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Prime minister

Prime minister

Overview
A prime minister is the most senior minister
Minister (government)
A minister is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. Senior ministers are members of the cabinet....

 of cabinet
Cabinet (government)
A Cabinet is a body of high ranking government officials, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers, an Executive Council, or an Executive Committee.- Overview :...

 in the executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 branch of government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

 in a parliamentary system
Parliamentary system
A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined....

. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential system
Semi-presidential system
The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state...

s of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service
Civil service
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

 and execute the directives of the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

.

In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster System
The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom....

, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch.
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Timeline

1739   War of Jenkins' Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain.

1812   Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons, London.

1852   Count Camillo Benso di Cavour becomes the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, which soon expands to become Italy.

1867   The British North America Act of 1867 takes effect as the Constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation and the federal dominion of Canada; Sir John A. Macdonald is sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Canada.

1939   Siam is renamed to Thailand by Plaek Pibulsonggram, the country's third prime minister.

1939   Romanian Prime Minister Armand Calinescu is assassinated by ultranationalist members of the Iron Guard.

1940   World War II: Winston Churchill is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

1942   Pierre Laval becomes Prime Minister of Vichy France.

1944   World War II: Hideki Tojo resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort.

1945   An assassination attempt is made on Japan's prime minister, Kantaro Suzuki.

 
Encyclopedia
A prime minister is the most senior minister
Minister (government)
A minister is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. Senior ministers are members of the cabinet....

 of cabinet
Cabinet (government)
A Cabinet is a body of high ranking government officials, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers, an Executive Council, or an Executive Committee.- Overview :...

 in the executive
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

 branch of government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

 in a parliamentary system
Parliamentary system
A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the executive branch get their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are intertwined....

. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential system
Semi-presidential system
The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state...

s of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service
Civil service
The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

 and execute the directives of the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

.

In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster System
The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom....

, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of the government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers.

The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of parliament
Member of Parliament
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a :parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members,...

 and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

. In some monarchies
Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

 the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative
Royal Prerogative
The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognized in common law and, sometimes, in civil law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the sovereign alone. It is the means by which some of the executive powers of government, possessed by and...

) which are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament.

As well as being head of government, a prime minister may have other roles or titles—the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

, for example, is also First Lord of the Treasury
First Lord of the Treasury
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister...

 and Minister for the Civil Service
Minister for the Civil Service
In British government, the Minister for the Civil Service is responsible for making regulations regarding Her Majesty's Civil Service, the role of which is to assist the governments of the United Kingdom in formulating and implementing policies...

. Prime ministers may take other ministerial posts—for example during the Second World War, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 was also Minister of Defence (although there was then no Ministry of Defence
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces....

).

Etymology



The first actual usage of the term prime minister or Premier Ministre was used by Cardinal Richelieu when in 1625 he was named to head the royal council as prime minister of France. Louis XIV and his descendants generally attempted to avoid giving this title to their chief ministers.
The term prime minister in the sense that we know it originated in the 18th century in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

.

History


Since medieval times monarchs of England and the United Kingdom had ministers in whom they placed special trust and who were regarded as the head of the government. Examples were Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex
Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex, , was an English statesman who served as chief minister of King Henry VIII of England from 1532 to 1540....

 under Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

; William Cecil, Lord Burghley
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley , KG was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from 1572...

 under Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty...

; Clarendon
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon was an English historian and statesman, and grandfather of two English monarchs, Mary II and Queen Anne.-Early life:...

 under Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

 and Godolphin
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin
Sir Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, KG, PC was a leading English politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries...

 under Queen Anne
Anne of Great Britain
Anne ascended the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Act of Union, two of her realms, England and Scotland, were united as a single sovereign state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.Anne's Catholic father, James II and VII, was deposed during the...

. These ministers held a variety of formal posts, but were commonly known as "the minister", the "chief minister", the "first minister" and finally the "prime minister".

The power of these ministers depended entirely on the personal favour of the monarch. Although managing the parliament was among the necessary skills of holding high office, they did not depend on a parliamentary majority for their power. Although there was a cabinet
Cabinet (government)
A Cabinet is a body of high ranking government officials, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers, an Executive Council, or an Executive Committee.- Overview :...

, it was appointed entirely by the monarch, and the monarch usually presided over its meetings.

When the monarch grew tired of a first minister, he or she could be dismissed, or worse: Cromwell was executed and Clarendon driven into exile when they lost favour. Kings sometimes divided power equally between two or more ministers to prevent one minister from becoming too powerful. Late in Anne's reign, for example, the Tory
Tory
Toryism is a traditionalist and conservative political philosophy which grew out of the Cavalier faction in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. It is a prominent ideology in the politics of the United Kingdom, but also features in parts of The Commonwealth, particularly in Canada...

 ministers Harley
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer
Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer KG was a British politician and statesman of the late Stuart and early Georgian periods. He began his career as a Whig, before defecting to a new Tory Ministry. Between 1711 and 1714 he served as First Lord of the Treasury, effectively Queen...

 and St John
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke was an English politician, government official and political philosopher. He was a leader of the Tories, and supported the Church of England politically despite his atheism. In 1715 he supported the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 which sought to overthrow the...

 shared power.

Post-English Civil War (1642–1651)


In the mid 17th century, after the English Civil War
English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists...

 and the Protectorate
The Protectorate
In British history, the Protectorate was the period 1653–1659 during which the Commonwealth of England was governed by a Lord Protector.-Background:...

, Parliament had strengthened its position and it emerged even more powerful after the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, is the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau...

 of 1688. The monarch could not establish any law or impose any tax without its permission.
Thus it has been said that the House of Commons became a part of the government and it has been only a further step of this development that a new kind of prime minister should emerge.

This turning point in the evolution of the prime ministership came with the death of Anne in 1714 and the accession of George I
George I of Great Britain
George I was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698....

. George spoke no English, spent much of his time at his home in Hanover
Hanover
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony , Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

, and had neither knowledge of nor interest in the details of English government. In these circumstances it was inevitable that the king's first minister would become the de facto head of the government.

From 1721 this was the Whig
British Whig Party
The Whigs were a party in the Parliament of England, Parliament of Great Britain, and Parliament of the United Kingdom, who contested power with the rival Tories from the 1680s to the 1850s. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule...

 politician Robert Walpole
Robert Walpole
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC , known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain....

, who held office for twenty-one years. Walpole chaired cabinet meetings, appointed all the other ministers, dispensed the royal patronage and packed the House of Commons
British House of Commons
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords . Both Commons and Lords meet in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 650 members , who are known as Members...

 with his supporters. Under Walpole, the doctrine of cabinet solidarity developed. Walpole required that no minister other than himself have private dealings with the king, and also that when the cabinet had agreed on a policy, all ministers must defend it in public or resign. As a later prime minister, Lord Melbourne
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC, FRS was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary and Prime Minister . He is best known for his intense and successful mentoring of Queen Victoria, at ages 18-21, in the ways of politics...

, said: "It matters not what we say, gentlemen, so long as we all say the same thing."

Walpole always denied that he was "prime minister", and throughout the 18th century parliamentarians and legal scholars continued to deny that any such position was known to the Constitution. The title was first referred to on government documents during the administration of Benjamin Disraeli but did not appear in the formal British Order of precedence
Order of precedence
An order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of items. Most often it is used in the context of people by many organizations and governments...

 until 1905. George II
George II of Great Britain
George II was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Archtreasurer and Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death.George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain. He was born and brought up in Northern Germany...

 and George III made strenuous efforts to reclaim the personal power of the monarch, but the increasing complexity and expense of government meant that a minister who could command the loyalty of the Commons was increasingly necessary. The long tenure of the wartime Prime Minister Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger was a British politician of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister in 1783 at the age of 24 . He left office in 1801, but was Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806...

 (1783–1801), combined with the mental illness of George III, consolidated the power of the post.

The prestige of British institutions in the 19th century and the growth of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 saw the British model of cabinet government, headed by a prime minister, widely copied, both in other European countries and in British colonial territories as they developed self-government. In some places alternative titles such as "premier", "chief minister", "first minister of state", "president of the council" or "chancellor" were adopted, but the essentials of the office were the same.

By the late 20th century the majority of the world's countries had a prime minister or equivalent minister, holding office under either a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

 or a ceremonial president. The main exceptions to this system have been the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and the presidential republics in Latin America, modelled on the U.S. system, in which the president directly exercises executive authority.

Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

's Prime Minister, Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

 Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah has been in the post since 1971, making him the longest serving non-elected Prime Minister.

Prime ministers in republics and in monarchies


The post of prime minister may be encountered both in constitutional monarch
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

ies (such as Belgium, Denmark
Prime Minister of Denmark
The Prime Minister of Denmark is the head of government in Danish politics. The Prime Minister is traditionally the leader of a political coalition in the Folketing and presides over the cabinet....

, Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
The is the head of government of Japan. He is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members, and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office...

, the Netherlands
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands. He is the de facto head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates the policy of the government...

, Norway
Prime Minister of Norway
The Prime Minister of Norway is the political leader of Norway and the Head of His Majesty's Government. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Stortinget , to their political party, and ultimately the...

, Malaysia
Prime Minister of Malaysia
The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. He is officially appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, who in HM's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House of Representatives , the...

, Morocco, Spain
Prime Minister of Spain
The President of the Government of Spain , sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the head of Government of Spain. The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978...

, Sweden
Prime Minister of Sweden
The Prime Minister is the head of government in the Kingdom of Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested...

, Thailand
Prime Minister of Thailand
The Prime Minister of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand. The Prime Minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet of Thailand. The post has existed since the Revolution of 1932, when the country became a constitutional monarchy....

, Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

, Australia
Prime Minister of Australia
The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the highest minister of the Crown, leader of the Cabinet and Head of Her Majesty's Australian Government, holding office on commission from the Governor-General of Australia. The office of Prime Minister is, in practice, the most powerful...

, New Zealand
Prime Minister of New Zealand
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealand's head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand...

, and the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

), and in parliamentary republic
Parliamentary republic
A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic which operates under a parliamentary system of government - meaning a system with no clear-cut separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. There are a number of variations of...

s in which the head of state is an elected official (such as Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, Montenegro
Montenegro
Montenegro Montenegrin: Crna Gora Црна Гора , meaning "Black Mountain") is a country located in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast and Albania to the...

, Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

).

This contrasts with the presidential system
Presidential system
A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss it....

, in which the president
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 (or equivalent) is both the head of state and the head of the government. See also "First Minister
First Minister
A First Minister is the leader of a government cabinet.-Canada:In Canada, "First Ministers" is a collective term that refers to all Canadian first ministers of the Crown, otherwise known as heads of government, including the Prime Minister of Canada and the provincial and territorial premiers...

", "Premier
Premier
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries and states.-Examples by country:In many nations, "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister"...

", "Chief Minister
Chief Minister
A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

", "Chancellor
Chancellor
Chancellor is the title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the Cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the...

", "Taoiseach
Taoiseach
The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas , and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The current Taoiseach is...

" and "Secretary of State
Secretary of State
Secretary of State or State Secretary is a commonly used title for a senior or mid-level post in governments around the world. The role varies between countries, and in some cases there are multiple Secretaries of State in the Government....

": alternative titles usually equivalent in meaning to, or translated as, "prime minister". The head of government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 is referred to as the Premier.

In some presidential
Presidential system
A presidential system is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides separately from the legislature, to which it is not responsible and which cannot, in normal circumstances, dismiss it....

 or semi-presidential
Semi-presidential system
The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the day-to-day administration of the state...

 systems, such as those of France
Politics of France
France is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, in which the President of France is head of state and the Prime Minister of France is the head of government, and there is a pluriform, multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is...

, Russia
Politics of Russia
The politics of Russia take place in a framework of a federal semi-presidential republic. According to the Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state, and of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the government, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed...

 or South Korea
Politics of South Korea
Politics of the Republic of Korea takes place in the framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and...

, the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the president but usually approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the president and managing the civil service. (The premier of the Republic of China
Politics of the Republic of China
The politics of the Republic of China ,takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the premier is head of government, and of a dominant party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative...

 is also appointed by the president, but requires no approval by the legislature.

