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Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District
Lucknow District
Lucknow District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. The city of Lucknow is the district headquarters and the district is part of Lucknow Division...

 and Lucknow Division
Lucknow Division
Lucknow division is an administrative geographical unit of Uttar Pradesh state of India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of the division. As of 2005, the division consists ofLucknow, Hardoi, Lakhimpur Kheri, Raebareli, Sitapur, and Unnao....

.

Located in what was originally known as the Awadh
Awadh
Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

 (Oudh) region, Lucknow has always been a multicultural city, and flourished as a cultural and artistic capital of North India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Courtly manners, beautiful gardens, poetry, music, and fine cuisine patronised by the Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

-loving Shia Nawabs of the city are well known amongst Indians and students of South Asian culture and history. Lucknow is popularly known as The City of Nawabs. It is also known as the Golden City of the East, Shiraz
Shiraz
Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

-i-Hind and The Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 of India.

Straddling the river Gomti, modern Lucknow is a bustling metropolis. It is placed among the fastest growing cities and now it is metropolitan city of India and is rapidly emerging as a manufacturing, commercial and retailing hub. This unique combination of rich cultural traditions and brisk economic growth provides Lucknow with an aura that refuses to fade away.

History



After 1350 AD the Lucknow and parts of Awadh
Awadh
Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

 region have been under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

, the Nawabs of Awadh, the East India Company and the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

. Lucknow has been one of the major centres of Indian rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

, participated actively in India's Independence movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

, and after Independence has emerged as an important city of North India
North India
North India, known natively as Uttar Bhārat or Shumālī Hindustān , is a loosely defined region in the northern part of India. The exact meaning of the term varies by usage...

.

Until 1719, subah
Subah
A Subah was a province of the Mughal Empire in South Asia. The governor of a subah was known as a subahdar, which later became subedar to refer to an officer in the Indian Army...

 of Awadh
Awadh
Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

 was a province of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 administered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khan also called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadh
Awadh
Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

 in 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad near Lucknow.
Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the Doab, the fertile plain between the Ganges and the Yamuna
Yamuna
The Yamuna is the largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India...

 rivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

s, the British and the Afghans
Demographics of Afghanistan
The population of Afghanistan is around 29,835,392 as of the year 2011, which is unclear if the refugees living outside the country are included or not. The nation is composed of a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual society, reflecting its location astride historic trade and invasion routes between...

. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula
Shuja-ud-Daula was the Subedar Nawab of Oudh from 5 October 1754 to 26 January 1775, and the son of Muhammad Nasir.Though a minor royal, he is best known for his key roles in two definitive battles in Indian history - the Third Battle of Panipat which ended Maratha domination of India, and the...

 fell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim was Nawab of Bengal from 1760 to 1764. He was installed as Nawab by the British East India Company replacing Mir Jafar, his father-in-law, who had himself been installed by the British after his role in the Battle of Plassey...

, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal
Nawab of Bengal
The Nawabs of Bengal were the hereditary nazims or subadars of the subah of Bengal during the Mughal rule and the de-facto rulers of the province.-History:...

. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxar
Battle of Buxar
The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764 between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula Nawab of Awadh; and Shah Alam II, the Mughal Emperor...

 by the East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.

Many independent kingdoms, such as Awadh, were established when the Mughal empire disintegrated. Awadh’s capital, Lucknow rose to prominence when Asaf-ud-Daula, the fourth nawab, shifted his court here from Faizabad in 1775. The city was also North India’s cultural capital, and its nawabs, best remembered for their refined and extravagnt lifestyles, were patrons of the arts. Under them music and dance flourished, and many monuments were erected. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara
Bara Imambara
Bara Imambara is an imambara complex in Lucknow, India, built by Asaf-ud-daulah, Nawab of Lucknow, in 1784. It is also called the Asafi Imambara.Bara means big, and an imambara is a shrine built by Shia Muslims for the purpose of Azadari...

, the Chhota Imambara
Chhota Imambara
Chhota Imambara , also known as Hussainabad Imambara is an imposing monument located in the city of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Built by Muhammad Ali Shah, The third Nawab of Avadh in 1838, it was to serve as his own mausoleum...

, and the Rumi Darwaza are notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the Nawabs is the syncretic composite culture that has come to be known as the Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb
Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb
Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb An euphemism for the mutually participatory co-existence of Hindu and Muslim culture of Northern India....

.

In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it notionally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.

The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.


In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner – Sir Henry Lawrence
Henry Montgomery Lawrence
Sir Henry Montgomery Lawrence was a British soldier and statesman in India, who died defending Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny.-Career:Lawrence was the brother of John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence and was born at Matara, Ceylon...

. Wajid Ali Shah
Wajid Ali Shah
Wajid Ali Shah was the fifth King of Oudh, holding the position from 13 February 1847 to 7 February 1856....

, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857 his 14-year old son Birjis Qadra
Birjis Qadra
Berjis Qadr was the son of Wajid Ali Shah and was last, Padshah-e Awadh, Shah-e Zaman.-External links:* * * *...

 son of Begum Hazrat Mahal
Begum Hazrat Mahal
Begum Hazrat Mahal , also known as Begum of Awadh, was the first wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.-Queen of Awadh:Her maiden name was Muhammadi Khanum and she was born at Faizabad, Awadh, India. She was a courtesan by profession and had been taken into the royal harem as a Khawasin, after being sold by...

 was crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

.


Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow
Siege of Lucknow
The Siege of Lucknow was the prolonged defense of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After two successive relief attempts had reached the city, the defenders and civilians were evacuated from the Residency, which was abandoned.Lucknow was the capital of...

. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of...

 was introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.

The province of Awadh (anglicised to Oudh) was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 under the Doctrine of Lapse
Doctrine of lapse
The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy purportedly devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General for the British in India between 1848 and 1856...

 and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

 (also known as the First War of Indian Independence and the Indian Mutiny), the garrison
Garrison
Garrison is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base....

 based at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged
Siege
A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. The term derives from sedere, Latin for "to sit". Generally speaking, siege warfare is a form of constant, low intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static...

 by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow
Siege of Lucknow
The Siege of Lucknow was the prolonged defense of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After two successive relief attempts had reached the city, the defenders and civilians were evacuated from the Residency, which was abandoned.Lucknow was the capital of...

 was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelock
Henry Havelock
Major-General Sir Henry Havelock, KCB was a British general who is particularly associated with India. He was noted for his recapture of Cawnpore from rebels during Indian Rebellion of 1857.-Early life:...

 and Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell
Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde
Field Marshal Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde GCB, KSI was a British Army officer from Scotland who led the Highland Brigade in the Crimea and was in command of the ‘Thin red line’ at the battle of Balaclava...

. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque Shaheed Smarak offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.

Because of its historical importance, commercial activity, and cultural activity, Lucknow has frequently been a center of political activity, prominent in the independence movement. The Lucknow Pact
Lucknow Pact
Lucknow Pact refers to an agreement between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League...

 of 1916 was negotiated there, between the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 and the Muslim League
Muslim League
The All-India Muslim League,, was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka , in 1906, in the context of the circumstances that were generated over the partition of Bengal in 1905...

 to support pressuring the Raj for greater autonomy, a marked shift for the Muslim League.

The Khilafat Movement
Khilafat Movement
The Khilafat movement was a pan-Islamic, political campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I...

 had an active base of support in Lucknow, creating a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bari
Maulana Abdul Bari
Maulana Abdul Bari 'Firangi Mahali , is one of the most famous Firangi Mahal scholars.-Family:His family shifted from Sihali, Barabnaki to the Firangi Mahal around 1695.In 1915 he was residing in Barabnaki....

 of Firangi Mahal
Firangi mahal
Firangi Mahal , also spelled Farangi Mahal is a Religious Higher education school in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.-Earliest History:...

, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhi and Maulana Mohammad Ali
Maulana Mohammad Ali
Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and poet, and was among the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement....

.

In 1901, after remaining the capital of Oudh since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces, by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of...

. However, it became the provincial
Province
A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.-Etymology:The English word "province" is attested since about 1330 and derives from the 13th-century Old French "province," which itself comes from the Latin word "provincia," which referred to...

 capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

. Upon Indian independence in 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

, the erstwhile United Provinces.

The All India Kisan Sabha
All India Kisan Sabha
All India Kisan Sabha , was the name of the peasants front of the undivided Communist Party of India , an important peasant movement formed by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936, and which later split into two organizations, by the same name.-History:...

 (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 in 11 April 1936 with the legendary nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

 elected as its first President, in order to mobilise peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights, and thus sparking the Farmers' movement in India.




Geography


Situated in the heart of the great Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages like the orchard town of Malihabad
Malihabad
Malihabad is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the mango belt of North India and is internationally acclaimed for its mangoes. Among different varieties of mangoes grown here, Dussheri is the most popular variety. Besides Dussehri, other...

, historic Kakori
Kakori
Kakori is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated 14 km north of Lucknow. More widely known for its kebabs, Zardozi work and Dasheri mangoes, Kakori is also the centre of once flourishing Urdu poetry, literature and the Qadiriya...

, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, Itaunja
Itaunja
Itaunja is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.-Geography:Itaunja is located at . It has an average elevation of 124 metres .-Demographics:...

. On its eastern side lies Barabanki District
Barabanki District
The Barabanki district is one of four districts of Faizabad division, lies at the very heart of Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India, and forms as it were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate...

