Sanskritised forms are distinctly found. The major milestones in evolution of Assamese culture are:
  • Assimilation in the Kamarupa Kingdom for almost 700 years (under the Varmans
    Varman dynasty
    The Varman dynasty ruled Kamarupa from 350 to 650. Pushyavarman the first historical ruler of Assam established this dynasty in c350 AD...

     for 300 years, Salastambhas
    Mlechchha dynasty
    The Mlechchha dynasty ruled Kamarupa from their capital at Hadapeshvar in the present-day Tezpur after the fall of the Varman dynasty. The rulers were aboriginals, though their lineage from Narakasura was constructed to accord legitimacy to their rule...

     and Palas
    Pala dynasty (Kamarupa)
    The Pala dynasty of Kamarupa ruled the kingdom from 900 CE to 1100 CE. Like the Pala dynasty of Bengal, the first ruler in this dynasty was elected, which probably explains the name of this dynasty "Pala". But unlike the Palas of Bengal, who were Buddhists, the Palas of Kamarupa were Vaishnava...

     for each 200 years).
  • Establishment of the Ahom dynasty
    Ahom Dynasty
    The Ahom Dynasty ruled the Ahom Kingdom in present-day Assam for nearly 600 years. The dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai mountains...

     in the 13th century AD and assimilation for next 600 years.
  • Assimilation in the Koch Kingdom (15th–16th century AD) of western Assam and Kachari Kingdom
    Kachari Kingdom
    The Kachari Kingdom was a powerful kingdom in medieval Assam. The rulers belonged to the Dimasa people, part of the greater Bodo-Kachari ethnic group...

     (12th–18th century AD) of central and southern Assam.

  • Vaishnava
    Vaishnavism
    Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu, or his associated Avatars such as Rama and Krishna, as the original and supreme God....

     Movement led by Srimanta Shankardeva (Sonkordeu) and its contribution and cultural changes.Vaishanav Movement, the 15th century religio-cultural movement under the leadership of great Srimanta Sankardeva
    Srimanta Sankardeva
    Mahapurusha Srimanta Shankardeva , was the greatest Assamese saint-scholar, playwright, social-religious reformer and a colossal figure in the cultural and religious history of Assam, India...

     (Sonkordeu) and his disciples have provided another dimension to Assamese culture. A renewed Hinduisation in local forms took place, which was initially greatly supported by the Koch and later by the Ahom Kingdoms. The resultant social institutions such as namghar
    Namghar
    Namghar is a social rendezvous used for various spiritual activities such as common prayer, Bhaona used by Assamese peopleVaishnavite Hindus in Assam.The Vaishnavites are devotees of Lord Krishna who assemble in namghars regularly to offer prayers...

    and sattra
    Sattra
    Satras are socio-religious institutions in the Assam region of India that belong to the Mahapuruxiya Dharma. Monks, called bhakats, live in satras under a satradhikar. In some orders of the religion, the bhakats are celibate . The satras are not merely religious institutions but play cultural...

    (the Vaishnav Monasteries) have become part of Assamese way life. The movement contributed greatly towards language, literature and performing and fine arts. It is also noticed that many a times, Vaishnav Movement attempted to introduce alien cultural attributes and modify the way of life of common people. Brajavali a language specially created by introducing words from other Indian languages had failed as a language but left its traces on the Assamese language. Moreover, new alien rules were also introduced changing people's food habits and other aspects of cultural life. This had a greater impact on alienation of many local ethno-cultural and political groups in the later periods.


Historically, it is not difficult to understand that on one hand, during the strong politico-economic systems under stronger dynasties, greater cultural assimilations created common attributes of Assamese culture, while on the other during smaller politico-economic systems or during political disintegration, more localised attributes were created with spatial differentiation. Time-factor for such integrations and differentiations has also played extremely important role along with the position of individual events in the entire series of sequential events.
With rich traditions, the modern culture is greatly influenced by events in the British and the Post-British Era. The language was standardised by the American Baptist
Baptist
Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

 Missionaries
Missionary
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin...

 such as Nathan Brown
Nathan Brown (missionary)
Nathan Brown was an American Baptist missionary to India and Japan, Bible translator, and abolitionist.-Early life and missions to Burma and Assam:...

, Dr. Miles Bronson
Miles Bronson and the Noctes
Miles Bronson and the Noctes in the Namsang Hill Miles Bronson, one of the pioneer American Baptist missionaries worked in Assam, arrived at Sadia in Assam on 8 July 1838. In the previous year, Nathan Brown and O.T. Cutter landed at Sadia with their families with an object to go to Northern...

 and local pundits such as Hemchandra Barua with the form available in the Sibsagar
Sibsagar
Sivasagar is a town in the Sibsagar district in the state of Assam in India, about north east of Guwahati....

 (Sivasagar) District (the ex-nerve centre of the Ahom Kingdom). A renewed Sanskritisation was increasingly adopted for developing Assamese language
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

 and grammar. A new wave of Western
Western culture
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization or European civilization, refers to cultures of European origin and is used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and...

 and northern Indian influence
Culture of India
India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food and customs differ from place to place within the country, but nevertheless possess a commonality....

 was apparent in the performing arts and literature.

Increasing efforts of standardisation in the 20th century alienated the localised forms present in different areas and with the less-assimilated ethno-cultural groups (many source-cultures). However, Assamese culture in its hybrid form and nature is one of the richest, still developing and in true sense is a 'cultural system'
Cultural system
A cultural system may be defined as the interaction of different elements of culture. While a cultural system is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system....

 with sub-systems. It is interesting that many source-cultures of Assamese cultural-system are still surviving either as sub-systems or as sister entities, for e.g. Bodo
Bodo people
The Bodos are an ethnic and linguistic community, early settlers of Assam in the North-East of India. According to the 1991 census, there were 1.2 million Bodos in Assam which makes for 5.3% of the total population in the state. Bodos belong to a larger ethnic group called the Bodo-Kachari. The...

 or Karbi or Mishing. It is important to keep the broader system closer to its roots and at the same time to focus on development of the sub-systems.

Some of the common and unique cultural traits in the region are peoples' respect towards areca-nut
Betel nut
The Areca nut is the seed of the Areca palm , which grows in much of the tropical Pacific, Asia, and parts of east Africa. It is commonly referred to as "betel nut" as it is often chewed wrapped in betel leaves.-Description:...

 and betel
Betel
The Betel is the leaf of a vine belonging to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and Kava. It is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal properties...

 leaves, symbolic (Gamosa
Gamosa
The Gamosa is an article of great significance for the people of Assam.It is generally a white rectangular piece of cloth with primarily a red border on three sides and red woven motifs on the fourth...

, Arnai, etc.), traditional silk
Assam Silk
Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden Muga, white Pat and warm Eri silk. The Assam silk industry, now centered in Sualkuchi, is a labor intensive industry.-Muga silk:...

 garments and towards forefathers and elderly. Moreover, great hospitality and Bamboo
Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

 culture are common.

Symbolism


Symbolism is an ancient cultural practice in Assam and is still a very important part of Assamese way of life. Various elements are being used to represent beliefs, feelings, pride, identity, etc. Tamulpan, Sorai and Gamosa
Gamosa
The Gamosa is an article of great significance for the people of Assam.It is generally a white rectangular piece of cloth with primarily a red border on three sides and red woven motifs on the fourth...

are three important symbolic elements in Assamese culture. Tamulpan (the areca nut and betel leaves) or guapan (gua from kwa) are considered along with the Gamosa (a typical woven cotton or silk cloth with embroidery) as the offers of devotion, respect and friendship. The Tamulpan-tradition is an ancient one and is being followed since time-immemorial with roots in the aboriginal Austro-Asiatic culture. Sorai is a traditionally manufactured bell-metal article of great respect and is used as a container-medium while performing respectful offers. Moreover, symbolically many ethno-cultural groups use specific clothes to portray respect and pride.

There were many other symbolic elements and designs, but are now only found in literature, art, sculpture, architecture, etc. or in use today for only religious purposes. The typical designs of assamese-lion, dragon, flying-lion, etc. were used for symbolising various purposes and occasions. The archaeological sites such as the Madan Kamdev (c. 9th–10th AD) exhibits mass-scale use of lions, dragon-lions and many other figures of demons to show case power and prosperity. The Vaishnava monasteries and many other architectural sites of late medieval period also showcase use of lions and dragons for symbolic effects.

Languages


Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

 and Bodo
Bodo language
Bodo is a language that belongs to the branch of Barish section under Baric division of the Tibeto-Burman languages and spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal...

 are the major indigenous and official languages while Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

 holds official status in the three districts in the Barak Valley
Barak Valley
Barak Valley is situated in the southern part of the Indian state of Assam.It's another name is East Bengal or Northeast Bengal The main city of the valley is Silchar. The place is named after the Barak river. Barak valley mainly consists of three districts namely Cachar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi...

 and is the second most widely spoken language of the state (27%).

Traditionally Assamese was the language of the commons (of mixed origin – Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Prakrit
Prakrit
Prakrit is the name for a group of Middle Indic, Indo-Aryan languages, derived from Old Indic dialects. The word itself has a flexible definition, being defined sometimes as, "original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual", or "vernacular", in contrast to the literary and religious...

) in the ancient Kamarupa and in the medieval kingdoms of Kamatapur, Kachari
Kachari Kingdom
The Kachari Kingdom was a powerful kingdom in medieval Assam. The rulers belonged to the Dimasa people, part of the greater Bodo-Kachari ethnic group...

, Sutiya kingdom, Borahi, Ahom
Ahom kingdom
The Ahom Kingdom was a medieval kingdom in the Brahmaputra valley in Assam that maintained its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisted Mughal expansion in North-East India...

 and Koch. Traces of the language is found in many poems by Luipa, Sarahapa, etc. in Charyapada
Charyapada
The Charyapada is a collection of 8th-12th century Vajrayana Buddhist caryagiti, or mystical poems from the tantric tradition in eastern India. Being caryagiti , the Charyapada were intended to be sung. These songs of realization were spontaneously composed verses that expressed a practitioner's...