Appointment of the prime minister of France requires no approval by the parliament either, but the parliament may force the resignation of the government.) In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different from that of the president. When it arises, such a state of affairs is usually referred to as (political) cohabitation
Cohabitation (government)
Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France's system, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier that will be acceptable to the...

.

Entry into Office


In parliamentary systems a prime minister may enter into office by several means.
  • By appointment by the head of state, without reference to parliament: While in practice most prime ministers under the Westminster system
    Westminster System
    The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after the politics of the United Kingdom. This term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom....

     (including Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    , Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

    , New Zealand
    New Zealand
    New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

    , Malaysia, India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

     and the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    ) are the leaders of the largest party in parliament, technically the appointment of the prime minister is a royal prerogative exercised by the monarch or the governor-general. In India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    , the Prime Ministerial candidate must be a member of parliament either Lok Sabha (Lower House) or Rajya Sabha (Upper House). No parliamentary vote takes place on who is forming a government.

However as the government will have to outline its legislative programme to parliament in, for example, the Speech from the Throne
Speech from the Throne
A speech from the throne is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the government's agenda for the coming session...

, the speech is sometimes used to test parliamentary support. A defeat of the Speech is taken to mean a loss of confidence and so requires either a new draft (a humiliating act no government would contemplate), resignation, or a request for a dissolution of parliament. Until the early 20th century governments when defeated in a general election remained in power until their Speech from the Throne was defeated and then resigned. No government has done so for one hundred years, though Edward Heath
Edward Heath
Sir Edward Richard George "Ted" Heath, KG, MBE, PC was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and as Leader of the Conservative Party ....

 in 1974 did delay his resignation while he explored whether he could form a government with Liberal party
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major political parties of the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It was a third party of negligible importance throughout the latter half of the 20th Century, before merging with the Social Democratic Party in 1988 to form the present day...

 support.

In such systems unwritten (and unenforceable) constitutional conventions often outline the order in which people are asked to form a government. If the prime minister resigns after a general election, the monarch usually asks the leader of the opposition to form a government. Where however a resignation occurs during a parliament session (unless the government has itself collapsed) the monarch will ask another member of the government to form a government. While previously the monarch had some leeway in whom to ask, all British political parties now elect their leaders (until 1965 the Conservative
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

s chose their leader by informal consultation). The last time the monarch had a choice over the appointment occurred in 1963 when the Earl of Home
Alec Douglas-Home
Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel, KT, PC , known as The Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963 and as Sir Alec Douglas-Home from 1963 to 1974, was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 1963 to October 1964.He is the last...

 was asked to become Prime Minister ahead of Rab Butler
Rab Butler
Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden, KG CH DL PC , who invariably signed his name R. A. Butler and was familiarly known as Rab, was a British Conservative politician...

.

During the period between the time it is clear that the incumbent government has been defeated at a general election, and the actual swearing-in of the new prime minister by the monarch or governor-general, that person is variously referred to as the "prime minister-elect", "...-designate" etc. Neither term is strictly correct from a constitutional point of view, but they have wide acceptance. In a situation in which a ruling party elects or appoints a new leader, the incoming leader will usually be referred as "prime minister-in-waiting". An example or this situation was in 2003 in Canada when Paul Martin
Paul Martin
Paul Edgar Philippe Martin, PC , also known as Paul Martin, Jr. is a Canadian politician who was the 21st Prime Minister of Canada, as well as leader of the Liberal Party of Canada....

 was elected leader of the Liberal Party of Canada
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada , colloquially known as the Grits, is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative...

 while Jean Chrétien
Jean Chrétien
Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien , known commonly as Jean Chrétien is a former Canadian politician who was the 20th Prime Minister of Canada. He served in the position for over ten years, from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003....

 was still prime minister.

  • Appointment by the head of state after parliament nominates a candidate: Example: The Republic of Ireland
    Republic of Ireland
    Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

     where the President of Ireland
    President of Ireland
    The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland. The President is usually directly elected by the people for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute...

     appoints the Taoiseach
    Taoiseach
    The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas , and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The current Taoiseach is...

     on the nomination of the Dáil Éireann
    Dáil Éireann
    Dáil Éireann is the lower house, but principal chamber, of the Oireachtas , which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann . It is directly elected at least once in every five years under the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote...

    .
  • The head of state nominates a candidate for prime minister who is then submitted to parliament for approval before appointment as prime minister: Example: Spain
    Spain
    Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

    , where the King sends a nomination to parliament for approval. Also Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

     where under the German Basic Law (constitution) the Bundestag
    Bundestag
    The Bundestag is a federal legislative body in Germany. In practice Germany is governed by a bicameral legislature, of which the Bundestag serves as the lower house and the Bundesrat the upper house. The Bundestag is established by the German Basic Law of 1949, as the successor to the earlier...

     votes on a candidate nominated by the federal president. In these cases, parliament can choose another candidate who then would be appointed by the head of state.
  • The head of state appoints a prime minister who has a set timescale within which s/he must gain a vote of confidence: (Example: Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    , Romania
    Romania
    Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

    , Thailand
    Thailand
    Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

    )
  • The head of state appoints the leader of the political party with the majority of the votes in the Parliament as Prime Minister: (Example: Greece
    Greece
    Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

    )
  • Direct election by parliament: (Example: Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    , Papua New Guinea
    Papua New Guinea
    Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands...

    , Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

    .)
  • Direct election by popular vote: (Example: Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    , 1996–2001, where the prime minister was elected in a general election, with no regard to political affiliation.)
  • Nomination by a state office holder other than the head of state or his/her representative: (Example: Under the modern Swedish Instrument of Government
    Constitution of Sweden
    The Swedish Constitution consists of four fundamental laws :* The 1810 Act of Succession * The 1949 Freedom of the Press Act * The 1974 Instrument of Government * The 1991 Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression...

    , the power to appoint someone to form a government has been moved from the monarch
    Monarch of Sweden
    The monarchy of Sweden is the constitutional monarchy of the Kingdom of Sweden. The present monarch, Carl XVI Gustaf, has reigned since 15 September 1973. He and his immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial and representational duties...

     to the Speaker of Parliament and the parliament itself. The speaker nominates a candidate, who is then elected to prime minister (statsminister) by the parliament if an absolute majority of the members of parliament does not vote no (i.e. he can be elected even if more MP:s vote no than yes).

Prime ministers and constitutions


The position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution.

Australia's constitution
Constitution of Australia
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the Australian Commonwealth Government operates. It consists of several documents. The most important is the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia...

 makes no mention of a Prime Minister of Australia
Prime Minister of Australia
The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the highest minister of the Crown, leader of the Cabinet and Head of Her Majesty's Australian Government, holding office on commission from the Governor-General of Australia. The office of Prime Minister is, in practice, the most powerful...

.

Bangladesh's constitution
Constitution of Bangladesh
The Constitution of Bangladesh is the supreme law of Bangladesh. It declares Bangladesh as a secular democratic republic where sovereignty belongs to the people; and lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles of the state and spells out the fundamental rights of citizens...

 clearly outlines the functions and powers of the Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Bangladesh
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Jatiya Sangsad Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate...

, and also details the process of his/her appointment and dismissal.

The People's Republic of China constitution
Constitution of the People's Republic of China
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is the highest law within the People's Republic of China. The current version was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982 with further revisions in 1988, 1993, 1999, and 2004. Three previous state constitutions—those of...

 set a premier
Premier of the People's Republic of China
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China , sometimes also referred to as the "Prime Minister" informally, is the Leader of the State Council of the People's Republic of China , who is the head of government and holds the highest-ranking of the Civil service of the...

 just one place below the president of the PRC. While the president deals with international problems, the premier deals with national problems. For example, the earth quake in 2008, the premier will be the first to arrive, then the president arrived after to just examine the situation. Premier read as (Simplified Chinese: 总理; pinyin
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

: Zŏnglĭ) in Chinese.

Canada's constitution
Constitution of Canada
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions. It outlines Canada's system of government, as well as the civil rights of all Canadian citizens and those in Canada...

, being a 'mixed' or hybrid constitution (a constitution that is partly formally codified and partly uncodified) originally did not make any reference whatsoever to a prime minister, with her or his specific duties and method of appointment instead dictated by "convention". In the Constitution Act, 1982
Constitution Act, 1982
The Constitution Act, 1982 is a part of the Constitution of Canada. The Act was introduced as part of Canada's process of "patriating" the constitution, introducing several amendments to the British North America Act, 1867, and changing the latter's name in Canada to the Constitution Act, 1867...

, passing reference to a "Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

" is added, though only regarding the composition of conferences
First Ministers conference
In Canada, a First Ministers' conference is a meeting of the provincial and territorial premiers and the Prime Minister. These events are held at the call of the prime minister and, since 1950, have typically been held annually...

 of federal and provincial first ministers.

Germany's Basic Law (1949) lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal chancellor.

Greece's constitution
Constitution of Greece
The Constitution of Greece , was created by the Fifth Revisional Parliament of the Hellenes and entered into force in 1975. It has been revised three times since, most significantly in 1986, and also in 2001 and in 2008. The Constitutional history of Greece goes back to the Greek War of...

 (1975) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Greece
Prime Minister of Greece
The Prime Minister of Greece , officially the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic , is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. The current interim Prime Minister is Lucas Papademos, a former Vice President of the European Central Bank, following...

.

India's constitution
Constitution of India
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens...

 (1950) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India , as addressed to in the Constitution of India — Prime Minister for the Union, is the chief of government, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament...

.

Ireland's constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann (1937), provides for the office of Taoiseach
Taoiseach
The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas , and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The current Taoiseach is...

 in detail, listing powers, functions and duties.

Italy's constitution
Constitution of Italy
The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 13 times, was promulgated in the extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 298 on 27 December 1947...

 (1948) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Italy
Prime minister of Italy
The Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government of the Italian Republic...

.

Japan's constitution
Constitution of Japan
The is the fundamental law of Japan. It was enacted on 3 May, 1947 as a new constitution for postwar Japan.-Outline:The constitution provides for a parliamentary system of government and guarantees certain fundamental rights...

 (1946) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
The is the head of government of Japan. He is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members, and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office...

.

Malta's constitution
Constitution of Malta
The current Constitution of Malta was adopted as a legal order on September 21, 1964, and is the self-declared supreme law of the land. Therefore, any law or action in violation of the Constitution is null and void...

 (1964) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malta
Prime Minister of Malta
The Prime Minister of Malta is the Head of Government of Malta.-Establishment of the office and developments:The office of "Head of Ministry" was created as soon as Malta was granted autonomous government in 1921. The 1921 constitution was suspended twice before being revoked...

.

Malaysia's constitution
Constitution of Malaysia
The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the States of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore joined the Federation...

 (1957) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Malaysia
Prime Minister of Malaysia
The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. He is officially appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, who in HM's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House of Representatives , the...

.

Pakistan's constitution
Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...

 (1973) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

.

Spain's constitution
Spanish Constitution of 1978
-Structure of the State:The Constitution recognizes the existence of nationalities and regions . Preliminary Title As a result, Spain is now composed entirely of 17 Autonomous Communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy, to the extent that, even though the Constitution...

 (1978) regulates the appointment, dismissal, powers, functions and duties of the President of the Government
Prime Minister of Spain
The President of the Government of Spain , sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the head of Government of Spain. The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978...

.

Thailand's constitution
Constitution of Thailand
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand is the supreme law of Thailand. Since the change from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional democracy in 1932, Thailand has had 17 charters and constitutions, reflecting the high degree of political instability and frequency of military coups faced...

 (1932) lists the powers, functions and duties of the Prime Minister of Thailand
Prime Minister of Thailand
The Prime Minister of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand. The Prime Minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet of Thailand. The post has existed since the Revolution of 1932, when the country became a constitutional monarchy....

.

The United Kingdom's constitution
Constitution of the United Kingdom
The constitution of the United Kingdom is the set of laws and principles under which the United Kingdom is governed.Unlike many other nations, the UK has no single core constitutional document. In this sense, it is said not to have a written constitution but an uncodified one...

, being uncodified and largely unwritten, makes no mention of a prime minister
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

. Though it had de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 existed for centuries, its first mention in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century. Accordingly, it is often said "not to exist", indeed there are several instances of parliament declaring this to be the case. The prime minister sits in the cabinet solely by virtue of occupying another office, either First Lord of the Treasury
First Lord of the Treasury
The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, and is now always also the Prime Minister...

