Governor-General

Governor-General

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Encyclopedia
A Governor-General, is a vice-regal
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 person of a monarch
Monarch
A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

 in an independent realm or a major colonial circonscription. Depending on the political arrangement of the territory, a Governor General can be a governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

 of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above "ordinary" governors.

Current uses


In modern usage, the term "Governor General" originated in those British colonies which became self-governing within the British empire (examples are Australia, Canada and New Zealand). With the exception of New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, each of the previously constituent colonies of these federated colonies already had a Governor, and the Crown's representative to the federated Dominion was therefore given the superior title of Governor General. New Zealand was granted Dominion status in 1907, but as it had never been a federal state there was no pressing need to change the gubernatorial title. It was not until 28 June 1917 that the Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool was appointed the first Governor General of New Zealand. Another non-federal state, Newfoundland
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador with a combined area of . As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400...

, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King's representative retaining the title of Governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

 throughout this time.

Since the 1950s, the title Governor General has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered (sometimes for the same incumbent) to become Governor General upon independence, as the nature of the office became an entirely independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the Governor General acts as the Monarch's representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a Head of State.

The only other nation which uses the Governor General designation is Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

, which has no connection with either the British (or any other) monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a Governor General (Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

: استاندار ostāndār), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior.

British colonialism and the Governor General


Until the 1920s, Governor Generals were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British Government, who acted as agents of the British Government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch. As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, and also held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The Governor General could be instructed by the Colonial Secretary
Secretary of State for the Colonies
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies....

 on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent
Royal Assent
The granting of royal assent refers to the method by which any constitutional monarch formally approves and promulgates an act of his or her nation's parliament, thus making it a law...

 from legislation; history shows many examples of Governors General using their prerogative and executive powers. The monarch or Imperial government could overrule any Governor General, though this could often be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London.

The Governor General was also the head of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the Governor General's control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one. Indeed, until the late 20th century, the Governor General's official attire was the court dress
Court dress
Court dress comprises the style of clothes prescribed for courts of law, and formerly for royal courts.- Where court dress is worn :Court dress is worn at hearings in open court in all Senior Courts of England and Wales and in county courts. However, court dress may be dispensed with at the option...

, Windsor uniform
Windsor uniform
The Windsor uniform is a type of dress worn by male members of the House of Windsor. The uniform was introduced by George III in 1779.The first Court Uniform was the Windsor Coat or Uniform, dating from c.1778. This is now an evening tail coat of dark blue cloth, lapelled, with scarlet collar and...

 or other military uniform.

Independent Commonwealth realms


Following the Imperial Conference, and subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration 1926
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, a report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after the British statesman Arthur Balfour, first Earl of Balfour, Lord President of the Council and a previous Prime Minister of the United Kingdom...

 in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the Governor General began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominion
Dominion
A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities that were nominally under British sovereignty, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the latter part of the 19th century. They have included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland,...

s (which were in 1952 renamed Realms; a term which includes the UK itself). As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to said country's national affairs (as opposed to a single British monarch ruling all the Dominions as a conglomerate and advised only by an imperial parliament), so too did the Governor General become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: "...it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, and that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty's Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government." These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster
Statute of Westminster 1931
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Passed on 11 December 1931, the Act established legislative equality for the self-governing dominions of the British Empire with the United Kingdom...

 in 1931, and governmental relations with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner
High Commissioner
High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.The English term is also used to render various equivalent titles in other languages.-Bilateral diplomacy:...

 in each country.

In other words, the political reality of a self-governing dominion within the British Empire with a Governor General answerable to the sovereign of Great Britain became clear. British interference in the dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was clearly displayed. Canada, Australia and New Zealand were clearly not controlled by the United Kingdom. The monarch of these countries (Elizabeth II) is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. The monarch appoints a Governor General as a personal representative only on the advice of the Prime Minister of the realm. The Governor General of Canada is appointed by the Queen of Canada on the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister. The Governor General of Australia is appointed by the Queen of Australia on the advice of the Australian Prime Minister and the Governor General of New Zealand is appointed by the Queen of New Zealand on the advice of the New Zealand Prime Minister, etc.

Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth Realm
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The sixteen current realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km² , and a population of 134 million, of which all, except about two million, live in the six...

s, the Governor General is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state, and may exercise the reserve power
Reserve power
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. Unlike a presidential system of government, the head of state is generally constrained by the cabinet or the...

s of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority. The Governor General, however, is still appointed by the monarch, and takes an oath of allegiance
Oath of allegiance
An oath of allegiance is an oath whereby a subject or citizen acknowledges a duty of allegiance and swears loyalty to monarch or country. In republics, modern oaths specify allegiance to the country's constitution. For example, officials in the United States, a republic, take an oath of office that...

 to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is also vested in the monarch, though it can be placed with the Governor General on behalf of the sovereign of the independent realm. Letters of Credence
Letter of Credence
A letter of credence is a formal letter usually sent by one head of state to another that formally grants diplomatic accreditation to a named individual to be their ambassador in the country of the head of state receiving the letter...

 or Letters of Recall are now sometimes received or issued in the name of the monarch, though in some countries, such as Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 and Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, the Letters of Credence and Recall are issued in the name of the Governor General alone.

At diplomatic functions where the Governor General is present, the visiting diplomat or head of state toasts "The King" or "The Queen" of the relevant realm, not the Governor General, with any reference to the Governor General being subsidiary in later toasts if featuring at all, and will involve a toast to them by name, not office. (E.g., "Mr. and Mrs. Smith," not "Her Excellency, the Governor General." Sometimes a toast might be made using name and office, e.g., "Governor General Smith.")

Except in rare cases, the Governor General only acts in accordance with constitutional convention
Constitutional convention (political custom)
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. In some states, notably those Commonwealth of Nations states that follow the Westminster system and whose political systems derive from British constitutional law, most...

 and upon the advice
Advice (constitutional)
Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another. Especially in parliamentary systems of government, Heads of state often act on the basis of advice issued by prime ministers or other government ministers...

 of the national Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

. The Governor General is still the local representative of the sovereign, and performs the same duties as they carried out historically, though their role is almost purely ceremonial. Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

 Lord Byng
Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy
Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy was a British Army officer who served as Governor General of Canada, the 12th since Canadian Confederation....

 refused Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

 Mackenzie King's
William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King, PC, OM, CMG was the dominant Canadian political leader from the 1920s through the 1940s. He served as the tenth Prime Minister of Canada from December 29, 1921 to June 28, 1926; from September 25, 1926 to August 7, 1930; and from October 23, 1935 to November 15, 1948...

 request for a dissolution of parliament; in 1953 and 1954 when the Governor General of Pakistan, Ghulam Mohammad, staged a constitutional coup against the Prime Minister and then the Constituent Assembly; and in 1975, when the Governor General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister
Australian constitutional crisis of 1975
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis has been described as the greatest political crisis and constitutional crisis in Australia's history. It culminated on 11 November 1975 with the removal of the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam of the Australian Labor Party , by Governor-General Sir John Kerr...

, Gough Whitlam
Gough Whitlam
Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC , known as Gough Whitlam , served as the 21st Prime Minister of Australia. Whitlam led the Australian Labor Party to power at the 1972 election and retained government at the 1974 election, before being dismissed by Governor-General Sir John Kerr at the climax of the...

. In principle, the Crown could overrule a Governor General, but this has not happened in modern times.

The term de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 head of state
, though having no constitutional status, has been used informally in Commonwealth realm
Commonwealth Realm
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The sixteen current realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km² , and a population of 134 million, of which all, except about two million, live in the six...

s to describe the role of a Governor General.

The Governor General is usually a person with a distinguished record of public service, often a retired politician, judge or military commander; but some countries have also appointed prominent academics
Academia
Academia is the community of students and scholars engaged in higher education and research.-Etymology:The word comes from the akademeia in ancient Greece. Outside the city walls of Athens, the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning...