, on the western side is Unnao District
Unnao District
Unnao District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. The town of Unnao is the district headquarters. The district is part of Lucknow Division.-History:...

, on the southern side Raebareli District
Raebareli District
Raebareli District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. The town of Raebareli is the district headquarters. The district is part of Lucknow Division.-Raebareli District in 1911:...

, and on the northern side the Sitapur
Sitapur District
Sitapur district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, with Sitapur town as the district headquarters. Sitapur district is a part of Lucknow division. This district covers an area of 5743 km². It has a population of 3,619,661....

 and Hardoi
Hardoi District
Hardoi disctrict is a district of Uttar Pradesh, India, and Hardoi town is the district headquarters. Hardoi district is a part of Lucknow division.-Economy:...

 districts. The Gomti River
Gomti River
The Gomti, Gumti or Gomati River is a tributary of the Ganges River. According to Hindu mythology the river is the daughter of Sage Vashist, and bathing in the waters of the Gomati on Ekadashi can wash away one's sins...

, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Lucknow city is located in the seismic zone III.

Climate


Lucknow has a warm humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of 896.2 millimetres (35.3 in) from the south-west monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 winds, and occasionally frontal rainfall will occur in January. In winter the maximum temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the minimum is in the 2 to 3 degrees Celsius range. Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers are extremely hot with temperatures rising to the 40 to 45 degree Celsius range, the average highs being in the high 30's.

Pollution


According to the World Bank's survey in 2004, Lucknow ranks 7th in the world regarding air pollution, three other Indian cities precede it, they are Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 at second position, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

 at third position and Kanpur at sixth position.

Demographics



It is the second largest city in north and central India after Delhi.The majority of Lucknow's population comprises people from Central and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. However, Bengalis, Punjabis and Anglo-Indians have also settled in large numbers. Hindus comprise about 71% and Muslims about 26%. There are also small groups of Sikhs, Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

, Christians and Buddhists. As per 2001 census literacy rate of Lucknow is 69.39% (61.22% for females and 76.63% for males).

Civic administration



Lucknow is the political and administrative capital of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

. The city elects members to the Lok Sabha as well as the Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house or the sole house of the provincial legislature in the different states of India. The same name is also used for the lower house of the legislatures for two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry...

 (State Assembly). Lucknow has two loksabha Constituencies named Lucknow & Mohanlalganj.

The city is under the jurisdiction of a District Magistrate, who is an IAS
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative civil service of the Government of India. It is one of the three All India Services....

 officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

, and oversee the national elections
Elections in India
India has a quasi federal government, with elected officials at the federal , state and local levels. On a national level, the head of government, the Prime Minister, is elected directly by the people, through a general election. All members of the federal legislature, the Parliament, are directly...

 held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city. The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow, who is an adminsitrative officer. The corporation comprises elected members (corporators elected from the wards directly by the people) with City Mayor as its head. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.

The Lucknow Police is headed by a Deputy Inspector General, who is an IPS
Indian Police Service
The Indian Police Service , simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India...

 officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers. Former Prime Minister A.B.Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee is an Indian statesman who served as the tenth Prime Minister of India three times – first for a brief term of 13 days in 1996, and then for two terms from 1998 to 2004. After his first brief period as Prime Minister in 1996, Vajpayee headed a coalition government from...

 had been member of Parliament for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency until recently where he has been replaced by Lalji Tandon in elections of 2009.

Economy


Ranked 6th among all the cities in India (2nd among non metro) for fastest job-creation, Lucknow is not only a major market & trading city in Northern India, but is also an emerging hub for producers of goods and services. Being the capital of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 state, the Government departments and the public sector undertakings are the principal employers of the salaried middle class. Liberalization has created many more opportunities in the business and service sector and self-employed professionals are burgeoning in the city.

Lucknow also provides a good catchment area for the recruitment of quality personnel by information technology companies for the BPO
Business process outsourcing
Business process outsourcing is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca Cola that outsourced large segments...

. The city is the headquarters of both the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI
SIDBI
Small Industries Development Bank of India is an independent financial institution aimed to aid the growth and development of micro, small and medium-scale enterprises in India. Set up on April 2, 1990 through an act of parliament, it was incorporated initially as a wholly owned subsidiary of...

) and the Pradeshiya Industrial and Investment Corporation of Uttar Pradesh (PICUP). The Regional office of the Uttar Pradesh State Industries Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is also located here. The other business-promoting institutions that have a presence in Lucknow are the Confederation of Indian Industry
Confederation of Indian Industry
The Confederation of Indian Industry is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organisation, seeking to play a proactive role in India’s development process. The organisation works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industry in India,...

 (CII) and Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India
Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India
The Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India , an autonomous and not-for-profit Institute, set up in 1983, is sponsored by apex financial institutions - the IDBI Bank Ltd., IFCI Ltd., ICICI Bank Ltd. and State Bank of India...

 (EDII).

Manufacturing and Processing


Among the bigger manufacturing units, Lucknow has Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited based in Bangalore, India, is one of Asia's largest aerospace companies. Under the management of the Indian Ministry of Defence, this state-owned company is mainly involved in aerospace industry, which includes manufacturing and assembling aircraft, navigation and...

, Tata Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...

, Eveready Industries
Eveready Industries
Eveready Industries India, Ltd is the flagship company of the B.M. Khaitan Group. The brand Eveready has been present in India since 1905....

 and Scooters India Limited. Processing industries include milk production, steel-rolling units and LPG bottling. The Sahara
Sahara
The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, after Antarctica. At over , it covers most of Northern Africa, making it almost as large as Europe or the United States. The Sahara stretches from the Red Sea, including parts of the Mediterranean coasts, to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean...

 India Parivar, a large house of India is headqaurtered in Lucknow.

Lucknow is also famous for Indian Hukha Tobacco Paste or Khamira in local language, manufacturer's exporter of Hukha Tobacco.The city's small-scale and medium-scale industrial units are located in the industrial enclaves of Chinhat, Aishbagh, Talkatora and Amousi.

Real estate


Real estate is one of the many booming sectors of the economy. There are several malls, residential complexes and business complexes throughout the city. Real estate giants like Parshvanath, DLF, Omaxe, Sahara
Sahara India Pariwar
Sahara India Pariwar is an Indian multi-business conglomerate with diversified business interests that include financial services, housing finance, mutual funds, life insurance, city development, real estate activities, print and television media, film production, sports, information technology,...

, Unitech
Unitech Group
The Unitech Group is India's second largest real estate investment company, and has recently claimed to be the largest real estate builder in the country.....

, Ansal API, Emaar MGF are here.

Prominent under-construction buildings include the Signature Tower, Golf City which will have 65 floors, Sahara
Sahara India Pariwar
Sahara India Pariwar is an Indian multi-business conglomerate with diversified business interests that include financial services, housing finance, mutual funds, life insurance, city development, real estate activities, print and television media, film production, sports, information technology,...

 Hospital, which will have 30 floors, followed by Metro City, Parshvanath Planet and Omaxe Heights, all 25 floors.

Traditional Trade


Traditionally, Lucknow has been a mandi town for mangoes, melons, and grains grown in the surrounding areas. Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

-growing plantations and sugar industries are also in close proximity. This attracted Edward Dyer to set up a unit based on molasses
Molasses
Molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar cane, grapes or sugar beets into sugar. The word molasses comes from the Portuguese word melaço, which ultimately comes from mel, the Latin word for "honey". The quality of molasses depends on the maturity of the sugar cane or sugar beet,...

 in the city. Dyer Breweries was incorporated in 1855 and was Asia's first commercial brewery.The company name was changed to Mohan Meakin Brewery
Mohan Meakin Brewery
Mohan Meakin is a large group of companies started with Asia's first brewery incorporated in 1855 by Edward Dyer at Kasauli in the Himalayan Mountains in India under the name Dyer Breweries.-History:...

 in 1967 (the word "Breweries" was dropped in the eighties as the company diversified into other industries).

Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan
Chikan (embroidery)
Chikan is a traditional embroidery style from Lucknow, India. Literally translated, the word means embroidery. Believed to have been introduced by Nur Jehan, Mughal emperor Jahangir's wife, it is one of Lucknow's most famous textile decoration styles....

 and Lakhnawi Zardozi
Zardozi
Zardozi or Zar-douzi work is a type of embroidery in Iran, India and Pakistan.-Iran:Zardozi is on of the most important elements of Persian cultural signs and Handicrafts. It is named around the country by names such Zar-douzi , Kam-douzi , Gol-douzi and Kaman-douzi...

, both of which are significant foreign exchange earners. Chikan has caught the fancy of fashion designers in Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 and abroad.

During the period of the Nawabs, kite
Fighter kite
Fighter kites are kites used for the sport of kite fighting. Traditionally most are small, unstable single line flat kites where line tension alone is used for control, and an abrasive line is used to cut down other kites....

-making reached a high level of artistry, and is still a small-scale industry. Lucknow has also been an industrial producer of tobacco products like 'Kivam', edible fragrances like 'attars' and handicrafts such as pottery, earthen toys, silver and gold foil work, and bone carving
Bone carving
Bone carving is the act of creating art forms by carving into animal bones and often includes the carving of antlers and horns. It can result in the ornamentation of a bone, or the creation of a figure. It has been practiced by a variety of world cultures, sometimes as a cheaper substitute for...

 products.