 (office in commission), or more rarely Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister who is responsible for all economic and financial matters. Often simply called the Chancellor, the office-holder controls HM Treasury and plays a role akin to the posts of Minister of Finance or Secretary of the...

 (the last of whom was Balfour
Arthur Balfour
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, DL was a British Conservative politician and statesman...

 in 1905).

Exit from office


Most prime ministers in parliament
Parliament
A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French , the action of parler : a parlement is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which...

ary systems are not appointed for a specific term in office and in effect may remain in power through a number of election
Election
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy operates since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the...

s and parliaments. For example, Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990...

 was only ever appointed prime minister on one occasion, in 1979. She remained continuously in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each House of Commons
British House of Commons
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords . Both Commons and Lords meet in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 650 members , who are known as Members...

 after a general election
General election
In a parliamentary political system, a general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen. The term is usually used to refer to elections held for a nation's primary legislative body, as distinguished from by-elections and local elections.The term...

 to reshuffle her cabinet.

Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office of the parliament. Hence the Irish
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

 Taoiseach
Taoiseach
The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas , and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The current Taoiseach is...

 is formally 'renominated' after every general election. (Some constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

al experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest that a taoiseach
Taoiseach
The Taoiseach is the head of government or prime minister of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas , and must, in order to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil.The current Taoiseach is...

 should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election.) The position of prime minister is normally chosen from the political party that commands majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.

In parliamentary systems, government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

s are generally required to have the confidence of the lower house of parliament
Lower house
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide the lower house has come to wield more power...

 (though a small minority of parliaments, by giving a right to block supply
Loss of Supply
Loss of supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy using the Westminster System or a system derived from it is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. A...

 to upper house
Upper house
An upper house, often called a senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house; a legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral.- Possible specific characteristics :...

s, in effect make the cabinet
Cabinet (government)
A Cabinet is a body of high ranking government officials, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers, an Executive Council, or an Executive Committee.- Overview :...

 responsible to both houses, though in reality upper houses, even when they have the power, rarely exercise it). Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence
Motion of no confidence
A motion of no confidence is a parliamentary motion whose passing would demonstrate to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in the appointed government.-Overview:Typically, when a parliament passes a vote of no...

passed against them, or where they lose supply, most constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

al systems require either:

a) a letter of resignation or

b) a request for parliamentary dissolution.

The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition
Opposition (parliamentary)
Parliamentary opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. Note that this article uses the term government as it is used in Parliamentary systems, i.e. meaning the administration or the cabinet rather than the state...

 of parliament to the electorate. However in many jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility...

s a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In most modern parliamentary systems, the prime minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution.

Older constitutions often vest this power in the cabinet
Cabinet (government)
A Cabinet is a body of high ranking government officials, typically representing the executive branch. It can also sometimes be referred to as the Council of Ministers, an Executive Council, or an Executive Committee.- Overview :...

. (In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council
Executive Council (Commonwealth countries)
An Executive Council in Commonwealth constitutional practice based on the Westminster system is a constitutional organ which exercises executive power and advises the governor or governor-general. Executive Councils often make decisions via Orders in Council.Executive Councillors are informally...

(the then name for the Irish cabinet).

Titles


Different terms are used to describe prime ministers. In Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 the prime minister is actually titled Federal Chancellor . In the Russian constitution
Constitution of Russia
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on 25 December 1993, at the moment of its official publication...

 the prime minister is actually titled Chairman of the government while the Irish prime minister is called the (which is rendered into English as prime minister), and in Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 he is 'Rosh HaMemshalah' meaning head of government. In many cases, though commonly used, "prime minister" is not the official title of the office-holder; the Spanish prime minister is the President of the Government
President of the Government
President of the Government is a term used in official statements to describe several Prime Ministers:* Croatia, Prime Minister of Croatia* Russia, Prime Minister of Russia, Literally Chairman of the Government...

 .

Other common forms include president of the council of ministers
President of the Council of Ministers
The official title President of the Council of Ministers, or Chairman of the Council of Ministers is used to describe the head of government of the states of Italy and Poland, and formerly in the Soviet Union, Portugal, France , Spain , Brazil , and Luxembourg...

 (for example in Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

), President of the Executive Council
President of the Executive Council
President of the Executive Council may refer to:*The Governor-General or Governors of the Australian states in Australia and New Zealand, although the actual title is not used*A Premier of a Canadian Province...

, or Minister-President
Minister-President
A minister-president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments, in which a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government prevails, who presides over the council of ministers...

. In the Scandinavian countries the prime minister is called statsminister in the native languages (i.e. minister of state). In federation
Federation
A federation , also known as a federal state, is a type of sovereign state characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central government...

s, the head of government of subnational entities such as province
Province
A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.-Etymology:The English word "province" is attested since about 1330 and derives from the 13th-century Old French "province," which itself comes from the Latin word "provincia," which referred to...

s is most commonly known as the premier
Premier
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries and states.-Examples by country:In many nations, "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister"...

, chief minister
Chief Minister
A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

, governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

 or minister-president
Minister-President
A minister-president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments, in which a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government prevails, who presides over the council of ministers...

.

In non-Commonwealth countries the prime minister may be entitled to the style of Excellency
Excellency
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organization or state.Usually, people styled "Excellency" are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics, royalty, aristocracy, and military, and others holding equivalent rank .It is...

 like a president. In some Commonwealth countries prime ministers and former prime ministers are styled Right Honourable due to their position, for example in the Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

. In the United Kingdom the prime minister and former prime ministers may appear to also be styled Right Honourable, however this is not due to their position as head of government but as a privilege
Privilege
A privilege is a special entitlement to immunity granted by the state or another authority to a restricted group, either by birth or on a conditional basis. It can be revoked in certain circumstances. In modern democratic states, a privilege is conditional and granted only after birth...

 of being current members of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council.

In the UK where devolved government is in place, the leaders of the Scottish, Northern Irish
Northern Ireland Executive
The Northern Ireland Executive is the executive arm of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved legislature for Northern Ireland. It is answerable to the Assembly and was established according to the terms of the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which followed the Good Friday Agreement...

 and Welsh
Welsh Assembly Government
The Welsh Government is the devolved government of Wales. It is accountable to the National Assembly for Wales, the legislature which represents the interests of the people of Wales and makes laws for Wales...

 Governments are styled First Minister
First Minister
A First Minister is the leader of a government cabinet.-Canada:In Canada, "First Ministers" is a collective term that refers to all Canadian first ministers of the Crown, otherwise known as heads of government, including the Prime Minister of Canada and the provincial and territorial premiers...

.
In India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, The Prime Minister is referred to as "Pradhan Mantri", meaning "prime minister".
In Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, the prime minister is referred to as "Wazir-e-Azam", meaning "Grand Vizier".

Description of the role


Wilfried Martens
Wilfried Martens
Wilfried Martens is a Belgian politician. He was born in Sleidinge . Martens was the 44th Prime Minister of Belgium from 3 April 1979 to 6 April 1981 and 17 December 1981 to 7 March 1992....

, who served as Prime Minister of Belgium, described his role as follows:
First of all [the Prime Minister] must listen a lot, and when deep disagreements occur, he must suggest a solution to the matter. This can be done in different ways. Sometimes during the discussion, I note the elements of the problem and think of a proposal I can formulate to the Council (cabinet), the Secretary taking notes. The Ministers then insist on changing game ages. The Prime Minister can also make a proposal which leaves enough room for amendments in order to keep the current discussion on the right tracks. When a solution must be found in order to reach a consensus, he can force one or two Ministers to join or resign.

Lists of prime ministers


The following table groups the list of past and present prime ministers and details information available in those lists.
Government List starts Parties
shown
Term given by
years or dates
Incumbent
Abkhazia 1995
dates Leonid Lakerbaia
Leonid Lakerbaia
Leonid Ivan-ipa Lakerbaia is the Prime Minister of Abkhazia and chairman of the socio-political movement Aitaira...

Afghanistan
Prime Minister of Afghanistan
The Prime Minister of Afghanistan is a currently defunct post in the Afghan Government.The position was created in 1927, and was appointed by the king, mostly as an advisor, until the end of the monarchy in 1973...

1927
years (Post abolished)
Albania (List) 1912
years Sali Berisha
Sali Berisha
Sali Ram Berisha is an Albanian politician and cardiologist, currently the Prime Minister of Albania and the leader of Democratic Party of Albania ....

Algeria
Prime Minister of Algeria
The Prime Minister is the head of government of Algeria.The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Algeria, along with other ministers and members of the government that the new Prime Minister recommends. The People's National Assembly must approve the legislative program of the new...

1962 yes years Ahmed Ouyahia
Ahmed Ouyahia
Ahmed Ouyahia is an Algerian politician who has been Prime Minister of Algeria since June 2008. He was previously Prime Minister from 1995 to 1998 and from 2003 to 2006. A career diplomat, he also served as Minister of Justice, and was one of the founders and a president of the RND party...

Andorra
Head of Government of Andorra
The Head of Government is the chief executive of the government of the Principality of Andorra.The current Cap de Govern is Antoni Martí.-Heads of Government:-See also:*List of Co-Princes of Andorra...

1982
years Antoni Martí
Antoni Martí
Antoni Martí Petit is an Andorran architect and politician who is the country's head of government since 11 May 2011, following a parliamentary election in 2011...

Angola
Prime Minister of Angola
The Prime Minister of Angola is a high government official in Angola, but is not the head of government.Along with the rest of the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister is appointed by the President. The position was originally created when Angola achieved independence from Portugal on 11...

1975
dates (Post abolished)
Anguilla
Chief Minister of Anguilla
-List of Chief Ministers of Anguilla:...

1976 yes dates Hubert Hughes
Antigua and Barbuda 1981
years Baldwin Spencer
Baldwin Spencer
Winston Baldwin Spencer is the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda. He has been Prime Minister since March 24, 2004, when his party, the United Progressive Party , which he had led as the opposition party for several years, won a parliamentary election...

Armenia
Prime Minister of Armenia
The Prime Minister of Armenia is the most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to "oversee the Government's regular activities and coordinate the work of the Ministers." The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Armenia, but can be removed by...

1918 yes dates Tigran Sargsyan
Tigran Sargsyan
Tigran Sargsyan has been the Prime Minister of Armenia since 9 April 2008.Tigran Sargsyan was born in Kirovakan, Armenian SSR . From 1980 to 1983, he attended Leningrad's Voznesenski Financial and Economic Institute. From 1983 to 1987 his postgraduate education ended in obtaining PhD degree...

Aruba
Prime Minister of Aruba
The Prime Minister of Aruba is Aruba's head of government. Together with Aruba's Council of Ministers, they form the executive branch of Aruban government.-List of Prime Ministers of Aruba:...

1986
dates Mike Eman
Mike Eman
Michiel Godfried "Mike" Eman is an Aruban politician who is the 5th Prime Minister of Aruba and the current leader of the Aruban People's Party , which holds the new majority in the Aruban Estates as a result of the seventh Aruban General Elections held on 25 September 2009...

Australia
Prime Minister of Australia
The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the highest minister of the Crown, leader of the Cabinet and Head of Her Majesty's Australian Government, holding office on commission from the Governor-General of Australia. The office of Prime Minister is, in practice, the most powerful...

 (List)
1901 yes dates Julia Gillard
Julia Gillard
Julia Eileen Gillard is the 27th and current Prime Minister of Australia, in office since June 2010.Gillard was born in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, Wales and migrated with her family to Adelaide, Australia in 1966, attending Mitcham Demonstration School and Unley High School. In 1982 Gillard moved...

Austria
Chancellor of Austria
The Federal Chancellor is the head of government in Austria. Its deputy is the Vice-Chancellor. Before 1918, the equivalent office was the Minister-President of Austria. The Federal Chancellor is considered to be the most powerful political position in Austrian politics.-Appointment:The...

1918 yes years Werner Faymann
Werner Faymann
Werner Faymann is Chancellor of Austria and chairman of the Social Democratic Party SPÖ .-Background and earlier career:Born in Vienna, Austria, he studied law at the University of Vienna for two years but did not graduate....