 (c.7th–8th AD). Modern dialects Kamrupi, Goalpariya, etc. are the remnant of this language. Moreover, Assamese in its traditional form was used by the ethno-cultural groups in the region as lingua-franca, which spread during the stronger kingdoms and was required for needed economic integration. Localised forms of the language still exist in Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

. The form used in the upper Assam was enriched by the advent of Tai-Shans in the 13th century.

Linguistically modern Assamese traces its roots to the version developed by the American Missionaries based on the local form in practice near Sibsagar (Siwoxagor) district. Assamese (Osomeeya) is a rich language due to its hybrid nature with its unique characteristics of pronunciation and softness. Assamese literature is one of the richest.
Bodo
Bodo language
Bodo is a language that belongs to the branch of Barish section under Baric division of the Tibeto-Burman languages and spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal...

 is an ancient language of Assam. Spatial distribution patterns of the ethno-cultural groups, cultural traits and the phenomenon of naming all the major rivers in the North East Region
North-East India
Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal...

 with Bodo-Kachari words (e.g. Dihing, Dibru, Dihong, D/Tista
Teesta River
River Teesta or Tista is said to be the lifeline of the Indian state of Sikkim, flowing for almost the entire length of the state and carving out verdant Himalayan temperate and tropical river valleys. The emerald-coloured river then forms the border between Sikkim and West Bengal before joining...

, Dikrai, etc.) reveal that it was the most important language in the ancient times. Bodo is presently spoken largely in the Lower Assam
Lower Assam
Lower Assam or Western Assam is a region of Bharat situated in the great plains of the Brahmaputra valley. It was home to the mighty kingdom of Kamarupa . Guwahati, the largest city of North-East India is located here while Dispur, the capital of Assam is in Guwahati.-History:Ancient Lower Assam,...

 (Bodo Territorial Council area). After years of neglect, now Bodo language
Bodo language
Bodo is a language that belongs to the branch of Barish section under Baric division of the Tibeto-Burman languages and spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal...

 is getting attention and its literature is developing. Other native languages of Tibeto-Burman origin and related to Bodo-Kachari are DEORI Mishing
Mishing language
Mishing is a Tibetan–Burman language spoken by the Mishing people. There are over 500,000 speakers of the language. It is also known as Plains Miri or Takam....

, Karbi
Karbi language
The Karbí language, also known as Mikir or Arleng, is spoken by the Karbi people of Assam. It belongs to the Tibeto-Burman language family, but its position is unclear...

, Dimasa
Dimasa language
Dimasa language is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Dimasa people in the state of Assam in North East India.-Phrases:English / Dimasa1)Where are you? = Ning baraha dong?2)I am here. = Ang eraha dong?...

, Rabha
Rabha
Rabha is a little known Scheduled Tribe community of West Bengal and Assam. The language/dialect spoken by the Rabha people is also of the same name. In West Bengal, Rabha people mainly live in Jalpaiguri district and Cooch Behar district. Moreover, almost, 70 per cent of them live in...

, Tiwa
Tiwa (Lalung)
Tiwa is a tribal group inhabiting the States of Assam and Meghalaya in Northeast India. They are recognized as a Scheduled tribe within the State of Assam...

, etc. Rajbongshi also known as Kamatapuri/Goalpariya is also widely spoken by the people of western Assam.

Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 is also spoken in almost all parts of the state.There are approximately thirty lakhs of Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 speakers spreading over the area of all the district of Assam. Assamese language being the main language, they are well versed in it. Assamese language is the main medium in educational institutions but Nepali language is also taught as a major Indian language. In Guwahati and Digboi, many Jr. basic School and Jr. high School are Nepali medium where all the teachers are Nepali
Nepali people
Nepali people can refer to:*People of Nepal*Ethnic Nepalis of Indian citizenry residing in Gorkhaland area of West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and other parts of India.* Indian Gorkhas*Lhotshampas of Bhutan.*Nepali diaspora the world over....

. As a major Indian language, Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 is included by Assam State Secondary Board, Assam Higher Secondary Council and Gauhati University
Gauhati University
Gauhati University, the first university of North East India, is in the Jalukbari area in the western part Guwahati city, Assam, India. It was established in 1948. It is a four-star rated university by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. It has 183 affiliated colleges.- Campus :The...

 in their HSCL, higher secondary and graduation level respectively, in some jr. basic and higher secondary schools and colleges, Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 teachers and lecturers are also appointed. In these institutions, Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 and literature are taught.

There are smaller groups of people speaking Tai-Phake
Phake
Tai Phake, also known as Phakial or simply Phake belong to the Tai-speaking tribal group living in Dibrugarh district and Tinsukia district of Assam, principally along the areas of Dihing river as well as adjacent parts of Lohit and Changlang districts in Arunachal Pradesh...

, Tai-Aiton, Tai-Khamti
Khamti
The Khamti, whose name is also spelled as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Burma as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. Smaller numbers can be found in parts of Assam...

, Tai-Khamyang
Khamyang
Khamyang, also known as Shyam, is a tribal group found primarily in Tinsukia, Jorhat and Sivasagar districts of Assam as well as adjacent parts of Arunachal Pradesh. They have a population of 35,000, of which only a small minority speak the native Tai-based language...

 etc., some of the Tai languages
Tai languages
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages are a branch of the Tai–Kadai language family. The Tai languages include the most widely spoken of the Tai–Kadai languages, including standard Thai or Siamese, the national language of Thailand; Lao or Laotian, the national language of Laos; Burma's Shan language;...

. The Tai-Ahom language (brought by Sukaphaa
Sukaphaa
Chaolung Sukaphaa , also Siu-Ka-Pha, the first Ahom king in medieval Assam, was the founder of the Ahom kingdom. A Tai prince originally from Mong Mao, the kingdom he established in 1228 existed for nearly six hundred years and in the process unified the various tribal and non-tribal peoples of...

 and his followers), which is no more a spoken language today is getting attentions for research after centuries long care and preservation by the Bailungs (traditional priests). There are also small groups of people speaking Manipuri, Khasi
Khasi language
Khasi is an Austro-Asiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people. Khasi is part of the Austroasiatic family of languages, and is fairly closely related to the Munda branch of that family, which is spoken in east&endash;central India.Although most of the 865,000...

, Garo
Garo language
Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Garo Hills in the Indian state of Meghalaya. Garo is also used in Kamrup, Dhubri, Goalpara and the Darrang districts of Assam, India as well as in neighboring Bangladesh...

, Hmar
Hmar
Hmar is the name of one of the numerous mizo/kuki/chin tribes of India, spread over a large area in the northeast. The Hmars belong to the Chin-Kuki-Mizo group of tribes, and are recognised as Scheduled Tribe under the 6th Schedule of the Constitution of India. Literally, Hmar means North or...

, Kuki, Zeme Naga
Zeme naga
Zeme Naga is one of the sub-groups of Zeliangrong people. The Zeme inhabits the Northeastern states of India. Zemes reside in NC Hills of Assam, Tousem Sub-Division of Tamenglong district and Senapati district of Manipur, and Peren district of Nagaland...

 etc. in different parts.

Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

 is the official language in Barak Valley
Barak Valley
Barak Valley is situated in the southern part of the Indian state of Assam.It's another name is East Bengal or Northeast Bengal The main city of the valley is Silchar. The place is named after the Barak river. Barak valley mainly consists of three districts namely Cachar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi...

 and the widely spoken language there is Sylheti
Sylheti language
Sylheti is the language of Sylhet, which is also known as the Surma Valley and is located in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh, and also spoken in parts of the Northeast Indian states of Assam and Tripura...

, a dialect of Bengali. Bengali is also largely spoken in the western districts of Dhubri, Barpeta and Goalpara.

Santali
Santali language
Santhali is a language in the Santhali subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. It is spoken by about six million people in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan . Most of its speakers live in India, in the states of Jharkhand, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal. It has...

 or Santhali is also spoken widely by the tribal population in the tea garden districts of Assam. these people who were initially brought as tea estate labourers by the British to Assam have now made it their home state.

Bishnupriya Manipuri language is also spoken by a small minority of people in Barak Valley.

Festivals




There are diversified important traditional festivals in Assam. Bihu
Bihu
Bihu denotes a set of three different cultural festivals of Assam and celebrated by the Assamese diaspora around the world. Though they owe their origins to ancient rites and practices they have taken definite urban features and have become popular festivals in urban and commercialized milieus in...

 is the most important and common and celebrated all over Assam. Durga Puja
Durga Puja
Durga puja ; দুর্গা পূজা,ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava ; , is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and...

 is another festival celebrated with great enthusiasm. Muslims celebrate two Eids (Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

 and Eid al-Adha) with much eagerness all over Assam.

Bihu
Bihu
Bihu denotes a set of three different cultural festivals of Assam and celebrated by the Assamese diaspora around the world. Though they owe their origins to ancient rites and practices they have taken definite urban features and have become popular festivals in urban and commercialized milieus in...

 is a series of three prominent festivals. Primarily a non-religious festival celebrated to mark the seasons and the significant points of a cultivator's life over a yearly cycle. Three Bihus, rongali or bohag, celebrated with the coming of spring and the beginning of the sowing season; kongali or kati, the barren bihu when the fields are lush but the barns are empty; and the bhogali or magh, the thanksgiving when the crops have been harvested and the barns are full. Bihu songs and Bihu dance are associated to rongali bihu. The day before the each bihu is known as 'uruka'. The first day of 'rongali bihu' is called 'Goru bihu' (the bihu of the cows), when the cows are taken to the nearby rivers or ponds to be bathed with special care. In recent times the form and nature of celebration has changed with the growth of urban centres.

Moreover, there are other important traditional festivals being celebrated every year on different occasions at different places. Many of these are celebrated by different ethno-cultural groups (sub and sister cultures). Some of these are:
  • Bishu Dima (Dimasa National Festival)

Performing arts



Assam has rich tradition of performing arts. Ankiya Nat (Onkeeya Naat) is a traditional Vaishnav dance-drama (Bhaona
Bhaona
Bhaona is a traditional form of entertainment, always with religious messages, prevalent is Assam, India. It is a creation of Mahapurusha Srimanta Sankardeva, who created the form to convey religious messages to villagers through entertainment...