Emerging businesses



Lucknow, with its excellent education, commercial, banking and legal infrastructure, is witnessing rapid growth in information technology, banking, retailing, construction and other service sectors. Private coaching institutions for preparing aspirants of competitive exams and services is another business that is flourishing in Lucknow.

Lucknow houses hundreds of established real estate brands and dozens of niche and specialised developers like high-end premium residential projects, malls, IT parks, commercial property, SEZs
Special Economic Zone
A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

, plots, business centres, multiplexes, clubs, banks, food courts, entertainment centres and finance institutions.
Reserve Bank of India
Reserve Bank of India
The Reserve Bank of India is the central banking institution of India and controls the monetary policy of the rupee as well as US$300.21 billion of currency reserves. The institution was established on 1 April 1935 during the British Raj in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of...

 (RBI) and foreign banks like Citibank
Citibank
Citibank, a major international bank, is the consumer banking arm of financial services giant Citigroup. Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York...

, Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered PLC is a multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom with operations in more than seventy countries...

, ABN-AMRO, RBS
Royal Bank of Scotland
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group is a British banking and insurance holding company in which the UK Government holds an 84% stake. This stake is held and managed through UK Financial Investments Limited, whose voting rights are limited to 75% in order for the bank to retain its listing on the...

 and HSBC
HSBC
HSBC Holdings plc is a global banking and financial services company headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, United Kingdom. it is the world's second-largest banking and financial services group and second-largest public company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine...

 have their presence in the city. The big oil marketing companies like Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation
Indian Oil Corporation Limited, or IndianOil, is an Indian state-owned oil and gas corporation with its headquarters are in Mumbai, India. It is India’s largest commercial enterprise, ranked 98th on the Fortune Global 500 list for 2011...

, Hindustan Petroleum
Hindustan Petroleum
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited , is an Indian state-owned oil company headquartered at Mumbai, India and is a Fortune 500 company of India listed at number 336....

, Bharat Petroleum
Bharat Petroleum
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited is a state-controlled oil and gas company headquartered in Mumbai, India. In 2011, Fortune Global 500 ranked the company of 272.- History :...

, and Reliance
Reliance Petroleum
Reliance Petroleum Limited was set up by Reliance Industries Limited , one of India's largest private sector companies based in Mumbai. Currently, RPL is subsidiary of RIL, and has interests in the downstream oil business...

 have their offices in Lucknow.

Leading IT companies like TCS
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a global IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is the largest provider of information technology in Asia and second largest provider of business process outsourcing services in India...

  operate in Lucknow. The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology set up Software Technology Parks of India
Software Technology Parks of India
'Software Technology Parks of India' is a government agency in India, established in 1991 under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, that manages the Software Technology Park scheme. It is an export oriented scheme for the development and export of computer software,...

 in 2001 which is playing an important role to promote IT/ITes Units in the region.
Even Tata Motors
Tata Motors
Tata Motors Limited is an Indian multinational automotive corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. Part of the Tata Group, it was formerly known as TELCO...

, world's leading automotive brand has it's manufacturing plant in Chinhut,Lucknow.
Currently, biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 and information technology are the two focus areas to promote economic development in and around the city. The Ministry of Science and Technology
Ministry of Science and Technology (India)
The Ministry of Science and Technology is the Indian government ministry charged with formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to science and technology in India.The current minister is Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh....

 is setting up a biotech park in the city. Lucknow is also one of the selected cities for the Smart City project of STPI
Software Technology Parks of India
'Software Technology Parks of India' is a government agency in India, established in 1991 under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, that manages the Software Technology Park scheme. It is an export oriented scheme for the development and export of computer software,...

, under which IT is being used to promote economic development.

Cultural sights





The Asafi Imambara (popularly known as Bara Imambara) which includes Bhool Bhulaiya (Labyrinth) and Bouli, the Chhota Imambara
Chhota Imambara
Chhota Imambara , also known as Hussainabad Imambara is an imposing monument located in the city of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Built by Muhammad Ali Shah, The third Nawab of Avadh in 1838, it was to serve as his own mausoleum...

, the British Residency (also includes Shaheed Samarak)
Siege of Lucknow
The Siege of Lucknow was the prolonged defense of the Residency within the city of Lucknow during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. After two successive relief attempts had reached the city, the defenders and civilians were evacuated from the Residency, which was abandoned.Lucknow was the capital of...

, and Shah Najaf are monuments of architectural importance at Lucknow. The famous 'Bhul Bhulaiyan' (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex. Some other places of interest are the Picture Gallery, Chattar Manzil (which houses CDRI), Constantia (La Martiniere Boys School), State Museum / Lucknow Zoo
Lucknow Zoo
Lucknow Zoo is a zoo located in the heart of the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. The Central Zoo Authority of India categorizes it as a large zoo.- Management :...

, Dilkusha, Ambedkar Memorial, Planetaurium, Baradari, Kanshi Ram Memorial ,the Clock Tower and Ram Krishna Math.

The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly), and the Charbagh Railway Station
Charbagh Railway Station
The Charbagh Railway Station is the main railway station of Lucknow, situated in the south of the city. Its station code is LKO. Charbagh Railway Station was built in 1914 and incorporates the nest of Rajasthani and Mughal architecture...

, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars. St Joseph's Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow.

Lucknow has several well-kept parks that attract the citizenry in large numbers on evenings, holidays and weekends. The bigger parks are Ambedkar Memorial and Lohia park in Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

, Swarn Jayanti park and Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar, Dilkusha Park, Begum Hazrat Mahal
Begum Hazrat Mahal
Begum Hazrat Mahal , also known as Begum of Awadh, was the first wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.-Queen of Awadh:Her maiden name was Muhammadi Khanum and she was born at Faizabad, Awadh, India. She was a courtesan by profession and had been taken into the royal harem as a Khawasin, after being sold by...

 Park, Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar, Haathi Park, Buddha park, and Neebu Park. The sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomti river is also worth visiting.

The city also has a Reserve Forest, Kukrail Reserve Forest
Kukrail Reserve Forest
Kukrail Reserve Forest is located about 9 km from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.-Brief history:In Uttar Pradesh, crocodiles are found in the Ramganga, Suheli, Girwa and Chambal rivers. The female crocodile lays eggs in April by digging holes on the river banks...

 (a picnic spot and Gharial
Gharial
The gharial , , also called Indian gavial or gavial, is the only surviving member of the once well-represented family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodilians with long, slender snouts...

 rehabilitation centre). Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots. Natural attractions accessible from Lucknow are Katarnia Ghat, Dudhwa National Park
Dudhwa National Park
Dudhwa National Park is located in the Terai of Uttar Pradesh, India and covers an area of 680 km2 with a buffer area of almost 190 km2. In altitude it ranges from about to . The international border with Nepal forms the northern boundary, and the River Suheli the southern boundary. Its...

, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
' is a bird sanctuary on the Kanpur-Lucknow road in Uttar Pradesh, India consisting of a lake and the surrounding environs. The sanctuary provides protection for 250 species of migratory birds mostly from CIS countries, but the numbers have been dwindling since the 1990s, most having relocated to...

 and Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.

Urdu literature


The City Homed the Great legends of Urdu poetry, especially in Marsiya Nigari like Mir Anees and Mirza Dabeer. Marsiya is elegy composed in aspects of the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Husaain(as) grandson of Prophet Muhammed in Kerbala Iraq in 61ah. Mir Anees and Mirza Dabeer composed most of the renowned marsiya in the history of Urdu language and are still being recited during Muharram in various Majalis and other Azadari events. Lucknow is famous for Azadari because of its history of Shia Kingdom of Nawabso f Oudh who promoted Muharram and its religious events on very high regards. The culture of Urdu poetry is still popular, especially in Muharram and other occasions related with Islamic lunar calendar. Lucknow hosts the most number of poetic events in India, and poets from various parts of the world come to participate in these events. Some of the famous poets of recent times are Kazim Jarwali, Sarwar Nawab Sarwar, Arif Lucknowi etc.

Shopping


Aminabad
Aminabad, Lucknow
Aminabad is situated in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, a quaint bazaar like Delhi's Chandni Chowk, it is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre that caters to a wide variety of consumers. The main item which sold here is chikan embroidered garments.- Aminabad - A Myriad Market...

, a quaint bazaar like Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

's Chandni Chowk
Chandni Chowk
Chandni Chowk , originally meaning moonlit square or market, is one of the oldest and busiest markets in Old Delhi, now in central north Delhi, India...

, is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre that caters to a wide variety of consumers. Chowk and Nakhhas are markets in the old Lucknow area where you can get a feel of traditional Lucknow. Some other important shopping centres are Alambagh
Alambagh
Alambagh is a large walled enclosure situated at about 4 miles from Lucknow, near Kanpur road in India. It contains a palace, a mosque and other buildings, as well as a beautiful garden. Alambagh was converted into a fort by Indian freedom fighters in 1857...

, Kapoorthala, Indiranagar
Indiranagar
Indiranagar is a suburb of Bangalore. The blue collar population of the city resides alongside the State's politicians, sports persons, celebrities and according to many surveys, Indiranagar is the costliest place to live in Bangalore. It is a very high value area, with steep real estate prices...