Azerbaijan
Prime Minister of Azerbaijan
The Prime Minister of Azerbaijan is the head of government of Azerbaijan. The current prime minister is Artur Rasizade.-Prime Ministers:* Fath Ali Khan Khoyski * Nasib Yusifbeyli...

1918 yes dates Artur Rasizade
Artur Rasizade
Artur Tahir oğlu Rasizada , often spelled as Artur Rasizade , is the Prime Minister of Azerbaijan. Rasizada was a long-time Communist Party member during the Azerbaijan SSR period...

Bahamas 1967
dates Hubert Ingraham
Hubert Ingraham
Hubert Alexander Ingraham is the Prime Minister of the Bahamas. He first served as Prime Minister from August 1992 until May 2002 and became Prime Minister again in 2007. He is a member of the Free National Movement Party . The Rt. Hon. Hubert A...

Bahrain
Prime Minister of Bahrain
In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country. According to the Constitution of Bahrain, the Prime Minister is appointed directly by the King, and needs not be an elected member of the Council of Representatives....

1970
years Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

 Khalifah bin Sulman Al Khalifah
Bangladesh
Prime Minister of Bangladesh
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Jatiya Sangsad Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate...

1971 yes dates Sheikh Hasina
Sheikh Hasina
Sheikh Hasina is a Bangladeshi politician and current Prime Minister of Bangladesh. She has been the President of the Awami League, a major political party, since 1981. She is the eldest of five children of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh and widow of a reputed nuclear...

Barbados 1954 yes dates Freundel Stuart
Freundel Stuart
Freundel Jerome Stuart QC MP is the seventh Prime Minister of Barbados. He succeeded David Thompson, who died on 23 October 2010 of pancreatic cancer. He is a member of the Democratic Labour Party .-Personal life and career:...

Belarus 1919
dates Mikhail Myasnikovich
Mikhail Myasnikovich
Mikhail Uladzimiravich Myasnikovich is the current Prime Minister of Belarus. He was appointed Prime Minister by President Alexander Lukashenko following the 2010 presidential election.-Personal life:...

Belgium 1831 yes dates Yves Leterme
Yves Leterme
Yves Camille Désiré Leterme is a Flemish Belgian politician, a leader of the Christian Democratic and Flemish party , and the 48th Prime Minister of Belgium.Leterme was the Prime Minister of Belgium from March 2008 to December 2008...

Belize 1973 yes years Dean Barrow
Dean Barrow
Dean Oliver Barrow is Prime Minister of Belize and leader of the United Democratic Party. An attorney by trade, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1993 to 1998 and was then Leader of the Opposition until the UDP won the February 2008 election...

Benin
Heads of government of Benin
-Prime Ministers of Benin :-Affiliations:-Sources:*http://www.rulers.org/rulb1.html#benin*http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Benin.html*http://news.bbc.co.uk/...

1957 yes dates Pascal Koupaki
Pascal Koupaki
Pascal Irénée Koupaki is a Beninese politician who has been Prime Minister of Benin since May 2011. Koupaki worked as an official at the Central Bank of West African States and the International Monetary Fund , and he was Director of the Cabinet of the Prime Minister from 1996 to 1998...

Bermuda 1968 yes dates Paula Cox
Paula Cox
Paula Cox is the current Premier of Bermuda, and leader of the Bermuda Progressive Labour Party . The Hon. Paula A. Cox JP, MP was elected as Leader of the Progressive Labour Party on Thursday, 28 October 2010...

Bhutan 1952
dates Jigme Thinley
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1943
dates Nikola Špirić
Nikola Špiric
Dr. Nikola Špirić born September 4, 1956 in Drvar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, then Yugoslavia) is a Bosnian Serb politician and is the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina elected on 4 January 2007....

Botswana
Heads of government of Botswana
-Affiliations:Botswana Congress Party-Sources:* http://www.rulers.org/rulb1.html#botswana* African States and Rulers, John Stewart, McFarland...

1965 yes dates (Post abolished)
Brazil 1847 yes dates (Post abolished)
British Virgin Islands
Heads of government of the British Virgin Islands
The Head of Government of the British Virgin Islands is the Premier, until 2007 known as the Chief Minister.Party affiliations are as follows:*VIP—Virgin Islands Party*NDP—National Democratic Party...

1967 yes dates Ralph T. O'Neal
Ralph T. O'Neal
Ralph Telford O'Neal, OBE is the former Premier of the British Virgin Islands, and is expected to be appointed as the leader of the opposition...

Bulgaria 1879 yes dates Boyko Borisov
Boyko Borisov
Boyko Metodiev Borisov is a Bulgarian politician who has been Prime Minister of Bulgaria since July 2009. Previously he was Mayor of Sofia from 8 November 2005 until his election as Prime Minister....

Burkina Faso 1971
dates Luc-Adolphe Tiao
Luc-Adolphe Tiao
Luc-Adolphe Tiao is a Burkinabé politician and diplomat. Tiao was appointed Prime Minister of Burkina Faso by President Blaise Compaore on 18 April 2011. He had been the country's ambassador to France since 2008, and became Prime Minister after protests by students, military personnel and...

Burundi
Heads of government of Burundi
-List of Heads of Government of Burundi:-Affiliations:-See also:*Burundi**Kings of Burundi**Presidents of Burundi**Vice-Presidents of Burundi**Provincial governors of Burundi...

1961 yes dates (Post abolished)
Cambodia 1945
years Hun Sen
Hun Sen
Hun Sen is the current Prime Minister of Cambodia.He has been the sole leader of the Cambodian People's Party , which has governed Cambodia since the Vietnamese-backed overthrow of the Khmer Rouge in 1979...

Cameroon
Prime Minister of Cameroon
Under the current constitution of Cameroon, the Prime Minister of Cameroon is a relatively powerless executive. While the Prime Minister is officially appointed to be the head of government, the President retains most of the executive power and can fire the Prime Minister at will.-History:The...

1960
dates Philémon Yang
Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

 (List)
1867 yes dates Stephen Harper
Stephen Harper
Stephen Joseph Harper is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party. Harper became prime minister when his party formed a minority government after the 2006 federal election...

Cape Verde 1975
dates José Maria Neves
José Maria Neves
José Maria Pereira Neves on the island of Santiago , is the Prime Minister of Cape Verde.“José Maria Neves became interested in the politics and government of Cape Verde as a teen-ager.” “He was the leader of a nationalist youth organization during the country’s transition from Portuguese rule to...

Cayman Islands
Leader of Government Business
The Premier of the Cayman Islands is the political leader and head of government. The post of Premier in the Cayman Islands is the equivalent to Chief Minister or Prime Minister in other British Overseas Territories. It is the highest political level that can be attained within the British colonial...

1992 yes dates McKeeva Bush
McKeeva Bush
William McKeeva Bush, OBE , is a Caymanian politician and the current Premier of the Cayman Islands. He also serves as leader of the United Democratic Party and the first elected member for West Bay...

Central African Republic 1958
dates Faustin-Archange Touadéra
Faustin-Archange Touadéra
Faustin-Archange Touadéra has been Prime Minister of the Central African Republic since January 2008.-Background and academic career:Touadéra was born in Bangui; his family was originally from Damara, to the north of Bangui...

Chad 1978
dates Emmanuel Nadingar
Emmanuel Nadingar
Emmanuel Djelassem Nadingar is a Chadian politician who has been Prime Minister of Chad since March 2010.-Political career:A native of Bebidja in southwestern Chad, Nadingar was born in 1951. He obtained a degree in accounting in Brazzaville....

People's Republic of China
Premier of the People's Republic of China
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China , sometimes also referred to as the "Prime Minister" informally, is the Leader of the State Council of the People's Republic of China , who is the head of government and holds the highest-ranking of the Civil service of the...

 (List)
1949
dates Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

Comoros
Heads of government of the Comoros
-List of Heads of Government of the Comoros:-Affiliations:-See also:*Comoros**Heads of state of the Comoros**Colonial heads of the Comoros*Lists of office-holders...

1957 yes dates (Post abolished)
Congo (Brazzaville)
Heads of government of the Republic of the Congo
-List of Heads of Government of the Republic of the Congo :-Affiliations:-See also:*Congo*Republic of the Congo**List of heads of state of the Republic of the Congo...

1957 yes dates (Post abolished)
Congo (Kinshasa)
Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo , is Congo's Head of Government.-History:The current Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is Adolphe Muzito...

 (List)
1960 yes dates Adolphe Muzito
Adolphe Muzito
Adolphe Muzito is a Congolese politician who has been the Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since 2008. Muzito, a member of the Unified Lumumbist Party , was previously Minister of the Budget under Prime Minister Antoine Gizenga from 2007 to 2008.Muzito, who is from Gungu,...

Cook Islands
Prime Minister of the Cook Islands
The Prime Minister of the Cook Islands is the official rsponsible for heading Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II's government in the Cook Islands, a self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand. The office was established in 1965, when self-government was first granted to the islands...

1965 yes dates Henry Puna
Henry Puna
Henry Tuakeu Puna is the current Prime Minister of the Cook Islands. He is leader of the Cook Islands Party.-Early life:Puna grew up in Aitutaki. He was educated on Aitutaki and Rarotonga before studying law at the University of Auckland in New Zealand and the University of Tasmania in Australia...

Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
Heads of government of Côte d'Ivoire
-Prime Ministers of Côte d'Ivoire :-Affiliations:-Sources:*http://www.rulers.org* Guinness Book of Kings Rulers & Statesmen, Clive Carpenter, Guinness Superlatives Ltd...

1957 yes dates Guillaume Soro
Guillaume Soro
Guillaume Kigbafori Soro has served as the Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire since 4 April 2007...

Croatia 1939
dates Jadranka Kosor
Jadranka Kosor
Jadranka Kosor is a Croatian politician and former journalist. She is the current Prime Minister of Croatia, having taken office on July 6, 2009, following the sudden resignation of her predecessor Ivo Sanader. She is Croatia's first female Prime Minister since independence.-Early life:Jadranka...

Cuba 1940
dates Raúl Castro
Raúl Castro
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who has been President of the Council of State of Cuba and the President of the Council of Ministers of Cuba since 2008; he previously exercised presidential powers in an acting capacity from 2006 to 2008...

Curaçao
Prime Minister of Curaçao
The Prime Minister of Curaçao became the head of government of Curaçao after the Netherlands Antilles had been dissolved on 10 October 2010. The Prime Minister, together with the his Council of Ministers and the Governor of Curaçao form the executive branch of the government of Curaçao...

2010
dates Gerrit Schotte
Gerrit Schotte
Gerrit Fransisco Schotte is a politician from Curaçao, and the current leader of the Movementu Futuro Kòrsou . In the Curaçao general election of August 27, 2010, the MFK became the second largest party with 5 seats in the Island Council. MFK formed an island government together with Pueblo...

Northern Cyprus 1983 yes dates İrsen Küçük
İrsen Küçük
İrsen Küçük is the current Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. He is the nephew of Republic of Cyprus's first Vice-President Dr Fazıl Küçük.- References :...

Czech Republic 1993
years Petr Nečas
Petr Necas
Petr Nečas is the current Prime Minister of the Czech Republic and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party. He was sworn into office on 28 June 2010....

Denmark
Prime Minister of Denmark
The Prime Minister of Denmark is the head of government in Danish politics. The Prime Minister is traditionally the leader of a political coalition in the Folketing and presides over the cabinet....

 (List)
1848
years Helle Thorning-Schmidt
Helle Thorning-Schmidt
Helle Thorning-Schmidt is a Danish politician and the current Prime Minister of Denmark. She has been leader of the Danish Social Democrats since April 2005 and prime minister since October 2011....

Djibouti 1977
dates Dileita Mohamed Dileita
Dileita Mohamed Dileita
Dileita Mohamed Dileita has been the Prime Minister of Djibouti since March 2001. He is the Vice-President of the main governing party, the People's Rally for Progress , and is the President of the governing coalition, the Union for a Presidential Majority .-Biography:Dileita was born in Tadjoura...

Dominica
Prime Minister of Dominica
The Prime Minister of Dominica is the head of government in the Commonwealth of Dominica. Nominally, the position was created on November 3, 1978 when Dominica gained independence from the United Kingdom...

