Gujarat

Gujarat

Overview
Gujarat is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 in western India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It has an area of 75686 sq mi (196,025.8 km²) with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on the Kathiawar
Kathiawar
Kathiawar or Kathiawad is a peninsula in western India, which is part of the Saurashtra region on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is bounded on the north by the great wetland of the Rann of Kutch, on the northwest by the Gulf of Kutch, on the west and south by the Arabian Sea, and on...

 peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the north, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 to the south, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 to the east and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 as well as the Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

i province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 on the west. Its capital is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

.
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Encyclopedia
Gujarat is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 in western India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It has an area of 75686 sq mi (196,025.8 km²) with a coastline of 1,600 km, most of which lies on the Kathiawar
Kathiawar
Kathiawar or Kathiawad is a peninsula in western India, which is part of the Saurashtra region on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is bounded on the north by the great wetland of the Rann of Kutch, on the northwest by the Gulf of Kutch, on the west and south by the Arabian Sea, and on...

 peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million. The state is bordered by Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the north, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 to the south, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 to the east and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 as well as the Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

i province of Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 on the west. Its capital is Gandhinagar, while its largest city is Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

. Gujarat is home to the Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

-speaking people of India.

The state encompasses major sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

, such as Lothal
Lothal
Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 2400 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India...

 and Dholavira
Dholavira
Dholavira is an archaeological site in Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kachchh district of Gujarat state in western India, which has taken its name from a modern village 1 km south of it. The site of Dholavira, locally known as Kotada timba contains ruins of an ancient Harappan city...

. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first ports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch
Bharuch
Bharuch , also known as Broach, is the oldest city in Gujarat, situated at the mouth of the holy river Narmada. Bharuch is the administrative headquarters of Bharuch District and a municipality of more than 1,50,000 inhabitants. As Bharuch is a major seaport city, a number of trade activities have...

, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

 and Gupta
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 empires. Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

, considered India's "father of the nation
Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of their country, state or nation...

", was a Gujarati
Gujarati people
Gujarati people , or Gujaratis are an ethnic group that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking and can trace their ancestry to the state of Gujarat in western India...

 who led the Indian Independence Movement
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

 against the British colonial rule.

Gujarat played an important role in the economic history of India
Economic history of India
The known Economic history of India begins with the Indus Valley civilization. The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by advances in transport. Around 600 BC, the Mahajanapadas minted punch-marked silver coins. The period was marked...

 throughout the history of India
History of India
The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from...

. The state has the fastest growing economy in India. It is also one of the most industrialized states of India, and has a per capita GDP almost twice that of the national average.

Etymology



Modern-day Gujarat is derived from Gurjaratra that is the land protected or ruled by the Gurjars, or from Gurjar-Rashtra, the Gujjar
Gujjar
The Gurjar are an ethnic group in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar, Gurjjara and Gūrjara. The spelling Gurjara or Gurjar is preferable to the rest....

 nation. The origins of the Gujjars are uncertain. The Gujjar
Gujjar
The Gurjar are an ethnic group in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Alternative spellings include Gurjara, Gujar, Gurjjara and Gūrjara. The spelling Gurjara or Gurjar is preferable to the rest....

 clan appeared in northern India about the time of the Huna
Huna people
Huna is the name under which the Xionite tribes who invaded northern India during the first half of the 5th century were known.-History:...

 invasions of northern India. The name of the tribe was Sanskritized to "Gurjara". The Gurjars/Gujjars believe to have descended from Suryavanshi
Suryavansha
The Sooryavamsham or Suryavansh or Suryavamsa or Sun Dynasty or Solar Dynasty was one of the most prominent dynasties in the mythical history of India, along with the "Chandra-vaṃśa" or Lunar Dynasty.-Introduction:...

 Kshatriya
Kshatriya
*For the Bollywood film of the same name see Kshatriya Kshatriya or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas in Hinduism...

s (Sun Dynasty). Historically, the Gurjars were Sun-worshipers and their copper-plate grants and seals also bear an emblem of the Sun.

Ancient history




Historically, the state of Gujarat has been one of the main centers of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

. It contains major ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal
Lothal
Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 2400 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India...

, Dholavira
Dholavira
Dholavira is an archaeological site in Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kachchh district of Gujarat state in western India, which has taken its name from a modern village 1 km south of it. The site of Dholavira, locally known as Kotada timba contains ruins of an ancient Harappan city...

, and Gola Dhoro
Gola Dhoro
Gola Dhoro is an archaeological site within the Indus Valley Civilization, near Bagasra in Gujarat, India. It was hastily abandoned for unknown reasons. The site contains a small fortified area with living quarters and manufacturing sites both inside and outside this area. The site is believed to...

. The ancient city of Lothal was where India's first port was established. Also, Dholavira, the ancient city, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. All together, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat.

The ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by their commercial activities. There is a clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Sumer
Sumer
Sumer was a civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age....

 in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC. There was a succession of Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

/Buddhist states such as the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire
Pala Empire
The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750–1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala , which means protector. The Palas were often described...

 and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire as well as local dynasties such as the Maitraka
Maitraka
The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from c. 475 to 767. The founder of the dynasty, Senapati Bhatarka, was a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat approximately in the last quarter of 5th century...

s and then the Solanki
Solanki
The Solanki was a royal Hindu Indian dynasty that ruled parts of western and central India between the 10th to 13th centuries. A number of scholars including V. A. Smith assign them Gurjar origin....

s. The 11th century history of Gujarat saw the emergence of the Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s in the political arena of the state. The first Muslim conqueror was Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...

 whose conquest of Somnath
Somnath
The Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines of the God Shiva. Somnath means "The Protector of Moon God". The Somnath Temple is known as "the Shrine Eternal", having been destroyed...

 effectively ended the rule of the Solankis.

1297–1614 AD



From 1297 to 1300, Allauddin Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

's sacking of Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 at the end of the fourteenth century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim Rajput
Rajput
A Rajput is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and in some parts of Pakistan. Rajputs are descendants of one of the major ruling warrior classes in the Indian subcontinent, particularly North India...

 governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ishaan Shah
Ahmed Shah of Gujarat
Ahmed Shah of Gujarat was a sultan of Gujarat's ruling Muzaffarid dynasty from 1411 until his death in 1442. Today, he is famously known as Ahmed Shah Badshah of Ahmedabad....

 (ruled 1411 to 1442), restructured Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 as the capital. Cambay eclipsed Bharuch
Bharuch
Bharuch , also known as Broach, is the oldest city in Gujarat, situated at the mouth of the holy river Narmada. Bharuch is the administrative headquarters of Bharuch District and a municipality of more than 1,50,000 inhabitants. As Bharuch is a major seaport city, a number of trade activities have...

 as Gujarat's most important trade port. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great
Akbar , also known as Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azam or Akbar the Great , was the third Mughal Emperor. He was of Timurid descent; the son of Emperor Humayun, and the grandson of the Mughal Emperor Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur, the ruler who founded the Mughal dynasty in India...

 conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

. The port of Surat become the prominent and main port of India during Mughal rule. Gujarat remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

s occupied eastern and central Gujarat in the eighteenth century; Western Gujarat (Kathiawar
Kathiawar
Kathiawar or Kathiawad is a peninsula in western India, which is part of the Saurashtra region on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is bounded on the north by the great wetland of the Rann of Kutch, on the northwest by the Gulf of Kutch, on the west and south by the Arabian Sea, and on...

 and Kutch) were divided among numerous local rulers.

There were several important encounters between Islamic armies and Hindu armies. One story goes that the first patron of the Vala rulers of Wadhwan was a staunch defender of his domain and an inscription reads:
At Wadhwan resides Ebhal,
Who can withstand the onset 200,000 men;
He defeated the Iranis with his spear
Of which the Sun is witness

1614–1947 AD


In 16 th century Ambliara State Is the Capital of erstwhile Princely State of Songara Chauhan of Jalore descended of Rani Popadevi Of Jalore Present Day Ambliara In Gujarat In Sabarkantha Agency....

Portugal was the first European power to arrive in Gujarat, acquiring several enclaves along the Gujarati coast, including Daman and Diu as well as Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 established a factory
Factory (trading post)
Factory was the English term for the trading posts system originally established by Europeans in foreign territories, first within different states of medieval Europe, and later in their colonial possessions...

 in Surat
Surat
Surat , also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper...

 in 1614, which formed their first base in India, but it was eclipsed by Bombay
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 after the English acquired it from Portugal in 1668. In late 17th century Chatrapati Shivaji the great Maratha leader attacked Surat between 1664 to 1679 and looted the city 3 times. This is marked as entry of Marathas in Gujarat.

Later in 18th century, Gujarat came under control of the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km²....

 who dominated the politics of India. Pilaji Gaekwad, first ruler of Gaekwad dynasty
Gaekwad
The Gaekwad or Gaikwad was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-18th century until 1947...

, established the control over Baroda and much of Gujarat. After Battle of Panipat 1761, all Maratha general established them self as autonomous government while keeping nominal authority of Peshwas of Pune and Chatrapati from Satara
Satara
Satara is a city located in the Satara District of Maharashtra state of India. The town is 2320 ft. above sea-level, near the confluence of the Krishna and its tributary river Venna. The city was the capital of the Maratha empire in the 17th century, hence one of the the historical cities of...

. The British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 wrested control of much of Gujarat from the Marathas during the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
The Second Anglo-Maratha War was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.-Background:...

. Many local rulers, notably the Maratha Gaekwad
Gaekwad
The Gaekwad or Gaikwad was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-18th century until 1947...

s of Baroda (Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

), made a separate peace with the British and acknowledged British sovereignty in return for retaining local self-rule. Gujarat was placed under the political authority of the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
The Bombay Presidency was a province of British India. It was established in the 17th century as a trading post for the English East India Company, but later grew to encompass much of western and central India, as well as parts of post-partition Pakistan and the Arabian Peninsula.At its greatest...

, with the exception of Baroda state
Baroda State
Baroda State was an Indian princely state in present-day Gujarat, ruled by the Gaekwad dynasty from its formation in 1721 until 1947 when it succeed to newly formed, India. With the city of Baroda as its capital, during the British Raj it was part of the Baroda Residency...