, Mahanagar
Mahanagar
Mahanagar is a 1963 film directed by Satyajit Ray. It is sometimes released as The Big City in the English-speaking world. Based on a short story, Abataranika written by Narendranath Mitra, it tells the story of a housewife who disconcerts her traditionalist family by getting a job as a salesperson...

 and Nishatganj. The Hazratganj
Hazratganj
Hazratganj is situated in the heart of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.It has a term associated with it "Ganjing" , Ganjing is a term used to describe ambling in the wide lanes and bylanes of city's Hazratganj market. It is a busy shopping area, where most of the bazaars of Lucknow are located and is...

 area is an upscale shopping market with colonial- style buildings. Interestingly, a popular pastime among the locals is window-shopping in the Hazratganj
Hazratganj
Hazratganj is situated in the heart of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.It has a term associated with it "Ganjing" , Ganjing is a term used to describe ambling in the wide lanes and bylanes of city's Hazratganj market. It is a busy shopping area, where most of the bazaars of Lucknow are located and is...

 market. It is popularly referred to in Hinglish
Hinglish
Hinglish, a blending of the words "Hindi" and "English", means to combine both languages in one sentence. This is more commonly seen in urban and semi-urban centers of the Hindi-speaking states of India, but is slowly spreading into rural and remote areas of these states via television, mobile...

 as Ganjing. The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.

Lucknowites are also fond of eating sweets and chaat.

Lucknowites are also experiencing the new waves of shopping malls and multiplex culture in India. The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar. Now Lucknow has many Mall-cum-multiplexes like Saharaganj (PVR Cinemas), Fun Republic Zee Mall
Fun Republic Mall (Lucknow)
The Fun Republic Mall is a shopping mall located in Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, India. It was built by Zee Group in the mid 2000s on a 18,000 sq m plot in Gomti Nagar at a cost of Rs 60 crore. It comprises retail outlets, cinema, food court, gaming zone and 60-room boutique hotel. It has parking for...

 (Fun Cinemas
Fun Cinemas
Fun Cinemas is a cinema chain in India based in Mumbai, owned by the Essel Group and promoted by E-City Ventures. The company operates with the brand name Fun Cinemas and Talkie Town for all theatrical presence and cinema activity and Fun Gaming, for all game-based leisure options...

), Riverside Mall (Inox), East End Mall (Wave Cinemas
Wave cinemas
Wave Cinemas is one of the major film exhibitors in India. The company, part of the Chadha Group, began its commercial operations in September 2003 with the launch of two multiplexes, its first one a two-screen multiplex at Wave Cinemas - East End Mall in Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, and a second...

) and Phoenix United Mall (PVR Cinemas)

Hazratganj, the main commercial area of Lucknow has completed its 200 years in 2010. On this occasion the district administration had given a facelift to Hazratganj. It is renovated on the lines of Connaught Place in Delhi, and done as per the recommendations of the famous architect Naseer Munji. Pebbled pathways, piazzaz, green areas, fountains, rows of cast-iron lamp-posts now add to the Victorian style of Hazratganj.

Hotels & Resorts


Lucknow has many high end hotels to cater to tourist and business needs; hotels like the Taj,

Localities


The urban area is spread equally on both sides of the Gomti River
Gomti River
The Gomti, Gumti or Gomati River is a tributary of the Ganges River. According to Hindu mythology the river is the daughter of Sage Vashist, and bathing in the waters of the Gomati on Ekadashi can wash away one's sins...

. The commercial and residential areas on Cis-Gomti side are Hazratganj
Hazratganj
Hazratganj is situated in the heart of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.It has a term associated with it "Ganjing" , Ganjing is a term used to describe ambling in the wide lanes and bylanes of city's Hazratganj market. It is a busy shopping area, where most of the bazaars of Lucknow are located and is...

, L.D.A. Colony, Alambagh, RDSO Colony (Research Design and Standard Organisation), Charbagh, Aishbagh, Qaiserbagh, Aminabad, Husainganj, Model Houses, Lal Bagh, Golaganj, Wazirganj, Rajendra Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Tikait Ganj, Aishbagh, Rajajipuram, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Chowk, Nakkhas, Husainabad, Turia Ganj, Mansoor Nagar, Hasanpuria, Victoria Street, Campbell Road, Asharfabad, Kashmiri Mohalla, Akbari Gate and Saadatganj.

The residential settlements in the Trans-Gomti area
Trans-Gomti area
Trans-Gomti area is an important sub-city in the Lucknow metropolitan area with its population next only to the main city. It is relatively more developed than the mainland due to the contemporary planning...

 are Nirala Nagar, Aliganj, Daliganj, Mahanagar, Old & New Hyderabad, Nishatganj, Indira Nagar
Indira Nagar Lucknow
Indira Nagar is a residential posh area in Lucknow. It was developed by U.P. Housing Board and is the largest colony in Asia....

, Manas Enclave (near Kukrail picnic spot), Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

 and Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

 Extn., Nilmatha Cantt., Vikas Nagar, Khurram Nagar, Janakipuram and South City (on Raibareli road). Aminabad is the heart of the city and the oldest traditional marketplace after Chowk. It is one of the most crowded places of Lucknow.

Southcity, Eldeco, Omaxe city are coming up as the newly inhabited places of Lucknow. It has Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute, Sardar Patel Institute of Dental and Medical Sciences, Lucknow and Ambedkar University nearby.

Culture


Lucknow is bravely struggling to retain its old world charm while at the same time acquiring a modern lifestyle. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India in 1950s, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy, and a love for gracious living. The Pehle-Aap (after you) culture, popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow, is waning. But a small part of Lucknow's society still possesses such etiquette
Etiquette
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group...

. This sublime cultural richness famous as Lakhnawi tehzeeb blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language. Nowadays this culture is empowring itself as many people are migrating from different places around India.

Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the Nawabs of Awadh
Awadh
Awadh , also known in various British historical texts as Oudh or Oude derived from Ayodhya, is a region in the centre of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, which was before independence known as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh...

, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication. The Raja Sahib of Mahmudabad, popularly known as Suleiman Mian, is a living example of all the great traditions of this region and has been written about by authors like V.S. Naipaul, William Dalrymple and many others.

Language and poetry


Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for Muslim culture. Two poets, Mir Anis and Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Muslim elegiacal poetry called Marsia
Marsia
Marsiya is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala...

 centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 of the Islamic calendar in Karbala, in present day Iraq. On one side of the highly uneven battle were a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Husain ibn Ali, and on the other was a large military detachment...

 which is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram
Muharram
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

.

In recent years the use of Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 has reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English
Indian English
Indian English is an umbrella term used to describe dialects of the English language spoken primarily in the Republic of India.As a result of British colonial rule until Indian independence in 1947 English is an official language of India and is widely used in both spoken and literary contexts...

. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this city. The great revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil
Ram Prasad Bismil
Ram Prasad Bismil Ram Prasad Bismil Ram Prasad Bismil (Hindi: राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल', Gujarati: રામપ્રસાદ બિસ્મિલ, (Malayalam: രാം പ്രസാദ് ബിസ്മിൽ, Tamil: ராம் பிரசாத் பிஸ்மில், Born: 11 June 1897, Executed: 19 December 1927) was an Indian revolutionary who participated in Mainpuri Shadyantra of...

, who was hanged by the British at Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur
Gorakhpur is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India, near the border with Nepal. It is the administrative headquarters of Gorakhpur District and Gorakhpur Division. Gorakhpur is one of the proposed capitals of the Purvanchal state which is yet to be formed...

 jail, was largely influenced by the culture of Lucknow and remembered its name in his poetry. The surrounding towns like Kakori
Kakori
Kakori is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated 14 km north of Lucknow. More widely known for its kebabs, Zardozi work and Dasheri mangoes, Kakori is also the centre of once flourishing Urdu poetry, literature and the Qadiriya...

, Daryabad, Tehseel Fatehpur
Fatehpur, Barabanki
Fatehpur is a town in Barabanki district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a Tehsil, Development Block, Police station and Nagar Panchayat It is the biggest town of Barabanki....

, Barabanki, Rudauli
Rudauli
Rudauli , popularly known as Rudauli Shareef , is a city and a municipal board in Faizabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.-Geography:Rudauli is located at...

 and Malihabad
Malihabad
Malihabad is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the mango belt of North India and is internationally acclaimed for its mangoes. Among different varieties of mangoes grown here, Dussheri is the most popular variety. Besides Dussehri, other...

 produced many eminent poets and littérateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi
Mohsin Kakorvi
Mohsin Kakorvi was an Urdu poet from Lucknow, India. He wrote the naatiya genre of poetry.He was the great great grand father of Hassan Ahmed Alavi who is the son of Faizan Alavi, presently living in Karachi,Pakistan and is also interested in reciting naats as his father and ancestors....

, Majaz
Majaz
Asrar ul Haq Majaz was an Indian Urdu poet. He was known for his romantic and revolutionary poetry. He composed ghazals and nazms in Urdu.-Early life:...

, Khumar Barabankvi
Khumar Barabankvi
Khumār Barabankvi was an Urdu poet and lyricist from Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India. His real name was Mohammed Haidar Khan, but he wrote under the takhallus of Khumār, which means intoxication. The word comes from the Arabic root 'Khmr' which means alcoholic wine.Khumār died in 1999.-External...

 and Josh Malihabadi
Josh Malihabadi
Josh Malihabadi was a noted Urdu poet born in British India, who was an Indian citizen until 1958, when he emigrated to Pakistan and became a Pakistani citizen...

. Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.