1960
dates Roosevelt Skerrit
Roosevelt Skerrit
Roosevelt Skerrit is a Dominican politician who has been Prime Minister of Dominica since 2004; he has also been the Member of Parliament for the Vieille Case constituency since 2000...

East Timor
Prime Minister of East Timor
The Prime Minister of Timor-Leste is the head of government in East Timor. The President is the head of state. The Prime Minister is chosen by the political party or alliance of political parties with a majority in the national legislature and is formally appointed by the president...

2002
dates Xanana Gusmão
Xanana Gusmão
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão GCL is a former militant who was the first President of East Timor, serving from May 2002 to May 2007...

Egypt
Prime Minister of Egypt
The Prime Minister of Egypt is the head of the Egyptian government. According to the constitution, the prime minister is the leader of the largest political party in the Egyptian Parliament....

 (List)
1878
years Essam Sharaf
Essam Sharaf
Essam Abdel-Aziz Sharaf is an Egyptian academic who has been Prime Minister of Egypt since 3 March 2011. He served as Minister of Transportation from 2004 to 2005.-Early life and education:...

Equatorial Guinea 1963
dates Ignacio Milam Tang
Ignacio Milam Tang
Ignacio Milam Tang is an Equatoguinean politician who has been Prime Minister of Equatorial Guinea since July 2008. He is a member of the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea .-Political career:...

Estonia
Prime Minister of Estonia
The Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. The prime minister is nominated by the President after appropriate consultations with the parliamentary factions and confirmed by the Parliament. In case of disagreement, the Parliament can reject the President's...

1918
dates Andrus Ansip
Andrus Ansip
Andrus Ansip is the current Prime Minister of Estonia, and chairman of the market liberal Estonian Reform Party .-Early life and career:...

Ethiopia
Heads of government of Ethiopia
This page contains a list of the Prime Ministers of Ethiopia.-Heads of Government of Ethiopia :-Affiliations:-See also:*List of Emperors of Ethiopia...

1942 yes dates Meles Zenawi
Meles Zenawi
Meles Zenawi Asres is the Prime Minister of Ethiopia. Since 1985, he has been chairman of the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front , and is currently head of the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front .Meles was born in Adwa, Tigray in Northern Ethiopia, to an Ethiopian father from...

Faroe Islands
Prime Minister of the Faroe Islands
This is a list of Prime Ministers of the Faroe Islands.The Faroese term for the function, Løgmaður literally means "Lawman".-First Ministers :-First Ministers :-See also:...

1946
years Kaj Leo Johannesen
Kaj Leo Johannesen
- Handball Player for Kyndil :Kaj Leo Johannesen is not only a former football player, he is also a former handball player. He played 163 matches for Kyndil and scored 625 goals for the club.- Extern Links :* , The Prime Minister of the Faroe Islands* * * *...

Fiji 1966
dates Frank Bainimarama
Frank Bainimarama
Commodore Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama, CF, MSD, OStJ, Fijian Navy, known commonly as Frank Bainimarama and sometimes by the chiefly title Ratu , is a Fijian naval officer and politician. He is the Commander of the Fijian Military Forces and, as of April 2009, Prime Minister...

 (interim)
Finland
Prime Minister of Finland
The Prime Minister is the Head of Government of Finland. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, who is the Head of State. The current Prime Minister is Jyrki Katainen of the National Coalition Party.-Overview:...

1917 yes years Jyrki Katainen
Jyrki Katainen
Jyrki Tapani Katainen is the Prime Minister of Finland and chairman of the country's largest party, the National Coalition Party.-Career:...

France
Prime Minister of France
The Prime Minister of France in the Fifth Republic is the head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France. The head of state is the President of the French Republic...

 (List)
1589
years François Fillon
François Fillon
François Charles Armand Fillon is the Prime Minister of France. He was appointed to that office by President Nicolas Sarkozy on 17 May 2007. He served initially until 13 November 2010 when he resigned from being prime minister before a planned cabinet reshuffle.On 14 November 2010, Sarkozy...

Gabon
Heads of government of Gabon
-Prime Ministers of Gabon :-Affiliations:- Sources :* http://www.rulers.org/rulg1.html#gabon...

1957 yes dates Paul Biyoghé Mba
Paul Biyoghé Mba
Paul Biyoghé Mba is a Gabonese politician who has been Prime Minister of Gabon since July 2009. A member of the Gabonese Democratic Party , he served for years as a minister in the government prior to his appointment as Prime Minister....

The Gambia
Heads of Government of the Gambia
-List of Heads of Government of The Gambia:-Affiliations:*UP - United Party*PPP - People's Progressive Party*APRC - Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction...

1961
dates (Post abolished)
Ghana
Prime Minister of Ghana
The Prime Minister of Ghana was the head of government of Ghana from 1957 to 1960 and again from 1969 to 1972.-History of the office:The country's first leader and Prime Minister was Kwame Nkrumah of the Convention People's Party...

1957
dates (Post abolished)
Georgia
Prime Minister of Georgia
The Prime Minister of Georgia is the most senior minister within the Cabinet of Georgia, appointed by the President of Georgia. The official title of the Head of the Government of Georgia has varied throughout history, however, the duties and functions of the leader have changed only marginally....

1918 yes dates Nikoloz Gilauri
Nikoloz Gilauri
Nika Gilauri is a Georgian politician who has been serving as Prime Minister of Georgia since February 6, 2009. He had served as Minister for Energy and later as Minister for Finance and First Vice Prime Minister in the Cabinet of Georgia....

Germany (List) 1871/1949 yes dates Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Angela Dorothea Merkel is the current Chancellor of Germany . Merkel, elected to the Bundestag from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, has been the chairwoman of the Christian Democratic Union since 2000, and chairwoman of the CDU-CSU parliamentary coalition from 2002 to 2005.From 2005 to 2009 she led a...

Gibraltar
Chief Minister of Gibraltar
The Chief Minister of Gibraltar is the leader of the largest party elected to the Gibraltar Parliament, and is formally appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, representative of the British Crown.-List of Chief Ministers:...

1964 yes dates Peter Caruana
Peter Caruana
Peter Richard Caruana, QC is a Gibraltarian politician, and has been Chief Minister of Gibraltar since 1996, when his party, the Gibraltar Social Democrats , first came to power. His party was re-elected to office in 2000, 2003 and 2007...

Greece
Prime Minister of Greece
The Prime Minister of Greece , officially the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic , is the head of government of the Hellenic Republic and the leader of the Greek cabinet. The current interim Prime Minister is Lucas Papademos, a former Vice President of the European Central Bank, following...

 (List)
1833
dates George Papandreou
Greenland 1979
years Kuupik Kleist
Kuupik Kleist
Jakob Edvard Kuupik Kleist is a Socialist and Left-wing Greenlandic politician. He became the fifth Prime Minister of Greenland in 2009, the first from the Inuit Ataqatigiit political party....

Grenada 1954
years Tillman Thomas
Tillman Thomas
Tillman Joseph Thomas is a Grenadian politician, currently serving as Prime Minister of Grenada. He is also the leader of the National Democratic Congress .-Biography:...

Guernsey
Chief Minister of Guernsey
The Chief Minister of Guernsey chairs the Policy Council, which consists of the heads of each of the ten government departments of the States of Guernsey. Guernsey operates a system of consensus, committees-based government...

2007
dates Lyndon Trott
Lyndon Trott
Lyndon Trott was born on 17 July 1964 from St. Sampson, Guernsey and he is the current Chief Minister of Guernsey. He was elected to the position on 1 May 2008 and his term of office will expire on 30 April 2012. He was re-elected as a Deputy for the electoral district of St. Sampson in the...

Guinea 1972
dates Mohamed Said Fofana
Mohamed Said Fofana
Mohamed Said Fofana is the Prime Minister of Guinea. He was appointed by President Alpha Condé on December 24, 2010. His previous role was director of economic research at the commerce ministry.-References:...

Guinea-Bissau
Heads of government of Guinea-Bissau
-Prime Ministers of Guinea-Bissau :-Affiliations:-See also:*Guinea-Bissau**List of heads of state of Guinea-Bissau**List of colonial heads of Portuguese Guinea...

1973
dates Carlos Gomes Júnior
Carlos Gomes Júnior
Carlos Domingos Gomes Júnior is the Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau. He was previously Prime Minister from 10 May 2004 to 2 November 2005, and he was again appointed to that post on 25 December 2008...

Guyana 1953
dates Sam Hinds
Sam Hinds
Samuel Archibald Anthony Hinds is a Guyanese politician who has been Prime Minister of Guyana almost continuously since 1992...

Haiti 1988
dates Garry Conille
Garry Conille
Dr. Garry Conille is a Haitian academic, development worker, author, and current Prime Minister of Haiti.-Early life:...

Hungary (List) 1848
dates Viktor Orbán
Viktor Orbán
Viktor Orbán is a Hungarian populist and conservative politician and current Prime Minister of Hungary...

Iceland
Prime Minister of Iceland
The Prime Minister of Iceland is Iceland's head of government. The prime minister is appointed formally by the President and exercises executive authority along with the cabinet subject to parliamentary support....

1904
dates Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir , , is the Prime Minister of Iceland. Many years a politician, she was previously Iceland's Minister of Social Affairs and Social Security from 1987–1994 and 2007–2009. She has been a member of the Althing for Reykjavík constituencies since 1978, winning re-election on eight...

India
Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India , as addressed to in the Constitution of India — Prime Minister for the Union, is the chief of government, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament...

 (List)
1947 yes dates Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh is the 13th and current Prime Minister of India. He is the only Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full five-year term. A Sikh, he is the first non-Hindu to occupy the office. Singh is also the 7th Prime Minister belonging to the Indian...

Indonesia 1945 yes dates (Post abolished)
Iran
Prime Minister of Iran
Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.-Prime Ministers of Qajar era:In the Qajar era, prime ministers were known by...

 (List)
1824
years (Post abolished)
Iraq 1920
years Nouri al-Maliki
Nouri al-Maliki
Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki , also known as Jawad al-Maliki or Abu Esraa, is the Prime Minister of Iraq and the secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party. Al-Maliki and his government succeeded the Iraqi Transitional Government. He is currently in his second term as Prime Minister...

Ireland 1937 yes dates Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny is an Irish Fine Gael politician, and has been the Taoiseach since 2011. He has led Fine Gael since 2002. He served as Minister for Tourism and Trade from 1994 to 1997. He is also a two-term Vice President of the European People's Party.Kenny has been a Teachta Dála for Mayo since...

Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of the Israeli government and the most powerful political figure in Israel . The prime minister is the country's chief executive. The official residence of the prime minister, Beit Rosh Hamemshala is in Jerusalem...

 (List)
1948
years Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu is the current Prime Minister of Israel. He serves also as the Chairman of the Likud Party, as a Knesset member, as the Health Minister of Israel, as the Pensioner Affairs Minister of Israel and as the Economic Strategy Minister of Israel.Netanyahu is the first and, to...

Italy
Prime minister of Italy
The Prime Minister of Italy is the head of government of the Italian Republic...

 (List)
1861
years Mario Monti
Mario Monti
Mario Monti is an Italian economist and academic who is Prime Minister of Italy, as well as Minister of Economy and Finance, since November 2011. Monti served as a European Commissioner from 1995 to 2004, with responsibility for the Internal Market, Services, Customs and Taxation from 1995 to 1999...

Jamaica
Prime Minister of Jamaica
The Prime Minister of Jamaica is Jamaica's head of government, currently Andrew Holness. Andrew Holness was elected as the new leader of the governing Jamaica Labour Party and succeeded Bruce Golding to become Jamaica's ninth Prime Minister on 23 October 2011...

1959
years Andrew Holness
Andrew Holness
Andrew Holness is Prime Minister of Jamaica since October 2011, and was Minister of Education since 2007.Holness attended St. Catherine High School and later graduated from the University of the West Indies...

Japan
Prime Minister of Japan
The is the head of government of Japan. He is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members, and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office...

 (List)
1885
dates Yoshihiko Noda
Yoshihiko Noda
is the current Prime Minister of Japan, a member of the Democratic Party of Japan , and a member of the House of Representatives in the Diet...

Jersey
Chief Minister of Jersey
The Chief Minister of Jersey is the head of government of Jersey. The head of government is not directly elected by the people but rather by the legislature ....