, which had a direct relationship with the Governor-General of India
Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India was the head of the British administration in India, and later, after Indian independence, the representative of the monarch and de facto head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William...

. From 1818 to 1947, most of present-day Gujarat, including Kathiawar
Kathiawar
Kathiawar or Kathiawad is a peninsula in western India, which is part of the Saurashtra region on the Arabian Sea coast of Gujarat state. It is bounded on the north by the great wetland of the Rann of Kutch, on the northwest by the Gulf of Kutch, on the west and south by the Arabian Sea, and on...

, Kutch, and northern and eastern Gujarat were divided into hundreds of princely states, but several districts in central and southern Gujarat, namely Ahmedabad, Broach (Bharuch
Bharuch district
Bharuch in India, is a district in the southern part of the Gujarat peninsula on the west coast of state of Gujarat with a size and population comparable to that of Greater Boston...

), Kaira (Kheda
Kheda district
Kheda district is one of the 26 districts of Gujarat state in western India. Kheda city is the administrative headquarters of the district.-History:...

), Panchmahal
Panchmahal district
Panchmahal, also Panch Mahals, is a district in the western India, in the eastern portion of Gujarat State. Panch-mahal means "five tehsils/talukas" , and refers to the five sub-divisions namely - Godhra, Dahod, Halol, Kalol and Jhalod that were transferred by the Maharaja Sindia of Gwalior to the...

, and Surat
Surat district
Surat is a district in the state of Gujarat India with Surat city as the administrative headquarters of this district. It is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada , Navsari and Dang districts. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. It is the second-most advanced district in Gujarat...

, were ruled directly by British officials.

Indian independence movement




Leaders like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress and one of the founding fathers of India...

, Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
Morarji Ranchhodji Desai was an Indian independence activist and the fourth Prime Minister of India from 1977–79. He was the first Indian Prime Minister who did not belong to the Indian National Congress...

, K.M. Munshi, Narhari Parikh
Narhari Parikh
Narhari Parikh was an Indian freedom fighter and social reformer, who was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and the chief architect of the Indian Independence Movement in Gujarat.-See also:*Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel...

, Mahadev Desai
Mahadev Desai
Mahadev Desai was an Indian independence activist and nationalist writer; he was most famously known for being the personal secretary of Mahatma Gandhi.-Career:...

, Mohanlal Pandya
Mohanlal Pandya
Mohanlal Pandya was an Indian freedom fighter, social reformer and one of the earliest followers of Mahatma Gandhi. Along with fellow Gandhians like Narhari Parikh and Ravi Shankar Vyas, Pandya was a key organizer of nationalist revolts in Gujarat, and a leading figure in the fight against...

, Bhulabhai Desai
Bhulabhai Desai
Bhulabhai Desai was an Indian freedom fighter and acclaimed lawyer. He is well-remembered for his defense of the three Indian National Army soldiers accused of treason during World War II, and for attempting to negotiate a secret power-sharing agreement with Liaquat Ali Khan of the Muslim League.-...

 and Ravi Shankar Vyas
Ravi Shankar Vyas
Ravi Shankar Vyas was an Indian freedom fighter and social reformer, hailing from and working in the state of Gujarat. He was one of the earliest and closest associates of Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, and along with Narhari Parikh and Mohanlal Pandya, the chief organizer of...

 all hailed from Gujarat. Also, Gujarati-speaking Mohammed Ali Jinnah's (Pakistan's first Governor-General) father was from an area which later became Gujarat. Gujarat was also the site of some of the most popular revolts, including the Satyagraha
Satyagraha
Satyagraha , loosely translated as "insistence on truth satya agraha soul force" or "truth force" is a particular philosophy and practice within the broader overall category generally known as nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term "satyagraha" was conceived and developed by Mahatma...

s in Kheda
Kheda
Kheda is a town and a municipality in Kheda district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Kheda, also known as Kaira, is 35 km from Ahmedabad. The National Highway no. 8 connecting Ahmedabad and Mumbai passes through Kheda...

, Bardoli
Bardoli
Bardoli is a city and a municipality in Surat Metropolitan Region in the state of Gujarat, India. Bardoli is the east most end of the Metropolis of Surat. Bardoli is one of the primary Satellite Towns of Surat Metropolitan Region.-Geography:...

, Borsad
Borsad
Borsad is a city and a municipality in Anand district in the state of Gujarat, India. It is located around 17 km from Anand. It is surrounded by the fertile Charotar region which largely produces tobacco, bananas, cotton, barley and other agricultural crops. Patel owns majority of business,...

 and the Salt Satyagraha
Salt Satyagraha
The Salt March, also known as the Salt Satyagrahah began with the Dandi March on March 12, 1930, and was an important part of the Indian independence movement. It was a campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly in colonial India, and triggered the wider...

.

Post independence


After Indian independence and the partition of India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

 in 1947, the new Indian government grouped the former princely states of Gujarat into three larger units; Saurashtra, which included the former princely states on the Kathiawad peninsula, Kutch, and Bombay state
Bombay State
The Bombay State was a state of India, dissolved with the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states on May 1, 1960.-History:During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency...

, which included the former British districts of Bombay Presidency together with most of Baroda state
Baroda State
Baroda State was an Indian princely state in present-day Gujarat, ruled by the Gaekwad dynasty from its formation in 1721 until 1947 when it succeed to newly formed, India. With the city of Baroda as its capital, during the British Raj it was part of the Baroda Residency...

 and the other former princely states of eastern Gujarat. Bombay state was enlarged to include Kutch, Saurashtra, and parts of Hyderabad state
Hyderabad State
-After Indian independence :When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent...

 and Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 in central India. The new state had a mostly Gujarati-speaking north and a Marathi-speaking south. Agitation by both Gujarati and Marathi nationalists for their own states led to the split of Bombay state on linguistic lines; on 1 May 1960, it became the new states of Gujarat and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

. The first capital of Gujarat was Ahmedabad; the capital was moved to Gandhinagar in 1970.

Geography



Gujarat borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 to the north-west, bounded by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 to the southwest, the state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 to the east, and by Maharashtra, Union territories
Union Territory
A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India, in the federal framework of governance. Unlike the states of India, which have their own elected governments, union territories are ruled directly by the federal government; the President of India appoints an Administrator or...

 of Diu, Daman
Daman District, India
Daman district is one of the two districts of the union territory of Daman and Diu on the western coast of India, surrounded by Valsad District of Gujarat state on the north, east and south and the Arabian Sea to the west. The district has an area of , and a population of 113,949 , which increased...

, Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the south. Historically, the North was known as Anarta
Anarta
Anarta was an ancient Indian region which corresponded to the present-day North Kathiawar region of Gujarat state-Anarta in the Puranic literature:...

, the Kathiawad peninsula, "Saurastra", and the South as "Lata". Gujarat was also known as Pratichya and Varuna. The Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 makes up the state's western coast. The capital, Gandhinagar is a planned city. Gujarat has an area of 75686 sq mi (196,025.8 km²) with the longest coast line 1600 km, dotted with 41 ports; 1 major, 11 intermediate and 29 minor ports.

Forests and wildlife




As per the India State Of Forest Report 2009, Gujarat has 7.46 % of its total geographical area under forest cover.
As per the districts, The Dangs has the largest area under forest cover.
Gujarat has 4 National parks and 21 sanctuaries.
Gujarat is the only home of Asiatic Lions
Asiatic Lion
The Asiatic lion also known as the Indian lion, Persian lion and Eurasian Lion is a subspecies of lion. The only place in the wild where the lion is found is in the Gir Forest of Gujarat, India...

. Outside Africa, Gujarat is the only present natural habitat of lions. Gir Forest National Park
Gir Forest National Park
The Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary is a forest and wildlife sanctuary in Gujarat, India...

 in the south-west part of the state covers only part of the lions' habitat. Besides lions, the other big cat that can be found in the state is the leopard. Leopards are spread across large plains of Saurashtra and mountains of South Gujarat.

Other National parks include Vansda National Park
Vansda National Park
Vansda National Park, a protected area representing the thick woodlands of the Dangs and southern Gujarat is situated in the Navsari District of Gujarat state, India....

, Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar
Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar
Blackbuck National Park at Velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar District of Gujarat state, India.Established in 1976 in the Bhal region of Saurashtra, the park is located around 72 km from the district headquarter city of Bhavnagar...

 and Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch
Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch
Marine National Park in the Gulf of Kutch is situated on the southern shore of the Gulf of Kachchh in the Jamnagar District of Gujarat state, India. In 1980, an area of 270 km2. from Okha to Jodiya was declared Marine Sanctuary. Later, in 1982, a core area of 110 km2 was declared Marine...

. Wildlife sanctuaries include: Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary also known as the Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Little Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat state of India. Spread over 4954 km², it is the largest wildlife sanctuary in India....

, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, consisting primarily of a huge lake and ambient marshes, is situated about 64 km to the West of Ahmedabad near Sanand Village, in the Gujarat state of India...

, Porbandar Bird Sanctuary
Porbandar Bird Sanctuary
Porbandar Bird Sanctuary is situated in the Porbandar District of Gujarat state, India....

, Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary
Kutch Desert Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in the Great Rann of Kutch, Kutch district, Gujarat, India, it was declared a sanctuary in February 1986....

, Kutch Bustard Sanctuary
Kutch Bustard Sanctuary
Kutch Bustard Sanctuary or Kachchh Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary, also known as Lala–Parjan Sanctuary, is located near Jakhau village in Nalia taluka, Kutch district, Gujarat, India. This sanctuary is one of the two Great Indian Bustard sanctuaries in Gujarat; the other one is in Jamnagar...

, Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary
Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary
Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary also popularly known as Narayan Sarovar Wildlife Sanctuary or Narayan Sarovar Chinkara Sanctuary notified as such in April 1981 and subsequently denotified in 1995 with reduced area, is a unique eco-system in the Lakhpat taluka of Kutch district in the state of Gujarat,...

, Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary
Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary
Jessore Sloth Bear Sanctuary is situated in the Banaskantha district in the Indian state of Gujarat at the Gujarat-Rajasthan border. It was declared as a sanctuary in May 1978, covering an area of about , principally for protection of the sloth bear, which is now categorized as "Vulnerable...