) form popular since 15th century AD It makes use of large masks of gods, goddesses, demons and animals and in between the plays a Sutradhar (Xutrodhar) keeps on telling the story. The Bihu dance
Bihu dance
The Bihu dance is a folk dance from the Indian state of Assam related to the festival of Bihu. This joyous dance is performed by both young men and women, and is characterized by brisk dance steps,and rapid hand movement...

 and Hucory performed during the Bohag Bihu, Kushan nritra of Rajbongshi's, Bagurumba
Bagurumba
Bagurumba is a folk dance of Assam, India performed by the Bodos. It is the usually practiced during Bwishagu, a festival of the Bodos in the Bishuba Sankranti or Mid-April. The Bwishagu starts with cow worship. Then young people reverentially bow down to their parents and elders.After that...

and Bordoicikhla dance of Bodos, Mishing Bihu, Banjar Kekan performed during Chomangkan by Karbis are some of the major folk dances. Sattriya (Sotriya) dance related to Vaishnav tradition is a classical form of dance.
Moreover, there are several other age-old dance-forms such as Barpeta’s Bhortal Nritya, Deodhoni Nritya, Oja Paali, Beula Dance, Ka Shad Inglong Kardom, Nimso Kerung, etc. The tradition of modern moving theatres is typical of Assam with immense popularity of many large theatre groups such as Kohinoor, Srimanta Sankardev, Abahan, Bhagyadevi, Hengul, Rajmahal, Itihas etc.

At the same time musical tradition is also rich. Folk songs and music related to Bihu and other festivals dates back to time-immemorial. Borgeet, the popular Vaishnav songs are written and composed in 15th century. Assam has large numbers of traditional musical instruments including several types of drums, string instruments, flute
Flute
The flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening...

s, cymbal
Cymbal
Cymbals are a common percussion instrument. Cymbals consist of thin, normally round plates of various alloys; see cymbal making for a discussion of their manufacture. The greater majority of cymbals are of indefinite pitch, although small disc-shaped cymbals based on ancient designs sound a...

s, pipes
Bagpipes
Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones, using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe and Irish uilleann pipes have the greatest international visibility, bagpipes of many different types come from...

, etc.

The indigenous folk music has substantially influenced the growth of a modern idiom, that finds expression in the music of such artists like Jyoti Prasad Agarwala
Jyoti Prasad Agarwala
Jyoti Prasad Agarwala was a great Assamese playwright, songwriter, poet, writer and film maker from Assam. He was considered as Assamese cultural icon, deeply revered for his creative vision and output and is popularly called the Rupkonwar of Assamese culture...

, Bishnuprasad Rabha
Bishnuprasad Rabha
Bishnu Prasad Rabha was born in Dhaka on 31 January 1909. He was a multifaceted artist and revolutionary singer of Assam. A doyen of the Arts, he is popularly known as Kala Guru . From an early stage, he played an active role in the struggle for Indian independence. However, he never joined Indian...

, Parvati Prasad Baruwa
Parvati Prasad Baruwa
Parvati Prasad Baruva was a poet, lyricist, dramatist: an icon of Assamese literature and the Culture of Assam. Known for his simple and sensitive use of the Assamese language, he is popularly known as the Geetikavi—the lyrical poet of Assam...

, Bhupen Hazarika
Bhupen Hazarika
Bhupen Hazarika was an Indian lyricist, musician, singer, poet and film-maker from Assam. His songs,written and sung mainly in Assamese by the legend himself, are infused with humanity and universalism, and have been translated and sung in many languages, most notable being Bengali ,Hindi and...

, Pratima Barua Pandey
Pratima Barua Pandey
Pratima Barua Pandey was a popular folk singer from the royal family of Gauripur in lower Assam's Dhubri district...

, Anima Choudhury, Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah
Rudra Baruah
Luit Konwar Rudra Baruah was one of the foremost music pioneers of Assam. He was a actor, composer, lyricist, singer and musician. He served with Govt...

, Jayanta Hazarika
Jayanta Hazarika
Jayanta Hazarika was arguably the most melodious singer and composer in the world of Assamese music . In His short life span of 34 years he performed playback singing for numerous Assamese films and made a number of vinyl records and audio cassettes...

, Khagen Mahanta, Deepali Borthakur, "Ganashilpi" Dilip Sarma, Sudakshina Sarma among many others. Among the new generation, Zubeen Garg
Zubeen Garg
Zubeen Garg is a singer and composer from Assam, India, in the Bollywood and Assamese music scene. He plays dhols, guitar, dotora, mandolin, keyboard and various percussion instruments.-Background:...

, Jitul Sonowal, Angaraag Mahanta
Angaraag Mahanta
Angaraag Mahanta known as Papon is a singer, composer and record producer. Born to music duo and legends of Assamese music, Archana Mahanta and Khagen Mahanta, he was introduced to music early on in his childhood. His first language is Assamese and he also sings in hindi and bengali. His initial...

 and Joi Barua
Joi Barua
Joi Barua is a singer, musician, and lead vocalist of the band Joi. He was born in Assam and is currently based in Mumbai, India. He has lent his voice to many Indian movies including 2010's Filmfare Award Winner Udaan and National Film Award Winner Dev D...

 have a great fan following.
There is an award given in the honour of Bishnuprasad Rabha for achievements in the cultural/music world of Assam by the State Government

Literature



Noted writers:
  • Dr. Mamoni Raisom Goswami
    Mamoni Raisom Goswami
    Indira Goswami , known by her pen name Mamoni Raisom Goswami and popularly as Mamoni Baideo, was an Assamese editor, poet, professor, scholar and writer....

  • Bhabendra Nath Saikia
    Bhabendra Nath Saikia
    Dr. Bhabendra Nath Saikia was a novelist, short story writer and film director from Assam. He had a PhD in Nuclear Physics from the University of London and later taught at Gauhati University. He won many literary awards, including Sahitya Academy , and was also recognised with the Padma...

  • Lakshminath Bezbaruah
  • Hem Barua
    Hem Barua
    Hem Barua was a prominent Assamese poet and politician from Assam.-Early life:Born on the 22 April 1915, at Tezpur, Hem Barua obtained his M.A. degree from Calcutta University in 1938 and joined the J.B. College, Jorhat, in 1941 as lecturer in Assamese and English. He left it next year during the...

  • Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya
    Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya
    Dr. Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya was a famous Indian writer and one of the pioneers of modern Assamese Literature. He was first ever recipient of the Jnanpith Award given to an Assamese writer, in the year 1979 for his novel Mrityunjay...

  • Hiren Bhattacharyya
    Hiren Bhattacharyya
    -Awards:# Bishnu Rava Bota, 1958# Rajaji Puroskar, 1984-85 awarded by Bharatiya Bidya Bhawan# Soviet Desh Neheru Bota, 1987# Sahitya Akademi Award, 1992# Asom Upotyoka Sahitya Bota, 2000 awarded by Megor Sikhya Nyash-References:...


Traditional crafts



Assam has a rich tradition of crafts; presently, Cane
Caning (furniture)
In the context of furniture, caning is a method of weaving chair seats and other furniture. Caning material is wicker such as cane, or it is derived from the skin of rattan vines native to Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia. Some vines reach 500 feet in length. One of the earliest woven chair...

 and bamboo
Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

 craft, bell metal
Bell metal
Bell metal is a hard alloy used for making bells. It is a form of bronze, usually approximately 4:1 ratio of copper to tin...

 and brass
Brass instrument
A brass instrument is a musical instrument whose sound is produced by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips...

 craft, silk and cotton weaving
Weaving
Weaving is a method of fabric production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The other methods are knitting, lace making and felting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling...

, toy and mask
Mask
A mask is an article normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance or entertainment. Masks have been used since antiquity for both ceremonial and practical purposes...

 making, pottery
Pottery
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery . Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery...

 and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery
Jewellery
Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to...

 making, musical instruments making, etc. remained as major traditions. Historically, Assam also excelled in making boats, traditional gun
Gun
A gun is a muzzle or breech-loaded projectile-firing weapon. There are various definitions depending on the nation and branch of service. A "gun" may be distinguished from other firearms in being a crew-served weapon such as a howitzer or mortar, as opposed to a small arm like a rifle or pistol,...

s and gunpowder
Gunpowder
Gunpowder, also known since in the late 19th century as black powder, was the first chemical explosive and the only one known until the mid 1800s. It is a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate - with the sulfur and charcoal acting as fuels, while the saltpeter works as an oxidizer...

, ivory
Ivory
Ivory is a term for dentine, which constitutes the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals, when used as a material for art or manufacturing. Ivory has been important since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes, joint tubes, piano keys and...

 crafts, colours and paints, articles of lac
Lac
Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects, namely some of the species of the genera Metatachardia, Laccifer, Tachordiella, Austrotacharidia, Afrotachardina, and Tachardina of the superfamily Coccoidea, of which the most commonly cultivated species is Kerria lacca.The...

, agarwood
Agarwood
Agarwood or oodh is a dark resinous heartwood that forms in Aquilaria and Gyrinops trees when they become infected with a type of mold...

 products, traditional building materials, utilities from iron, etc.

Cane and bamboo craft provide the most commonly used utilities in daily life, ranging from household utilities, weaving accessories, fishing accessories, furniture, musical instruments, construction materials, etc. Utilities and symbolic articles such as Sorai and Bota made from bell metal and brass are found in every Assamese household. Hajo and Sarthebari
Sarthebari
Sarthebari is a town and a town area committee in Barpeta district in the Indian state of Assam.-Demographics: India census, Sarthebari had a population of 7545. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Sarthebari has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average...

 (Sorthebaary) are the most important centres of traditional bell-metal and brass crafts. Assam is the home of several types of silks
Assam Silk
Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden Muga, white Pat and warm Eri silk. The Assam silk industry, now centered in Sualkuchi, is a labor intensive industry.-Muga silk:...