2005
dates Terry Le Sueur
Terry Le Sueur
Terry Le Sueur was Chief Minister of Jersey between 2008 and 2011.He was born at Millbrook, Saint Helier, and was educated at De La Salle College, Jersey and Oxford University, where he was the King Charles Exhibitioner at Jesus College; and read physics...

Jordan 1944
dates Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh
Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh
Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh is the Prime Minister of Jordan. He was a judge at International Court of Justice beginning in 2000, and re-elected to serve another nine-year term on November 6, 2008.-Career:...

Kazakhstan
Prime Minister of Kazakhstan
-Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars:*Viktor Radus-Zenkovich *Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev *Saken Seyfullin *Nygmet Nurmakov...

1920
years Karim Massimov
Karim Massimov
Karim Qajymqanuly Massimov has served as Prime Minister in the Government of Kazakhstan since 10 January 2007.Massimov is fluent in Kazakh, Russian, Chinese, English, and Arabic. He studied in China and worked in Hong Kong where he headed Kazakhstan's trading operations. At the same time, he is...

Kenya
Prime Minister of Kenya
The Prime Minister of Kenya is a post in the Kenyan government. The first Prime Minister of Kenya was Jomo Kenyatta who became Prime Minister in 1963. In 1964, Kenya became a Republic and the post of Prime Minister was abolished and Jomo Kenyatta assumed the position of President...

1963
dates Raila Odinga
Raila Odinga
Raila Amollo Odinga , also popularly known to Kenyans as Agwambo, is a Kenyan politician, currently serving as the Prime Minister of Kenya in a coalition government. He has served as a Member of Parliament for Langata since 1992, was Minister of Energy from 2001 to 2002, and was Minister of Roads,...

North Korea 1948
years Choe Yong-rim
Choe Yong-rim
Choe Yong-rim is the Premier of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea since May 2011 and Workers' Party of Korea central committee presidium member since September 2010., KCNA, 29 September 2010.Choe is described by the New York Times as a "KWP insider" and a...

South Korea
Prime Minister of South Korea
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea is appointed by the President with the National Assembly's approval. Unlike prime ministers in the parliamentary system, the Prime Minister of South Korea is not required to be a member of parliament....

 (List)
1948
years Kim Hwang-sik
Kim Hwang-sik
Kim Hwang-sik is a South Korean lawyer and politician. He is the former Chairperson of the Board of Audit and Inspection. He became the Prime Minister of South Korea on 1 October 2010.-Biography:...

Kosovo
Prime Minister of Kosovo
The Prime Minister of Kosovo is Head of Government of the disputed Republic of Kosovo .The Prime Minister and the Government of Kosovo, which he or she heads, are responsible for their actions to the Assembly of Kosovo, of which they must all be members...

1945 yes dates Hashim Thaçi
Hashim Thaci
Hashim Thaçi is the Prime Minister of Republic of Kosovo, the leader of the Democratic Party of Kosovo , and former political leader of the Kosovo Liberation Army .-Early life and education:...

Kuwait 1962 yes dates Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

 Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah
Sheikh Jaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah is a Kuwaiti politician who currently serves as Prime Minister of Kuwait since 30 November 2011. He previously was First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defence....

Kyrgyzstan
Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan
The Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan is the head of government of Kyrgyzstan. Generally, the President is in a stronger position than the Prime Minister in Kyrgyzstan. The president is allowed to appoint the Prime Minister temporarily, and his appointment is known as the acting Prime Minister...

1924
dates Almazbek Atambayev
Almazbek Atambayev
Almazbek Sharshenovich Atambayev is the President of Kyrgyzstan since 1 December 2011. He previously was Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan from 17 December 2010 to 1 December 2011, having also been Prime Minister from 29 March 2007 until 28 November 2007...

Laos
Prime Minister of Laos
The Prime Minister of Laos is the head of government of the People's Democratic Republic of Laos.-Prime Ministers:-Trivia:Between December 1959 to December 1960, Laos had 6 different Prime Ministers, after being ousted by 6 different political coups....

1941
years Thongsing Thammavong
Thongsing Thammavong
Thongsing Thammavong is a Laotian politician. He is a member of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party and has been a member of the LPRP Politburo since 1991. He currently serves in the National Assembly of Laos, representing Luang Prabang Province , and was the President of the National Assembly...

Latvia
Prime Minister of Latvia
The Prime Minister of Latvia is the most powerful member of the Government of the Republic of Latvia, and presides over the Latvian Cabinet of Ministers...

1918 yes dates Valdis Dombrovskis
Valdis Dombrovskis
Valdis Dombrovskis is the Prime Minister of Latvia. He previously served as Latvia's Minister of Finance and as a Member of the European Parliament for the New Era Party.-Education and science career:...

Lebanon 1926
dates Najib Mikati
Najib Mikati
Najib Azmi Mikati is a Lebanese politician, billionaire and is the current Prime Minister of Lebanon since 13 June 2011. From April 2005 to July 2005 he was Prime Minister of Lebanon in a caretaker government...

Lesotho 1965 yes dates Pakalitha Mosisili
Pakalitha Mosisili
Bethuel Pakalitha Mosisili has been the Prime Minister of Lesotho since May 29, 1998. He led his party, the Lesotho Congress for Democracy , to a near-total victory in the 1998 election, and under his leadership the party also won majorities in the 2002 and 2007 elections...

Libya 1951
dates Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril
Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally , also transcribed Jabril or Jebril or Gebril, is a Libyan politician who served as the interim Prime Minister of Libya for seven and a half months during the 2011 Libyan civil war, chairing the executive board of the National Transitional Council from 5 March 2011 to 23...

Liechtenstein 1921 yes dates Klaus Tschütscher
Lithuania
Prime Minister of Lithuania
The Prime Minister of Lithuania is the head of the executive arm of Lithuania's government, and is chosen by the Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas. The modern office of Prime Minister was established in 1990, although the official title was "Chairperson of the Council of Ministers" until 25...

1918 yes dates Andrius Kubilius
Andrius Kubilius
Andrius Kubilius is a Lithuanian politician who has been Prime Minister of Lithuania since 2008. He previously served as Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000. He is the leader of the conservative political party Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats.- Biography :Kubilius was born at Vilnius...

Luxembourg 1959
years Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker is a Luxembourg politician, 23rd and current Prime Minister of Luxembourg, since 20 January 1995. He is the longest standing head of government of any European Union state...

Macedonia
Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia is the head of government of the Republic of Macedonia. He or she is the leader of a political coalition in the Macedonian parliament and the leader of the cabinet...

1943 yes dates Nikola Gruevski
Nikola Gruevski
Nikola Gruevski has been Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia since 27 August 2006. He has led VMRO-DPMNE since May 2003. He was Minister of Finance in the VMRO-DPMNE government led by Ljubčo Georgievski until September 2002.- Personal life :...

Madagascar 1833
dates Omer Beriziky
Omer Beriziky
Jean Omer Beriziky is a Malagasy politician and diplomat who has been Prime Minister of Madagascar in the government of consensus of President Andry Rajoelina since 2011....

Malawi
Heads of government of Malawi
-List of Heads of Government of Malawi:-See also:*List of heads of state of Malawi*Lists of incumbents...

1963 yes dates (Post abolished)
Malaysia
Prime Minister of Malaysia
The Prime Minister of Malaysia is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. He is officially appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the head of state, who in HM's judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the members of that House of Representatives , the...

1957 yes years Najib Razak
Mali
Heads of government of Mali
-List of Heads of Government of Mali:-Affiliations:-External links:*...

1957 yes dates Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé
Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé
Cissé Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé is a Malian politician and the current incumbent prime minister of the country, the first woman to be appointed to the position in Mali's history. She was announced to the position by decree on 3 April 2011, replacing Modibo Sidibé.-Early career:Mariam Kaïdama Sidibé...

Malta
Prime Minister of Malta
The Prime Minister of Malta is the Head of Government of Malta.-Establishment of the office and developments:The office of "Head of Ministry" was created as soon as Malta was granted autonomous government in 1921. The 1921 constitution was suspended twice before being revoked...

1921 yes years Lawrence Gonzi
Lawrence Gonzi
Lawrence Gonzi is a Maltese politician who has been Prime Minister of Malta since 2004. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives of Malta from 1988 to 1996, Minister of Social Policy from 1998 to 1999, and Deputy Prime Minister from 1999 to 2004...

Isle of Man
Chief Minister of the Isle of Man
The Chief Minister is the executive head of the Isle of Man Government.The office derives from that of Chairman of the Executive Council. Before 1980 the Executive Council was chaired by the Lieutenant Governor, but thereafter the chairman was elected by Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man...

1986
years Allan Bell
Allan Bell
The Honourable Allan Robert Bell MHK is a Manx politician, who is the current Chief Minister of the Isle of Man, having been elected to that position on October 11, 2011. He was formerly the Minister for Economic Development of the Isle of Man Government and is Member of the House of Keys for...

Mauritania
Heads of government of Mauritania
-List of Heads of Government of Mauritania:-Affiliations:-See also:*Mauritania**Heads of State of Mauritania**Colonial Heads of Mauritania*Lists of office-holders-External links:*...

1957 yes dates Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf
Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf
Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf has served as the Prime Minister of Mauritania since August 2008.Laghdaf was born in Néma. An engineer and a member of the Tajakant tribe, he became Mauritania's Ambassador to Belgium and the European Union in 2006 before being appointed as Prime Minister by junta...

Mauritius 1961 yes dates Navin Ramgoolam
Navin Ramgoolam
Navinchandra Ramgoolam, GCSK, FRCP, MP is the Prime Minister of Mauritius, Minister of Defence, Home Affairs & External Communications, as well as Leader of the National Assembly. Being the leader of the Mauritian Labour Party, he serves as Member of parliament for constituency No...

Moldova 1990
dates Vlad Filat
Vlad Filat
Vladimir Filat is a Moldovan politician, the Prime Minister of Moldova since 25 September 2009.- Education and early career :...

Monaco
Minister of State (Monaco)
The Minister of State is the head of the government of Monaco, though he is appointed by and subordinate to the Prince or Princess of Monaco. During his term, he is responsible for leading the government's action and is in charge of foreign relations...

1911 n/a dates Michel Roger
Michel Roger
Michel Roger is the current Minister of State of Monaco.He had been a member of the High Court of Monaco since 2007.He assumed office on the 29th March 2010, following his appointment by Prince Albert II....

Mongolia
Prime Minister of Mongolia
The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the highest member of the Mongolian government's executive arm, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by Parliament, and can be removed by a vote of no confidence.-Powers:...

1912 yes dates Sükhbaataryn Batbold
Sükhbaataryn Batbold
Sükhbaataryn Batbold is the Prime Minister of Mongolia. He was previously the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the government of his predecessor, Sanjaagiin Bayar.-Education and Personal Life:...

Montenegro
Prime Minister of Montenegro
The Prime Minister of Montenegro , is the head of the Government of Montenegro. The role of the Prime Minister is to direct the work of the Government, and to submit to the Parliament the Government's Program, including a list of proposed ministers...

1879 yes dates Igor Lukšić
Igor Lukšic
Igor Lukšić is the Prime Minister in the Government of Montenegro. His family roots trace back to Crmnica...

Montserrat
Chief Minister of Montserrat
The Chief Minister of Montserrat is the head of government of Montserrat, an island in the Caribbean that is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, appointed by the Governor of Montserrat on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II, Montserrat's head of state. The current Chief Minister of Montserrat is...

1960 yes dates Reuben Meade
Reuben Meade
Reuben Theodor Meade is a politician from Montserrat, a veteran lawmaker and the current Premier since 27 September 2011. He served previously as the territory's chief minister from 10 October 1991 to 13 November 1996. His party is called Movement for Change and Prosperity . He previously led the...

Morocco 1955 yes years Abbas El Fassi
Abbas El Fassi
Abbas El Fassi was the Prime Minister of Morocco from 19 September 2007 to 29 November 2011. El Fassi, a member of the Istiqlal Party, replaced independent Driss Jettou.El Fassi was born in Berkane, Morocco on September 18, 1940...

Mozambique
Heads of government of Mozambique
-Prime Ministers of Mozambique :-Affiliations:FRELIMO = Frente da Libertação de Moçambique RENAMO = Resistencia Nacional Moçambicana -See also:*Colonial Heads of Mozambique*Heads...