, members of the clergy, philanthropists, or figures from the news media to the office. The Governor General is formally appointed by the Monarch, following the specific request of the Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 of the country concerned; Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands...

 and the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is a sovereign state in Oceania, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands. It covers a land mass of . The capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal...

 are the only realms that elect their Governor General, in both cases by a parliamentary vote.

Traditionally, the Governor General's official attire was a military uniform, but this practice has been abandoned except on occasions when it is appropriate to be worn. In South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, the Governor General
Governor-General of the Union of South Africa
The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa was the representative of the British and later South African Crown in the Union of South Africa between 31 May 1910 and 31 May 1961...

 of the Union
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

 nominated by the Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Afrikaners are an ethnic group in Southern Africa descended from almost equal numbers of Dutch, French and German settlers whose native tongue is Afrikaans: a Germanic language which derives primarily from 17th century Dutch, and a variety of other languages.-Related ethno-linguistic groups:The...

 Nationalist
National Party (South Africa)
The National Party is a former political party in South Africa. Founded in 1914, it was the governing party of the country from 4 June 1948 until 9 May 1994. Members of the National Party were sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats. Its policies included apartheid, the establishment of a...

 government chose not to wear uniform on any occasion. Most Governors General continue to wear appropriate medal
Medal
A medal, or medallion, is generally a circular object that has been sculpted, molded, cast, struck, stamped, or some way rendered with an insignia, portrait, or other artistic rendering. A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for athletic, military, scientific,...

s on their clothing when required.

The Governor General's official residence is usually called Government House. The Governor-General of the Irish Free State
Governor-General of the Irish Free State
The Governor-General was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. Until 1927 he was also the agent of the British government in the Irish state. By convention the office of Governor-General was largely ceremonial...

 resided in the then Viceregal Lodge
Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin , formerly the Viceregal Lodge, is the official residence of the President of Ireland. It is located in the Phoenix Park on the northside of Dublin.-Origins:...

 in Phoenix Park
Phoenix Park
Phoenix Park is an urban park in Dublin, Ireland, lying 2–4 km west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey. Its 16 km perimeter wall encloses , one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the seventeenth...

, Dublin, but the government of Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera was one of the dominant political figures in twentieth century Ireland, serving as head of government of the Irish Free State and head of government and head of state of Ireland...

 sought to downgrade the office, and the last Governor General, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, did not reside there. The office was abolished there in 1936.

In most Commonwealth realms, the flag of the Governor General has been the standard pattern of a blue field
Flag terminology
Flag terminology is a jargon used in vexillology, the study of flags, to describe precisely the parts, patterns, and other attributes of flags and their display.-Description of standard flag parts and terms:...

 with the Royal Crest (a lion standing on a crown) above a scroll with the name of the jurisdiction. In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, however, this was replaced with a crowned lion clasping a maple leaf. In the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is a sovereign state in Oceania, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands. It covers a land mass of . The capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal...

, the scroll was replaced with a two-headed frigate bird motif, while in Fiji
Fiji
Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji , is an island nation in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island...

, the former Governor General's flag featured a whale
Whale
Whale is the common name for various marine mammals of the order Cetacea. The term whale sometimes refers to all cetaceans, but more often it excludes dolphins and porpoises, which belong to suborder Odontoceti . This suborder also includes the sperm whale, killer whale, pilot whale, and beluga...

's tooth. In New Zealand, the flag was replaced in 2008 with the shield of the coat of arms of New Zealand
Coat of arms of New Zealand
The coat of arms of New Zealand is the official symbol of New Zealand. The initial coat of arms was granted by King George V on the 26 August 1911, and the current version was granted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1956.-History and design:...

 surmounted by a crown on a blue field.

Governors General are accorded the style of His/Her Excellency
Excellency
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain members of an organization or state.Usually, people styled "Excellency" are heads of state, heads of government, governors, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics, royalty, aristocracy, and military, and others holding equivalent rank .It is...

. This style is also extended to their spouses, whether female or male (for an example of the latter, see Jean-Daniel Lafond
Jean-Daniel Lafond
Jean-Daniel Lafond CC is a French-born Canadian filmmaker, and the husband to the former Governor General Michaëlle Jean, making him the Viceregal Consort of Canada during her service.-Biography:...

).

In former colonies which are now Commonwealth republic
Commonwealth republic
A republic in the Commonwealth of Nations is any one of the 33 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government...

s, the Governor General and Monarch have been replaced by an elected or appointed (sometimes non-executive) Head of State.

Appointment



Until the 1920s, the Governors General were British, and appointed on the advice of the British Government.

In December 1922, Tim Healy
Timothy Michael Healy
Timothy Michael Healy, KC , also known as Tim Healy, was an Irish nationalist politician, journalist, author, barrister and one of the most controversial Irish Members of Parliament in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland...

, an Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic
Irish Catholic is a term used to describe people who are both Roman Catholic and Irish .Note: the term is not used to describe a variant of Catholicism. More particularly, it is not a separate creed or sect in the sense that "Anglo-Catholic", "Old Catholic", "Eastern Orthodox Catholic" might be...

 politician, was appointed as the first Governor-General of the Irish Free State
Governor-General of the Irish Free State
The Governor-General was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. Until 1927 he was also the agent of the British government in the Irish state. By convention the office of Governor-General was largely ceremonial...

. This was the first time that someone other than a British Peer was appointed as the Governor-General of a dominion
Dominion
A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities that were nominally under British sovereignty, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the latter part of the 19th century. They have included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland,...

 within the British Empire. Following the changes to the structure of the Commonwealth in the late 1920s, in 1929, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin
James Scullin
James Henry Scullin , Australian Labor politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia. Two days after he was sworn in as Prime Minister, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 occurred, marking the beginning of the Great Depression and subsequent Great Depression in Australia.-Early life:Scullin was...

 established the right of a Dominion
Dominion
A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities that were nominally under British sovereignty, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the latter part of the 19th century. They have included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland,...

 Prime Minister to advise the Monarch directly on the appointment of a Governor General, by insisting that his choice (Sir Isaac Isaacs
Isaac Isaacs
Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs GCB GCMG KC was an Australian judge and politician, was the third Chief Justice of Australia, ninth Governor-General of Australia and the first born in Australia to occupy that post. He is the only person ever to have held both positions of Chief Justice of Australia and...

, an Australian) prevail over the recommendation of the British Government. The convention was gradually established throughout the Commonwealth that the Governor General would be a citizen of the country concerned, and would be appointed on the advice of the government of that country, with no input from the British Government; Governor General of Canada
Governor General of Canada
The Governor General of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II...

 since 1952 and Governor General of New Zealand since 1967. Since 1931 as each former Dominion has patriated its constitution from the UK, the convention has become law and no government of any realm can advise the Monarch on any matter pertaining to another realm, including the appointment of a Governor General. Today a country's Governor-General is appointed by the Sovereign based solely on the advice of the prime minister of the country concerned.

Commonwealth countries with a Governor General

Commonwealth realm From
Antigua and Barbuda 1981 http://ab.gov.ag/gov_v4/article_details.php?id=182&category=66
Australia 1901 Website
Bahamas 1973 Website
Barbados 1966 Website
Belize 1981 Website
Canada 1867 Website
Grenada 1974 Website
Jamaica 1962 Website
New Zealand 1917 Website
Papua New Guinea 1975
Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 http://www.gov.kn/ct.asp?xItem=462&CtNode=58&mp=1
Saint Lucia 1979 Website
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 Website
Solomon Islands
Governor-General of the Solomon Islands
The Governor-General of Solomon Islands is the representative of the Queen of Solomon Islands, Elizabeth II. The Queen does not reside in the islands, and so the Governor-General serves as the country's de facto head of state in her absence....

1978
Tuvalu
Governor-General of Tuvalu
The Governor-General of Tuvalu is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II as Queen of Tuvalu, the nation's Head of State, and performs the duties of the Queen in her absence.-History:...