Cuisine



The Awadh region has its own distinct Nawab
Nawab
A Nawab or Nawaab is an honorific title given to Muslim rulers of princely states in South Asia. It is the Muslim equivalent of the term "maharaja" that was granted to Hindu rulers....

i style cuisine, the most famous cuisine of Awadhi Region is Tunday Kabab with various kinds of biryani
Biryani
Biryani, biriani, or beriani is a set of rice-based foods made with spices, rice and meat, fish, eggs or vegetables. The name is derived from the Persian word beryā which means "fried" or "roasted"....

s, kebab
Kebab
Kebab is a wide variety of meat dishes originating in Middle East and later on adopted by the Middle East, and Asia Minor, and now found worldwide. In English, kebab with no qualification generally refers more specifically to shish kebab served on the skewer...

s and breads. Kebabs are also of different types – Kakori Kebabs, Galawati Kebabs, Shami Kebabs, Boti Kababs, Patili-ke-Kababs, Ghutwa Kababs and Seekh Kababs are among the known varieties.

The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.

Makkhan Malai, 'Malai Ki Gilori' of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk, the famous Tundey Kebabs, named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali, and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers. The kebabs of Tunday Kababi, with their melt-in-the-mouth taste, are famous all over India. Situated in a small lane in the bustling chowk area, more than 100 year old 'Tunday Kababi' original shop serves only its special 'Galavati Kababs' and 'Parathas'.

Other famous restaurants are 'Dastarkhwan', 'Naushijaan', and 'Nawabs'.

The Chaat
Chaat
Chaat is a term describing savoury snacks, typically served at road-side tracks from stalls or carts in India. With its origins in east India, chaat has become immensely popular in the rest of India and the rest of South Asia...

 in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding chaat, like Shukla Chaat and Moti Mahal in Hazratganj
Hazratganj
Hazratganj is situated in the heart of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.It has a term associated with it "Ganjing" , Ganjing is a term used to describe ambling in the wide lanes and bylanes of city's Hazratganj market. It is a busy shopping area, where most of the bazaars of Lucknow are located and is...

, Radhey Lal in Aliganj and gomti nagar, Chhappan Bhog in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

, and famous Jagdish Chaat House in old lucknow Chowk. And among sweets lucknow's rewadi is famous all over India.

After a delicious dinner, one can have Paan
Paan
Paan, from the word pān is an Indian, Pakistani, Uttarvarshi and Southeast Asian tradition of chewing betel leaf with areca nut and slaked lime paste, and katha brown powder paste, with many regional and local variations...

 at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.

Muharram


Lucknow is known as a seat of Shi'ism and the epitome of Shia culture in India. It is famous for Muharram
Muharram
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

 and associated azadari movement. All the communities including Hindus, observe the Moharram on the 10th of Moharram in the memory of Imam Husain (the grandson of the prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

). Fourteen hundred years back in Karbala Iraq Yazid's
Yazid I
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya ibn Abī Sufyān , commonly known as Yazid I, was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate . He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE. Many Muslims condemn Yazid's rule as contentious and unjust...

 forces killed Immam Hussain and his family on the day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
The Day of Ashura is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram.It is commemorated by Shia Muslims as a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad at the Battle of Karbala on 10...

 and imprisoned remaining family.
The processions of Muharram in Lucknow have a special significance. They were started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs
Nawab of Awadh
The Nawab of Awadh is the title of rulers who governed the state of Awadh in India in the 18th and 19th century. The Nawabs of Awadh originated form Persia-Establishment:...

. The Majalises, processions and other rituals that are observed by the Shia community to commemorate the sacrifice of Husain are known as Azadari.

The processions like Shahi Zarih, Jaloos-e-Mehndi, Alam-e-Ashura and that of Chup Tazia
Chup Tazia
Chup Tazia is the name in India and Pakistan given to an annual religious procession held by Twelver Shia Muslims to commemorate the death of Imam Hasan al-Askari.The processions are held on the 8th of Rabi' al-awwal, according to the Islamic calendar...

 have special significance for Shia community, which are taken out with great religious zeal and fervour. These processions which started during the reign of the Awadh Nawabs
Nawab of Awadh
The Nawab of Awadh is the title of rulers who governed the state of Awadh in India in the 18th and 19th century. The Nawabs of Awadh originated form Persia-Establishment:...

 continued till the year 1977 when Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh
The Government of Uttar Pradesh is a democratically elected body with the Governor as the constitutional head. The Governor of Uttar Pradesh who is appointed for a period of five years, appoints the Chief Minister and his council of ministers...

 banned the Azadari processions in public. For next twenty years processions and gatherings were carried in private or community space like, Talkatora karbala, Imambara Asifi(Bara Imambara), Imambara Husainabad(Chhota Imambara), Dargah Hazrat Abbas, Shah Najaf, Ghufra'ma'ab etc. Ban was partially lifted in 1997 and Shias were successful in taking out the first Azadari procession in January 1998 (21st of Ramzan). Today the Shias have been given nine processions out of nine hundred that are registered in the festival register of the Shias.

Dance, drama and music


Kathak
Kathak
Kathak is one of the eight forms of Indian classical dances, originated from Uttar Pradesh, India. This dance form traces its origins to the nomadic bards of ancient northern India, known as Kathaks, or storytellers...

, the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah
Wajid Ali Shah
Wajid Ali Shah was the fifth King of Oudh, holding the position from 13 February 1847 to 7 February 1856....

, the last Nawab of Awadh
Nawab of Awadh
The Nawab of Awadh is the title of rulers who governed the state of Awadh in India in the 18th and 19th century. The Nawabs of Awadh originated form Persia-Establishment:...

, was a great patron and a passionate champion of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj
Lachhu Maharaj
Lachhu Maharaj was an Indian dancer. He came from a family of illustrious Kathak exponents in Lucknow.He received extensive training from Pandit Bindadin Maharaj, his uncle and the court dancer of the Nawab of Awadh, for nearly ten years...

, Acchchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj
Shambhu Maharaj
Pandit Shambhu Maharaj was a celebrated Guru of the Lucknow Gharana of the Indian classical dance form, Kathak. -Early life and training:...

 and Birju Maharaj
Birju Maharaj
Brijmo Mishra popularly known as Pandit Birju Maharaj is currently the leading exponent of the Varanasi Kalka-Bindadin gharana of Kathak dance in India.He is a descendant of the legendary Maharaj family of Kathak dancers, including his two uncles, Shambhu Maharaj and Lachhu Maharaj, and his father...

 have kept this tradition alive.

Lucknow is also the city of eminent Ghazal
Ghazal
The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century...

 singer Begum Akhtar
Begum Akhtar
Akhtari Bai Faizabadi or Begum Akhtar was a well known Indian singer of Ghazal, Dadra and Thumri.She received the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for vocal music, and was awarded Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan by Govt. of India...

. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.

The Bhatkande Music Institute University
Bhatkhande Music Institute
Bhatkhande Music Institute is a renowned music institute in Lucknow. Established in 1926 by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande, it was declared a deemed university by University Grants Commission in 2000, and offers music education in Vocal Music, Instrumental, Rhythms, Dance, Musicology and Research and...

 at Lucknow is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. People from Sri Lanka, Nepal and other countries come to Bhatkhande to study music or dance. The Krishna Kumar Kapoor Sangeet Research Academy is latest entrant on the horizon and it is imparting free training to the aspirants of Hindustani Classical Music. Academy trains disciples who want to become performers of Music.

Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts
Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts
Bhartendu Academy of Dramatic Arts is a theatre training institute in Lucknow, India...

 (BNA), also known as Bhartendu Natya Academy, a Theatre Training institute situated at Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

 in vikas khand-1, is deemed university
Deemed University
Deemed university is a status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities in India. This status of ‘Deemed-to-be-University’, is granted by Department of Higher Education, Union Human Resource Development Ministry, on the advice of the University Grants...

 and an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Culture, Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh
The Government of Uttar Pradesh is a democratically elected body with the Governor as the constitutional head. The Governor of Uttar Pradesh who is appointed for a period of five years, appoints the Chief Minister and his council of ministers...

, set up in 1975 by the Sangeet Natak Akademy (Government of Uttar Pradesh
Government of Uttar Pradesh
The Government of Uttar Pradesh is a democratically elected body with the Governor as the constitutional head. The Governor of Uttar Pradesh who is appointed for a period of five years, appoints the Chief Minister and his council of ministers...

), and became an independent Drama school in 1977. Official Website of The BNA

Lucknow has given music stars like Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalota
Anup Jalota
Anup Jalota is an Indian singer/musician, best known for his performances in the Indian musical form, the bhajan and the Urdu form of poetry: ghazal.He is popularly known as the Bhajan Samraat .-Early life:...

 and Baba Sehgal
Baba Sehgal
Baba Sehgal, a Khatri Sikh, is an Indian rapper and actor. Brought up in Lucknow, he was famous in the mid 1990s. He is credited as the first Indian rapper to jump on the Indipop bandwagon, and released an album which got frequent airplay on MTV India...

 to the entertainment industry. It is also the birthplace of British pop star Sir Cliff Richard
Cliff Richard
Sir Cliff Richard, OBE is a British pop singer, musician, performer, actor, and philanthropist who has sold over an estimated 250 million records worldwide....

.

Sports


Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past pehlwani
Pehlwani
Pehlwani or Pahlavani or Kushti is a Persian style of wrestling popular in Iran, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. It was developed in the Mughal era through a synthesis of Indian malla-yuddha and Persian Varzesh-e Bastani....