1974 yes dates Aires Ali
Aires Ali
Aires Bonifácio Baptista Ali is the Prime Minister of Mozambique since 16 January 2010. He served as governor of Inhambane Province and as Minister of Education .-Notes:...

Myanmar (Burma) 1948 yes dates (Post abolished)
Nagorno-Karabakh
Prime Minister of Nagorno-Karabakh
-List of Prime Ministers of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic :-See also:*President of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic...

1992 no dates Arayik Harutyunyan
Arayik Harutyunyan
Arayik Vladimirovich Harutyunyan is the current Prime Minister of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. He was suggested by the President of Nagorno-Karabakh Bako Sahakyan and was unanimously approved by the Parliament of Karabakh on 14 September 2007, by 32 out of 32 present parliamentarians.-In...

Namibia
Prime Minister of Namibia
-Prime Ministers of Namibia :-See also:*Namibia**Politics of Namibia**List of colonial heads of Namibia **List of Presidents of Namibia...

1990 yes dates Nahas Angula
Nahas Angula
Nahas Gideon Angula is the current Prime Minister of Namibia. He entered into office on March 21, 2005, when his appointment was announced by new president Hifikepunye Pohamba during the latter's inauguration. Angula received a master's degree in education from Columbia University.Angula was...

Nepal 1953
dates Baburam Bhattarai
Baburam Bhattarai
Dr. Baburam Bhattarai is a Nepalese politician who became the 35th Prime Minister of Nepal in August 2011. He is a senior Standing Committee Member and vice chairperson of Unified Communist Party of Nepal . His party started a revolutionary People's War in Nepal in 1996 that ultimately led to the...

Netherlands
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands. He is the de facto head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates the policy of the government...

 (List)
1848 yes dates Mark Rutte
Mark Rutte
Mark Rutte is a Dutch politician who has been Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 14 October 2010, as well as Minister of General Affairs in the Rutte cabinet...

New Zealand
Prime Minister of New Zealand
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealand's head of government consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand...

 (List)
1856 yes dates John Key
John Key
John Phillip Key is the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand, in office since 2008. He has led the New Zealand National Party since 2006....

Newfoundland 1855 yes dates (Post abolished)
Niger
Heads of government of Niger
-List of Heads of Government of Niger:-Affiliations:-See also:*Niger*List of colonial heads of Niger*Heads of State of Niger*Lists of Incumbents-References:*...

1958 yes dates Brigi Rafini
Brigi Rafini
Brigi Rafini is a Nigerien politician who has been Prime Minister of Niger since 2011. A native of Iférouane in Agadez Region and an ethnic Tuareg, Rafini was Minister of Agriculture in the late 1980s and Fourth Vice-President of the National Assembly of Niger from 2004 to 2009...

Niue
Premier of Niue
The Premier of Niue is Niue's head of government. He or she is elected by the Niue Assembly, and forms a Cabinet consisting of him- or herself and three other members of the Assembly....

1974
dates Toke Talagi
Toke Talagi
Toke Tufukia Talagi is the current premier of Niue. He was elected premier by the Niue Assembly on 19 June 2008, defeating the standing premier Young Vivian by fourteen votes to five, with one abstaining....

Norfolk Island
Heads of government of Norfolk Island
-List of Heads of Government of Norfolk Island:...

1896
dates David Buffett
David Buffett
David Ernest Buffett AM is a political figure from the Australian territory of Norfolk Island. He is the current Chief Minister of Norfolk Island since March 2010, a position he has held on three previous occasions...

Norway 1814 yes years Jens Stoltenberg
Jens Stoltenberg
is a Norwegian politician, leader of the Norwegian Labour Party and the current Prime Minister of Norway. Having assumed office on 17 October 2005, Stoltenberg previously served as Prime Minister from 2000 to 2001....

Pakistan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 (List)
1947
dates Yousaf Raza Gillani
Yousaf Raza Gillani
Yousuf Raza Gilani is the current prime minister of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. He was nominated as Prime Minister by the PPP, with the support of its coalition partners, Pakistan Muslim League , Awami National Party, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam and Muttahida Qaumi Movement, on 22 March 2008...

Palestinian National Authority 2003 yes dates Salam Fayyad
Salam Fayyad
Salam Fayyad is a Palestinian politician and Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority of the Palestinian National Authority. His first appointment, on 15 June 2007, which was justified by President Mahmoud Abbas on the basis of "national emergency", has not been confirmed by the...

Papua New Guinea 1975 yes years Peter O'Neill
Peter O'Neill
Peter Charles Paire O'Neill, CMG is the current Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea. He is the leader of the People's National Congress and represents the constituency of Ialibu-Pangia.-Biography:...

Peru 1975 yes dates Salomón Lerner Ghitis
Salomón Lerner Ghitis
Salomón Lerner Ghitis, also known as Siomi Lerner is a Peruvian businessman and politician, who has been Prime Minister of Peru since 28 July 2011. He was appointed prime minister following the 2011 presidential election won by Ollanta Humala.-Early life:Salómon Lerner is of Jewish descent. He...

Philippines
Prime Minister of the Philippines
The Prime Minister of the Philippines was the official designation of the head of the government of the Philippines from 1978 until People Power Revolution in 1986...

1899 yes dates (Post abolished)
Poland (List) 1917
dates Donald Tusk
Donald Tusk
Donald Franciszek Tusk is a Polish politician who has been Prime Minister of Poland since 2007. He was a co-founder and is chairman of the Civic Platform party....

Portugal
Prime Minister of Portugal
Prime Minister is the current title of the chief of the Portuguese Government. As chief executive, the Prime Minister coordinates the action of ministers, representing the Government from the other organs of state, accountable to Parliament and keeps the President informed...

 (List)
1834 yes dates Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

Qatar 1970
dates Hamad ibn Jassim ibn Jabr Al Thani
Romania 1862
years Emil Boc
Emil Boc
Emil Boc is the Prime Minister of Romania, having served since December 2008. In June 2004, he was elected Mayor of Cluj-Napoca, the largest city in Transylvania. Boc is also the president of the Democratic Liberal Party, who designated him as Prime Minister in 2008. On October 13, 2009, his...

Russia
Prime Minister of Russia
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation The use of the term "Prime Minister" is strictly informal and is not allowed for by the Russian Constitution and other laws....

 (List)
1864/1905 yes dates Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin served as the second President of the Russian Federation and is the current Prime Minister of Russia, as well as chairman of United Russia and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union of Russia and Belarus. He became acting President on 31 December 1999, when...

Rwanda
Prime Minister of Rwanda
-List of Prime Ministers of Rwanda:-Affiliations:*Parmehutu - Party of the Hutu Emancipation Movement*MRND - National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development...

1960 yes dates Pierre Habumuremyi
Pierre Habumuremyi
Pierre Damien Habumuremyi is a Rwandan politician who serves as the Prime Minister of Rwanda since 7 October 2011. He previously served as education minister.- References :...

Saint Kitts and Nevis 1960
dates Denzil Douglas
Denzil Douglas
Denzil Llewellyn Douglas has been Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis since July 1995. He leads the Saint Kitts and Nevis Labour Party. He is the longest serving Prime Minister Saint Kitts and Nevis has ever had....

Saint Lucia 1960
dates Stephenson King
Stephenson King
Stephenson Toby King was the sixth Prime Minister of Saint Lucia. He represents the constituency of Castries North for the United Workers Party in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia. King won the elections in 2006, unseating the incumbent Minister of Agriculture Ignatius Jean...

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1956
dates Ralph Gonsalves
Ralph Gonsalves
Ralph Everard Gonsalves , also known as "Comrade Ralph", is the fourth and current Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and leader of the Unity Labour Party . Gonsalves became Prime Minister after his party won a majority government in the 2001 general election...

Samoa
Prime Minister of Samoa
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Samoa from the establishment of that office in 1875 until the present day.-List of Prime Ministers of Samoa :-See also:*Samoa**Politics of Samoa...

1875 yes dates Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi
Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi
Tuilaepa Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi is a Samoan politician who has been Prime Minister of Samoa since 1998.-Biography:Born at Lepa, Samoa, Malielegaoi is an economist by profession...

São Tomé and Principe 1974 yes dates Patrice Trovoada
Patrice Trovoada
Patrice Emery Trovoada is a São Toméan politician. He has been Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe since 14 August 2010; previously he was Prime Minister from February 2008 to June 2008.Trovoada was born in Libreville, Gabon...

Saudi Arabia
Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
The Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia is formally the Head of government under the Malik , the rather absolute Head of State of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.-History:...

1953 no dates King Abdullah
Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, is the King of Saudi Arabia. He succeeded to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, King Fahd. When Crown Prince, he governed Saudi Arabia as regent from 1998 to 2005...

Senegal
Prime Minister of Senegal
The Prime Minister of Senegal is the head of government of Senegal. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Senegal, who is directly elected for a five year term. The Prime Minister, in turn, appoints the Senegalese cabinet, after consultation with the President.This is a list of the...

1957 yes dates Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye
Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye
Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye is a Senegalese politician who was appointed as Prime Minister of Senegal on 30 April 2009. He was previously Minister of the Civil Service and Labour in 2005, Director of the Cabinet of the President of the Republic from 2005 to 2007, and Minister of State for the Maritime...

Serbia 1805 yes years Mirko Cvetković
Mirko Cvetkovic
Mirko Cvetković is a Serbian economist and the Prime Minister of Serbia as well as the Minister of Finance.-Biography:...

Seychelles
Prime Minister of Seychelles
The Prime Minister of Seychelles was an executive position in the government of the Seychelles from 1970 until 1977.-Prime Ministers of Seychelles :-Affiliations:...

1970 yes years (Post abolished)
Sierra Leone 1954 yes dates (Post abolished)
Singapore
Prime Minister of Singapore
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. The President of Singapore appoints as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs.The office of Prime Minister...

1959
dates Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong is the third and current Prime Minister of Singapore. He is married to Ho Ching, who is the Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer of Temasek Holdings. He is the eldest son of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew....

Sint Maarten
Prime Minister of Sint Maarten
The Prime Minister of Sint Maarten became the head of government of Sint Maarten after the Netherlands Antilles had been dissolved on 10 October 2010. The Prime Minister, together with the his Council of Ministers and the Governor of Sint Maarten form the executive branch of the government of Sint...

2010
dates Sarah Wescot-Williams
Sarah Wescot-Williams
Sarah Wescot-Williams is the leader of the Democratic Party of Sint Maarten and the first Prime Minister of Sint Maarten. Even though her party only managed to secure two seats in the Sint Maarten general election of 2010, she was selected as Prime Minister in the coalition agreement between United...

Slovakia 1993
dates Iveta Radičová
Iveta Radicová
Iveta Radičová is the Prime Minister of Slovakia and a member of the Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party. She was sworn into office on 8 July 2010 as the head of a four-party center-right coalition government following the 2010 Slovak parliamentary election, until the fall of...

Slovenia
Prime Minister of Slovenia
There have been six Prime Ministers of Slovenia since that country gained its independence in the breakup of Yugoslavia. Unlike the President of Slovenia, who is directly elected, the Prime Minister is appointed by the National Assembly, and must control a majority there in order to...

1943 yes years Borut Pahor
Borut Pahor
Borut Pahor is a Slovenian politician who has been Prime Minister of Slovenia since 2008. A longtime president of the Social Democrats party, Pahor served several terms as a member of the National Assembly and was its chairman from 2000 to 2004. In 2004, Pahor was elected as member of the European...

Solomon Islands
Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands
The Prime Minister of Solomon Islands is Solomon Islands' head of government, consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the National Parliament. Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm. Since August 2010, the Prime Minister has been Danny Philip of the Reform...

1949 yes dates Danny Philip
Danny Philip
Danny Philip is a politician and diplomat from the Solomon Islands. He is the current Prime Minister, who came into office after the 2010 general election. He served as foreign minister from 1995 to 1996 and from July 2000 to June 2001...

Somalia
Prime Minister of Somalia
This page contains a list of the Prime Ministers of Somalia.-Prime Ministers of Somalia :-Affiliations:*SYL - Somali Youth League*SNL - Somali National League...