1978 http://www.tuvaluislands.com/gov_info.htm

Clicking on the country above will take you the relevant Governor-General article.

A list of current Governors-General in Commonwealth countries may be found here: Representatives of the Commonwealth of Nations.

Other attributes



Different realms have different constitutional arrangements governing who acts in place of the Governor General in the event of his or her death, resignation, or incapacity.
  • In Australia, an Administrator of the Commonwealth
    Administrator (Australia)
    The title Administrator of the Government has several uses in Australia.-Administrator of the Commonwealth:At the Commonwealth level, Section 4 of the Australian Constitution provides that:...

     may be appointed to perform the necessary official functions, pending a decision by the Sovereign, on the advice of the Prime Minister
    Prime Minister of Australia
    The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the highest minister of the Crown, leader of the Cabinet and Head of Her Majesty's Australian Government, holding office on commission from the Governor-General of Australia. The office of Prime Minister is, in practice, the most powerful...

    , about a permanent replacement as Governor General. The Administrator has usually been the senior state governor
    Governors of the Australian states
    The Governors of the Australian states are the representatives of the Queen of Australia in each of that country's six states. The Governors perform the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia at the national level...

    . Each state governor normally holds what is known as a dormant commission
    Dormant commission
    A dormant commission is a commission which lies dormant or sleeping until it is triggered by a particular event. The concept appears in the constitutional affairs of Commonwealth realm nations....

    . There have been cases where a governor has fallen out of favor with the government, causing their dormant commission to be revoked. The most recent example was that of Sir Colin Hannah
    Colin Hannah
    Air Marshal Sir Colin Thomas Hannah KCMG, KCVO, KBE, CB was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force and a Governor of Queensland. Born in Western Australia, he was a member of the Militia before joining the RAAF in 1935. After graduating as a pilot, Hannah served in Nos. 22 and...

    , Governor of Queensland, in 1975.

  • In Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand, it is the Chief Justice
    Chief Justice
    The Chief Justice in many countries is the name for the presiding member of a Supreme Court in Commonwealth or other countries with an Anglo-Saxon justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Canada, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Court of Final Appeal of...

    .

  • In Papua New Guinea, it is the Speaker of the House.

  • Many Caribbean countries have a specific office of "Deputy Governor-General".

Former British colonies


The title has been used in many British colonial entities that either no longer exist or are now independent countries.

In the Americas

  • The Federation of the West Indies (Antigua
    Antigua
    Antigua , also known as Waladli, is an island in the West Indies, in the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region, the main island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua means "ancient" in Spanish and was named by Christopher Columbus after an icon in Seville Cathedral, Santa Maria de la...

    , Barbados
    Barbados
    Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is in length and as much as in width, amounting to . It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, it is about east of the islands of Saint...

    , Cayman Islands
    Cayman Islands
    The Cayman Islands is a British Overseas Territory and overseas territory of the European Union located in the western Caribbean Sea. The territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman, located south of Cuba and northwest of Jamaica...

    , Dominica
    Dominica
    Dominica , officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles region of the Caribbean Sea, south-southeast of Guadeloupe and northwest of Martinique. Its size is and the highest point in the country is Morne Diablotins, which has an elevation of . The Commonwealth...

    , Grenada
    Grenada
    Grenada is an island country and Commonwealth Realm consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea...

    , Jamaica
    Jamaica
    Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

    , Montserrat
    Montserrat
    Montserrat is a British overseas territory located in the Leeward Islands, part of the chain of islands called the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. This island measures approximately long and wide, giving of coastline...

    , St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an island country in the Lesser Antilles chain, namely in the southern portion of the Windward Islands, which lie at the southern end of the eastern border of the Caribbean Sea where the latter meets the Atlantic Ocean....

     and Turks and Caicos Islands
    Turks and Caicos Islands
    The Turks and Caicos Islands are a British Overseas Territory and overseas territory of the European Union consisting of two groups of tropical islands in the Caribbean, the larger Caicos Islands and the smaller Turks Islands, known for tourism and as an offshore financial centre.The Turks and...

    ), less commonly referred to as the British Caribbean Federation, had a single Governor-General during its short existence, 3 January 1958–31 May 1962: The Rt. Hon.
    The Right Honourable
    The Right Honourable is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and other Commonwealth Realms, and occasionally elsewhere...

     The 1st Baron Hailes
    Patrick Buchan-Hepburn, 1st Baron Hailes
    Patrick George Thomas Buchan-Hepburn, 1st Baron Hailes, GBE, CH , was a British Conservative politician and the only Governor-General of the short-lived West Indies Federation, from 3 January 1958, to 31 May 1962, when the country was disbanded.-Background and education:Buchan-Hepburn was the...

      (b. 1901–d. 1974).

In Asia


  • British India (the present Republic of India, Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

     and Bangladesh
    Bangladesh
    Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

     and till 1937 Burma, the present Myanmar
    Myanmar
    Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

    )—see also Viceroy
    Viceroy
    A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

  • The Dominion of India
    Dominion of India
    The Dominion of India, also known as the Union of India or the Indian Union , was a predecessor to modern-day India and an independent state that existed between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950...

     (present Republic of India) (1947–1950)
    • Governor-General of India
      Governor-General of India
      The Governor-General of India was the head of the British administration in India, and later, after Indian independence, the representative of the monarch and de facto head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William...

  • The Dominion of Pakistan
    Dominion of Pakistan
    The Dominion of Pakistan was an independent federal Commonwealth realm in South Asia that was established in 1947 on the partition of British India into two sovereign dominions . The Dominion of Pakistan, which included modern-day Pakistan and Bangladesh, was intended to be a homeland for the...

     (present Islamic Republic of Pakistan) (1947–1956)
    • Governor-General of Pakistan
      Governor-General of Pakistan
      The Governor-General of Pakistan was the representative in Pakistan of the Crown from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956 the connection with the British monarchy ended, and the office of Governor-General was abolished.-History:Pakistan gained...

  • The Dominion of Ceylon
    Dominion of Ceylon
    The Dominion of Ceylon, known today as Sri Lanka, was a dominion, in the British Empire between 1948 and 1972. In 1948, British Ceylon was granted independence as the Dominion of Ceylon. In 1972, the Dominion of Ceylon became a republic within the Commonwealth, and its name was changed to Sri Lanka...

     (present Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

    ) (1948–1972)
    • The Governor-General of Ceylon
      Governor-General of Ceylon
      The Governor-General of Ceylon was the representative of the Ceylonese monarch, and head of state, who held the title of Queen of Ceylon from 1948 when the country became independent as a Dominion until the country became the republic of Sri Lanka in 1972.-Role:The monarch, on the advice of the...


Former Commonwealth realms


Most Commonwealth countries that are now republic
Republic
A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of...

s have a President as head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

, where previously they had a Governor General. Some became parliamentary republics, like India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, where the presidency is a ceremonial post, similar to that of the British monarch, while others, like Ghana
Ghana
Ghana , officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located in West Africa. It is bordered by Côte d'Ivoire to the west, Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea to the south...

, adopted a presidential system like the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 held a referendum on becoming a parliamentary republic
Republicanism in Australia
Republicanism in Australia is a movement to change Australia's status as a constitutional monarchy to a republican form of government. Such sentiments have been expressed in Australia from before federation onward to the present...

 in 1999, but this was rejected.

The current governments of Barbados
Barbados
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles. It is in length and as much as in width, amounting to . It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, it is about east of the islands of Saint...

 and Jamaica
Jamaica
Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

, while having announced plans to hold referendums on becoming republics (in each case with a non-executive President replacing the Queen as head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

, as occurred in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

 in 1976), have not proceeded any further.

In Africa

  • 1 August 1953–31 December 1963 The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
    Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
    The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also known as the Central African Federation , was a semi-independent state in southern Africa that existed from 1953 to the end of 1963, comprising the former self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia,...

     (also called the Central African Federation) comprising Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe
    Zimbabwe
    Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the southern part of the African continent, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia and a tip of Namibia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. Zimbabwe has three...

    ), Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia
    Zambia
    Zambia , officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west....

    ) and Nyasaland (now Malawi
    Malawi
    The Republic of Malawi is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. The country is separated from Tanzania and Mozambique by Lake Malawi. Its size...

    ).
  • Sudan
    Sudan
    Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

     as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
    Anglo-Egyptian Sudan referred to the manner by which Sudan was administered between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of Egypt and the United Kingdom.-Union with Egypt:...

     between 1899 and 1 January 1956.
  • Gambia, two incumbents:
    • 18 February 1965–9 February 1966 Sir John Warburton Paul
      John Warburton Paul
      Sir John Warburton Paul, GCMG, OBE, MC was a British government official, best known as a prolific administrator for 20 years of various British overseas territories around the world...

       (b. 1916–d. 2004), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 9 February 1966–24 April 1970 Sir Farimang Mamadi Singateh
      Farimang Mamadi Singateh
      Alhaji Sir Farimang Mamadi Singateh was the second and last Governor General of The Gambia, representing Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. Succeeding Sir John Warburton Paul, who had previously been Governor before independence, Sir Farimang was the only Gambian citizen to hold that post,...

       (b. 1912-d.- 1977); the country became a republic with Dawda Jawara
      Dawda Jawara
      Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, GCMG was the first leader of The Gambia, serving first as Prime Minister from 1962 to 1970 and then as President from 1970 to 1994....

      , formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
  • Dominion of Ghana:
    • 6 March 1957–24 June 1957 Sir Charles Arden-Clarke
      Charles Noble Arden-Clarke
      Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke was a British colonial administrator.He was the Resident Commissioner of the Bechuanaland Protectorate between 1937 and 1942 , a time at which the ruling regent Tschekedi Khama was in violent conflict with the British authorities...

       (b. 1898–d. 1962), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 24 June 1957–1 July 1960 The Rt. Hon.
      The Right Honourable
      The Right Honourable is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and other Commonwealth Realms, and occasionally elsewhere...

       The 5th Earl of Listowel
      William Hare, 5th Earl of Listowel
      William Francis Hare, 5th Earl of Listowel GCMG, PC , styled Viscount Ennismore between 1924 and 1931, was a British peer and Labour politician...

       (b. 1906–d. 1997); the country became the first in Africa to become a republic within the Commonwealth, with Kwame Nkrumah
      Kwame Nkrumah
      Kwame Nkrumah was the leader of Ghana and its predecessor state, the Gold Coast, from 1952 to 1966. Overseeing the nation's independence from British colonial rule in 1957, Nkrumah was the first President of Ghana and the first Prime Minister of Ghana...

      , formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
  • Dominion of Kenya: 12 December 1963–12 December 1964 Malcolm MacDonald
    Malcolm MacDonald
    Malcolm John MacDonald OM, PC was a British politician and diplomat.-Background:MacDonald was the son of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald and Margaret MacDonald. Like his father he was born in Lossiemouth, Moray...

     (b. 1901–d. 1981), formerly the last colonial Governor; the country became a republic with Jomo Kenyatta
    Jomo Kenyatta
    Jomo Kenyattapron.] served as the first Prime Minister and President of Kenya. He is considered the founding father of the Kenyan nation....

    , formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
  • Malawi
    Malawi
    The Republic of Malawi is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. The country is separated from Tanzania and Mozambique by Lake Malawi. Its size...

    : 6 July 1964–6 July 1966 Sir Glyn Smallwood Jones
    Glyn Smallwood Jones
    Sir Glyn Smallwood Jones, GCMG, MBE , was a British colonial administrator in Southern Africa. He was the last governor of Nyasaland from 1961 until it achieved independence in 1964. He served as the only Governor-General of Malawi from 1964 until it became a republic in 1966...

     (b. 1908–d. 1992), formerly the last colonial Governor (until 1963 of "Nyasaland"), the country became a republic with Kamuzu Banda, formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
  • Mauritius
    Mauritius
    Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

    : Sir John Shaw Rennie
    John Shaw Rennie
    - References :...

     (12 March–3 September 1968) formerly the last colonial Governor. The country became a republic on 12 March 1992 with the last Governor-General, Veerasamy Ringadoo
    Veerasamy Ringadoo
    Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo, GCMG, GCSK, QC, was the Governor General of Mauritius from 17 January 1986 to 12 March 1992, when it became a republic. Ringadoo then served as President until later in 1992, when he was replaced by the democratically elected Cassam Uteem. He is a Tamil by origin and a Hindu...

    , as the first ceremonial President.
  • Dominion of Nigeria:
    • 1 October 1960–16 November 1960 Sir James Wilson Robertson
      James Wilson Robertson
      Sir James Wilson Robertson, KT, GCMG, GCVO, KBE, Order of the Nile , KStJ was the last British Head of Nigeria.He was educated at Merchiston Castle School in Edinburgh and Balliol College, Oxford...

       (b. 1899–d. 1983), Non-party (previously colonial Governor-General).
    • 16 November 1960–1 October 1963 Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (b. 1904–d. 1996) NCNC; became first ceremonial President of the Federal Republic
  • Sierra Leone
    Sierra Leone
    Sierra Leone , officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Guinea to the north and east, Liberia to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and southwest. Sierra Leone covers a total area of and has an estimated population between 5.4 and 6.4...

     (See also Governor-General of Sierra Leone):
    • 27 April 1961–27 April 1962 Sir Maurice Henry Dorman
      Maurice Henry Dorman
      Sir Maurice Henry Dorman, GCMG, GCVO was the representative of the British Monarchy in Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Sierra Leone, and Malta. He studied at Cambridge University. He served in Sierra Leone from 1956 until 1962, for which he was knighted in 1957...

       (b. 1902–d. 1993), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 27 April 1962–April 1967 Sir Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston
      Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston
      Sir Henry Josiah Lightfoot Boston was a Sierra Leonean diplomat and politician. He was the first indigenous Governor-General of Sierra Leone...

        (b. 1898–d. 1969) (acting to 27 July 1962)
    • April 1967–18 April 1968 Andrew Terence Juxon-Smith
      Andrew Juxon-Smith
      Brigadier Andrew Terence Juxon-Smith was a politician and military official in Sierra Leone. He was briefly Chairman of the National Reformation Council and acting Governor-General, equivalent to head of the Sierra Leonean state...

       (acting) (b. 1933–d. 1996)
    • 18 April 1968–22 April 1968 John Amadu Bangura
      John Amadu Bangura
      Brigadier John Amadu Bangura was the acting Governor-General of Sierra Leone from 18 April 1968 until 22 April 1968. He led the Sargents Coup in 1968 that successfully re-instated civilian rule in Sierra Leone.- Early life :...

       (acting) (b. 1930–d. 1971)
    • 22 April 1968–31 March 1971 Banja Tejan-Sie
      Banja Tejan-Sie
      Sir Banja Tejan-Sie, GCMG was a politician and lawyer in Sierra Leone and one of the "founding fathers" of the Sierra Leone People's Party . Tejan-Sie was born in Moyamba District to a famous Muslim cleric and scholar from the Fulah tribe...

       (from 1970, Sir Banja Tejan-Sie) (b. 1917–d. 2000)
    • 31 March 1971–19 April 1971 Christopher Cole (acting) (b. 1921–d. after 1990); briefly first President, before being succeeded by Prime Minister Siaka Stevens
      Siaka Stevens
      Siaka Probyn Stevens was the 3rd prime minister of Sierra Leone from 1967–1971 and the 1st president of Sierra Leone from 1971–1985. Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods of government in which many of his political opponents were executed, as well as for mismanaging...