, kabbadi, chess
Chess
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.Each player...

, kite flying
Fighter kite
Fighter kites are kites used for the sport of kite fighting. Traditionally most are small, unstable single line flat kites where line tension alone is used for control, and an abrasive line is used to cut down other kites....

, pigeon flying
Pigeon racing
Pigeon racing is the sport of releasing specially trained racing pigeons, which then return to their homes over a carefully measured distance...

, and cock fighting were popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament
Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament
The is India's oldest summer cricket tournament and in its hey day was a most prestigious one which attracted teams from all parts of India.A bubbling youth and a cricket maniac rolled in one, M.Askari Hasan in 1951 thought cricket confined to winter months was not enough...

. Today cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, football, badminton, golf and hockey
Hockey
Hockey is a family of sports in which two teams play against each other by trying to maneuver a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick.-Etymology:...

 are among the most popular sports in the city.

The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced international-level cricketers such as Mohammed Kaif
Mohammed Kaif
Mohammad Kaif is an Indian cricketer. He is a thinly built cricketer who made it to the national team on the strength of his performances at the Under-19 level, where he captained the Indian team to victory in the Under-19 World Cup in 2000...

, Piyush Chawla
Piyush Chawla
Piyush Pramod Chawla is an Indian cricketer who has played for the India U-19 team and the Central Zone. His Hometown is Moradabad,. He is seen as a leg-spinning allrounder in domestic cricket, but has not fired as a batsman in the One Day International format...

, anurag singh,Suresh Raina, Gyanendra Pandey, Praveen Kumar
Praveen Kumar
Praveen Kumar is an Indian swing bowler who bowls medium pace. In first class cricket, he plays for Uttar Pradesh. He relies on his ability to swing the ball both ways along with line and length. He is most effective when given the new ball. Kumar is also considered as a pinch hitter with the bat...

 and R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh
K. D. Singh
Kunwar Digvijay Singh , popularly known as "K.D.Singh 'Babu'", was an Indian field hockey player. He was born in Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Babu's artistry, craftsmanship and creative instincts saw him blossom into one of the finest inside-rights that India has produced...

, Mohammed Shahid
Mohammed Shahid
Mohammed Shahid is a former field hockey player from India. A dashing forward with the ability to weave past any defence with his amazing dribbling skills. He was a member of the Indian team that won the gold medal at the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow and was captain of India during 1985-86...

 and Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, Wimbledon, or simply Wimbledon , is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, considered by many to be the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, London since 1877. It is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the other three Majors...

.
There has been a proposal by the Indian Olympic Association to make joint bid from Lucknow – Delhi for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Stadiums


The main sports hub is the K. D. Singh Babu Stadium
K. D. Singh Babu Stadium
The K.D. Singh Babu Stadium is a Test cricket stadium named after the famous hockey player K. D. Singh in Lucknow, India.It replaced the University Ground as the premier cricket ground. The stadium hosts domestic competitions regularly. It is located near the busy Hazratganj area of downtown...

 which also has a world-class swimming pool and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Babu Banarsi Das Engineering College, Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College and at Integral University.

The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College
La Martiniere College
La Martiniere is a non-denominational public school in India and in France .La Martiniere Schools were founded posthumously by Major General Claude Martin in the early 19th century. Martin had acquired a large fortune while serving the Nawab of Awadh Asaf-ud-Daula and bequeathed a major part of...

, is a famous golf course.

An inspiration for films


Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India and it would be true to say that without the Lakhnavi touch, Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 would not have been what it is today. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh like Majrooh Sultanpuri
Majrooh Sultanpuri
Majrooh Sultanpuri was an Urdu poet, lyricist and songwriter...

, Kaifi Azmi
Kaifi Azmi
Kaifi Azmi was an Indian Urdu poet. He is considered to be one the greatest Urdu poets of 20th century. Together with Pirzada Qasim, Jon Eliya and many others he participated in many memorable mushairas of 20th century.-Early life:...

, Javed Akhtar
Javed Akhtar
Javed Akhtar is a poet, lyricist and scriptwriter from India. Some of his most successful work was done in the late 1970s and 1980s with Salim Khan as half of the script-writing duo credited as Salim-Javed...

 Ikram Akhtar (Writer of Films Like Ready, Thank you No problem And many more )Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma
Bhagwati Charan Verma
Bhagwati Charan Verma , was one of the leading writers in Hindi. He wrote many novels, but his magnum opus was 'Chitralekha' , which was made into two successful Hindi films, 1941 and 1964....

, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar Wajahat Mirza (writer of Mother India
Mother India
Mother India is a 1957 Hindi film epic, written and directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Nargis, Sunil Dutt, Rajendra Kumar and Raaj Kumar. The film, a melodrama, is a remake of Mehboob Khan's earlier film, Aurat...

 and Ganga Jamuna
Ganga Jamuna
Gunga Jumna is a 1961 dacoit drama Bollywood film produced by Dilip Kumar and directed by Nitin Bose. The film stars Dilip Kumar and Vyjayanthimala in the lead with Nasir Khan, Azra, Leela Chitnis, Kanhaiyalal, Anwar Hussain, Nasir Hussain, Helen forms an ensemble cast...

), Amritlal Nagar
Amritlal Nagar
Amritlal Nagar born 17 August 1916 in Agra Uttar Pradesh, has been one of the prominent Hindi writers of modern times.He started off as an author and journalist, but moved on to be an active writer in Indian Film Industry for next 7 years. He worked as a drama producer in All India Radio at...

, Ali Sardar Jafri
Ali Sardar Jafri
Ali Sardar Jafri was an Urdu writer, poet, critic and film lyricist from India.-Early life and education:Ali Sardar Jafri was born in an aristocratic family in Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh, where he spent his formative years....

, K. P. Saxena
K. P. Saxena
K. P. Saxena is a Lucknow-based satirist and writer. He was employed by the Indian Railways but he was a prolific writer for magazines and newspapers.He was awarded Padma Shri by Government of India, in year 2000....

 and music famous music director Naushad Ali (Urdu: نوشاد علی, Hindi: नौशाद अली) (25 December 1919 – 5 May 2006) have enriched Indian Cinema. Veteran Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 and bengali film actor Pahadi Sanyal also hailed from Lucknow.

Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as Shashi Kapoor
Shashi Kapoor
Shashi Kapoor , born Balbir-Raj Prithviraj Kapoor on 18 March 1938 in Calcutta , is an award-winning Indian film actor and film producer. He has also been film director and assistant director in Hindi Films. He is a member of the Kapoor family, a film dynasty in India's Bollywood cinema...

's Junoon
Junoon (1978 film)
The soundtrack features 4 songs, composed by Vanraj Bhatia, with original lyrics from Yogesh Praveen and other lyrics by Amir Khusro, Jigar Moradabadi and Sant Kabir.#"Khusro rain piya ki jaagi pee ke sang" – Jamil Ahmad...

, Muzaffar Ali
Muzaffar Ali
Rajah Muzaffar Ali is an Indian film-maker, a fashion designer, a poet, an artist, a music-lover, a revivalist, and a social worker.He belongs to a Royal Muslim Rajput family of Kotwara. He is not to be confused with the famous 16th century Persian artist of the Persian miniature.Muzaffar Ali was...

's Umrao Jaan
Umrao Jaan
Umrao Jaan is a 1981 Bollywood film, directed by Muzaffar Ali. It is based on the Urdu novel Umrao Jaan Ada , written by Mirza Hadi Ruswa based on the famous Lucknow courtesan...

 and Gaman
Gaman
Gaman is a Bollywood film released in 1978. It is the directorial debut of Muzaffar Ali, who went on to make the successful film Umrao Jaan....

, Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray was an Indian Bengali filmmaker. He is regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema. Ray was born in the city of Kolkata into a Bengali family prominent in the world of arts and literature...

's Shatranj Ke Khiladi
Shatranj Ke Khiladi
The Chess Players is a genre painting of 1876 by American artist Thomas Eakins . It is a small oil on wood panel depicting Eakins' father Benjamin observing a chess match. The two players are Bertrand Gardel , an elderly French teacher, and the somewhat younger George Holmes, a painter...

. Ismail Merchant
Ismail Merchant
Ismail Merchant was an Indian-born film producer, best known for the results of his famously long collaboration with Merchant Ivory Productions which included director James Ivory as well as screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala...

's Shakespeare Wallah
Shakespeare Wallah
Shakespeare Wallah is a 1965 Merchant Ivory Productions film. The story and screenplay are by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. Madhur Jaffrey won the Silver Bear for Best Actress at the 15th Berlin International Film Festival for her performance...

 was also partly shot in Lucknow.

Bahu Begum, Mehboob ki Mehndi, Mere Hazoor, Mere Mehboob
Mere Mehboob
Mere Mehboob is a 1963 Indian film directed by Harnam Singh Rawail and starring Rajendra Kumar, Sadhana, Ashok Kumar, Nimmi, Pran, Johnny Walker and Ameeta. The film became a "blockbuster" and took the number one position at the box office in 1963. The movie drew a background from Aligarh Muslim...

, Chaudhvin Ka Chand
Chaudhvin Ka Chand
Chaudhvin Ka Chand is a 1960 Hindi feature film directed by Mohammed Sadiq. A production of Guru Dutt, the film centers on a love triangle between Guru Dutt, Rehman and Waheeda Rehman, and features music by Ravi. Farida Jalal is a guest appearance in the film, her debut...

, Pakeezah
Pakeezah
Pakeezah is a 1972 Indian film. It was directed by Kamal Amrohi who was known for his perfectionism. The music is by Ghulam Mohammed and Naushad...

, Main Meri Patni Aur Woh, Seher, Anwar and many more films have either been shot in Lucknow or have Lakhnavi backdrops. In the movie Gadar: Ek Prem Katha
Gadar: Ek Prem Katha
The music is composed by Uttam Singh. The song listing is as follows:- Awards :Winner:*Filmfare Best Action Award - Tinnu Verma*Filmfare Special Performance Award - Amisha Patel*Sansui Best Actress Award - Amisha Patel...

 Lucknow has been used to depict Pakistan. Places like Lal Pul, Taj Hotel, Roomi Darwaza (or Roman Gate) has been used. Tanu Weds Manu
Tanu Weds Manu
Tanu Weds Manu is a 2011 Hindi romantic comedy film directed by Anand L. Rai, and produced by Shailesh R Singh. It stars R. Madhavan, Kangana Ranaut and Jimmy Shergill in the lead roles. The story of the film has been written by Himanshu Sharma, music is directed by Krsna and the lyrics penned by...

 is the most recent one.
We are proud that first coloured feature film "CHHORI GAON KI" was released on 25 June 1981, which was produced,directed by Mr Raj Kumar Trivedi. More than 80% shooting of the film was done in UP. The songs of the movie was sung by Mahendra Kapoor,Jaspal Singh,Preet Sagar,Chandrani Mukherjee. Lyrics of the movie was of Mr Raj Kumar Trivedi, an U.P. man.

Education and Research




Lucknow is a hub of education and research and many premier institutions are located in and around city. City has many universities, most prominent is Lucknow university,Lucknow Christian College,King George's Medical university, Engineering Colleges, Management Institutes, Research Institutes and Schools,Amity University. Prominent institutes of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research like Central Drug Research Institute, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research , National Botanical Research Institute, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants are located here. There are few old and reputed schools affiliated with State or Central Boards like St. Francis' College, Colvin Taluqdars' College
Colvin Taluqdars' College
Colvin Taluqdars' College in Lucknow is one of the oldest public schools in India.-History:Sir Auckland Colvin, Lieutenant Governor of the North West Provinces, while functioning as Lieutenant Governor of Avadh and Agra in 1889, conceived the idea of a school with the object of imparting education...

 La Martiniere,Rani Laxmi Bai School, Loreto Convent, MARY Gardiner's Convent School,Jaipuria School
Seth M.R.Jaipuria School, Lucknow
Seth M.R. Jaipuria School, otherwise known as the Jaipuria School of Lucknow is a co-educational institution imparting Pre-primary, Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Education through English as the medium of instruction...

, Montfort Inter College( formerly Mahanagar Boys' Inter College), Carmel Girl's School. There are also the premier management colleges in the city like IIM Lucknow,Institute of Management Sciences, Lucknow University and Jaipuria Institute of Management.Sainik School Lucknow
Sainik School Lucknow
Uttar Pradesh Sainik School Lucknow was established in July 1960. The only sainik school in the country, the alumni of which, Captain Manoj Pandey, posthumously received Param Veer Chakra . It was the first Sainik School in the country, and was followed by the setting up of other Sainik Schools,...

 is also located in the outskirts.

Road transport


From Hazratganj
Hazratganj
Hazratganj is situated in the heart of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.It has a term associated with it "Ganjing" , Ganjing is a term used to describe ambling in the wide lanes and bylanes of city's Hazratganj market. It is a busy shopping area, where most of the bazaars of Lucknow are located and is...

 intersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Shivpuri, Jhansi
Jhansi
Jhansi Hindi:झाँसी, , Marathi: झाशी, is a historical city of India. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi District and Jhansi Division. The original walled city grew up around its stone fort, which crowns a neighboring rock. This district is on the bank of river Betwa.The National...

 (M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar).

The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses, cycle rickshaw
Cycle rickshaw
The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, becak, trisikad, or trishaw or, simply, rickshaw which also refers to auto rickshaws, and the, now uncommon, rickshaws pulled by a person on foot...

s, auto rickshaw
Auto rickshaw
An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

s and CNG
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

 Low Floor AC or Non AC Buses. CNG has been introduced recently as an auto fuel to keep the air pollution in control.

City bus service


The city bus service is run by Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa
Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa
Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa is a city based service of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation which operates primarily in the city of Lucknow and outskirts.It covers all the city and is used by daily commuters.-History:...

 a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (JNNURM of UPSRTC
Upsrtc
Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation is a state transport company based in Uttar Pradesh, India operating intrastate and interstate bus services. Known as Uttar Pradesh Rajya Sarak Parivahan Nigam in Hindi, it is fondly called as 'Roadways' in State.-History:Passenger road transport...

). It has a fleet of 300 buses. All are CNG
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

. Off them 20 are A/C
Air conditioning
An air conditioner is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle...

 Low floor, 90 are non A/C
Air conditioning
An air conditioner is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The cooling is done using a simple refrigeration cycle...

 Low floor, 60 are semi low floor and 120 are mini buses. At present there are around 35 routes in the city. Terminals for city buses are Gudamba, Virajkhand, Alambagh
Alambagh
Alambagh is a large walled enclosure situated at about 4 miles from Lucknow, near Kanpur road in India. It contains a palace, a mosque and other buildings, as well as a beautiful garden. Alambagh was converted into a fort by Indian freedom fighters in 1857...

, Scooter India, Engineering college
Institute of Engineering and Technology
The Institute of Engineering and Technology Lucknow is a state government-funded engineering college in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is a constituent college of Gautam Buddh Technical University .- History :The IET was established by the government of Uttar Pradesh in 1984, for imparting...

, B.B.D., Pasi qila, Charbagh
Charbagh
Charbagh is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts...

, Andhe ki chowki, Budheshwar choraha. There are 4 bus depots
Bus garage
A bus garage or bus depot is a building where buses are stored and maintained. In many conurbations, bus garages are on the site of former car barns or tram sheds, where Streetcars or Trams were stored, and the operation transferred to buses...

 for city bus that are Gomti nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

, Charbagh
Charbagh
Charbagh is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts...

, Amausi, Dubagga.

Suburban bus service


The suburban bus service is run by Lucknow upnagariya parivahan sewa. Its fleet is around 120 buses. These buses cater the need of suburban towns and tehsils in Lucknow
Lucknow District
Lucknow District is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. The city of Lucknow is the district headquarters and the district is part of Lucknow Division...

 and neighbouring districts. Suburban services is from Charbagh
Charbagh
Charbagh is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts...

 and Kaiserbagh. Towns connected by Charbagh
Charbagh
Charbagh is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts...

 are Barabanki city, Nigohan, Nayi jail, Nagram
Nagram
Nagram is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.it is said that it was named on king nal,great bhar king-Geography:Nagram is located at . It has an average elevation of 118 metres ....

, Mohanlalganj, Subeha, Bachhrawan
Bachhrawan
Bachhrawan is a town and a nagar panchayat in Rae Bareli district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India.-Geography:Bachhrawan is located at . It has an average elevation of 116 metres .-Demographics:...

.Towns connected by Kaiserbagh are Malihabad
Malihabad
Malihabad is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the mango belt of North India and is internationally acclaimed for its mangoes. Among different varieties of mangoes grown here, Dussheri is the most popular variety. Besides Dussehri, other...

, Itaunja
Itaunja
Itaunja is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.-Geography:Itaunja is located at . It has an average elevation of 124 metres .-Demographics:...

, Mahmudabad
Mahmudabad, India
Mahmudabad is a city and a municipal board in Sitapur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.-Demographics: India census, Mahmudabad had a population of 41,911. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Mahmudabad has an average literacy rate of 49%, lower than the national...

, Amaniganj, Haidergarh
Haidergarh
Haidergarh is a town and a nagar panchayat in Barabanki district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.- Demographics : India census, Haidergarh had a population of 14,043. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Haidergarh has an average literacy rate of 58%, lower than the national...

, nayi jail. It is a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.

Inter-state bus service


One of Lucknow's major bus terminals is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar , popularly also known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, political leader, philosopher, thinker, anthropologist, historian, orator, prolific writer, economist, scholar, editor, a revolutionary and one of the founding fathers of independent India. He was also the Chairman...

 bus station at Alambagh. It has very modern facilities and is the main inter- and intrastate terminal in Lucknow. Another important bus station is at Qaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminal operated at Charbagh
Charbagh
Charbagh is a Persian-style garden layout. The quadrilateral garden is divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts...

, directly in front of the main railway station, but this has now been reestablished as a City bus depot
Bus garage
A bus garage or bus depot is a building where buses are stored and maintained. In many conurbations, bus garages are on the site of former car barns or tram sheds, where Streetcars or Trams were stored, and the operation transferred to buses...

. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station. Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service
Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service
The Kanpur Lucknow Roadways Service is a frequent bus service operated by Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation UPSRTC) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, connecting its legislative capital Lucknow with the industrial capital at Kanpur...

 is a very important service for commuters. The cities outside Uttar Pradesh that are covered by bus service are Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

, New Delhi, Gwalior, Bharatpur
Bharatpur, India
Bharatpur is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It was founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733. Located in the Brij region, Bharatpur was once an impregnable, well-planned and well-fortified city, and the capital of Jat kingdom ruled by Sinsinwar Maharajas.The trio of Bharatpur, Deeg and...

, Singrauli
Singrauli
Singrauli is a town in Singrauli district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.-History:The area in the eastern part of the state of MP and the adjoining southern part of Sonbhadra district in the state of UP is collectively known as Singrauli...

, Faridabad
Faridabad
Faridabad is a city in the south-east of Haryana state in northern India, in Faridabad district. It lies at 28º 25' 16" N Latitude and 77º 18' 28" E Longitude. The district shares its boundaries with the National Capital and Union Territory of Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and...

, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

 and Dausa
Dausa
Dausa is a city and administrative headquarters of Dausa District in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is 55 km from Jaipur,240 km from Delhi and situated at NH-11. It is also known as "Dev Nagari."- History :...

.

Rail transport



The city is served by several railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station
Charbagh Railway Station
The Charbagh Railway Station is the main railway station of Lucknow, situated in the south of the city. Its station code is LKO. Charbagh Railway Station was built in 1914 and incorporates the nest of Rajasthani and Mughal architecture...

 at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to Northern Railway (NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

 and the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway
North Eastern Railway (India)
The North Eastern Railway is one of the sixteen railway zones in India. It is headquartered at Gorakhpur and comprises Lucknow and Varanasi divisions as well as reorganized Izzatnagar division....

 (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country such as New Delhi, Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, Pune
Pune
Pune , is the eighth largest metropolis in India, the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after Mumbai, and the largest city in the Western Ghats. Once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire, it is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula ...

, Indore
Indore
Indore is one of the major city in India, the largest city and commercial center of the state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. Indore is located 190 km west of the state capital Bhopal. According to the 2011 Indian census, Indore city has a population of 1,960,631...

, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Jaipur
Jaipur
Jaipur , also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 3.1 million....

 and many more. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar
Transport nagar
Transport Nagarmay refer to:* Transport Nagar, Madurai, a residential area in Madurai district* Transport Nagar, Erode, a residential area in Erode district...

, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar
Gomti Nagar is an area in North Indian city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow...

, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab
Bakshi Ka Talab
Bakshi Ka Talab is an area situated at North side in city of Lucknow consisting of both residential and business settlements. It is one of the largest and upcoming areas of Lucknow. Bakshi Ka Talab is an organised settlement developed by Lucknow Development Authority .It is collection of premium...

 and Kakori
Kakori
Kakori is a town and a nagar panchayat in Lucknow district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is situated 14 km north of Lucknow. More widely known for its kebabs, Zardozi work and Dasheri mangoes, Kakori is also the centre of once flourishing Urdu poetry, literature and the Qadiriya...

.Many stations are covered by Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway
Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway
Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway System is a commuter rail service operated by Northern Railways, North Central Railway and North Eastern Railway to connect administrative capital Lucknow with the economic and industrial capital Kanpur of the state Uttar Pradesh. These services are mostly run...

. It serves daily commuters. Some of the trains are operated from Barabanki city.

Air transport


The Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, Amausi serves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 and Hyderabad. Oman Air, FlyDubai, Buddha Airlines, Saudi Airlines, Indian Airlines and IndigoAir and many more international airlines that are operating international flights from Lucknow. International destinations include Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

, Muscat
Muscat, Oman
Muscat is the capital of Oman. It is also the seat of government and largest city in the Governorate of Muscat. As of 2008, the population of the Muscat metropolitan area was 1,090,797. The metropolitan area spans approximately and includes six provinces called wilayats...

, Sharjah
Sharjah (city)
Sharjah is the third largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. It is located along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula.Sharjah is the seat of government of the emirate of Sharjah...

, Dammam
Dammam
Dammam is the capital of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, the most oil-rich region in the world. The judicial and administrative bodies of the province and several government departments are located in the city. Dammam is the largest city in the Eastern Province and third largest in Saudi...

, Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

, Riyadh
Riyadh
Riyadh is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a...

 and Kathmandu (Nepal). During Haj
Háj
Háj may refer to:* Háj in Turčianske Teplice District, Slovakia* Háj in Košice-okolie District, Slovakia...

 special flights are also operated from Lucknow.

Metro/Mono Rail service


Plans for high capacity mass transit system, The Lucknow Metro
Lucknow Metro
The Lucknow Metro , is a proposed rapid transit system in the Indian city of Lucknow that has to be built and is operated by the Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation Limited . The proposed and passed metro rail track consitutes of two lines, one from Amausi to Munshi Pulia & the other from Vasant kunj to...

 and Mono rail Services have been finalised. Delhi Metro
Delhi Metro
Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. It is one of the largest metro networks in the world. The network consists of six lines with a total length of with 142 stations of which 35 are underground...

 rail (DMRC) is preparing plans for its constructions.

Press


Lucknow has historically been a major center of journalism. The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru , often referred to with the epithet of Panditji, was an Indian statesman who became the first Prime Minister of independent India and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the...

 before World War II was published from Lucknow and edited by Manikonda Chalapathi Rau
Manikonda Chalapathi Rau
Manikonda Chalapathi Rau was an eminent Indian journalist and an authority on the Nehruvian thought. Rau was the reputed editor of the English daily National Herald of Lucknow for over thirty years . The National Herald was founded by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1938. He has also authored several books...

.

The prominent English dailies of the city are The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneer
The Pioneer (daily)
The Pioneer is a medium-sized English language newspaper in India.It is published from multiple locations in India, including Delhi. It is the second oldest English language newspaper in India that is operational...

 and Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi and Urdu are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran is a Hindi language daily broadsheet newspaper in India. According to the IRS Q1 2010, Dainik Jagran ranks No. 1 among the dailies with a Total Readership of 54,254,000.-Overview:...

, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan
Hindustan
Hindustan or Indostan, literal translation "Land of River Sindhu ", is one of the popular names of South Asia. It can also mean "the land of the Hindus"...

, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta
Jansatta
Jansatta is a leading Hindi daily belonging to the Indian Express Group. Established in 1983, today it is published from Delhi and Kolkata.-History:The Indian Express Group was known for its proximity to Jayaprakash Narayan, fondly known as JP...

, I Next and Swatantra Bharat. The main Urdu papers are Rozanama Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Avadhnama, Qaumi Khabrein, Aag,Roznama Urdu, "Subahnama Urdu" and Jayeza Daily,.

The Press Trust of India
Press Trust of India
Press Trust of India is the largest news agency in India. It is headquartered in Delhi and is a nonprofit cooperative among more than 450 Indian newspapers and has a staff of about 2,000 writers spread across 150 offices nationwide...

 and United News of India
United News of India
United News of India is one of the two primary Indian news agencies. It works in collaboration with several foreign news agencies and partners, including Reuters and DPA....

 have their offices in the city and all major Indian newspapers have correspondents and stringers in Lucknow.

Radio


One of the earliest stations of All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

 has been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.

FM radio
FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

 transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations.
  • Radio City
    Radio City (India radio station)
    Radio City is a FM radio station in India. It broadcasts on 91.1 megahertz from Mumbai , Bangalore , Lucknow and New Delhi. It plays Hindi songs, English and regional songs. It was launched in Hyderabad in March, 2006 , in Chennai on July 7th 2006 and in Vishakapatnam October 2007...

     91.1 MHz
  • Red FM
    Red FM (India)
    Red FM is an Indian FM radio brand, with stations broadcasting at 93.5 megahertz in the cities of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Kanpur in addition to Jamshedpur, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Indore, Nashik, Aurangabad, Nagpur, Bangalore, Mysore, Mangalore, Gulbarga, Kochi, Trivandrum, Thrissur, Kannur,...

     93.5 MHz
  • Radio Mirchi
    Radio Mirchi
    Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd , which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group....

     98.3 MHz
  • AIR FM Rainbow
    All India Radio
    All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

     100.7 MHz
  • Gyan Vani
    Gyan Vani
    Gyan Vani is an educational FM radio station in several cities of India.-Description:Gyan Vani is an educational FM Radio station in several cities of India...

     105.6 MHz (Educational)
  • CMS FM 90.4 MHz (Educational)

Internet


The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major companies like BSNL, Bharti Airtel
Bharti Airtel
Bharti Airtel Limited , commonly known as Airtel, is an Indian telecommunications company that operates in 20 countries across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. It operates a GSM network in all countries, providing 2G or 3G services depending upon the country of operation...

, Reliance Communications
Reliance Communications
Reliance Communications Ltd. is an Indian broadband and telecommunications company headquartered in Navi Mumbai, India. RCOM is the world's 16th largest mobile phone operator with over 144 million subscribers. Established on 2004, a subsidiary of the Reliance Group...

, Tata Communications
Tata Communications
Tata Communications Limited ) is a telecommunications company located in Mumbai. They own a submarine cable network, a Tier-1 IP network, and also rent data center and colocation space. They operate India's largest data center in Pune...

 & STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth to home users, corporates etc. There are many cyber cafes in the city.

Further reading

  • Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. City of Illusion. Prestel Verlag, 2006, 295pp. ISBN 3-7913-3130-2. ISBN 978-3-7913-3130-0.
  • Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. Lucknow Then and Now. Marg Publications, India, 2003. ISBN 81-85026-61-0. ISBN 978-81-85026-61-9.
  • Anurag Kumar. Recalcitrance- a historical novel on events of Great Uprising of 1857 AIP Books, India, 2008.

External links