1949 yes dates Abdiweli Mohamed Ali
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali
Dr. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali is a Somali economist and politician. He is the Prime Minister of Somalia.-Personal life:Ali is originally from the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. He holds both Somali and American citizenship....

South Africa 1910
dates (Post abolished)
South Ossetia
Prime Minister of South Ossetia
The Prime Minister of South Ossetia is the head of government of the Republic of South Ossetia.-List of Prime Ministers of the Republic of South Ossetia :-Sources: * Osinform:...

1991
dates Vadim Brovtsev
Vadim Brovtsev
Vadim Vladimirovich Brovtsev is a Russian businessman who has been Prime Minister of the Republic of South Ossetia since 5 August 2009.Brovtsev had served in the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces...

Spain
Prime Minister of Spain
The President of the Government of Spain , sometimes known in English as the Prime Minister of Spain, is the head of Government of Spain. The current office is established under the Constitution of 1978...

 (List)
1705 yes years José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero is a member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party . He was elected for two terms as Prime Minister of Spain, in the 2004 and 2008 general elections. On 2 April 2011 he announced he will not stand for re-election in 2012...

Sri Lanka
Prime Minister of Sri Lanka
The Prime Minister of Sri Lanka is the functional head of the Cabinet of Sri Lanka. However, the President is both head of state and head of government in Sri Lanka...

 (List)
1948
dates D. M. Jayaratne
D. M. Jayaratne
Disanayaka Mudiyanselage Jayaratne MP is the 20th and current Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, and a veteran Sri Lankan politician. A founding member of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party, Jayaratne was first elected to parliament in 1970. He was sworn in as Prime Minister on April 21, 2010.-Early life:D. M...

Sudan
Prime minister of Sudan
-List of heads of government of Sudan:-Affiliations:*UNF - United National Front*NUP - National Unionist Party*DUP - Democratic Unionist Party...

1952 yes dates (Post abolished)
Suriname 1949 yes dates (Post abolished)
Swaziland
Heads of government of Swaziland
-Heads of Government:-See also:*List of kings of Swaziland*lists of incumbents...

1967
years Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini
Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini
Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini is Prime Minister of Swaziland. He was Prime Minister from 1996 to 2003 and has held the position again since October 2008....

Sweden
Prime Minister of Sweden
The Prime Minister is the head of government in the Kingdom of Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested...

 (List)
1876 yes years Fredrik Reinfeldt
Fredrik Reinfeldt
John Fredrik Reinfeldt is the Prime Minister of Sweden, leader of the liberal conservative Moderate Party and former President of the European Council...

Syria 1920
dates Adel Safar
Adel Safar
Adel Safar is a Syrian politician and academic, serving as Prime Minister of Syria since 3 April 2011. He previously served as Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform from 2003 to 2011.-Early life and education:...

Taiwan (Republic of China)
Premier of the Republic of China
The President of the Executive Yuan , commonly known as the Premier of the Republic of China , is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China , which currently administers Taiwan, Matsu, and Kinmen. The premier is appointed by the President of the Republic of China...

 (List)
1911
dates Wu Den-yih
Wu Den-yih
Wu Den-yih is a Taiwanese politician of the Kuomintang Party, and the current Premier of the Republic of China.-Personal:Wu was born in Tsaotun, Nantou County, Taiwan...

Tajikistan 1924
dates Okil Okilov
Okil Okilov
Okil Ghaybulloyevich Okilov or Oqil Oqilov has served as the Prime Minister of Tajikistan since 20 December 1999. He is a member of the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan...

Tanzania 1960 yes dates Mizengo Pinda
Mizengo Pinda
Mizengo Kayanza Peter Pinda is a Tanzanian politician who has been Prime Minister of Tanzania since February 2008.Pinda was born in the Rukwa Region. He holds a degree in law from the University of Dar es Salaam, which he earned in 1974.He was Assistant Private Secretary to the President from 1982...

Thailand
Prime Minister of Thailand
The Prime Minister of Thailand is the head of government of Thailand. The Prime Minister is also the chairman of the Cabinet of Thailand. The post has existed since the Revolution of 1932, when the country became a constitutional monarchy....

 (List)
1932 yes dates Yingluck Shinawatra
Yingluck Shinawatra
Yingluck Shinawatra , or nickname Pu , is a Thai businesswoman and politician, member of the Pheu Thai Party, and the 28th Prime Minister of Thailand following the 2011 general election...

Togo
Heads of government of Togo
-Prime Ministers of Togo :-Affiliations:*CAR *CFN *CPP...

1956 yes dates Gilbert Houngbo
Gilbert Houngbo
Gilbert Fossoun Houngbo is the Prime Minister of Togo since 8 September 2008.-Education and career at the UN:Houngbo holds an advanced degree in business management from the University of Lomé in Togo, as well as a degree in accounting and finance from the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières in...

Tokelau
Heads of government of Tokelau
The office of head of government of Tokelau , often simply called the Ulu, rotates yearly between the faipule of Tokelau's three atolls.-List:...

1992
dates Foua Toloa
Foua Toloa
Foua Toloa is a Tokelauan politician who served as the Head of the Government of Tokelau, or Ulu, from February 21, 2009, to February 21, 2010. He is a member of the Council for the Ongoing Government of Tokelau, and is a faipule on Fakaofo...

Tonga
Prime Minister of Tonga
This is a list of Prime Ministers of Tonga from the establishment of that office in 1876 until the present day.-List of Premiers/Prime Ministers of Tonga :-External links:*...

1876
years Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō
Sialeʻataongo Tuʻivakanō
-Descent and naming:Siaosi Kiu Ngalumoetutulu Kaho and his wife Fatafehi-ʻo-Lapaha Liku in 1952 baptised their second child and oldest son as Siale ʻAtaongo Kaho. When his father died in January 1986, Siale ʻAtaongo succeeded him to the traditional Tongan noble title of Tuʻivakanō...

Trinidad and Tobago 1956
dates Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
Kamla Persad-Bissessar is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, the seventh person to hold this position...

Tunisia
Prime Minister of Tunisia
The Prime Minister of the Tunisian Republic is the head of government of Tunisia. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Tunisia...

1969
dates Beji Caid el Sebsi
Beji Caid el Sebsi
Beji Caid el Sebsi is a Tunisian lawyer and politician. Since 27 February 2011, he has been the Prime Minister of Tunisia.-Personal life:Born in Sidi Bou Said in a family from the beylical agricultural makhzen, he is the direct great-grandson of Ismail Caid Essebsi, a mamluk of Tunisian corsairs...

Turkmenistan
Prime Minister of Turkmenistan
-Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars:*Kaikhaziz Atabayev *Aitbay Khudaybergenov *Sukhan Babayev -Chairmen of the Council of Ministers:...

1924
dates (Post abolished)
Turkey 1920 yes dates Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has been Prime Minister of Turkey since 2003 and is chairman of the ruling Justice and Development Party , which holds a majority of the seats in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Erdoğan served as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. He graduated in 1981 from Marmara...

Turks and Caicos Islands
Premier of the Turks and Caicos Islands
This is a list of Chief Ministers and Premiers of the Turks and Caicos Islands.-Chief Ministers of the Turks and Caicos Islands:-Premiers of the Turks and Caicos Islands:...

1976 yes dates vacant
Tuvalu
Prime Minister of Tuvalu
The Prime Minister of Tuvalu is the head of government of Tuvalu. According to Tuvalu's constitution, the Prime Minister must always be a member of Parliament, and is elected by Parliament in a secret ballot. Because there are no political parties in Tuvalu, any member of Parliament can be...

1975 n/a dates Willy Telavi
Willy Telavi
Willy Telavi is a Tuvaluan politician. He became Prime Minister of Tuvalu on 24 December 2010.-Background:Telavi is from Nanumea. His career in the Tuvalu Police Force culminated in his appointment as Police Commissioner in 1993, a position he held for thirteen years...

Uganda
Prime Minister of Uganda
-List of Prime Ministers of Uganda:-Affiliations:-See also:*Uganda*President of Uganda*Vice President of Uganda*Politics of Uganda*History of Uganda*Political parties of Uganda...

1961 yes dates Amama Mbabazi
Amama Mbabazi
Patrick Amama Mbabazi is a senior Ugandan lawyer and politician. He is the current Prime Minister of Uganda, a position he has held since 24 May 2011. Prior to his current position, he served as the Minister for Security in the Ugandan Cabinet, from February 2009 until May 2011...

Ukraine
Prime Minister of Ukraine
The Prime Minister of Ukraine is Ukraine's head of government presiding over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the highest body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government....

 (List)
1917
dates Mykola Azarov
Mykola Azarov
Mykola Yanovych Azarov ; born Nikolai Yanovich Pakhlo on 17 December 1947, is a Ukrainian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Ukraine since 11 March 2010. He was the First Vice Prime Minister and Finance Minister from 2002 to 2005 and again from 2006 to 2007, and he also served as acting...

United Arab Emirates 1971
years Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

 Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum , also Sheikh Mohammed, , is the Prime Minister and Vice President of the United Arab Emirates , and absolute monarch of Dubai.-Personal life and education:...

United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

 (List)
1721 yes dates David Cameron
David Cameron
David William Donald Cameron is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service and Leader of the Conservative Party. Cameron represents Witney as its Member of Parliament ....

Uzbekistan
Prime Minister of Uzbekistan
According to the Constitution of Uzbekistan, the Prime Minister of Uzbekistan and the deputy ministers are appointed by the President.-Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars:*Fayzulla Khodzhayev...

1924
dates Shavkat Mirziyoyev
Vanuatu 1980 yes dates Sato Kilman
Sato Kilman
Sato Kilman is a Vanuatu politician. He was Prime Minister of Vanuatu from December 2010 to April 2011 and from May to June 2011, though his premiership was subsequently annulled by a court of law. He was elected Prime Minister again on 26 June 2011, thus beginning his first legally recognised term...

Vatican
Cardinal Secretary of State
The Cardinal Secretary of State—officially Secretary of State of His Holiness The Pope—presides over the Holy See, usually known as the "Vatican", Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia...

1644
years Tarcisio Bertone
Vietnam
Prime Minister of Vietnam
-Office:The Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the head of the executive branch of the Vietnamese government. The Prime Minister presides over the Vietnamese cabinet, and is responsible for appointing and supervising ministers...

1976 yes dates Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
Yemen
Prime Minister of Yemen
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Yemen is the head of government in that country. The current Prime Minister, Ali Muhammad Mujawar, has held the position since 7 April 2007. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President...

1990 yes years Ali Muhammad Mujawar
Western Sahara
Prime Minister of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The Prime Minister of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is the head of government of the SADR, while the President is the head of state. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was proclaimed in the territory that made up the Spanish colony of Spanish Sahara on February 27, 1976...

1976 no years Abdelkader Taleb Oumar
Abdelkader Taleb Oumar
Abdelkader Taleb Omar is the Prime Minister of the self-declared Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic , in the framework of the government-in-exile proclaimed by the Polisario Front...

Zambia
Prime Minister of Zambia
-Prime Ministers of Zambia :-External links:*...

1964 yes dates (Post abolished)
Zimbabwe
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe
The Prime Minister of Zimbabwe is the head of government in Zimbabwe. From 1980 to 1987, Robert Mugabe was the first person to hold the position following independence from the United Kingdom. He took office when Rhodesia became the Republic of Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980...

1923
dates Morgan Tsvangirai
Morgan Tsvangirai
Morgan Richard Tsvangirai is the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe. He is the President of the Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai and a key figure in the opposition to President Robert Mugabe. Tsvangirai was sworn in as the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe on 11 February 2009...

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See also

  • Chancellor
    Chancellor
    Chancellor is the title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the Cancellarii of Roman courts of justice—ushers who sat at the cancelli or lattice work screens of a basilica or law court, which separated the judge and counsel from the...

  • Chief Minister
    Chief Minister
    A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

  • Governor-General
    Governor-General
    A Governor-General, is a vice-regal person of a monarch in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription. Depending on the political arrangement of the territory, a Governor General can be a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors.- Current uses...

  • Head of state
    Head of State
    A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

  • Monarch
    Monarch
    A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

  • President
    President
    A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...



Lists:
  • List of current heads of state and government
  • List of democracy and election-related topics

External links


/Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam