2001 Gujarat earthquake
The 2001 Gujarat earthquake occurred on January 26, 2001, India's 52nd Republic Day
Republic Day (India)
The Republic Day of India commemorates the date on which the Constitution of India came into force replacing the Government of India Act 1935 as the governing document of India on 26 January 1950....

, at 08:46 AM local time (3:16 UTC
Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is one of several closely related successors to Greenwich Mean Time. Computer servers, online services and other entities that rely on having a universally accepted time use UTC for that purpose...

) and lasted for over two minutes. The epicentre was about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau
Bhachau is a city and a municipality in Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India. Bhachau was one of many devastated towns in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat, during the 2001 Gujarat Earthquake.- Geography :Bhachau is located at...

 Taluka of Kutch District of Gujarat, India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. The earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

 reached a magnitude of between 7.6 and 7.7 on the moment magnitude scale
Moment magnitude scale
The moment magnitude scale is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released. The magnitude is based on the seismic moment of the earthquake, which is equal to the rigidity of the Earth multiplied by the average amount of slip on the fault and the size of...

 and had a maximum felt intensity of X (Intense) on the Mercalli intensity scale
Mercalli intensity scale
The Mercalli intensity scale is a seismic scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. It measures the effects of an earthquake, and is distinct from the moment magnitude M_w usually reported for an earthquake , which is a measure of the energy released...

. The quake killed around 20,000 people (including 18 in South eastern Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 400,000 homes.

This was an intraplate earthquake
Intraplate earthquake
An intraplate earthquake is an earthquake that occurs in the interior of a tectonic plate, whereas an interplate earthquake is one that occurs at a plate boundary....

, one that occurred at a distance from any plate boundary where plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that describes the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere...

 create most earthquakes, so the area was not well prepared. The event was the result of stored energy in a collision margin. The shock waves spread 700 km. 21 districts were affected and 600,000 people left homeless.


The final death toll in Kutch
Kutch District
Kutch district is a district of Gujarat state in western India. Covering an area of 45,652 km², it is the largest district of India....

 was 12,290. Bhuj
Bhuj is a city and a municipality in Kachchh district in the state of Gujarat, India.-History:It was established by Rao Hamirji in 1510 and was made the state capital by Rao Khengarji I in 1549. Its foundation stone as state capital laid formally on Vikram Samvat 1604 Maagha 5th...

, situated only 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) from the epicenter, was devastated. Considerable damage also occurred in Bhachau
Bhachau is a city and a municipality in Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India. Bhachau was one of many devastated towns in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat, during the 2001 Gujarat Earthquake.- Geography :Bhachau is located at...

 and Anjar
Anjar, India
Anjar is a town and a municipality in Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India. The country is dry and sandy, and entirely depends on well irrigation for its water supply. The town is situated nearly 10 miles from the Gulf of Kutch. The town was third time made capital of Kachchh on...

 with hundreds of villages flattened in Taluka of Anjar, Bhuj & Bhachau. Over a million structures were damaged or destroyed, including many historic buildings and tourist attractions. The quake destroyed around 40% of homes, eight schools, two hospitals and 4 km of road in Bhuj and partly destroyed the city's historic Swaminarayan temple and historic fort as well Prag Mahal
Prag Mahal
The Prag Mahal is a 19th-century palace located next to the Aina Mahal in Bhuj, Gujarat, India. It was commissioned by Rao Pragmalji II, and construction began in 1865. It was designed by Colonel Henry Saint Wilkins in the Italian Gothic style, and many Italian artisans were involved in its...

 and Aina Mahal
Aina Mahal
Aina Mahal is an 18th-century palace in Bhuj, Gujarat, India. It is located next to the Prag Mahal. It was built by Rao Lakhpatji in the mid-18th century. The chief architect was Ram Singh Malam.The palace was totally destroyed in 2001 Gujarat Earthquake...

. In Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, Gujarat's commercial capital with a population of 4.6 million, as many as 50 multi-storied buildings collapsed and several hundred people were killed. Total property damage was estimated at $5.5 billion and rising. The earthquake destroyed 60% of usable food and water supplies in Kutch.

The district collector Anil Mukim
Anil Mukim
Anil Mukim is a senior civil servant in the Government of India, holding the position of Joint Secretary, Department of Commerce & Industry in New Delhi...

oversaw the early delivery of aid and equipment to affected villages but later called for aid to cease as it encouraged a "relief mentality" which would delay a return to normal life.

External links

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