, the most prestigious are: Muga – the natural golden silk, Pat – a creamy-bright-silver coloured silk and Eri – a variety used for manufacturing warm clothes for winter. Apart from Sualkuchi
Sualkuchi
Sualkuchi is a census town in Kamrup district in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated on the north bank of the river Brahmaputra, about 35 km from Guwahati, Sualkuchi is a block of Kamrup District...

 (Xualkuchi), the centre for the traditional silk industry, in almost every parts of the Brahmaputra Valley, rural households produce silk and silk garments with excellent embroidery designs. Moreover, various ethno-cultural groups in Assam make different types of cotton garments with unique embroidery designs and wonderful colour combinations.

Moreover, Assam possesses unique crafts of toy and mask
Mask
A mask is an article normally worn on the face, typically for protection, disguise, performance or entertainment. Masks have been used since antiquity for both ceremonial and practical purposes...

 making mostly concentrated in the Vaishnav Monasteries, pottery and terracotta work in lower Assam districts and wood craft, iron craft, jewellery
Jewellery
Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to...

, etc. in many places across the region.

Fine arts


The archaic Mauryan Stupas discovered in and around Goalpara district
Goalpara District
Goalpara district is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. The district headquarters are located in Goalpara town.-History:...

 are the earliest examples (c. 300 BC to c. 100 AD) of ancient art and architectural works. The remains discovered in Daparvatiya (Doporboteeya) archaeological site with a beautiful doorframe in Tezpur are identified as the best examples of art works in ancient Assam with influence of Sarnath
Sarnath
Sarnath or Sārnātha is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, India...

 School of Art of the late Gupta
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 period. Many other sites also exhibit development of local art forms with local motifs and sometimes with similarities with those in the Southeast Asia. There are currently more than forty discovered ancient archaeological sites across Assam with numerous sculptural and architectural remains. Moreover, there are examples of several Late-Middle Age art and architectural works including hundreds of sculptures and motifs along with many remaining temples, palaces and other buildings. The motifs available on the walls of the buildings such as Rang Ghar
Rang Ghar
Rang Ghar is a two-storied building, which was the royal sports-pavilion from which the Ahom kings and nobles witnessed games like buffalo fights and other sports at the Rupahi Pathar specially during Rangali Bihu festival in the Ahom capital, Rangpur...

, Joydoul, etc. are remarkable examples of art works.

Painting is an ancient tradition of Assam. Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period...

 (7th century AD) mentions that among the Kamarupa king Bhaskaravarma's gifts to Harshavardhana there were paintings and painted objects, some of which were on Assamese silk
Assam Silk
Assam silk denotes the three major types of indigenous wild silks produced in Assam—golden Muga, white Pat and warm Eri silk. The Assam silk industry, now centered in Sualkuchi, is a labor intensive industry.-Muga silk:...

. Many of the manuscripts such as Hastividyarnava
Hastividyarnava
The Hastividyārnava of Sukumar Barkaith is one of the best known illustrated manuscripts of Assam. Commissioned under the patronage of King Sivāsimha and his Queen consort Phuleswari, it deals with the management and care of elephants in the royal stables...

 (A Treatise on Elephants), the Chitra Bhagawata and in the Gita Govinda from the Middle Ages bear excellent examples of traditional paintings. The medieval Assamese literature
Assamese literature
Assamese literature is the entire corpus of poetry, novels, short stories, documents and other writings in the Assamese language. It also includes popular ballads in the older forms of the language during its evolution to the contemporary form. The literary heritage of the Assamese language can...

 also refers to chitrakars and patuas.

There are several renowned contemporary artists in Assam. The Guwahati Art College is a government institution for tertiary education. Moreover, there are several art-societies and non-government initiatives across the state and the Guwahati Artists Guild is a front-runner organisation based in Guwahati.

Economy





Macro-economy


Economy of Assam today represents a unique juxtaposition of backwardness amidst plenty. Despite its rich natural resources, and supplying of up to 25% of India's petroleum needs, growth rate of Assam’s income
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 has not kept pace with that of India’s; differences increased rapidly since 1970s. Indian economy grew at 6% per annum over the period of 1981 to 2000, the same of Assam was only 3.3%. In the Sixth Plan period Assam experienced a negative growth rate of 3.78% when India's was positive at 6%. In the post-liberalised era (after 1991), the differences widened further.

According to recent analysis, Assam’s economy is showing signs of improvement. In 2001–02, the economy grew (at 1993–94 constant prices) at 4.5%, to fall to 3.4% in the next financial year. During 2003–04 and 2004–05, the economy grew (at 1993–94 constant prices) more satisfactorily at 5.5% and 5.3% respectively. The advanced estimates placed the growth rate for 2005–06 at above 6%. Assam's GDP in 2004 is estimated at $13 billion in current prices. Sectoral analysis again exhibits a dismal picture. The average annual growth rate of agriculture, which was only 2.6% per annum over 1980s has unfortunately fallen to 1.6% in the 1990s. Manufacturing sector has shown some improvement in the 1990s with a growth rate of 3.4% per annum than 2.4% in the 1980s. Since past five decades, the tertiary sector has registered the highest growth rates than the other sectors, which even has slowed down in the 1990s than in 1980s.

Agriculture


Accounts for more than a third of Assam’s income and employs 69% of workforce. Assam's biggest contribution to the world is tea
Assam tea
Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production, Assam, in India. Assam tea is manufactured specifically from the plant Camellia sinensis var. assamica . This tea, most of which is grown at or near sea level, is known for its body, briskness, malty flavor, and strong, bright color...

. It produces some of the finest and expensive teas and has its own variety Camellia assamica. Assam also accounts for fair share of India’s production of rice, rapeseed
Rapeseed
Rapeseed , also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rappi, rapaseed is a bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae...

, mustard seed
Mustard seed
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 or 2 mm in diameter. Mustard seeds may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are important spices in many regional foods. The seeds can come from three different plants: black mustard , brown...

, jute
Jute
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, which has been classified in the family Tiliaceae, or more recently in Malvaceae....

, potato, sweet potato, banana, papaya
Papaya
The papaya , papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae...

, areca nut and turmeric
Turmeric
Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive...

. It is also a home of large varieties of citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 fruits, leaf vegetables, vegetables, useful grasses, herbs, spices, etc.

Assam’s agriculture is yet to experience modernisation in real sense. With implications to food security, per capita food grain production has declined in past five decades. Productivity has increased marginally; but still lower comparing to highly productive regions. For instance, yield of rice (staple food of Assam) was just 1531 kg per hectare against India’s 1927 kg per hectare in 2000–01 (which itself is much lower than Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

’s 9283, US’s 7279, South Korea’s 6838, Japan’s 6635 and China’s 6131 kg per hectare in 2001). On the other hand, after having strong domestic demand, 1.5 million hectares of inland water bodies, numerous rivers and 165 varieties of fishes, fishing is still in its traditional form and production is not self-sufficient.

The Assam Agriculture University is located at Jorhat, Assam. It is the only agricultural university for the Seven Sisters.

Industry


Apart from tea and petroleum refineries, Assam has few industries of significance. Industrial development is inhibited by its physical and political isolation from neighbouring countries such as Burma, China and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

 and from other growing Southeast Asian economies; ultimately leading to neglect by the federal government in regards to development – a key motivation for separatist groups. The region is landlocked, situated in the eastern periphery of India and is linked to the mainland by a flood
Flood
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water...

 and cyclone
Cyclone
In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Most large-scale...

 prone narrow corridor, known as the Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck, with weak transport infrastructure that have remained undeveloped since independence. The international airport in Guwahati
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport , also known as Guwāhāti International Airport and formerly as Borjhar Airport, is the airport of Guwahati, Assam, India. The airport is managed by Airports Authority of India and also serves as Indian Air Force base...

 is yet to find providing direct international . The Brahmaputra suitable for navigation
Navigation
Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks...

 does not possess sufficient infrastructure for international trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

 and success of such a navigable trade route will be dependent on proper channel maintenance and diplomatic and trade relationships with Bangladesh.

Assam is a major producer of crude oil and it accounts for about 15% of India's crude output, exploited by the Assam Oil Company Ltd., and natural gas in India and is the second place in the world (after Titusville
Titusville, Pennsylvania
Titusville is a city in Crawford County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 6,146 at the 2000 census. In 1859, oil was successfully drilled in Titusville, resulting in the birth of the modern oil industry.-History:...

 in the United States) where petroleum was discovered. Asia’s first successful mechanically drilled oil well was drilled in Makum (Assam) way back in 1867. Most of the oilfields are located in the Upper Assam region. Assam has four oil refineries located in Guwahati
Guwahati
Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

, Digboi
Digboi
Digboi is a town and a town area committee in Tinsukia district in the north-eastern part of the state of Assam, IndiaCrude oil was discovered here in late 19th century, in a span of ten years when the discovery of Oil took place in first Oil drilling in the world. Digboi oilfield has the oldest...

, Golaghat
Golaghat
Golaghat , which was one of the largest subdivisions of Assam later, elevated to the position of a full-fledged district of Assam on 15 August 1987, is the headquarters of Golaghat district and is a sister town to Jorhat which is about 55 km away....

 (Numaligarh
Numaligarh
Numaligarh is a town in Assam, India.A petroleum refinery named Numaligarh Refinery Limited has been established in 2001. Numaligarh Refinery is one of the major refineries of north east, having a capacity of 3 MMT. Numaligarh Refinery is a joint venture of Assam Government owned Numaligarh...

) and Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon is the district headquarters of Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. The city is situated north west of Guwahati.It is a very developing City in Lower Assam. It has two parts - Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon. Bongaigaon is predominantly inhabited by the Koch Rajbongshi Community which...

 with a total capacity of 7 million metric tonnes (7.7 million short ton
Short ton
The short ton is a unit of mass equal to . In the United States it is often called simply ton without distinguishing it from the metric ton or the long ton ; rather, the other two are specifically noted. There are, however, some U.S...

s) per annum. It is worth mentioning here that Asia's first refinery was setup at Digboi and discoverer of Digboi oilfield was the Assam Railways & Trading Company Limited (AR&T Co. Ltd.), a registered company of London in 1881. Despite its richness in natural resources, the benefits have yet to improve the lives of the people of Assam.

Although having a poor overall industrial performance, several other industries have nevertheless been started, including a chemical fertiliser plan at Namrup
Namrup
Namrup is a small beautiful town situated close to the foothills of the great Patkai Mountain Range in the extreme northeastern part of Assam Arunachal, India. The river Dilih or Disang flows through it. Namrup is situated in a picturesque location amidst wet-paddy fields, Assamese villages,...

, petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 industries at Namrup
Namrup
Namrup is a small beautiful town situated close to the foothills of the great Patkai Mountain Range in the extreme northeastern part of Assam Arunachal, India. The river Dilih or Disang flows through it. Namrup is situated in a picturesque location amidst wet-paddy fields, Assamese villages,...

 and Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon is the district headquarters of Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. The city is situated north west of Guwahati.It is a very developing City in Lower Assam. It has two parts - Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon. Bongaigaon is predominantly inhabited by the Koch Rajbongshi Community which...

, paper mills at Jagiroad
Jagiroad
Jagiroad is a census town in Marigaon district in the Indian state of Assam.It is famous for papermill and dry fish market.-Demographics: India census, Jagiroad had a population of 17,254. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Jagiroad has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher...

, Panchgram and Jogighopa
Jogighopa
Jogighopa is a large industrial city located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River in the Bongaigaon district in the state of Assam, IndiaIn the city are the remains of the five rock cut rock-cut caves, excellent examples of Salasthambha period architecture The architectural site is being...

, sugar mills at Barua Bamun Gaon, Chargola, Kampur, cement plant at Bokajan & Badarpur, cosmetics plant (HLL) at Doom Dooma
Doom Dooma
DoomDooma is a town and a town area committee in Tinsukia district in the state of Assam, India.-Demographics: India census, DoomDooma had a population of 19,822. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%...

, etc. Moreover, there are other industries such as jute mill, textile and yarn mills, silk mill, etc. Unfortunately many of these industries are facing loss and closure due to lack of infrastructure and improper management practices.

Education



Assam boasts the most wide-ranging networks of higher education institutions in the whole of North-Eastern region of India. Assam has developed into a top education destination at the state and national levels. To enhance the status of Assam education, the state government has introduced many innovative education polices. Its capital city, Guwahati, is a key destination for higher education for students of the north-eastern region. One of India's best boarding schools, The Assam Valley School, is located at Balipara in the Sonitpur (Tezpur
Tezpur
Tezpur is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000...

) District. It is a co-educational residential school. It is an ICSE school.

Assam has several institutions for tertiary education and research. The major institutions are:

Universities

  • Gauhati University
    Gauhati University
    Gauhati University, the first university of North East India, is in the Jalukbari area in the western part Guwahati city, Assam, India. It was established in 1948. It is a four-star rated university by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. It has 183 affiliated colleges.- Campus :The...

  • Dibrugarh University
    Dibrugarh University
    Dibrugarh University is a university in the Indian state of Assam. It was set up in 1965 under the provisions of the Dibrugarh University Act, 1965, enacted by the Assam Legislative Assembly. It is a teaching-cum-affiliating university with limited residential facilities.-Accreditation:It is...

  • Tezpur University
    Tezpur University
    Tezpur University is an Indian Central University located in Tezpur in the state of Assam, India...

  • Assam University
    Assam University
    Assam University is a teaching-cum-affiliating university. The university has nine schools which offer Social Sciences, Humanities, Languages, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Information Sciences, Technology and Management Studies. There are 29 departments under these...

    , Silchar
    Silchar
    Silchar is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is the economic gateway to the state of Mizoram and part of Manipur. It is south east of Guwahati. The city of Silchar has tremendous commercial importance and is the second largest city in the state of Assam...

  • Assam Agricultural University
    Assam Agricultural University
    Assam Agricultural University was established in 1969 under the Assam Agricultural University Act 1968 January 2, 1969. The jurisdiction of the University extends to the entire State of Assam with regard to teaching, research and extension education in the field of agriculture and allied sciences...

    , Jorhat
    Jorhat
    Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

  • Don Bosco University (private)
  • Assam Down Town University (private)

Medical colleges

  • Assam Medical College
    Assam Medical College
    Assam Medical College was formally established on November 3, 1947 at Dibrugarh. It was, however, earlier known as Berry-White School of Medicine, which was founded in 1900. It has the distinction of being the first medical college in the entire North-eastern region of India...

    , Dibrugarh
    Dibrugarh
    Dibrugarh is the headquarters of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India, and is the second largest city in Assam after Guwahati. It is situated on the banks of the Brahmaputra River, about north-east of Guwahati. It is the gateway to the three tea-producing districts of Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, and Sibsagar...

  • Gauhati Medical College and Hospital
    Gauhati Medical College and Hospital
    Gauhati Medical College and Hospital is located in Guwahati, northeastern India.- COURSES :General Information on Academic CoursesGraduate EducationDegree Awarded: M.B.B.S.Duration of the Course: Five years, which include one year internship....

    , Guwahati
    Guwahati
    Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

  • Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Silchar
    Silchar
    Silchar is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is the economic gateway to the state of Mizoram and part of Manipur. It is south east of Guwahati. The city of Silchar has tremendous commercial importance and is the second largest city in the state of Assam...

  • Jorhat Medical College, Jorhat
    Jorhat
    Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

  • Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Medical College, Barpeta
    Barpeta
    Barpeta is the headquarters of Barpeta district, Assam, India. The city is located about north west of Guwahati.Barpeta is renowned in the Historical map of Assam as the "Land of the Satras"...

  • Dr. J. K. Saikia Homeopathic Medical College, Jorhat
    Jorhat
    Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

  • Assam Govt. Ayurvedic College, Guwahati

Government technology and engineering colleges

  • Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
    Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati is an autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institute of higher education established by the Government of India, located in Guwahati, in the state of Assam in India...

  • Assam Engineering College
    Assam Engineering College
    Assam Engineering College established in 1955 is located in the Jalukbari area of Guwahati city. It is the premier technical institute of North East India. It is the first undergraduate engineering college in northeastern India and today is a premier technical institute of the entire country...

    , Guwahati
    Guwahati
    Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

  • Jorhat Engineering College
    Jorhat Engineering College
    The Jorhat Engineering College was established in 1960 by the Govt. of Assam. It is one of the premier technical colleges in the northeastern region...

    , Jorhat
    Jorhat
    Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

  • National Institute of Technology, Silchar
    National Institute of Technology, Silchar
    National Institute Of Technology Silchar is a higher education institute situated in Silchar, Assam, India. NIT Silchar is one of the National Institutes of Technology and an Institute of National Importance under the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007. It was established in 1967 as a...


Law academy



The National Law School & Judicial Academy, Assam (NLSJAA) is an exciting new development legal education in North Eastern India. The institution is in the process of setting up its premises at Amingaon near Guwahati. The Gauhati High Court situated here, and some of the finest lawyers and judges of the country trace their roots back to this city. The functions of the institute started from its temporary office at Ujan Bazar, Guwahati, and all the necessary arrangements were being made for commencement of its first academic session in August 2011.

NLSJAA was established by the National Law School & Judicial Academy, Assam Act (Assam Act XXV of 2009). The chief justice of Gauhati High Court is the president (chancellor) of the Law School.

The National Law School and Judiciary Academy, Assam will have its permanent high tech campus at Agiyathuri, on the northern bank of the Brahmaputra. Nestled in greenery with a campus area covering 21 acre (8 ha), the academy will offer the right atmosphere for education pursuits and excellence. The area is likely to increase to 47 acre (19 ha) in the near future.

The academy will initially constitute a Faculty of Law, Faculty of Social Sciences and Language. With a strict admission and evaluation process, highly evolved curriculum and the best in the field to impart knowledge, the academy will ensure that it delivers only the best legal talent to the system.

Cities and towns


History of urban development goes back to almost two thousand years in the region. Existence of ancient urban areas such as Pragjyotishapura (Guwahati), Hatapesvara (Tezpur), Durjaya, etc. and medieval towns such as Charaideu, Garhgaon, Rongpur, Jorhat, Khaspur, Guwahati, etc. are well recorded.





Guwahati
Guwahati
Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

 is the largest urban centre and a million plus city in Assam. The city has experienced multifold growth during past three decades to grow as the primate city
Primate city
A primate city is the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. A 'primate city distribution' has one very large city with many much smaller cities and towns, and no intermediate-sized urban centres, in contrast to the linear 'rank-size...

 in the region; the city's population was approximately 900,000 (considering GMDA
Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority
Guwahati Metropolitan Development Authority or GMDA is a state parastatal agency of Government of Assam created for the Guwahati metropolitan area. The authority is responsible for planning and development of the metropolitan region and is currently preparing the revised master plan for Guwahati...

 area) during the census of 2001. One of the oldest and culturally richest city of Assam is Jorhat, which is considered to be a good place for modern education. North of the city the river Brahmaputra forms the largest riverine island of the world Majuli
Majuli
200px|thumb|Way To Majuli From [[Jorhat]] City Majuli or Majoli is a large river island in the Brahmaputra river, in the Indian state of Assam...

. Jorhat
Jorhat
Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

 was the last capital of the Ahom Kingdom. In The Barak Valley
Barak Valley
Barak Valley is situated in the southern part of the Indian state of Assam.It's another name is East Bengal or Northeast Bengal The main city of the valley is Silchar. The place is named after the Barak river. Barak valley mainly consists of three districts namely Cachar, Karimganj, and Hailakandi...

 of Assam Silchar
Silchar
Silchar is the headquarters of Cachar district in the state of Assam in India. It is the economic gateway to the state of Mizoram and part of Manipur. It is south east of Guwahati. The city of Silchar has tremendous commercial importance and is the second largest city in the state of Assam...

 is the economic gateway to the state of Mizoram, Manipur
Manipur
Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital. Manipur is bounded by the Indian states of Nagaland to the north, Mizoram to the south and Assam to the west; it also borders Burma to the east. It covers an area of...

 and Tripura. The town of Silchar has tremendous commercial importance. It consequently, witnesses the settlement of a sizeable population of traders from distant parts of India.
The other important urban areas are Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh is the headquarters of Dibrugarh district, Assam, India, and is the second largest city in Assam after Guwahati. It is situated on the banks of the Brahmaputra River, about north-east of Guwahati. It is the gateway to the three tea-producing districts of Tinsukia, Dibrugarh, and Sibsagar...

, Golaghat
Golaghat
Golaghat , which was one of the largest subdivisions of Assam later, elevated to the position of a full-fledged district of Assam on 15 August 1987, is the headquarters of Golaghat district and is a sister town to Jorhat which is about 55 km away....

, Tinsukia
Tinsukia
Tinsukia is a city and a municipal board in Tinsukia district, Assam, India.Tinsukia is a business city in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated north east of Guwahati and kilometres away from the border with Arunachal Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Tinsukia District of...

 (Tinicukiya), Sibsagar
Sibsagar
Sivasagar is a town in the Sibsagar district in the state of Assam in India, about north east of Guwahati....

 (Sivasagar), Tezpur
Tezpur
Tezpur is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000...

, Nagaon
Nagaon
Nagaon , is a medium sized city and a municipal board in Nagaon district in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated east of Guwahati. An older spelling of the name is Nowgong.It is one of the fastest growing cities of the northeast.-History:...

, North Lakhimpur
North Lakhimpur
North Lakhimpur is a city in India and a municipal board in Lakhimpur district in the North Eastern state Assam, about north east of Guwahati...

, Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon is the district headquarters of Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. The city is situated north west of Guwahati.It is a very developing City in Lower Assam. It has two parts - Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon. Bongaigaon is predominantly inhabited by the Koch Rajbongshi Community which...

, etc. Nalbari
Nalbari
Nalbari is a city and a municipal board in Nalbari district in the Indian state of Assam. Nalbari is headquarter of Nalbari District.-Education:...

, Rangia
Rangia
Rangia is a city and a municipal board in Kamrup district in the Indian state of Assam. It is the regional divisional headquarters of the North East Frontier Railway. It's situated 52 kilometres away from the state headquarter Guwahati.-Geography:Rangia is located at...

, Mangaldoi
Mangaldoi
Mangaldoi is a town and a municipal board in Darrang district in the Indian state of Assam. It was named after "Mangaldahi" who was the daughter of the [Raja] of Darrang and who was married to the Ahom King [Pratap Singha]....

, Karimganj
Karimganj
Karimganj Town is a town in the Karimganj District of the Indian state of Assam. It is the administrative headquarter and main town of the district.-Geography:...

, Hailakandi
Hailakandi
Hailakandiis a town and a district in Hailakandi district in the Indian state of Assam.The Hailakandi district is one of the three districts of Southern Assam i.e. Barak Valley.-Geography:...

, Barpeta
Barpeta
Barpeta is the headquarters of Barpeta district, Assam, India. The city is located about north west of Guwahati.Barpeta is renowned in the Historical map of Assam as the "Land of the Satras"...

, Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar is a city in Bodoland Territorial Council, Assam, one of the North East States and territories of India.Kokrajhar city is located along the bank of Gourang River. The North East Indian Railways divides the city into two sides, north and the south...

, Goalpara
Goalpara
Goalpara is the district headquarter of Goalpara district, Assam, India. It is situated west of Guwahati.-Etymology:The name of Goalpara is said to have originally derived from `Gwaltippika` meaning `Guwali village` or the village of the milk men. In the local dialect "para" means...

, Diphu
Diphu
Diphu is the headquarters of Karbi Anglong district in the state of Assam in India.-Geography:Diphu is located at . It has an average elevation of 186 metres . It is about 270 km by road and 213 km by railways from Guwahati, State capital of Assam.-Demographics: India census, Diphu...

, Dhubri
Dhubri
Dhubri is the headquarters of Dhubri district India. It is a small old town on the bank of the Brahmaputra and Gadadhar Rivers. In 1883, the town was first constituted as a Municipal Board and is situated about west from Guwahati, the state capital.Dhubri was an important commercial centre and...

 (Dhubury), Haflong
Haflong
Haflong is a town and headquarters of Dima Hasao District [Formerly Known as North Cachar Hills] district in India in the state of Assam.It is adoringly called the 'Switzerland of the East'. Haflong is a quaint hill station breath takingly beautiful,garlanded by the hills and an unending saga...

 etc. are other towns and district head quarters. On the other hand Duliajan, Digboi
Digboi
Digboi is a town and a town area committee in Tinsukia district in the north-eastern part of the state of Assam, IndiaCrude oil was discovered here in late 19th century, in a span of ten years when the discovery of Oil took place in first Oil drilling in the world. Digboi oilfield has the oldest...

, Namrup
Namrup
Namrup is a small beautiful town situated close to the foothills of the great Patkai Mountain Range in the extreme northeastern part of Assam Arunachal, India. The river Dilih or Disang flows through it. Namrup is situated in a picturesque location amidst wet-paddy fields, Assamese villages,...

, Moran
Moran Town
Moran Town is a census town in Dibrugarh district in the Indian state of Assam. Moran is an important industrial town in India. It is a major oil field and a major tea producing area.-Geography:Moran is located at . It has an average elevation of ....

, Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon is the district headquarters of Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. The city is situated north west of Guwahati.It is a very developing City in Lower Assam. It has two parts - Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon. Bongaigaon is predominantly inhabited by the Koch Rajbongshi Community which...

, Numaligarh
Numaligarh
Numaligarh is a town in Assam, India.A petroleum refinery named Numaligarh Refinery Limited has been established in 2001. Numaligarh Refinery is one of the major refineries of north east, having a capacity of 3 MMT. Numaligarh Refinery is a joint venture of Assam Government owned Numaligarh...

, Jogighopa
Jogighopa
Jogighopa is a large industrial city located on the banks of the Brahmaputra River in the Bongaigaon district in the state of Assam, IndiaIn the city are the remains of the five rock cut rock-cut caves, excellent examples of Salasthambha period architecture The architectural site is being...

, Rangia
Rangia
Rangia is a city and a municipal board in Kamrup district in the Indian state of Assam. It is the regional divisional headquarters of the North East Frontier Railway. It's situated 52 kilometres away from the state headquarter Guwahati.-Geography:Rangia is located at...

, etc. are major industrial towns. Currently, there are around 125 total urban centres in the state.

Tourism



Assam is the central state in the North-East Region of India and serves as the gateway to the rest of the Seven Sister States
Seven Sister States
The Seven Sister States also called "Paradise Unexplored" is a name given to the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland & Tripura in northeastern India. These states cover an area of about 250,000 sq. km. or about 7 percent of India's total area. They...

. For the purposes of tourism there are wildlife preserves like the Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. A World Heritage Site, the park hosts two-thirds of the world's Great One-horned Rhinoceroses. Kaziranga boasts the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world and was...

, Manas National Park
Manas National Park
Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a Wildlife Sanctuary, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National park in Bhutan...

 etc. The climate is sub-tropical
Subtropics
The subtropics are the geographical and climatical zone of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropical zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitudes 23.5°N and 23.5°S...

. Assam experiences the Indian monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 and has one of the highest forest densities in India. The winter months are the best time to visit.

It has a rich cultural heritage going back to the Ahom Dynasty
Ahom Dynasty
The Ahom Dynasty ruled the Ahom Kingdom in present-day Assam for nearly 600 years. The dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai mountains...

 which governed the region for many centuries before the British occupation.




Main destinations


Brahmaputra:
The only male river in India, this is both a source of sorrow and sustenance for the people of Assam. There is cruise facility to enjoy the beauty of the river.

Guwahati
Guwahati
Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

:
One of the key urban centres of Assam and the biggest city in North-East India
North-East India
Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal...

, this serves as the major gateway to the whole region. The notable tourist spots of the city are Kamakhya Temple
Kamakhya Temple
The Kamakhya Temple is a Shakti Peeth temple situated on the Nilachal Hill in western part of Guwahati city in Assam, India. It is the main temple in a complex of individual temples dedicated to different forms of the mother goddess as the Dasa Mahavidya, including Bhuvaneshvari, Bagalamukhi,...

, Assam State Museum
Assam State Museum
The Assam State Museum is located in the southern end of Dighali Pukhuri tank in the heart of Guwahati city, Assam. It was established 1940 and have a large collection of archaeological and historical objects.The museum remains open 06 days a week with Monday being the holiday....

, Assam State Zoo cum Botanical Garden
Guwahati Zoo
Guwahati Zoo, officially known as the Assam State Zoo, is located within the Hengrabari Reserved Forest at Guwahati, Assam, India. The zoo's collection includes the Asiatic lion, the royal Bengal tiger, the one-horned Indian rhinoceros, the Himalayan black bear, the stump-tailed Macaque, the...

, Shankardev Kalakshetra, Shilpagram, Umananda Temple etc.

Jorhat
Jorhat
Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

:
Jorhat was established as the new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the decaying and declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty
Ahom Dynasty
The Ahom Dynasty ruled the Ahom Kingdom in present-day Assam for nearly 600 years. The dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai mountains...

. Jorhat is also a major tourist spot in Assam. It has a numerous tourist spots and temples like Tokolai Tea Research center, Hatigar Dewal, Burigosani Than or Dewal, Garakhiadol Temple (Shiva Temple), Borbheti Than (Originally moneastery), Dhekiakhowa Bornamghar, NEIST, Gymkhana Club, Lachit Borphukan's Maidam, Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, The Chandrakanta Handique Bhavan of Asom Sahitya Sabha
Asom Sahitya Sabha
The Asam Sahitya Sabha was founded in 1917 in Assam, India to promote the culture of Assam and Assamese literature. Presently it has about one thousand branches all over Assam and also outside the state. The central office is at Jorhat a city of historical importance...

 etc.,

Majuli
Majuli
200px|thumb|Way To Majuli From [[Jorhat]] City Majuli or Majoli is a large river island in the Brahmaputra river, in the Indian state of Assam...

: The largest river island in the world on the Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
The Brahmaputra , also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia. It is the only Indian river that is attributed the masculine gender and thus referred to as a in Indo-Aryan languages and languages with Indo-Aryan influence...

.

Golaghat
Golaghat
Golaghat , which was one of the largest subdivisions of Assam later, elevated to the position of a full-fledged district of Assam on 15 August 1987, is the headquarters of Golaghat district and is a sister town to Jorhat which is about 55 km away....

 (Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. A World Heritage Site, the park hosts two-thirds of the world's Great One-horned Rhinoceroses. Kaziranga boasts the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world and was...

):
This is one of the few places covered as a World Heritage Site and the main habitat of the Great Indian One-Horned Rhinoceros.

Also check out Orang National Park
Orang National Park
The Orang National Park, located on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam, India, covers an area of . It was established as a sanctuary in 1985 and declared a National Park on 13 April 1999...

 and Nameri National Park
Nameri National Park
Nameri National Park is a national park located in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India, about 35 kilometres from Tezpur....

.

Jatinga
Jatinga
Jatinga , a village on a ridge, is located in Dima Hasao district , Assam State in India. It is 330 km south of Guwahati. It is most famous for the phenomenon of birds “committing suicide”. Although the birds do not commit suicide and are actually killed, the phenomenon of suicide has spread...

:
The mystery of the bird suicides in Jatinga in Dima Hasao District (DHD), Dimaraji, Assam.

Tezpur
Tezpur
Tezpur is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000...

:
Small town steeped in history and culture. Check out Usha Pahar, Agnigarh
Agnigarh
Agnigarh is the site of the fortress which was built by Banasura to keep his daughter Usha in isolation. The name itself is derived from the words 'Agni' and 'garh' in Sanskrit.-Mythology:...

, Mahabhairav Temple
Mahabhairav Temple
The ancient Mahabhairav Temple is located in Tezpur town, Assam. This temple is believed to have been established by king Bana in the pre-historical times. This Shiva temple was originally built of stone but the present one was renovated and built with concrete...

, etc...

Sivasagar:
Seat of the Ahom
Ahom kingdom
The Ahom Kingdom was a medieval kingdom in the Brahmaputra valley in Assam that maintained its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisted Mughal expansion in North-East India...

 Kingdom. Check out Rang Ghar
Rang Ghar
Rang Ghar is a two-storied building, which was the royal sports-pavilion from which the Ahom kings and nobles witnessed games like buffalo fights and other sports at the Rupahi Pathar specially during Rangali Bihu festival in the Ahom capital, Rangpur...

, Talatal Ghar
Talatal Ghar
Talatal Ghar or the Kareng Ghar is located in Rangpur, one of the erstwhile capitals of the Ahom kingdom. This capital was first established by the Swargadeo Rudra Singha in 1707...

, Sivadol
Sivadol
The Sivadol stands on the bank of Borpukhuri tank in the heart of Sivasagar, Assam. It was built in 1734 by Bar Raja Ambika, queen of Ahom king Swargadeo Siba Singha. The Sivadol is believed to be the tallest Shiva temple in India. Its height is and the perimeter is at the base. It is capped by...

, Kareng Ghar of Garhgaon
Garhgaon
Garhgaon was the capital of the Ahom kingdom for many years. It was built by the Ahom king Suklenmung in 1540. It lies 13 km east of present-day Sibsagar town. The palace structures were made of wood and stones...

 etc...

Hajo:
Hajo is a small township situated to the northwest of Guwahati across the river Brahmaputra. Hajo is a remarkable example of communal harmony. This is an ancient pilgrimage centre for three religions Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 and Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

.

Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is a national wildlife park in Tinsukia, Assam, India.Dibru - Saikhowa national park is located at about 12 km north of Tinsukia town of Assam covering an area of 350 sq. km. It lies between 27°30' N to 27°45' N latitude and 95°10' E to 95°45'E longitude at an average...

:
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is a beautiful National Park situated in Tinsukia
Tinsukia
Tinsukia is a city and a municipal board in Tinsukia district, Assam, India.Tinsukia is a business city in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated north east of Guwahati and kilometres away from the border with Arunachal Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Tinsukia District of...

 district. There are few Eco lodges situated here to enjoy the beauty of this park.

Goalpara
Goalpara
Goalpara is the district headquarter of Goalpara district, Assam, India. It is situated west of Guwahati.-Etymology:The name of Goalpara is said to have originally derived from `Gwaltippika` meaning `Guwali village` or the village of the milk men. In the local dialect "para" means...

:
Goalpara is also a major tourist spot in Assam. It has a numerous tourist spots and temples like Sri Surya Pahar, Tekreshwari Pahar, Paglartek in Pancharatna, Pir Babas Mazar in Joleshwar, Naranarayan Setu (Bridge) connecting northern Assam districts like Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar is a city in Bodoland Territorial Council, Assam, one of the North East States and territories of India.Kokrajhar city is located along the bank of Gourang River. The North East Indian Railways divides the city into two sides, north and the south...

, Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon
Bongaigaon is the district headquarters of Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. The city is situated north west of Guwahati.It is a very developing City in Lower Assam. It has two parts - Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon. Bongaigaon is predominantly inhabited by the Koch Rajbongshi Community which...

, Dhubri
Dhubri
Dhubri is the headquarters of Dhubri district India. It is a small old town on the bank of the Brahmaputra and Gadadhar Rivers. In 1883, the town was first constituted as a Municipal Board and is situated about west from Guwahati, the state capital.Dhubri was an important commercial centre and...

 etc. to Goalpara, Guwahati and major part of Meghalaya.

Karbi Anglong:
Assam's largest district which also has the largest forest cover in the state. It is home of several rare wild life and has five wildlife sanctuaries and two elephant reserves.

Attractive destinations





Assam has several attractive destinations; majority of these are National Parks, Wildlife and Bird Sanctuaries, areas with archaeological interests and areas with unique cultural heritage
Culture of Assam
The culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history....

. Moreover, as a whole, the region is covered by beautiful natural landscapes.
  • Kaziranga National Park
    Kaziranga National Park
    Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. A World Heritage Site, the park hosts two-thirds of the world's Great One-horned Rhinoceroses. Kaziranga boasts the highest density of tigers among protected areas in the world and was...

  • Manas National Park
    Manas National Park
    Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a Wildlife Sanctuary, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger Reserve, an Elephant Reserve and a Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National park in Bhutan...

  • Nameri National Park
    Nameri National Park
    Nameri National Park is a national park located in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India, about 35 kilometres from Tezpur....

  • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
    Dibru-Saikhowa National Park
    Dibru-Saikhowa National Park is a national wildlife park in Tinsukia, Assam, India.Dibru - Saikhowa national park is located at about 12 km north of Tinsukia town of Assam covering an area of 350 sq. km. It lies between 27°30' N to 27°45' N latitude and 95°10' E to 95°45'E longitude at an average...

  • Orang National Park
    Orang National Park
    The Orang National Park, located on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam, India, covers an area of . It was established as a sanctuary in 1985 and declared a National Park on 13 April 1999...

  • Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
    Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary
    Pobitora or Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife reserve in the Marigaon district of the state of Assam in India. It is located about 30km east of Guwahati as the crow flies.The Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is about 48 km by road from Guwahati...

  • Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary
    Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary
    The Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary, formerly known as the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary or Hollongapar Reserve Forest, is an isolated protected area of evergreen forest located in Assam, India. The sanctuary was officially constituted and renamed in 1997. Set aside initially in 1881, its forests used...

  • Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary
    Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary
    Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Karbi Anglong district, Assam, India. It is 25 km from Golaghat.The sanctuary is home to hoolock gibbons and golden langurs-External links:* *...

  • Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary
    Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary
    Chakrashila Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary falling under Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts of Assam, India. It is famous for the Golden Langur and is the second protected habitat for Golden Langur in India. Chakrashila Hill was first declared as reserve forest in 1966 and on July 14, 1994...

  • Burasapori Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bornodi Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Sonai-rupai Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Bherjan Borajan Podumani Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
  • Deepor Beel Sanctuary
  • Majuli
    Majuli
    200px|thumb|Way To Majuli From [[Jorhat]] City Majuli or Majoli is a large river island in the Brahmaputra river, in the Indian state of Assam...

  • Barpeta
    Barpeta
    Barpeta is the headquarters of Barpeta district, Assam, India. The city is located about north west of Guwahati.Barpeta is renowned in the Historical map of Assam as the "Land of the Satras"...

  • Sualkuchi
    Sualkuchi
    Sualkuchi is a census town in Kamrup district in the Indian state of Assam. It is situated on the north bank of the river Brahmaputra, about 35 km from Guwahati, Sualkuchi is a block of Kamrup District...

  • Sarthebari
    Sarthebari
    Sarthebari is a town and a town area committee in Barpeta district in the Indian state of Assam.-Demographics: India census, Sarthebari had a population of 7545. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Sarthebari has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average...

  • Jorhat Gymkhana Club
  • Bogamati
  • Digboi
    Digboi
    Digboi is a town and a town area committee in Tinsukia district in the north-eastern part of the state of Assam, IndiaCrude oil was discovered here in late 19th century, in a span of ten years when the discovery of Oil took place in first Oil drilling in the world. Digboi oilfield has the oldest...

     oil town
  • Ledo and Stilwell Road
  • Haflong
    Haflong
    Haflong is a town and headquarters of Dima Hasao District [Formerly Known as North Cachar Hills] district in India in the state of Assam.It is adoringly called the 'Switzerland of the East'. Haflong is a quaint hill station breath takingly beautiful,garlanded by the hills and an unending saga...

    , Maibong
    Maibong
    Maibong, also spelt as Maibang, is a town and a town area committee in Dima Hasao district in the Indian state of Assam.-Geography:Maibong is located at . It has an average elevation of 355 metres .-Demographics:...

     and Jatinga
    Jatinga
    Jatinga , a village on a ridge, is located in Dima Hasao district , Assam State in India. It is 330 km south of Guwahati. It is most famous for the phenomenon of birds “committing suicide”. Although the birds do not commit suicide and are actually killed, the phenomenon of suicide has spread...

  • Bongaigaon
    Bongaigaon
    Bongaigaon is the district headquarters of Bongaigaon District, Assam, India. The city is situated north west of Guwahati.It is a very developing City in Lower Assam. It has two parts - Old Bongaigaon and New Bongaigaon. Bongaigaon is predominantly inhabited by the Koch Rajbongshi Community which...

  • Umrangshu hotwater spring
  • Guwahati
    Guwahati
    Guwahati, Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam formerly known as Gauhati is a metropolis,the largest city of Assam in India and ancient urban area in North East India, with a population of 963,429. It is also the largest metropolitan area in north-eastern India...

  • Hajo archaeological region
  • Madan Kamdev archaeological region
  • Jorhat
    Jorhat
    Jorhat is a city of Assam in India. Jorhat was established as a new capital in the closing years of the 18th century by the declining Tunkhungia Ahom Dynasty. Jorhat, as the name signifies, was just a couple of markets . Two parallel markets namely, Chowkihat and Macharhat, lay on the eastern...

  • Sibsagar
    Sibsagar
    Sivasagar is a town in the Sibsagar district in the state of Assam in India, about north east of Guwahati....

     archaeological region
  • Charaideo
    Charaideo
    Charaideo was the first capital of the Ahom kingdom established by the first Ahom king Chao Lung Siu-Ka-Pha in 1228. It is about 30 km from Sibsagar town off the Sibsagar-Simaluguri road.Though the capital of the Ahom kingdom moved many times, Charaideo remained the symbolic center...

  • Surya Pahar Goalpara
    Goalpara
    Goalpara is the district headquarter of Goalpara district, Assam, India. It is situated west of Guwahati.-Etymology:The name of Goalpara is said to have originally derived from `Gwaltippika` meaning `Guwali village` or the village of the milk men. In the local dialect "para" means...

     archaeological region
  • Tezpur
    Tezpur
    Tezpur is a city and the administrative headquarters and municipal board of Sonitpur district in the state of Assam in northeastern India. Tezpur is an ancient city on the banks of the river Brahmaputra and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000...

     archaeological region
  • Kapili Valley archaeological region
  • Dhansiri/Dhonxiri Valley archaeological region
  • Karbi Anglong
  • Mayong
    Mayong (Assam)
    Mayong , also known as the Land of Black Magic, is situated in Marigaon district of Assam, on the bank of the river Brahmaputra. Situated at 40 km from Guwahati and once considered the cradle of black magic in the country, Mayong is today a place of tourist attraction because of its history...

  • Bordua
  • Chapanalla Waterfall


See also



  • List of Assam state symbols
  • 1897 Assam earthquake
  • 1950 Assam earthquake
  • Ahom Dynasty
    Ahom Dynasty
    The Ahom Dynasty ruled the Ahom Kingdom in present-day Assam for nearly 600 years. The dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai mountains...

  • Ahom Kingdom
    Ahom kingdom
    The Ahom Kingdom was a medieval kingdom in the Brahmaputra valley in Assam that maintained its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisted Mughal expansion in North-East India...

  • Assam agitation
    Assam Agitation
    The Assam Agitation was a popular movement against undocumented migrants in Assam between 1979 and 1985. It is regarded as one of the most vibrant democratic mass movements of independent India...

  • Assamese people
    Assamese people
    The Assamese people are a well-defined subgroup of People of Assam. Though sometimes they are defined as the Assamese-speaking Indo-Aryans of the Brahmaputra valley,, this definition is not legally binding...

  • Assamese Brahmins
    Assamese Brahmins
    In Assam, out of many sects of Hindu people which include Brahmins , Kalitas, Ahoms amongst others; the Brahmin community is comparatively small. Brahmins are found everywhere in Assam and surrounding areas. However most predominantly in Jorhat, Nalbari, Barpeta, Goalpara and Darrang districts....

  • Assam Rifles
    Assam Rifles
    The Assam Rifles are one of the Paramilitary forces of India. The unit can trace its lineage back to a paramilitary police force that was formed under the British in 1835 called Cachar Levy. Since then the Assam Rifles have undergone a number of name changes before the name Assam Rifles was finally...

  • Assamese cinema
    Assamese cinema
    Assamese cinema is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India. The industry was born in 1935 when Jyoti Prasad Agarwala released his movie Joymoti...

  • Assamese cuisine
  • Assamese language
    Assamese language
    Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

  • Asom Sahitya Sabha
    Asom Sahitya Sabha
    The Asam Sahitya Sabha was founded in 1917 in Assam, India to promote the culture of Assam and Assamese literature. Presently it has about one thousand branches all over Assam and also outside the state. The central office is at Jorhat a city of historical importance...

  • Baruah
  • Bihu
    Bihu
    Bihu denotes a set of three different cultural festivals of Assam and celebrated by the Assamese diaspora around the world. Though they owe their origins to ancient rites and practices they have taken definite urban features and have become popular festivals in urban and commercialized milieus in...

  • Biodiversity of Assam
    Biodiversity of Assam
    The Biodiversity of Assam, a state in North-East India, makes it a biological hotspot with many rare and endemic plant and animal species. The greatest success in recent years has been the conservation of the Indian rhinoceros at the Kaziranga National Park, but a rapid increase in human...

  • Bodo language
    Bodo language
    Bodo is a language that belongs to the branch of Barish section under Baric division of the Tibeto-Burman languages and spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal...

  • Bodo people
    Bodo people
    The Bodos are an ethnic and linguistic community, early settlers of Assam in the North-East of India. According to the 1991 census, there were 1.2 million Bodos in Assam which makes for 5.3% of the total population in the state. Bodos belong to a larger ethnic group called the Bodo-Kachari. The...

  • Charyapada
    Charyapada
    The Charyapada is a collection of 8th-12th century Vajrayana Buddhist caryagiti, or mystical poems from the tantric tradition in eastern India. Being caryagiti , the Charyapada were intended to be sung. These songs of realization were spontaneously composed verses that expressed a practitioner's...

  • Culture of Assam
    Culture of Assam
    The culture of Assam is traditionally a hybrid one, developed due to cultural assimilation of different ethno-cultural groups under various politico-economic systems in different periods of pre-history and history....

  • Districts of Assam
    Districts of Assam
    Assam, a state of India, has twenty-seven administrative districts.A district of an Indian state is an administrative geographical unit, headed by the Deputy Commissioner , which combines the offices of the District Magistrate ultimately responsible for maintaining law and order and District...

  • Etymology of Assam
    Etymology of Assam
    The Etymology of Assam is an issue that often comes up for debate in the Indian state of Assam. In the latest instance, the Government of Assam under the Indian National Congress has sought to change the name of the state from Assam to Asom...

  • Fine Arts of Assam
    Fine Arts of Assam
    Fine Arts of Assam has extremely rich tradition.-Sculpture and architecture:The archaic Mauryan Stupas discovered in and around Goalpara district are believed to be the earliest examples of ancient art and architectural works...

  • Greater Assam
  • History of Assam
    History of Assam
    The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of people from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman cultures...

  • Kalitas of Assam
    Kalitas of Assam
    The Kalita caste of the state of Assam, North East India are a unique Hindu social group who have been a dominant caste through the ages. Assam is known for its large number of groups with their own distinctive culture. It is the cradle of twenty seven indigenous ‘tribes’ and unique in the world...

  • Kamarupa
  • Kamrupi
    Kamrupi
    Kamarupi or present Kamrupi is the language that was spoken in the Kamarupa kingdom in the first millennium, which, some linguists claim, gave rise to or influenced various eastern Indo-European languages like Assamese and Bengali.During British India at some point Kamrup was divided into two big...

  • Karbi
  • Lower Assam
    Lower Assam
    Lower Assam or Western Assam is a region of Bharat situated in the great plains of the Brahmaputra valley. It was home to the mighty kingdom of Kamarupa . Guwahati, the largest city of North-East India is located here while Dispur, the capital of Assam is in Guwahati.-History:Ancient Lower Assam,...

  • Mishing
  • Mishing language
    Mishing language
    Mishing is a Tibetan–Burman language spoken by the Mishing people. There are over 500,000 speakers of the language. It is also known as Plains Miri or Takam....

  • Music of Assam
    Music of Assam
    The music of Assam, a state in the northeastern part of India, can be divided into various categories of folk music. In recent times starting the late eighties popular artistes have modernized the music that caters to local popular demand....

  • People of Assam
  • Physical Geography of Assam
    Physical Geography of Assam
    This article discusses the geological origin, geomorphic characteristics, and climate of the northeastern Indian state of Assam.Assam, extending from 89° 42′ E to 96° E longitude and 24° 8′ N to 28° 2′ N latitude, has an area of 78,438 km², similar to that of Ireland or Austria.-Geologic and...


Political parties in Assam
  • State Anthem of Assam
  • Tourism in Assam
    Tourism in Assam
    Assam is the central state in the North-East Region of India and serves as the gateway to the rest of the Seven Sister States.-Introduction:For the purposes of tourism there are wildlife preserves like the Kaziranga National Park , Manas National Park, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Nameri National...

  • Traditional crafts of Assam
    Traditional crafts of Assam
    Assam has maintained a rich tradition of various traditional crafts for more than two thousand years. Presently, Cane and bamboo craft, bell metal and brass craft, silk and cotton weaving, toy and mask making, pottery and terracotta work, wood craft, jewellery making, musical instruments making,...

  • Textiles and dresses of Assam
    Textiles and dresses of Assam
    There is a wide variety of clothing and textiles involved with Assamese culture. An enumeration of the significant items as well as terms used to refer to them is shown below.*Cotton*Dhoti*Endi*Eri*Gamosa*Jaapi*Khadi*Mekhela chador*Muga silk*Pat silk...

  • WikiProject Assam


Further reading


Online Books and material

Language and literature

History

Tradition and Culture

External links