      , who became executive President.
  • South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

     from 31 May 1910 when Cape, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal united as a dominion (Union of South Africa
    Union of South Africa
    The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

    ) until the 31 May 1961 declaration of the Republic of South Africa. The last Governor-General of the Union of South Africa
    Governor-General of the Union of South Africa
    The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa was the representative of the British and later South African Crown in the Union of South Africa between 31 May 1910 and 31 May 1961...

    , Charles Robberts Swart
    Charles Robberts Swart
    Charles Robberts Swart served as the last Governor-General of Union of South Africa from 1960 to 1961 and the first State President of the Republic of South Africa from 1961 to 1967.-Early life:...

    , became the first State President of South Africa
    State President of South Africa
    State President, or Staatspresident in Afrikaans, was the title of South Africa's head of state from 1961 to 1994. The office was established when the country became a republic in 1961, and Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be head of state...

    .
  • Tanganyika
    Tanganyika
    Tanganyika , later formally the Republic of Tanganyika, was a sovereign state in East Africa from 1961 to 1964. It was situated between the Indian Ocean and the African Great Lakes of Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika...

     (now Tanzania
    Tanzania
    The United Republic of Tanzania is a country in East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.Tanzania is a state...

    ): 9 December 1961–9 December 1962 Sir Richard Gordon Turnbull (b. 1909–d. 1998), formerly the last colonial Governor; the country became a republic with Julius Nyerere
    Julius Nyerere
    Julius Kambarage Nyerere was a Tanzanian politician who served as the first President of Tanzania and previously Tanganyika, from the country's founding in 1961 until his retirement in 1985....

    , formerly Prime Minister, as executive President.
  • Uganda
    Uganda
    Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...

    : 9 October 1962–9 October 1963 Sir Walter Coutts
    Walter Coutts
    Sir Walter Fleming Coutts, KCMG, MBE was a British colonial administrator and was Uganda's last Governor before independence, from 1961–1962. He was Governor-General of Uganda 1962–1963.-See also:...

     (b. 1912–d. 1988), formerly the last colonial Governor; the country became a republic with Edward Mutesa
    Mutesa II of Buganda
    Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Mutesa II KBE , was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda from November 22, 1939 until his death. He was the thirty-fifth Kabaka of Buganda and the first President of Uganda...

    , Kabaka
    Kabaka
    Kabaka may refer to:*Kabaka of Buganda, the title of the king of Buganda*Kabaka Puttur, a village in the state of Karnataka, India...

     of Buganda
    Buganda
    Buganda is a subnational kingdom within Uganda. The kingdom of the Ganda people, Buganda is the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda, comprising all of Uganda's Central Region, including the Ugandan capital Kampala, with the exception of the disputed eastern Kayunga District...

    , as ceremonial President.

  • In Rhodesia
    Rhodesia
    Rhodesia , officially the Republic of Rhodesia from 1970, was an unrecognised state located in southern Africa that existed between 1965 and 1979 following its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965...

     (now Zimbabwe
    Zimbabwe
    Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the southern part of the African continent, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia and a tip of Namibia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. Zimbabwe has three...

    ), a unique situation arose following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence
    Unilateral Declaration of Independence (Rhodesia)
    The Unilateral Declaration of Independence of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965, by the administration of Ian Smith, whose Rhodesian Front party opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. Although it declared independence from the United Kingdom it...

     in 1965, unrecognised by the United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    . The Rhodesian Front
    Rhodesian Front
    The Rhodesian Front was a political party in Southern Rhodesia when the country was under white minority rule. Led first by Winston Field, and, from 1964, by Ian Smith, the Rhodesian Front was the successor to the Dominion Party, which was the main opposition party in Southern Rhodesia during the...

     government of Ian Smith
    Ian Smith
    Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID was a politician active in the government of Southern Rhodesia, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Rhodesia, Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Zimbabwe from 1948 to 1987, most notably serving as Prime Minister of Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 1 June 1979...

     recognised Queen Elizabeth II as "Queen of Rhodesia", but refused to recognise the authority of her Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs
    Humphrey Gibbs
    Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, GCVO, KCMG, OBE was the penultimate Governor of the colony of Southern Rhodesia who served through, and opposed, the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965....

    , whose duties were performed by an Officer Administering the Government, Clifford Dupont
    Clifford Dupont
    Clifford Walter Dupont, GCLM ID was a British-born Rhodesian politician who served in the internationally unrecognised positions of Officer Administrating the Government and President...

     (b. 1905–d. 1978). Dupont served in the post until 2 March 1970, when Rhodesia was declared a republic
    Republic
    A republic is a form of government in which the people, or some significant portion of them, have supreme control over the government and where offices of state are elected or chosen by elected people. In modern times, a common simplified definition of a republic is a government where the head of...

     (an act also unrecognised internationally) and he became President
    President of Rhodesia
    The position of President of Rhodesia was the nominal head of state of Rhodesia from 1970 to 1979. As with Rhodesia itself, the position lacked international recognition for the entire period. The position of president, however, was mostly symbolic, and Rhodesia never had a presidential system of...

    . The country became an independent republic within the Commonwealth as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980.


Zambia
Zambia
Zambia , officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The neighbouring countries are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west....

 and the Seychelles
Seychelles
Seychelles , officially the Republic of Seychelles , is an island country spanning an archipelago of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, some east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar....

 became republics within the Commonwealth on independence.

In the Americas

  • Guyana
    Guyana
    Guyana , officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, previously the colony of British Guiana, is a sovereign state on the northern coast of South America that is culturally part of the Anglophone Caribbean. Guyana was a former colony of the Dutch and of the British...

    :
    • 26 May 1966–16 December 1966 Sir Richard Luyt
      Richard Luyt
      Sir Richard Edmonds Luyt, DCM was the colonial Governor of British Guiana in 1964-66. He installed Forbes Burnham of the People's National Congress as premier of a coalition government with a small business-oriented conservative party in 1964; however, the People's Progressive Party came first...

       (b. 1915–d. 1994), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 16 December 1966–10 November 1969 Sir David James Gardiner Rose
      David Rose (Guyanese politician)
      Sir David James Gardiner Rose MBE CVO GCMG OE was raised in Mahaica in British Guiana and was educated at Mount St Mary's College in England. Returning to British Guiana following World War II, the newly wed David Rose joined the colonial police force and later became Assistant Commissioner of...

       (b. 1923–d. 1969)
    • 10 November 1969–22 February 1970 Sir Edward Luckhoo
      Edward Luckhoo
      Sir Edward Victor Luckhoo was the Governor General of Guyana from 1966 to 1969 and became its Acting President upon independence. He was knighted on 1 January 1970...

       (acting) (b. 1912–d. 1998); succeeded by the first President
  • Trinidad and Tobago
    Trinidad and Tobago
    Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

    :
    • 31 August 1962–15 September 1972 Sir Solomon Hochoy
      Solomon Hochoy
      Sir Solomon Hochoy TC, GCMG, GCVO, OBE was the last British Governor of Trinidad and Tobago, the first non-white Governor and the first Governor General after independence and the first British viceroy of non-European descent.Of Hakka Chinese background, his family emigrated to Trinidad when he...

       (b. 1905–d. 1983), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 15 September 1972–1 August 1976 Sir Ellis Clarke
      Ellis Clarke
      Sir Ellis Emmanuel Innocent Clarke, TC, GCMG was the second and last Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago and the first President of Trinidad and Tobago. Clarke was one of the main architects of Trinidad and Tobago's 1962 Independence constitution.Clarke attended Saint Mary's College, winning...

        (b. 1917)


Dominica
Dominica
Dominica , officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island nation in the Lesser Antilles region of the Caribbean Sea, south-southeast of Guadeloupe and northwest of Martinique. Its size is and the highest point in the country is Morne Diablotins, which has an elevation of . The Commonwealth...

 became a republic on independence in 1978, with a ceremonial President as head of state.

In Asia

  • India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    • 15 August 1947–21 June 1948 Louis Francis Mountbatten, Earl Mountbatten of Burma (s.a.), formerly the last colonial Viceroy
      Viceroy
      A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

    • 21 June 1948–26 January 1950 Chakravarti Rajagopalachari  (b. 1878–d. 1972); became the first republic within the Commonwealth
  • Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

    • 15 August 1947–11 September 1948 Mohammad Ali Jinnah (b. 1876–d. 1948) ML
    • 14 September 1948–17 October 1951 Khawaja Nazimuddin
      Khawaja Nazimuddin
      Hajji Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, KCIE , was the second Governor-General of Pakistan, and later the second Prime Minister of Pakistan as well.-Early life:...

       (b. 1894–d. 1964) ML
    • 17 October 1951–6 October 1955 Ghulam Muhammad  (b. 1895–d. 1956) ML
    • 6 October 1955–23 March 1956 Iskander Mirza (b. 1899–d. 1969) Mil; since then a republic
  • Ceylon (now Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka
    Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

    ):
    • 4 February 1948–6 July 1949 Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore
      Henry Monck-Mason Moore
      Sir Henry Monck-Mason Moore GCMG, KStJ , was British Governor of Sierra Leone, Kenya and Ceylon.The son of Rev. Edward William Moore, he was educated at King's College School, Wimbledon and Jesus College, Cambridge, graduating in 1909....

       (b. 1887–d. 1964), previously the last colonial Governor)
    • 6 July 1949–17 July 1954 Herwald Ramsbotham, Baron Soulbury
      Herwald Ramsbotham, 1st Viscount Soulbury
      Herwald Ramsbotham, 1st Viscount Soulbury GCMG, GCVO, OBE, MC, PC was a British Conservative politician. He was a government minister between 1931 and 1941 and served as Governor-General of Ceylon between 1949 and 1954....

       (b. 1887–d. 1971)
    • 17 July 1954–2 March 1962 Sir Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke
      Oliver Ernest Goonetilleke
      Sir Oliver Goonetilleke , GCMG, KCVO, KBE was an important figure in the gradual independence of Ceylon from Britain, and became the third Governor-General of Ceylon...

       (b. 1892–d. 1978)
    • 2 March 1962–22 May 1972 William Gopallawa
      William Gopallawa
      William Gopallawa , MBE was the last Governor General of Ceylon from 1962 to 1972 and became the first President of Sri Lanka when Ceylon declared itself a republic in 1972 and changed its name to Sri Lanka...

        (b. 1897–d. 1981)); became the first President of the republic of Sri Lanka

In Europe

  • Ireland
    Republic of Ireland
    Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

     Governor-General of the Irish Free State
    Governor-General of the Irish Free State
    The Governor-General was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. Until 1927 he was also the agent of the British government in the Irish state. By convention the office of Governor-General was largely ceremonial...

     dominion 6 December 1922 until 29 December 1937.
  • Malta
    Malta
    Malta , officially known as the Republic of Malta , is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia and north of Libya, with Gibraltar to the west and Alexandria to the east.Malta covers just over in...

    :
    • 21 September 1964–4 July 1971 Sir Maurice Henry Dorman
      Maurice Henry Dorman
      Sir Maurice Henry Dorman, GCMG, GCVO was the representative of the British Monarchy in Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Sierra Leone, and Malta. He studied at Cambridge University. He served in Sierra Leone from 1956 until 1962, for which he was knighted in 1957...

       (b. 1902–d. 1993), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 4 July 1971–13 December 1974 Sir Anthony Joseph Mamo  (b. 1909-d. 2008); became first President of Malta
      President of Malta
      The President of Malta is the constitutional head of state of Malta.The President is appointed by a resolution of the House of Representatives of Malta for a five year term, taking an oath to "preserve, protect and defend" the Constitution....



Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 became a republic on independence.

In Oceania

  • Fiji
    Fiji
    Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji , is an island nation in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island...

    :
    • 10 October 1970–13 January 1973 Sir Robert Sidney Foster
      Robert Sidney Foster
      Sir Robert Sidney Foster, GCMG, KCVO was a British colonial administrator, best remembered as the last colonial Governor of Fiji and the first Governor-General of the Dominion of Fiji.-Colonial service:...

       (b. 1913–d. 2005), formerly the last colonial Governor
    • 13 January 1973–12 February 1983 Ratu Sir George Cakobau
      George Cakobau
      Ratu Sir George Kadavulevu Cakobau, GCMG, GCVO, OBE was Governor General of Fiji from 1973 to 1983. A great-grandson of Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau, the King of Bau who had unified all the tribes of Fiji under his reign in the mid-1800s and subsequently ceded the islands to the United Kingdom in...

        (b. 1912–d. 1989)
    • 12 February 1983–6 October 1987 Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau
      Penaia Ganilau
      Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu Ganilau, GCMG, KCVO, KBE, DSO was the first President of Fiji, serving from 8 December 1987 until his death in 1993...

        (b. 1918–d. 1993); it became a republic under a President on 5 December 1987

French


The equivalent word in French is gouverneur général, used in the following colonies:
  • From 1887 to 1945 the French appointed a Governor-General to govern French Indo-China (now Vietnam
    Vietnam
    Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

    , Laos
    Laos
    Laos Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west...

     and Cambodia
    Cambodia
    Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

    ); the function of High commissioner in the Pacific Ocean, from 22 March 1907 held by the Governors of New Caledonia
    New Caledonia
    New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and about from Metropolitan France. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of...

    , was used to coordinate that colony, the other French Settlements in Oceania and the governors-general of French Indochina and the Resident commissioner
    Resident Commissioner
    Resident Commissioner is the title of several, quite different types of Commissioner in overseas possession or protectorate of the British Crown or of the United States.-British English:...

    s of the New Hebrides
    New Hebrides
    New Hebrides was the colonial name for an island group in the South Pacific that now forms the nation of Vanuatu. The New Hebrides were colonized by both the British and French in the 18th century shortly after Captain James Cook visited the islands...

     and the Resident
    Resident (title)
    A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country. A representative of his government, he officially has diplomatic functions which are often seen as a form of indirect rule....

    s of Wallis and Futuna
    Wallis and Futuna
    Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands , is a Polynesian French island territory in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Rotuma of Fiji to the west, the main part of Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast,...

     were subordinated to him.
  • Governor General of New France
    New France
    New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

     was the vice-regal post in New France from 1663 until 1760 and was the last French vice-regal post. It was replaced by the British post of Governor of the Province of Quebec following the fall of New France. While the districts of Montreal
    Montreal
    Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

     and Trois-Rivières
    Trois-Rivières
    Trois-Rivières means three rivers in French and may refer to:in Canada*Trois-Rivières, the largest city in the Mauricie region of Quebec, Canada*Circuit Trois-Rivières, a racetrack in Trois-Rivières, Quebec...

     had their own governors, the Governor General of New France and the Governor of the district of Quebec were the same person.
  • From 1699–1947, the French appointed a Governor-General to administer French India
    French India
    French India is a general name for the former French possessions in India These included Pondichéry , Karikal and Yanaon on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast, and Chandannagar in Bengal...

     (including Pondichéry).
  • Governors-general of the Mascarene Islands
    Mascarene Islands
    The Mascarene Islands is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar comprising Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, Cargados Carajos shoals, plus the former islands of the Saya de Malha, Nazareth and Soudan banks...

     (under control of the chartered Compagnie des Indes to 14 July 1767) from 4 June 1735 (succeeding to governors), and after its split-up of Mauritius
    Mauritius
    Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

     (Réunion and the Seychelles got lower-styled Commandant
    Commandant
    Commandant is a senior title often given to the officer in charge of a large training establishment or academy. This usage is common in anglophone nations...

    s or Governors) , till 25 September 1803
  • Haiti
    Haiti
    Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti , is a Caribbean country. It occupies the western, smaller portion of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Ayiti was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island...

     January 1714 - 31 December 1803; last incumbent Jean-Jacques Dessalines
    Jean-Jacques Dessalines
    Jean-Jacques Dessalines was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1801 constitution. Initially regarded as Governor-General, Dessalines later named himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti...

     shortly maintained the title after the January I, 1804 independence before proclaiming himself 'emperor' Jacques I
  • Since its creation on 16 June 1895 in French West Africa
    French West Africa
    French West Africa was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan , French Guinea , Côte d'Ivoire , Upper Volta , Dahomey and Niger...

     (AOF), until 4 April 1957; the last stayed on as first of two High commissioner
    High Commissioner
    High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.The English term is also used to render various equivalent titles in other languages.-Bilateral diplomacy:...

    s
  • Madagascar
    Madagascar
    The Republic of Madagascar is an island country located in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa...

  • From 28 June 1908 (previously it had a Commissaire général, i.e. Commissioner general) to 4 April 1957 (the last stayed on as first of three High commissioners) in French Equatorial Africa
    French Equatorial Africa
    French Equatorial Africa or the AEF was the federation of French colonial possessions in Middle Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River to the Sahara Desert.-History:...

     (AEF); during several periods he also acted as Governor of the constitutive colony Congo Brazzaville.


Furthermore, in Napoleonic Europe successive French Governors-general were appointed by Napoleon I
Napoleon I
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 in:
  • the German states of Brandenburg
    Brandenburg
    Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federal-states of Germany. It lies in the east of the country and is one of the new federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. The capital is Potsdam...

     (various other got 'mere' Governors), two incumbents during the 27 October 1806 - 10 December 1808 French occupation
  • Province of Courland
    Courland
    Courland is one of the historical and cultural regions of Latvia. The regions of Semigallia and Selonia are sometimes considered as part of Courland.- Geography and climate :...

     under the French occupation (from 1 August 1812, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and District of Pilten nominally re-established under joint French-Saxon protectorate 8 October 1812 - 20 December 1812) : Jacques David Martin, baron de Campredon (b. 1761 - d. 1837)
  • Parma and Piacenza under occupation, (after a Commissioner) 15 February 1804 - 23 July 1808, later annexed as département under a Prefect
    Prefect
    Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition....

     of Taro
    Taro
    Taro is a common name for the corms and tubers of several plants in the family Araceae . Of these, Colocasia esculenta is the most widely cultivated, and is the subject of this article. More specifically, this article describes the 'dasheen' form of taro; another variety is called eddoe.Taro is...

  • principality of Piombino
    Piombino
    Piombino is an Italian town and comune of circa 35,000 inhabitants in the province of Livorno . It lies on the border between the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, in front of Elba Island and at the northern side of Maremma.-Overview:...

     May 1806 - 1811 : Adolphe Beauvais (d. 1811)
  • annexed Tuscany
    Tuscany
    Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

    , two incumbents, over prefects for Arno, Méditerranée
    Méditerranée
    Méditerranée was the name of a département of the First French Empire in present-day Italy. It was named after the Mediterranean Sea. It was formed in 1808, when Tuscany was annexed by France. Its capital was Livorno...

     [Mediterranean] and Ombrone
    Ombrone
    The Ombrone is a 160 km long river in Tuscany, central Italy.The Ombrone's source is located near Castelnuovo Berardenga, on the south-eastern side of the Monti del Chianti...

    :
    • May 1808 - 3 March 1809 Jacques François de Boussay, baron de Menou (b. 1750 - d. 1810)
    • 3 March 1809 - 1 February 1814 Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte (with courtesy style of Grand Duchess of Tuscany) (b. 1777 - d. 1820)
  • the Illyrian provinces
    Illyrian provinces
    The Illyrian Provinces was an autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire on the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea between 1809 and 1816. Its capital was established at Laybach...

     (comprising present Croatia
    Croatia
    Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

    , Slovenia
    Slovenia
    Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

     and even adjacent parts of Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

     and Italy), annexed as part of the French Empire proper, 14 October 1809 - August 1813

Netherlands


From 1691 to 1948 the Dutch appointed a Gouverneur-generaal
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949.The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company...

 ("Governor-General") to govern the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

.

While in the Caribbean, various other titles were used, Curaçao had three Governors-General between 1816 and 1820:
  • 1816–1819 Albert Kikkert
  • 1819–1820 Petrus Bernardus van Starkenborgh
  • 1820 Isaäk Johannes Rammelman Elsevier

Spanish

  • From 21 November 1564 the Spanish colony Islas Filipinas
    Spanish East Indies
    Spanish East Indies was a term used to describe Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific which lasted for three centuries . With the seat of government in Manila, the territory encompassed the Philippine Islands, Guam and the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, and for a period of time, parts of...

    had a Governor-General
    Governor-General of the Philippines
    The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain, from 1565 to 1935....

    , subordinated to the Viceroy of New Spain in Mexico until the latter's independence
    Mexican War of Independence
    The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

     in 1821. Thereafter, the Governor-general reported directly to Spain.

Portuguese


The equivalent word in Portuguese is Governador-Geral, but this style was only used in a few major colonies, other colonies lower titles, mainly Governador (Governor) or Captain-major
Captain-major
Captain-major is the English rendering of the Portuguese title Capitão-mor for colonial officers, put in charge of a capitania, Portuguese possession deemed not important enough to have its own colonial Governor.Due to the impossibility of exercising direct control and sovereignty over islands,...

, prevailed
  • In the overseas province of Portuguese India
    Portuguese India
    The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

     (Estado da Índia, capital Goa) the style was changed repeatedly for another, mostly Viceroy
    Viceroy
    A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

    , or a commission
  • In Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    , after a few Governors, from 1578 till its promotion on 13 July 1714 to Viceroyalty
  • in Africa, from 1837 Portugal appointed a Governor-general to govern the colony of Portuguese West Africa (later Angola
    Angola
    Angola, officially the Republic of Angola , is a country in south-central Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city...

    ), and another in Mozambique
    Mozambique
    Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique , is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest...

     (Portuguese East Africa); both offices were restyled in full High Commissioner
    High Commissioner
    High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.The English term is also used to render various equivalent titles in other languages.-Bilateral diplomacy:...

     and Governor-general in 1921, and both existed until their 1975 decolonisation.

U.S.

  • From 1905 to 1935 the Philippines
    Philippines
    The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

     (since 13 August 1898 a U.S. territory; first under 3 Military and 2 ordinary Governors) was administered by a series of Governors General
    Governor-General of the Philippines
    The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain, from 1565 to 1935....

     appointed by the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    .

Other Western usages

  • Governor-General in the Swedish Realm
  • From 1636 to 1815, the Governors-General of Sweden
    Governors-General of Sweden
    A Governor-General, or generalguvernör, was appointed by the Swedish monarch as his permanent representative, with both civil and military jurisdiction, over parts of Sweden, from the 17th century to the early 19th century, when constitutional changes made the office obsolete...

     typically were appointed for the Swedish Dominions
    Dominions of Sweden
    The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden. This generally meant that they were ruled by Governors-General under the Swedish monarch, but within certain limits retained...

     on the eastern side of the Baltic and in northern Germany, but occasionally also for Scania.
  • From 1809 to 1918 there were Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    n Governor-General of Finland
    Governor-General of Finland
    Governor-General of Finland ; was the military commander and the highest administrator of Finland sporadically under Swedish rule in the 17th and 18th centuries and continuously in the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland between 1808 and 1917.-Swedish rule:...

     in the Grand Duchy of Finland
    Grand Duchy of Finland
    The Grand Duchy of Finland was the predecessor state of modern Finland. It existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire and was ruled by the Russian czar as Grand Prince.- History :...

    ; Governors-General of Poland in Vistula Land
    Vistula land
    Vistula Land or Vistula Country was the name applied to the lands of the Kingdom of Poland following the defeats of the November Uprising and January Uprising as it was increasingly stripped of autonomy and incorporated into Imperial Russia...

     and in various other Governorates-General
    Guberniya
    A guberniya was a major administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire usually translated as government, governorate, or province. Such administrative division was preserved for sometime upon the collapse of the empire in 1917. A guberniya was ruled by a governor , a word borrowed from Latin ,...

    .
  • From 1939 to 1944, during the German occupation of Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

    , part of the country was designated the General Government
    General Government
    The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

     and the Nazi official Hans Frank
    Hans Frank
    Hans Michael Frank was a German lawyer who worked for the Nazi party during the 1920s and 1930s and later became a high-ranking official in Nazi Germany...

     had the title Governor-General (Generalgouverneur für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete).
  • the kingdom of Saxony
    Saxony
    The Free State of Saxony is a landlocked state of Germany, contingent with Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic and Poland. It is the tenth-largest German state in area, with of Germany's sixteen states....

     had a Governor general twice, under Allied control after French emperor Napoleon I
    Napoleon I
    Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

    's defeat:
    • 28 October 1813 - 8 November 1814 Prince Nikolay Grigorievich Repnin-Volkonsky (Russia) (b. 1778 - d. 1845)
    • 8 November 1814 - 8 June 1815 Eberhard Friedrich Christoph Ludwig, Freiherr
      Freiherr
      The German titles Freiherr and Freifrau and Freiin are titles of nobility, used preceding a person's given name or, after 1919, before the surname...

       von der Recke (Prussia) (b. 1744 - d. 1826)
  • during the occupation of Serbia
    Serbia
    Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

     by Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary
    Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

     and Bulgaria, the former (Habsburg empire) appointed three consecutive governors-general:
    • 1 January 1916 - July 1916 Johan Ulrich Graf von Salis-Seewis (b. 1862 - d. 1940)
    • July 1916 - October 1918 Adolf Freiherr von Rhemen zu Barensfeld (b. 1855 - d. 1932)
    • October 1918 - 1 November 1918 Herman Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza (b. 1854 - d. 1924; a former military commander in northern Serbia)

Asian counterparts

  • From 1644 to 1911, in Qing Dynasty
    Qing Dynasty
    The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

     China
    China
    Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

    , a Governor General or zongdu
    Zongdu
    Zǒngdū, usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General, governed one or more provinces of Qing-dynasty China. One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili, since it emcompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai, later president of the Republic of China, held this office...

    (Chinese: 总督) was the highest official of joint military and civil affairs in one or several provinces (alternately translated as Viceroy
    Viceroy
    A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

    )
  • Imperial Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    :
    • From 1895 to 1945, Taiwan
      Taiwan
      Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

       was administered by the Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan
      Governor-General of Taiwan
      The position of Governor-General of Taiwan existed when Taiwan and the Pescadores were part of the Empire of Japan, from 1895 to 1945.The Japanese Governors-General were members of the Diet, civilian officials, Japanese nobles or generals...

      .
    • From 1910 to 1945, Korea
      Korea
      Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

       was administered by the Japanese Governor-General of Korea
      Governor-General of Korea
      The post of Japanese Governor-General of Korea served as the chief administrator of the Japanese government in Korea while it was held as the Japanese colony of Chōsen from 1910 to 1945...

      .
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

    • The provincial authority is headed by a Governor-General (Persian
      Persian language
      Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

      : استاندار ostāndār).

See also


  • Administrator of the Government
    Administrator of the Government
    An Administrator in the constitutional practice of some countries in the Commonwealth is a person who fulfils a role similar to that of a Governor or a Governor-General...

  • Governor-in-chief
    Governor-in-chief
    Governor-in-chief was a title used in the British Empire for certain colonial governors, usually where authority was held over more than one colony...

  • Governor
    Governor
    A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

  • Lieutenant-Governor
    Lieutenant governor
    A lieutenant governor or lieutenant-governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction, but is often the deputy or lieutenant to or ranking under a governor — a "second-in-command"...

  • High Commissioner
    High Commissioner
    High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.The English term is also used to render various equivalent titles in other languages.-Bilateral diplomacy:...

  • Governor-General of the Philippines
    Governor-General of the Philippines
    The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain and the United States, and briefly by Great Britain, from 1565 to 1935....

  • Aruba
    Aruba
    Aruba is a 33 km-long island of the Lesser Antilles in the southern Caribbean Sea, located 27 km north of the coast of Venezuela and 130 km east of Guajira Peninsula...

     and the Netherlands Antilles
    Netherlands Antilles
    The Netherlands Antilles , also referred to informally as the Dutch Antilles, was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao , in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint...

    ; territories of the Dutch Monarchy
    Monarchy of the Netherlands
    The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since.-Constitutional role and position of the monarch:...

  • See "Guberniya
    Guberniya
    A guberniya was a major administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire usually translated as government, governorate, or province. Such administrative division was preserved for sometime upon the collapse of the empire in 1917. A guberniya was ruled by a governor , a word borrowed from Latin ,...

    " for governor-generalship in the Russian Empire
    Russian Empire
    The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

  • Representatives of the Commonwealth of Nations
  • Each current Commonwealth realm
    Commonwealth Realm
    A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The sixteen current realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km² , and a population of 134 million, of which all, except about two million, live in the six...

    's Governor-General has his/her own article:
  • Some defunct political entities: Governor-General of the Irish Free State
    Governor-General of the Irish Free State
    The Governor-General was the representative of the King in the 1922–1937 Irish Free State. Until 1927 he was also the agent of the British government in the Irish state. By convention the office of Governor-General was largely ceremonial...

    , Governor-General of the Federation of the West Indies
    Governor-General of the Federation of the West Indies
    This is a list of the Governors-General of the West Indies Federation , consisting of Antigua , Barbados, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks & Caicos Islands...

    , Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
    Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
    This is a list of the men who served as Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland . The Federation was formed on 1 August 1953 from the former colonies of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, and was formally dissolved on 31 December 1963.-List of Governors-General...

    , Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Governor-General of French Indochina
    Governor-General of French Indochina
    -External links:*...

  • Some former Commonwealth realms in the Americas Governor-General of Guyana, Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago
  • Some former Commonwealth realms in Africa: Governor-General of Nigeria, Governor-General of Sierra Leone, Governor-General of Tanzania, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa
    Governor-General of the Union of South Africa
    The Governor-General of the Union of South Africa was the representative of the British and later South African Crown in the Union of South Africa between 31 May 1910 and 31 May 1961...

    , Governor-General of Uganda, Governor-General of Gambia, Governor-General of Kenya
    Governor-General of Kenya
    The title of Governor-General of Kenya was created during the period when Kenya was a monarchy from 1963 to 1964 and abolished after Kenya became an independent republic....

    , Governor-General of Ghana, Governor-General of Malawi
  • Some former Commonwealth realms in Asia Governor-General of India
    Governor-General of India
    The Governor-General of India was the head of the British administration in India, and later, after Indian independence, the representative of the monarch and de facto head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William...

    , Governor-General of Pakistan
    Governor-General of Pakistan
    The Governor-General of Pakistan was the representative in Pakistan of the Crown from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956 the connection with the British monarchy ended, and the office of Governor-General was abolished.-History:Pakistan gained...

    , Governor-General of Sri Lanka
  • Some former Commonwealth realms in Europe Governor-General of Malta
    Governor-General of Malta
    -Governors of Malta, 1813-1964:*Lieut.-General Sir Thomas Maitland *General Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings *Major-General Sir Frederick Cavendish Ponsonby *Lieut.-General Sir Patrick Stuart *Right Honourable Richard More O'Ferrall -Governors of Malta, 1813-1964:*Lieut.-General...

  • Some former Commonwealth realms in Oceania Governor-General of Fiji
    Governor-General of Fiji
    Fiji became a British Crown Colony in 1874, and an independent dominion in the Commonwealth in 1970. Queen Elizabeth II remained the Head of State, holding the title of Queen of Fiji until 1987, when she formally abdicated following two military coups...


Note


In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 the title "Governor General" is always used unhyphenated. In Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 and New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, the term is always hyphenated.

External links