, Anjal, Balaram-Ambaji, Barda, Jambughoda, Khavda
Khavda
Khavda is a town in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is located in the county of Bhuj in the district of Kutch.-Geography:Khavda is located at . It has an average elevation of 1 metres .-External links:*...

, Paniya, Purna, Rampura, Ratanmahal, and Surpaneshwar.

Gujarat is one state where you can find major mountain-ranges of India.
Aravalli, Sahyadri, Vindhya and Satpura are having their presence in Gujarat.
Apart from this Gir hills, Barda, Jessore, Chotila
Chotila
Chotila is a worship place of Hindu religion in Surendranagar district, located near Rajkot, Gujarat.-History:Historically, this area is called 'Panchal'.It is the worship place for Mata Chamunda, which is one of the 64 Avatars of Shakti,others being Bahuchar Mata, Kali Mata, Ambaji Mata etc....

 etc. are situated in different parts of the Gujarat.
Girnar
Girnar
Girnar is a collection of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh at a distance of 327 km from Ahmedabad. It is a holy place and an important pilgrimage for both Hindus and Jains. There are a number of temples located here. Amidst the lush green Gir...

 is the tallest hill of Gujarat.
Saputara
Saputara
Saputara is a city and a Hill Station Municipality in the Dang District of Gujarat state in India.-Geography:This picturesque hill station is perched on a plateau in the Dang forest area of the Sahyadri Range. At an altitude of about 1000 m...

 is the only hill-station of the state.

Major rivers


Narmada
Narmada River
The Narmada , also called Rewa is a river in central India and the fifth largest river in the Indian subcontinent. It is the third largest river that completely flows within India after Ganges and Godavari...

 is the biggest river of Gujarat followed by Tapi
Tapti River
The Tapi River ancient original name Tapi River , is a river in central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 724 km...

, although Sabarmati covers the longest area in the state.
Sardar Sarovar Project is built on Narmada river. Narmada is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with a length of around 1312 km. It is one of only three rivers in peninsular India that run from east to west – the others being the Tapi River and the Mahi River
Mahi River
The Mahi is a river in western India. It rises in Madhya Pradesh and, after flowing through the Vagad region of Rajasthan, enters Gujarat and falls into the sea by a wide estuary near Khambhat. Its total length is 500 km. and its estimated drainage area 40,000 km2...

.
Alphabetically sorted list of other rivers are as follows:-
  1. Aji
  2. Ambika
  3. Banas
  4. Bhadar
  5. Bhikda
  6. Bhogavo
  7. Daman Ganga
    Daman Ganga River
    The Daman Ganga is a river in western India. The river's headwaters are on the western slope of the Western Ghats range, and it flows west into the Arabian Sea. The river flows through Maharashtra and Gujarat states, as well as the Union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli...

  8. Dhadhar
  9. Gautami
  10. Ghelo
  11. Hathmati
  12. Kalubhar
  13. Keri
  14. Khari
  15. Lilka
  16. Lindio
  17. Meshwo
  18. Mazum
  19. Narmada
  20. Ootavali
  21. Purna
    Purna River
    The Purna River is a river of Western India. It runs parallel to the Tapti river and empties in it at Changdev in Jalgaon, Maharashta.-Description:...

  22. Rangholi
  23. Sabarmati
    Sabarmati River
    The Sabarmati River is a river in western India and one of the biggest rivers of north Gujarat. River Sabarmati is one of the major West flowing river of Gujarat which originates from Dhebar lake in Aravalli Range of the Udaipur District of Rajasthan and meets the Gulf of Cambay of Arabian Sea...

  24. Sanosari
  25. Shedhi
  26. Shetrunji
  27. Sonpari
  28. Talaji
  29. Tapi
  30. Vatrak
  31. Vishvamitra

Economy


Gujarat has some of the largest businesses in India. Major agricultural produce of the state include cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

, groundnut
Peanut
The peanut, or groundnut , is a species in the legume or "bean" family , so it is not a nut. The peanut was probably first cultivated in the valleys of Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing tall...

s (peanuts), dates, sugar cane, milk and milk products. Industrial products include cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

 and petrol
Gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...

.

Gujarat's Contribution to India
  • 35% of Petrochemical production
  • 23% of Crude Oil (Onshore)
  • 41% of Chemical products
  • 27% of Groundnut production
  • 15% of Cargo Handling
  • 11% of Cotton production
  • 30% of Natural Gas (Onshore)
  • 18% of Mineral production
  • 25% of Textile production
  • 26% of Pharmaceutical products


Reliance Industries
Reliance Industries
Reliance Industries Limited is an Indian conglomerate company headquartered at Mumbai, India. The company operates through three business segments: petrochemicals, refining, and oil and gas, other segment of the company includes textile, retail business, special economic zone development and...

 Limited founded by Dhirubhai Ambani
Dhirubhai Ambani
Dhirajlal Hirachand Ambani also known as Dhirubhai, was an Indian-Gujarati business magnate and entrepreneur who founded Reliance Industries, a petrochemicals, communications, power, and textiles conglomerate and the only privately owned Indian company in the Fortune 500. Ambani took his company...

, operates the oil refinery at Jamnagar
Jamnagar
Jamnagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Jamnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city was built up substantially by Maharaja Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji in the 1920s, when the district was known as Nawanagar. The district lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch and is...

, which is the world's largest grass-roots refineries. The world's largest shipbreaking yard is in Gujarat near Bhavnagar at Alang. India’s only Liquid Chemical Port Terminal at Dahej, developed by Gujarat Chemical Port Terminal Co Ltd. Gujarat has two of the three Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals in the country (Dahej and Hazira). Two more LNG Terminals are proposed, at Pipavav
Pipavav
Pipavav is located at latitude 20°54'N and longitude 71°30'E on the coast of Gujarat, India. By road it is 2 hours from Amreli, 30 minutes from Rajula city, 2.5 hours from Bhavnagar on the east and 1.5 hrs from Diu in the west....

 and Mundra
Mundra
Mundra is a census town in Kutch district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Mundra Port is the largest private port in India.-Geography:The town of Mundra is located about 50 km from Anjar which is one of the major towns in the district of Kutch in Gujarat. The other important towns in this...

. Gujarat is the only state in India to have State Wide Gas Grid of 2,200 km. 87.9% of the total roads in the state are asphalt surfaced. 98.86% village connectivity with all‐weather roads, the highest in India. 100% of Gujarat's 18,000 villages have electricity connection for 24hr power through the Jyotigram Yojana. Gujarat ranks first nationwide
States of India by installed power capacity
This is a list of States and Union Territories of India by installed capacity of power utilities with generation mode break-up as of 31-03-11 by the Ministry of Power with figures in millions of watts ....

 in gas-based thermal electricity generation with national market share of over 8% and second nationwide in nuclear electricity generation with national market share of over 1%.

Gujarat has largest OFC network of more than 50,000 km. The state owned Wide Area Network is the largest IP-based ICT network in Asia Pacific Region and second largest in the world, connecting 26 districts and 225 talukas through 12,000 nodes. There are more than 900,000 internet users and all villages are connected with broadband internet. The state registered 12.8% agriculture growth in the last five years against the national average of 2%.

Gujarat records highest decadal agricultural growth rate of 10.97%

Over 20% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Gujarat.

As per RBI report, in year 2006–07, 26% out of total bank finance in India was in Gujarat.

In a July 2011 report, The Economist noted that Gujarat's infrastructure competes with Guangdong - the economic engine of China. With double digit growth rates, Gujarat continues to outpace growth in other Indian states. Beyond better road networks, The Economist article claims the state government of Gujarat has kept red tape to a minimum, does not ask for bribes, and does not interfere with entrepreneurial corporations. The state, the article claims has less onerous labour laws, reliable electricity and effective bureaucracy. This has led to a booming entrepreneurial economy in Gujarat.

Industrial growth


Gujarat's major cities include Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, Surat
Surat
Surat , also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper...

, Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

, Rajkot, Jamnagar
Jamnagar
Jamnagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Jamnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city was built up substantially by Maharaja Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji in the 1920s, when the district was known as Nawanagar. The district lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch and is...

 and Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
-Topography:Bhavnagar is a coastal city in the eastern coast of Saurashtra, also known as Kathiawar, located at . It has an average elevation of 24 metres . It occupies area of 53.30 km². General slope dips in the northeasterly direction at the apex of Gulf of Khambhat...

. In year 2010, Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

 list of world's fastest growing cities included Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 at number 3 after Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 and Chongqing
Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

 from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. Surat is also one of the fastest growing city in India.Vadodara being the cultural city of gujarat is fastly growing area wise and is industrialized to a large extenet.It is the number 4th city in india in growing fastly. Major resources produced by the state include cotton, groundnut, dates, sugarcane, and petrochemical products. The state is rich in calcite
Calcite
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate . The other polymorphs are the minerals aragonite and vaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable.-Properties:...

, gypsum
Gypsum
Gypsum is a very soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is found in alabaster, a decorative stone used in Ancient Egypt. It is the second softest mineral on the Mohs Hardness Scale...

, manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

, lignite
Lignite
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad,is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat...

, bauxite
Bauxite
Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al3, boehmite γ-AlO, and diaspore α-AlO, in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2...

, limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

, agate
Agate
Agate is a microcrystalline variety of silica, chiefly chalcedony, characterised by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks and can be common in certain metamorphic rocks.-Etymology...

, feldspar
Feldspar
Feldspars are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals which make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust....

 and quartz sand, and successful mining of these minerals is done in their specified areas. Gujarat produces about 98% of India's required amount of Soda Ash and gives the country about 78% of its national requirement of salt. It is one of India's most prosperous states, having a per-capita GDP significantly above India's average. Kalol, Khambhat and Ankleshwar are today known for their oil and natural gas production. Dhuvaran has a thermal power station, which uses coal, oil and gas. Also, on the Gulf of Khambhat, 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) southeast of Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
-Topography:Bhavnagar is a coastal city in the eastern coast of Saurashtra, also known as Kathiawar, located at . It has an average elevation of 24 metres . It occupies area of 53.30 km². General slope dips in the northeasterly direction at the apex of Gulf of Khambhat...

, is the Alang Ship Recycling Yard (the world's largest).General Motors manufactures its cars at Halol near Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

, Tata manufactures Nano from Sanand near Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 and AMW trucks are made near Bhuj
Bhuj
Bhuj is a city and a municipality in Kachchh district in the state of Gujarat, India.-History:It was established by Rao Hamirji in 1510 and was made the state capital by Rao Khengarji I in 1549. Its foundation stone as state capital laid formally on Vikram Samvat 1604 Maagha 5th...

. Surat, a city by the Gulf of Khambhat, is a hub of the global diamond trade. In 2003, 92% of the world's diamonds were cut and polished in Surat.

Gujarat passed an act for the SIRs and set up the first such hub—Petroleum Chemical and Petrochemical Investment Region (PCPIR) spread across 453,000 square hectares—in Bharuch 2009. SIRs are special regions spread over a minimum 50,000 hectares where industries can buy lands directly from local owners. They are not offered concessions like tax benefits as in SEZs. However, the main benefit of SIRs is that they provide quality infrastructure and development even before units become operational. In every SIR, 55 per cent area is to be set aside for residential townships and other non-processing units.

During the period of 1960–90, Gujarat established itself as a leader in various industrial sectors including textiles, engineering, chemicals, petrochemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, dairy, cement and ceramics, and gems and jewellery, amongst others. A post-liberalization period saw Gujarat's State Domestic Product (SDP) rising at an average growth rate of 14% per annum in real terms (from 1994–2002). Gujarat achieved as much as 35% of augmentation in its power generation capacity during the periods 1995–96 and 2000–01. The producers (IPPs) have contributed significantly in this addition. Gujarat is one of the first few states in India to have encouraged private sector investment, some of which are already in operation. In addition, the liquid cargo (chemicals) handling port at Dahej is also set up in joint sector and made operational. At an investor's summit entitled "Vibrant Gujarat," arranged between 10 January 2007 to 13 January 2007, at Science City, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, the state government signed 104 Memoranda of Understandings for Special Economic Zones worth a total of 2.5 lakh crore. However, most of the investment was from domestic industry. In the fourth Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors' Summit held at Science City, Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, in January 2009, there were 600 foreign delegates. In all, 8668 MOUs worth 12.5 lakh cr were signed, estimated to create 25 lakh new job opportunities in the state. In 2011, Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors' Summit MOUs worth 21 trillion ( 463 billion) were signed.

Gujarat is only state with surplus electricity. Recently Gujarat Government has upgraded its installed capacity of 13,258 megawatts (MW) by adding another 3,488 MW. According to the official sources, against demand of 40,793 million units during the nine months since April 2010, Gujarat produced 43,848 million units. Gujarat sold surplus power to 12 States. The 12 states are Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.

Gujarat government has a front runner in development of solar energy in the state. It has alloted 716 MW of Solar Power capacity to 34 national and international solar project developers in 2009; against the planned 500 MW capacity under its Solar Power Policy. This is expected to bring in investments of INR 12000 crore and generate employment for 5,000 people.
It's a also biggest industrial is ceramic business around Morbi, Himatanagar.

Vapi pronunciation (help·info) (IAST: vāpī, Gujarati: વાપી, is a city and a municipality in Valsad district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Vapi falls under the taluka administration of Pardi. It is the largest city in the Valsad district. The industrial township of Vapi holds its place of importance on the "industrial" map and it is the largest industrial area in Asia in terms of small-scale industries, dominated by chemical industry plants, along with their unfortunate hazards. It has been ranked as the 4th most polluted place in the world.

Agriculture


Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton, and groundnuts in India. Other major food crops produced are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, Tur, and gram. Gujarat has an agricultural economy; the total crop area amounts to more than one-half of the total land area.

Animal husbandry and dairying have played a vital role in the rural economy of Gujarat. Dairy farming, primarily concerned with milk production, functions on a cooperative basis and has more than a million members. Gujarat is the largest producer of milk in India. Amul - Anand milk co-operative federation products are well known all over India, and it is Asia's biggest dairy. Among livestock raised are buffalo and other cattle, sheep, and goats. As per the results of livestock census 1997, there were 209.70 lakh livestock in Gujarat State. As per the estimates of the survey of major livestock products, during the year 2002–03, the Gujarat produced 6.09 million tonnes of milk, 385 million eggs and 2.71 million kg of wool. Gujarat also contributes inputs to industries like textiles, oil, and soap.

As in much of India, since the 1960s farmers in Gujarat have increasingly relied on extensive groundwater irrigation to maintain production. In recent years, however, experts have become increasingly alarmed at the rate of water depletion in the state. The water table in Gujarat has been falling steadily for the last 15–20 years, leading to a risk of catastrophic, irreversible salt-water intrusion into the groundwater.
The problem is exacerbated by the fact that electricity for farmers is subsidized, leaving little incentive to conserve water. To address this issue, the government of Gujarat has begun working with NGOs and universities to create new incentives for water conservation and to promote the adoption of water-saving technologies.

Demographics


The population of the Gujarat State was 60,383,628 as per the 2011 census data. The density of population is 308/km2 (797.6/sq mi), a lower density compared to other states of the country.

About 89.1% of the population of Gujarat are Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

. Muslims account for 9.1%, Jain 1.0% and Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

 0.1% of the population. Amongst Hindus, the deity of Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

 is famously worshiped in His form of Shrinathji
Shrinathji
Shrinathji is an anthropomorphic form of Hindu god Krishna, manifest as a seven year old child . The principal shrine of Shrinathji is situated at the temple town of Nathdwara, located 48 Kilometers North-east of Udaipur city in Rajasthan...

 throughout Gujarat.

Gujarat, as a heavily industrialized state of India, attracts lots of outsiders from various parts of India.

Language



Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī?) is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan languages constitutes a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family...

 evolved from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

, and part of the greater Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 language family
Language family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' comes from the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a...

. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its chief language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

There are about 46.1 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Along with Romani
Romani language
Romani or Romany, Gypsy or Gipsy is any of several languages of the Romani people. They are Indic, sometimes classified in the "Central" or "Northwestern" zone, and sometimes treated as a branch of their own....

, Kutchi
Kutchi language
Kachhi Kachhi Kachhi (also spelt Cutchi, Kutchhi or Kachchhi, is an Indo-Aryan Language spoken in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat as well as in Sindh.- Closely related languages :...

 and Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, it is among the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language
First language
A first language is the language a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity...

 of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father
Father of the Nation
Father of the Nation is an honorific title given to a man considered the driving force behind the establishment of their country, state or nation...

 of India", Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress and one of the founding fathers of India...

 was popularly known as "Iron Man of India". and Owing to its apparent youth with respect to its written history, the Gujarati script follows the Nagari writing system. Nagari is a derivative of the Devanagari script, with one notable difference being that the horizontal line is not utilised. Gujarati script also has a few other variations in terms of certain consonants and employs a slightly different set of symbols for numbers. Gujarati has also been the language spoken by two of South Asia`s most prominent leaders: the India's Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi and the Founder of Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a Muslim lawyer, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan. He is popularly and officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam and Baba-e-Qaum ....

.

The majority of the population in state speak Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, while people from Kutch region of Gujarat also speak in Kutchi language
Kutchi language
Kachhi Kachhi Kachhi (also spelt Cutchi, Kutchhi or Kachchhi, is an Indo-Aryan Language spoken in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat as well as in Sindh.- Closely related languages :...

. Other native languages spoken in low proportions are Bhili
Bhili language
Bhili is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in west-central India, in the region east of Ahmedabad. Other names for the language include Bhagoria and Bhilboli; varieties are Wagdi and Garasia. Bhili is a member of the Bhil language family, which is related to Gujarati and the Rajasthani language...

 and Gamit
Gamit language
Gamit is a Bhil language of Gujarat, mainly the area of Surat. It is mostly spoken by the Gamit caste; according to Ethnologue "most speakers have high school or college education". Gamti proper has most of the speakers; Mawchi Gamti of Gujarat and Maharashtra has about 80,000....

. As per 2001 Census a total of 84.5% of population reported Gujarati as their first language,5% were speakers of native tribal languages, 4.7 % Hindi, 2% Sindhi, 1.5% Marathi and 1% were speakers of Urdu language. Religion-wise, 90% of Hindus in Gujarat speak Gujarati while the other 10% speak Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 and other languages. Almost 88% of the Muslims speak Gujarati while the other 12% speak Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

. Almost all of the Jains speak Gujarati, a few speak Marwari
Marwari language
The Marwari language , also variously Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi), is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and Haryana and in Eastern Pakistan...

 as well. Parsi Zoroastrians also speak Gujarati as their native language. Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 is spoken by a large number of people in Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

 and Surat
Surat
Surat , also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper...

. Apart from this, English, Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

, Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

, Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

, Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

, Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

, Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

, Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

, Malayalam
Malayalam language
Malayalam , is one of the four major Dravidian languages of southern India. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India with official language status in the state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. It is spoken by 35.9 million people...

, etc. is also spoken by a lower proportion.

Government and politics



Gujarat state symbols
Animal
Animal
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and...

Lion
Lion
The lion is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger...

Bird
Bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

Greater Flamingo
Greater Flamingo
The Greater Flamingo is the most widespread species of the flamingo family. It is found in parts of Africa, southern Asia , and southern Europe...

Dance
Dance
Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting....

Garba
Garba (dance)
Garba is an Indian form of dance that originated in the Gujarat region. The name garba comes from the Sanskrit term Garbha and Deep . Many traditional garbas are performed around a central lit lamp or picture/statues of different avatars of Goddess Shakti...

Flower Marigold
Tagetes
Tagetes is a genus of 56 species of annual and perennial mostly herbaceous plants in the sunflower family . The genus is native to North and South America, but some species have become naturalized around the world. One species, T...

Language Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

Song
Song
In music, a song is a composition for voice or voices, performed by singing.A song may be accompanied by musical instruments, or it may be unaccompanied, as in the case of a cappella songs...

Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat
Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat
Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat is a Gujarati song composed by A. R. Rahman, penned by Narmad and performed by Keerthi Sagathia and various other artists...

Sport
Sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, Kabaddi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi is a South Asian team sport...

Tree Mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

 


Gujarat is governed by a Legislative Assembly of 182 members. Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) are elected on the basis of adult suffrage from one of 182 constituencies, of which 13 are reserved for scheduled caste
Scheduled Castes and Tribes
The Scheduled Castes , also known as the Dalit, and the Scheduled Tribes are two groupings of historically disadvantaged people that are given express recognition in the Constitution of India...

s and 26 for scheduled tribes. The term of office for a member of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly elects a speaker who presides over the meetings of the legislature. A governor is appointed by the President of India
President of India
The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India, as well as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. President of India is also the formal head of all the three branches of Indian Democracy - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary...

, and is to address the state legislature after every general election and the commencement of each year's first session of the Legislative Assembly. The leader of the majority party or coalition in the legislature (Chief Minister) or his or her designee acts as the Leader of the Legislative Assembly. The administration of the state is led by the Chief Minister.

After gaining independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 party (INC) ruled the Bombay state
Bombay State
The Bombay State was a state of India, dissolved with the formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat states on May 1, 1960.-History:During British rule, portions of the western coast of India under direct British rule were part of the Bombay Presidency...

 (which included present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

). Congress continued to govern Gujarat after the state's creation in 1960. During and after India's State of Emergency
State of Emergency in India
A state of emergency in India refers to a period of governance under an altered constitutional setup that can be proclaimed by the President of India, when he perceives grave threats to the nation from internal and external sources or from financial situations of crisis...

 of 1975–1977, public support for the Congress Party eroded, but it continued to hold government until 1995. In the 1995 Assembly elections, the Congress lost to the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 (BJP) and Keshubhai Patel
Keshubhai Patel
Keshubhai Patel was Chief Minister of the Western State of Gujarat in India from March 1995 to October 1995 and from March 1998 to October 2001...

 came to power. His government lasted only two years. The fall of that government was provoked by a split in the BJP led by Shankersinh Vaghela, who has won most of the subsequent polls. In 2001, following the loss of two assembly seats in by-election
By-election
A by-election is an election held to fill a political office that has become vacant between regularly scheduled elections....

s, Keshubhai Patel resigned and yielded power to Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
Narendra Damodardas Modi is the current Chief Minister of the Indian state of Gujarat.He was born in a middle class family in Vadnagar; and is a member of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh since childhood, as also an active politician since early in life. He holds a masters degree in political...

. Political instability followed major riots in which rioters raided the homes of thousands of Hindus and Muslims, killing around one thousand people. The BJP retained a majority in the 2002 election, and Narendra Modi has since served as Chief Minister of the state. Modi has been denied visas to the United States for his alleged involvement in the ethnic cleansing in Gujarat. On 1 June 2007, Narendra Modi became the longest serving Chief Minister of Gujarat. On 23 December 2007, the BJP won the state elections in Gujarat and Narendra Modi became the chief minister for the third time in a row and has completed 10 years of governance on 7th Oct.2011.

Revenues of government


This is a chart of trend of own tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Gujarat assessed by the Finance Commissions from time to time with figures in millions of Indian rupees.
Year Own tax revenues
2000 104,818
2005 138,964

Districts


On 1960-05-01, Gujarat was created out of the 17 northern districts of former State of Bombay. These districts were further subdivided later on. There are 26 administrative districts in the state (as of 2007).
"Vallabhbhai Patel" was independent India's first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister; played a key role in political integration of India; conferred Bharat Ratna in 1991.

Culture of Gujarat


In Gujarat, there have been several great religious figures. Sant Dadu Dayal
Dadu Dayal
Dadu Dayal was a sant from Gujarat, India. "Dadu" means brother, and "Dayal" means "the compassionate one".He was reputedly found by an affluent business man floating on the river Sabarmati...

 (1554–1603), a saint-poet and a major Bhakti
Bhakti
In Hinduism Bhakti is religious devotion in the form of active involvement of a devotee in worship of the divine.Within monotheistic Hinduism, it is the love felt by the worshipper towards the personal God, a concept expressed in Hindu theology as Svayam Bhagavan.Bhakti can be used of either...

 figure from Ahmedabad treated equally both Rama and Allah as names of God and became popular in Northern India. He wrote, "The illusion of Allah and Rama has been dispelled by my mind; since I see Thee in all" A Marathi poet named Bapusaheb Gaekwad (1779–1843) composed several Gujarati religious poems and in some called on Hindus and Muslims to not quarrel. He wrote, "That "Rama and Rehman were one, O brothers! that Krishna and Karim were one and the same, that between Vishnu and Allah there was no difference; that Allah and Alakh were one."

The Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
The Bhakti movement is a Hindu religious movement in which the main spiritual practice is loving devotion among the Shaivite and Vaishnava saints. The Bhakti movement originated in ancient Tamil Nadu and began to spread to the north during the late medieval ages when north India was under Islamic...

 was very popular in Gujarat where devotees of both Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 and Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 focused worship of God, trying to rid any separations based on faith in God.

Gujarat is also the home of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

, who preached the unity between all religions and became a worldwide figure for peaceful struggle against tyranny.

Hinduism


Gujarat is home to Hindu saints of all castes. Sant Dhudhalinath and Sant Girnari Velnathji were Adivasis, Sant Akho and Sant Madhavagar were Sudras, Mahatma Gandhi, Sant Bhojo Nachabkha and Lala Bhagat were Vaish, Sant Kilha and Jalarama Bapa were Kshatriya, and Lakulisa and Chakradhara were Brahmins.Also the Patel is the caste which is in majority in Gujarat.

Many Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 religious Sects developed in Gujarat.

Swaminarayan Sampraday


Swaminarayan Sampraday (Gujarati: સ્વામિનારાયણ, Devanagari: स्वामीनारायण, IAST: Svāmīnārāyaṇa) (2 April 1781 – 1 June 1830), also known as Sahajanand Swami, is the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as the Swaminarayan Faith, a form of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu, or his associated Avatars such as Rama and Krishna, as the original and supreme God....

. Sahajanand Swami or Bhagwan Swaminarayan had followers not only from Hindu denominations, but also from Islam and Zoroastrianism and the Muslims and Zoroastrians were not encouraged to change their religion but Bhagwan Swaminarayan had taught them to be vegetarians. He built six temples in his lifetime and appointed 500 paramhansas to spread his philosophy. In 1826, Swaminarayan wrote the Shikshapatri, a book of social principles. He died on 1 June 1830 and was cremated according to Hindu rites in Gadhada, Gujarat.

Pasupata Saivism


Pasupata Saivism was established in Gujarat. Gujarat is the birth-place of Lord Shiva's Avatar
Avatar
In Hinduism, an avatar is a deliberate descent of a deity to earth, or a descent of the Supreme Being and is mostly translated into English as "incarnation," but more accurately as "appearance" or "manifestation"....

, Lakulisa (Staff-God). He established the Pasupata Shaivite
Shaivism
Shaivism is one of the four major sects of Hinduism, the others being Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Smartism. Followers of Shaivism, called "Shaivas," and also "Saivas" or "Saivites," revere Shiva as the Supreme Being. Shaivas believe that Shiva is All and in all, the creator, preserver, destroyer,...

 tradition (one of the six major schools of Shaivism) in 2 or 3 AD. According to some traditions, he was born in Kayarohana or Kayavatara in Saurashtra while other traditions hold that it was Karavana, in the modern-day town of Dabhoi Taluka near Baroda, another that it was Ulkapuri (modern Avakhal) and another that it was in Braoch or Bharuch. From Gujarat it spread north to Kashmir, South to Tamil Nadu, East to Nepal (where the Pashupatinath Temple
Pashupatinath temple
Pashupatinath Temple is one of the most significant Hindu temples of Lord Shiva in the world, located on the banks of the Bagmati River in the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. The temple served as the seat of the national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, Nepal is a secular country...

 stills exists popularly.)

Bhakti movement


Swami Chakradhara was a major figure in the Bhakti movement, born in Gujarat in 1194, and he is believed to be the avatar of Vishnu. Chakradhara Maharaja established the Manhubhava Vaishnavite sect, which spread to Maharashtra as well. The sect still exists today in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Sant Kilha was another Vaishnavite saint of Gujarat born to a Subedar (army man) father. He was the disciple of Krishnasdas (of Jaipur) and became his successor at the seat of Galta — Kilha's branch became known as the "Tapasa branch." Besides Ram Bhakti (devotion to Lord Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

), he was also inclined towards yog-saghana and this is why he was made acharya of the Galta Gaddi. He is said to be the founder of the Khati sect. Jalaram
Jalaram
Saint Shri Jalaram popularly known as Shri Jalaram Bapa was a Hindu saint from Gujarat, India. He was born in Virpur, Rajkot district, Gujarat, India in 1799, on the seventh day of the Kaartika month. Names of his father was Shri Pradhan Thakkar and mother was Smt...

, a devotee of Lord Rama is another popular figure. Jalaram's birthday is still celebrated by Gujarati people (in Gujarat and abroad) as Jalaram Jayanti.

Other saints include Nasi Mehta, Prafulbhai Shukla, and Gairibai.

Jainism


Gujarat is a stronghold for the Jain community
Jain community
The Jains in India have been the last direct representatives of the Shramana tradition in India. They follow Jainism, as the dharma taught by the 24 Tirthankaras, the last of whom was Mahavira.-Cultural influence:...

. Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 preaches non-violence to all living creatures
Ahimsa in Jainism
Ahiṃsā in Jainism is a fundamental principle forming the cornerstone of its ethics and doctrine. The term "ahimsa" means “non-violence”, “non-injury” or absence of desire to harm any life forms. Vegetarianism and other non-violent practices and rituals of Jains flow from the principle of Ahiṃsā...

 and vegetarianism
Jain vegetarianism
Jain vegetarianism is the diet of the Jains, the followers of Jainism. It is the most strict form of religiously-motivated diet regulation in the Indian subcontinent....

. There are a large number of beautiful Jain temples
Derasar
A derasar is a temple for followers of Jainism, except for non-murtipujak Svetambaras. Derasar is a word used in Gujarat, Kutch and parts of Rajasthan, in other parts of India, the term Jain Mandir is used for all the Jain temples. Jain idols of Tirthankaras are worshipped there...

 in Gujarat. The Palitana temple near Bhavnagar is the largest Jain temple. Jains have heavily influenced the cuisine of Gujarat with the famous Gujarati thali
Thali
Thali is a Western, Central, and North-Western Indian meal with contents varying from one region to another. More usual and famous thalis are Maharashtrian, Gujarati and Rajasthani. A thali is a selection of different dishes, usually served in small bowls on a round tray. The round tray is...

 containing small vegetarian dishes. Morality in business is an important feature of Jain culture. The Bania
Bania (caste)
Bania is an occupational caste of bankers, money-lenders, dealers in grains, spices and in modern times numerous commercial enterprises. Baniya is a distinct caste mostly coming from Western India and Central India but spread now all over India...

 caste, predominant in Gujarat, comprises followers from both the Jain and Vaishnava
Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu, or his associated Avatars such as Rama and Krishna, as the original and supreme God....

 traditions.

Buddhism


Parts and ancient Vedic kingdoms of Gujarat have been a great centers and seat of learning of Buddhism. Buddhism flourished and spread from this region from Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

, Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 periods through Maitraka
Maitraka
The Maitraka dynasty ruled Gujarat in western India from c. 475 to 767. The founder of the dynasty, Senapati Bhatarka, was a military governor of Saurashtra peninsula under Gupta Empire, who had established himself as the independent ruler of Gujarat approximately in the last quarter of 5th century...

 dynasty. Significance and dominance of Vallabhi
Vallabhi
Vallabhi is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. Also known as Vallabhipura, it was the capital of the ancient Maitraka dynasty.- Origins and history :...

, with Sinhapur
Sihor
Sihor is an ancient, historical medium sized town, a municipality in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Placed along the river Gautami, this erstwhile capital of the Gohil Rajputs, surrounded by hills is situated about 20 km from Bhavnagar...

, Vallabhi
Vallabhi
Vallabhi is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. Also known as Vallabhipura, it was the capital of the ancient Maitraka dynasty.- Origins and history :...

, Barigaza
Bharuch
Bharuch , also known as Broach, is the oldest city in Gujarat, situated at the mouth of the holy river Narmada. Bharuch is the administrative headquarters of Bharuch District and a municipality of more than 1,50,000 inhabitants. As Bharuch is a major seaport city, a number of trade activities have...

, Girinagar
Junagadh
Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city is the 7th largest in Gujarat. The city is located at the foot of the Girnar hills, 355 km south west of state capital Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad. The city is in western India. Literally translated,...

, Vadnagar
Vadnagar
Vadnagar is a city and a municipality in Mehsana district in the Indian state of Gujarat.-Geography:Vadnagar is located at . It has an average elevation of 143 metres .-Demographics:...

 and Devnimori in Sabarkantha district
Sabarkantha district
Sabarkantha is a district in Northeast of Gujarat state of India.-Geography:The administrative headquarters of the district is Himmatnagar, about 80 km from Ahmedabad....

 provide insights into practice, prevalence and spread of Buddhism across the Indian sub-continent during a flourished secular vedic period. Hiuen Tsang the famous Chinese Buddhist Monk of 7th century and a scholar, traveler, and translator has described from his visits in great detail about Buddhism in Vallabhi
Vallabhi
Vallabhi is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. Also known as Vallabhipura, it was the capital of the ancient Maitraka dynasty.- Origins and history :...

 and Gujarat.

Sihor
Sihor
Sihor is an ancient, historical medium sized town, a municipality in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Placed along the river Gautami, this erstwhile capital of the Gohil Rajputs, surrounded by hills is situated about 20 km from Bhavnagar...

 still carrying the feel and some remnants of antiquity, and the town of Vala on the periphery of present day Vallabhipur, both these regions are considered to be covering ancient civilization and footprints of flourishing era and culture, several feet under the earth. Apparently, research works, archaeological finds and historical references suggest Sihor
Sihor
Sihor is an ancient, historical medium sized town, a municipality in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Placed along the river Gautami, this erstwhile capital of the Gohil Rajputs, surrounded by hills is situated about 20 km from Bhavnagar...

, Vallabhi
Vallabhi
Vallabhi is an ancient city located in Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, in western India, near Bhavnagar. Also known as Vallabhipura, it was the capital of the ancient Maitraka dynasty.- Origins and history :...

, Vadnagar
Vadnagar
Vadnagar is a city and a municipality in Mehsana district in the Indian state of Gujarat.-Geography:Vadnagar is located at . It has an average elevation of 143 metres .-Demographics:...

, Devnimori, Barigaza to be prominent Buddhist centers in ancient times, along with caves in the districts of Kutch, Jamnagar, Rajkot and Junagadh, hinting at further archaeological - historical exploration while spread of Buddhism and Aryan colonization taken place far up to Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 in 543BCE upon exiled Prince Vijay from Sinhapur
Sihor
Sihor is an ancient, historical medium sized town, a municipality in Bhavnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. Placed along the river Gautami, this erstwhile capital of the Gohil Rajputs, surrounded by hills is situated about 20 km from Bhavnagar...

 (Sihor) introduced Buddhism in Sri Lanka and became first king of Sri Lanka thereupon.

Islam


Gujarat, with a shoreline on the Arabian Sea, was one of the first regions in India where the Muslims migrated to after the founding of Islam. King Arjun of Gujarat permitted Muslim traders from Ormuz to build a mosque within his realm.

The Sufi saints are very popular in Gujarat. Shaykh Makhu was a Sufi saint of the Shattari
Shattari
The Shattariyya are members of a Sufi mystical order that originated in Persia in the fifteenth century C.E. and formally developed, completed and codified in India. Later secondary branches were taken to Hejaz and Indonesia...

 lineage. "Since Gujarat is situated on the western border of India, there was a direct interaction with people of Arabia and Persia. Many Gujarati Saints and Sufis became famous. Among them names of Sheikh Ganjul Lim (1381), Syed Burhanuddin (1411) and Sheikh Wajihuddin Gujarati are well known."

The 'Khojas', Muslims of the Shi'a Nizari Ismaili Satpanth tradition are historically rooted in Gujarat since the 14th century, though the first Ismaili Muslim community in Gujarat dates back to the missionaries of the Fatimid Empire in 1067.

Zoroastrianism


Following the fall of the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
The Sassanid Empire , known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān in Middle Persian and resulting in the New Persian terms Iranshahr and Iran , was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty from 224 to 651...

 in 651, many Zoroastrians
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster and was formerly among the world's largest religions. It was probably founded some time before the 6th century BCE in Greater Iran.In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil...

 migrated, including several groups who settled in Gujarat. The descendants of those refugees are today known as the Parsis and Irani. The year of arrival on the subcontinent cannot be precisely established, and Parsi legend and tradition assigns various dates to the event.

They originally settled along coastal Gujarat in villages like Sanjan
Sanjan (Gujarat)
Sanjan is the second railway station in Gujarat on the Western railways just inside the Gujarat-Maharashtra border...

 in Valsad district, along the Gujarat-Maharashtra border. The Qissa-i Sanjan
Qissa-i Sanjan
The Story of Sanjan is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent...

 is a poem discussing the Zoroastrians' landing in Sanjan through the generosity of Rana Jada and being allowed to practice their customs.

Parsis are generally more affluent than other Indians and are stereotypically viewed as among the most Anglicised and "Westernised" of the various minority groups. They have also played an instrumental role in economic development with several of the best-known business conglomerates of India run by Parsi-Zoroastrians, including the Tata
Tata family
The Tatas are a wealthy Parsi family in India. Originally a priestly family in Navsari, they have been active in industry and philanthropy since the nineteenth century...

, Godrej
Godrej family
The Godrej family, like the Tatas, is a Parsi Zoroastrian industrial family who are the driving force behind the Godrej Group of companies, founded by Ardeshir Godrej and his brother Pirojsha Godrej.-External links:*Ashok kumar.P...

, and Wadia families.

Similarities with Hinduism is seen in Zoroastrianism in beliefs that the cow is very sacred. In the 9th chapter of the Vendidad of the Avesta, the purificatory power of cow urine is dilated upon. It is declared to be a panacea for all bodily and moral evils. It is drunk as well as applied externally. Urine of the bull, called "nirang" is brought to the house of an orthodox Parsi every morning and is (like cow milk) applied to the face, hands, and feet.

There were several Zoroastrian organizations formed to educate the Parsis on their heritage. Rahnumai Maznayasnam Sabha was established in 1851 by English-educated Parsis like Naoroji Furdunji with funds supplied by K.N.Kama. Much attention focused on the improvement of the condition of women in society; the purdah
Purdah
Purdah or pardeh is the practice of concealing women from men. According to one definition:This takes two forms: physical segregation of the sexes, and the requirement for women to cover their bodies and conceal their form....

 was abolished, the age of marriage raised, and education promoted.

Religious sites




Dwarakadheesh Temple
Dwarakadheesh temple
The Dwarakadheesh temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Krishna, who is worshipped here by the name Dwarkadhish, or 'King of Dwarka'. It is situated at Dwarka, Gujarat, which is believed to have been built after the historic Dvarka city, the Kingdom of Krishna himself which submerged in to...

 in Dwarka
Dwarka
Dwarka also spelled Dvarka, Dwaraka, and Dvaraka, is a city and a municipality of Jamnagar district in the Gujarat state in India. Dwarka , also known as Dwarawati in Sanskrit literature is rated as one of the seven most ancient cities in the country...

 is one of the important temples dedicated to Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

. On the tip of the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

, it was home to Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

. The Great Rann of Kutch covers a large portion of western Gujarat, and is world-famous for its rare ecosystem, fossils, wildlife and terrain.

The Palitana temples are a complex of Jain temples situated 51 km south west of Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
-Topography:Bhavnagar is a coastal city in the eastern coast of Saurashtra, also known as Kathiawar, located at . It has an average elevation of 24 metres . It occupies area of 53.30 km². General slope dips in the northeasterly direction at the apex of Gulf of Khambhat...

. There are 863 temples from the base to the peak of the Shatrunjaya hill, where the Palitana temples are located.

Akshardham
Akshardham (Gandhinagar)
Akshardham Gandhinagar is one of the largest temples in the Indian state of Gujarat. The temple complex combines devotions, art, architecture, education, exhibitions and research at one place...

 is one of the largest temples in the Indian state of Gujarat. Akshardham is a predecessor to the Akshardham at Delhi, built by the same religious organisation, Bochasanwasi Akshar-Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS) led by Pramukh Swami Maharaj. It was inaugurated on November 2, 1992, during the centenary celebrations of Yogiji Maharaj. The complex is very popular among tourists visiting Gujarat.The monument enshrining the 7-foot-high (2.1 m), gold-leafed Murti of Lord Swaminarayan is the focal point of the complex.

Somnath
Somnath
The Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is one of the twelve Jyotirlinga shrines of the God Shiva. Somnath means "The Protector of Moon God". The Somnath Temple is known as "the Shrine Eternal", having been destroyed...

 Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval
Veraval
Veraval is a city and a municipality in Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is located 6 km from Somnath.- History :...

 in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India, is one of the twelve Jyotirlings (golden lingas) or symbols of the God Shiva. It is mentioned in the Rig Veda. Somnath means "The Protector of Moon God". The Somnath Temple is known as 'the Shrine Eternal', as the temple has been destroyed six times, but was rebuilt on each occasion.

The Sun Temple
Sun Temple, Modhera
The Sun Temple, Modhera, at Modhera in Gujarat, is a temple dedicated to the Hindu Sun-God, Surya. It was built in 1026 AD by King Bhimdev of the Solanki dynasty...

 is famous for its rare position as specifically and uniquely designed for the worship of the Sun, Surya
Surya
Surya Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism, one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wives, Aditi; of Indra; or of Dyaus Pitar . The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya has hair and arms of gold...

. While the main temple is beautifully and intricately designed with complex architecture, painting, and sculptures, there is a central pond. Surrounding it stand 108 small temples for each of the Sun God's 108 names.

Shankheshwar
Shankheshwar
Shankheshwar is an important tirthas of Jainism. It is situated in the Patan district of Gujarat state of India.According to Mughal history, the Shankheshwar village was a lease-grant by Emperor Shah Jahan to Shantidas, a former nagarsheth of Ahmedabad.A fair is held here on the full moon days of...

 Jain Temples are dedicated to the 23rd Tirthankara, Parshva
Parshva
Pārśva or Paras was the twenty-third Tirthankara "Ford-Maker" in Jainism . He is the earliest Jain leader generally accepted as a historical figure. Pārśva was a nobleman belonging to the Kshatriya varna....

. It is believed that this idol was revealed by Krishna by the teachings of Neminath
Neminath
Neminatha was twenty-second Jain Tirthankar of the present age . According to Jain beliefs, he became a Siddha, a liberated soul which has destroyed all of its karma. He is also known as Arishtanemi He along with Rishabha or Adinatha is mentioned in the Rig Veda Samhita...

, 22nd Tirthankara. It is near Ahmedabad.

Patan
Patan, Gujarat
Patan was a capital of Gujarat in medieval times. It is the administrative seat of Patan District in the Indian state of Gujarat and administered by municipality. The city contains many Hindu and Jain temples as well as few mosques, dargahs and rojas...

 houses 84 magnificent Jain Temples built by Kumarpal
Kumarpal
Kumarpal was a famous ruler of the Solanki dynasty of Gujarat at Anahilavada, India. During his reign, Jainism became prominent in Gujarat. He was a devoted disciple of the great Jain polymath Acharya Hemachandra. Kumarpal was responsible for restoring ruined Somnath. He also built several...

, who was a staunch disciple of Acharya Hemachandra
Acharya Hemachandra
Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history. Noted as a prodigy by his contemporaries, he gained the title Kalikāl Sarvagya "all-knowing of the Kali Yuga"....

, a monk and scholar.

Girnar
Girnar
Girnar is a collection of mountains in the Junagadh District of Gujarat, India, situated near Junagadh at a distance of 327 km from Ahmedabad. It is a holy place and an important pilgrimage for both Hindus and Jains. There are a number of temples located here. Amidst the lush green Gir...

 is an epitome of communal harmony and amicable relations among Jains and Hindus. This high-rising steep hill houses shrines of both major religions, one dedicated to Tirthankara Neminath, where he is believed to attain nirvana
Nirvana
Nirvāṇa ; ) is a central concept in Indian religions. In sramanic thought, it is the state of being free from suffering. In Hindu philosophy, it is the union with the Supreme being through moksha...

, and another dedicated to Guru Dattatreya, a Hindu deity.

Ambaji
Ambaji
Ambaji is a census town in Banaskantha district in the state of Gujarat, India. Ambaji is an important temple town with millions of devotees visiting the Ambaji temple every year. It is one of the 51 Shakti Peethas....

: This temple is dedicated to goddess Ambaji. It is situated on the Arasur Hill and can be approached by road from Abu Road in Rajasthan, as well as from all other important places in Gujarat. A folk drama called 'Bhavai' is performed in the courtyards of the temple. It is connected by bus services from all other major cities of Gujarat state.

Dakor
Dakor
Dakor is a city and a Nagarpalika in Kheda district in the state of Gujarat, India. It is prominent for its grand temple of Shree Krishna-Shree Ranchhodraiji.-History:...

: This temple town dedicated to Lord Krishna is situated about 90 km from Ahmedabad. The temple of Ranchodrai has the idol of Lord Krishna, which is believed to have been brought from Dwarka by a devotee named Bodana.

Becharaji Temple: This temple is another important seat of Mother Goddess at Becharaji
Becharaji
Becharaji or Bahucharaji is a small town and taluka place in Mehsana district of Gujarat in India. It is situated in northern part of Gujarat. It is a very popular religious place of Hindu religion...

 in Mehsana district. This temple is thronged by Hindu devotees, especially childless women.

Chotila
Chotila
Chotila is a worship place of Hindu religion in Surendranagar district, located near Rajkot, Gujarat.-History:Historically, this area is called 'Panchal'.It is the worship place for Mata Chamunda, which is one of the 64 Avatars of Shakti,others being Bahuchar Mata, Kali Mata, Ambaji Mata etc....

 : This place is in Surendranagar district
Surendranagar district
Surendranagar is an administrative district in the state of Gujarat in India. It has a population of approximately 1.7 million people. Surendranagar is also known as Zalawad, as the city of Surendranagar was ruled by Zala Rajputs...

 where there is a famous temple of Goddess Chamunda
Chamunda
Chamunda , also known as Chamundi, Chamundeshwari and Charchika, is a fearsome aspect of Devi, the Hindu Divine Mother and one of the seven Matrikas . She is also one of the chief Yoginis, a group of sixty-four or eighty-one Tantric goddesses, who are attendants of the warrior goddess Durga...

 situated.

Sidi Saiyyed Mosque
Sidi Saiyyed Mosque
The Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, built in 1573, is one of the most famous mosques of Ahmedabad. As attested by the marble stone tablet fixed on the wall of the mosque, it was built by Sidi Saeed an Abyssinian in the retinue of Bilal Jhajar Khan, general in the army of the last Sultan Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar...

: The Sidi Sayed Mosque in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 is a famous and ancient mosque of the city. The mosque was built in the year 1411. The elegant mosque was built by Sidi Sayed, a slave of Sultan Ahmed Shah. The mosque is famous all over the country because of its fantastic architecture and exquisite jali
Jali
A jali is the term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry. Early work was performed by carving into stone, while the later more elegant used by the Mughals employed the technique of inlay, using marble...

 work (perforated stone lattices).

Rani Rupmati's Mosque: Rani Rupmati was the Hindu wife of Sultan Mehmed Beghara. Rani Rupmati mosque was built between 1430 to 1440, having three domes supported by pillars, with the central dome slightly elevated. It is located at Ahmedabad. The mosque has richly carved minarets, balcony windows, and jali. Its three domes are linked together by a flat roof. Muuk-Khana is a special attraction of this mosque.

Kutbi Mazar: A colossal monument raised in the memory of Qutubuddin Shaheed, the high priest of the Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra is a subsect of Ismāʿīlī Shīʿa Islām. While the Dawoodi Bohra is based in India, their belief system originates in Yemen, where it evolved from the Fatimid Caliphate and where they were persecuted due to their differences from mainstream Sunni Islam...

 community.

Shah Alam Roza: Shah Alam Roza is the mosque and tomb of Saint Shah Alam. Here the brass doors are set in carved marble frames. The floor is tiled of black and white marble. Its dome and minars shows great architectural work of the sultanate era.

Pavagadh
Pavagadh
Pavagadh is a Hill Station, and a Municipality in Panchmahal district about away from Vadodara in Gujarat state in western India. It is known for a famous Mahakali temple which draws thousands of pilgrims everyday....

 : Pavagadh is the place of worship for goddess Kalika. It is located on Pavagadh hills, near by Baroda. There is a rope way facility available for the visitors of the temple.

Shamlaji
Shamlaji
Shamlaji is one of the largest pilgrim temples of the Sabarkantha district in India. It is more commonly known among locals as "Dhodi Dhwaja Vada" because it always has a white silk flag flittering on top of temple. Its unique designs on the outer part of temple is one of its greatest attractions;...

 : This temple is situated in Sabarkantha district. It is dedicated to Krishna.

Virpur : Virpur is devoted to Jalaram bapa. Followers and even non-followers of Jalaram bapa visit this place often in Gujarat state.

Diffusion of Culture


Gujaratis spread to many places outside of Gujarat with the success of the Maratha Dynasty (as the dynasty was spread over much of India.) Even today Saurashtrians who migrated during the Maratha Dynasty's time can be found in Tamil Nadu.

Many Indians had migrated to Indonesia, some of them being Gujaratis. It is said that King Aji Saka who came to Indonesia in year 1 of the Saka calender and he is believed by some to be a king o Gujarat. It is also believed that the first Indian settlements in Java Island of Indonesia was established with the coming of Prince Dhruvavijaya of Gujarat with 5000 traders.

Historic sites



Lothal
Lothal
Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 2400 BCE. Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India...

 is the site of the ancient ruins of the first Indian port, dating from the time of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

. Dholavira
Dholavira
Dholavira is an archaeological site in Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kachchh district of Gujarat state in western India, which has taken its name from a modern village 1 km south of it. The site of Dholavira, locally known as Kotada timba contains ruins of an ancient Harappan city...

, the ancient city, locally known as Kotada Timba, is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. It is located on the Khadir island in the Kutch district of Gujarat — the island is surrounded by water in the monsoon season. The site was occupied from about 3000 BC for about a millennium, declining slowly after about 2100, briefly abandoned and then reoccupied, finally, by villagers among its ruins, until about 1450. Gola Dhoro
Gola Dhoro
Gola Dhoro is an archaeological site within the Indus Valley Civilization, near Bagasra in Gujarat, India. It was hastily abandoned for unknown reasons. The site contains a small fortified area with living quarters and manufacturing sites both inside and outside this area. The site is believed to...

, dating from 2500–2000 BCE, was recently discovered near the village of Bagasra
Bagasra
Bagasra is a village in the Indian state of Gujarat.Bagasra is known for its handicraft such as imitation jewelry.-External links:*...

. Shell bangles, copper, and beads were found there.

Fairs


Around more than 1000 festivals are celebrated in Gujarat—the state is known as the land of fairs and festivals. Some of these fairs and festivals are as follows:

NADIAD SANTRAM MANDIR MELA (February)

Bhavnath Mahadev Mela (February)

The Bhavnath Mahadev Temple, situated at the foot of Mount Girnar in the city of Junagadh
Junagadh
Junagadh is the headquarters of Junagadh district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city is the 7th largest in Gujarat. The city is located at the foot of the Girnar hills, 355 km south west of state capital Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad. The city is in western India. Literally translated,...

, is the site of the Bhavnath Mahadev fair held for five days in February, during the festival of Mahashivratri. The Mahapuja of Lord Shiva takes place at midnight in this temple on the 14th day of the dark half of the month of Magh. When the puja (prayer ceremony) starts, Naga Bavas (naked sages) living nearby move towards the fair seated on elephants, holding flags and blowing conch shells. It is firmly believed that Lord Shiva himself visits the shrine on this occasion. Visitors are served free meals by the organizers. Special stalls sell idols, rosaries, or holy beads (brought by vendors from Ayodhya and Mathura), utensils of brass and copper, sweets and fruits. The Bhavnath Mahadev Temple is surrounded by many equally ancient and holy places.

Dangs Darbar (March)

Dangs Darbar is the name of the annual fair held every year in Ahwa, the most important town in the Dangs a few days before Holi. The Dangs is one of the most delightful districts of Gujarat and is located high in the Saputara hills, the original home of the adivasis, the tribal population of Gujarat. The name "Darbar" dates back to the time of the British, when a darbar of Rajas and Naiks of neighbouring area used to assemble there. Today it is called Jamabandi Darbar, and the District Collector officiates at it. Thousands of tribal people flock to Ahwa from all over the district, dressed in bright colours, sounding the Shehnai, and beating their drums. Folk dances, dramas, and songs enliven the air during the festival.

Chitra — Vichitra Mela (March)

This fair, one of the largest purely Adivasi (tribal) fairs, is attended by around 60,000 to 70,000 tribal people. It takes place every year in the village of Gunbhakhari in Sabarkantha district, very near the borders of Rajasthan. It is held a fortnight after Holi, the festival of colours. The site of the fair is attractive as the temple overlooks the rivers Sabarmati, Akul, and Vyakul. The name of the fair is derived from Chitravirya and Vichitraviraya, the sons of King Shantanu, who are believed to have lived there and been cured of diseases which afflicted them. The fair attracts large numbers of Bhils (tribals) who come from all the surrounding districts using every imaginable form of transport. The Garasis and Bhil tribals dress in their customary colourful costumes. The costume of the men generally consists of a blue shirt, dhoti, and a red or saffron turban. Women don ghaghras (embroidered skirts), which have a circumference of as much as 20 yards (18.3 m), and are covered from head to foot with ornate and heavy silver jewellery. They use liquid kumkum (vermilion) to colour their cheeks and lips a brilliant red, while their eyes are outlined with kajal (kohl). Every group that comes to the fair carries its own drum making the atmosphere come alive with the incessant beat of numerous drums. The women sing folk songs, and everyone dances. The dancing and drumming continue for hours until everyone is exhausted. Over a hundred stalls hold food and drink and sweets of various kinds. Silver ornaments can be bought, and household articles, as well. Here, as in other fairs, there is a giant wheel and a merry-go-round which never ceases to spin.

Tarnetar Fair(Aug.-Sept.)

The fair is held for three days every year during the Hindu calendar dates of Bhadarva Sud - 4th, 5th and 6th (during the Gregorian calendar months Aug.-Sept).The Tarnetar fair is held 8 km from the town of Thangadh, in Surendranagar District. The most important fair of Saurashtra, Tarnetar is attended by more than 50,000 people. With its growing reputation, visitors from rest of India and many different parts of the world are also seen here.

Sanskruti kunj Fair

The Sanskruti kunj Festival shows the different cultures of the states of India. It is organised in the winter sesion in the capital city, Gandhinagar. All the competitors of India come during this fair and show their state's culture & dance.

Festivals


Other than those festivals observed throughout India, there are festivities specific to Gujarat.

Makar Sankranti and Kite Flying Festival (14 January)

The Kite
Kite
A kite is a tethered aircraft. The necessary lift that makes the kite wing fly is generated when air flows over and under the kite's wing, producing low pressure above the wing and high pressure below it. This deflection also generates horizontal drag along the direction of the wind...

 Flying Festival takes place in mid January and marks the time when the Sun’s direct rays reach the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
The Tropic of Capricorn, or Southern tropic, marks the most southerly latitude on the Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This event occurs at the December solstice, when the southern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun to its maximum extent.Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five...

 after the winter solstice
Winter solstice
Winter solstice may refer to:* Winter solstice, astronomical event* Winter Solstice , former band* Winter Solstice: North , seasonal songs* Winter Solstice , 2005 American film...

. It is celebrated with lots of folk music
Folk music
Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional folk music and contemporary folk music. The term originated in the 19th century. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers....

 and dance as well as kite flying. People of Gujarat gather on terraces to fly kites of various colours to celebrate Makar Sankranti or Uttrayana, the welcome to the sun after the cold winter months. Glass strengthened threads of the Indian fighter kites are matched against each other in the air — the kite fighter who cuts the other thread is the victor. At night, kites with Chinese lantern
Paper lantern
Paper lanterns come in various shapes and sizes, as well as various methods of construction. In their simplest form, they are simply a paper bag with a candle placed inside, although more complicated lanterns consist of a collapsible bamboo or metal frame of hoops covered with tough paper.-In Asian...

s are flown and held aloft. Food such as Undhiya, sugar cane juice and local sweets is typically served to celebrate the day.

Dance Festival — Modhera (January)

Resting on a knoll in the village of Modhera are the ruins of the 11th century Sun Temple. The outer walls of the temple are covered with sculptures in which the figures of Surya
Surya
Surya Suraya or Phra Athit is the chief solar deity in Hinduism, one of the Adityas, son of Kasyapa and one of his wives, Aditi; of Indra; or of Dyaus Pitar . The term Surya also refers to the Sun, in general. Surya has hair and arms of gold...

, the sun god, are prominent. The Sun Temple is the site of an annual festival of Indian classical dances organized by the Tourism Corporation of Gujarat. The idea is to present classical dance forms in an atmosphere they were originally presented in.

The Kutch Mahotsav (February–March)

The ‘Kutch Festival’ or the ‘Rann festival’ is celebrated at the time of the Shiv Ratri in February/ March. The centre of the festival is Bhuj in Kutch. It has crafts, fairs and folk dances and music and cultural shows, all organized by the Gujarat Tourism. Tours are also conducted out to the ruins of Dhola Vera, a city that was once a part of the Indus Valley civilization.

Bhadra Purnima (September)

The full moon of Bhadrapad is one of the four most important festival days of the year when farmers and agriculturists come to Ambaji, a place that derives its name from Goddess Ambaji, whose shrine is located there. On this occasion, a large fair is organized on full moon days. In the evening, performances of Bhavai, the folk drama of the state, is held and Garba programmes are organized. The devout attend readings of the Saptashati, the seven hundred verses in praise of the goddess, and visit the temple for a darshan (worship) of her. The Ambaji shrine is the principal shrine of the goddess in Gujarat, and its origins are still unknown. The Temple of Ambaji is recognized as one of the original Shakti Pithas (religious texts) where, according to the ancient Scriptures, the heart of the goddess Ambaji fell to earth when her body was dismembered. A triangular Vishwa Yantra, inscribed with figures and the syllable 'Shree' in the centre, represents the deity. There is no idol, which testifies the temple's antiquity. Idol worship became popular much later.

Navratri Festival (September-October)

Navratri, meaning 'nine nights', is one of the most popular and widely celebrated Hindu festivals in many parts of India. Gujarat, however, is the only state that erupts into a nine-night dance festival, perhaps the longest in the world. Each night, all over the state, villages and cities alike, people gather in open spaces to celebrate feminine divinity, referred to as Shakti.

The dance form known as ras garba (also joined sometimes by dandiya, which uses small wooden sticks), comes from Lord Krishna's worship rather than Goddess worship, from the Gop culture of Saurashtra and Kutch. Stories of relationships between Krishna and the Gopis, and their emotions, also often make their way into the ras garba music. Nevertheless, the focal point of every garba circle is the small Goddess shrine erected by each community to mark the beginning of the festival, on the first day of the Hindu month of Ashwin. The shrine includes a garbo, an earthenware pot, in which a betel nut, coconut, and silver coin are placed.

Each night the village or urban neighborhood gathers to perform a puja to one of the nine forms of Goddess. The nine nights are also broken up into sections of three; the first is for Durga, the goddess who destroyed an evil force represented by the demon Mahishasura, and who destroys human impurities; the second is for Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity; the third is for Saraswati, the goddess of wisdom and art. It is a time to celebrate fertility and the monsoon harvest, represented by a mound of fresh soil in which grains are sown. After the puja begins the music; it is unmistakable to those who are familiar with the style and irresistible to many. People begin to dance in a circle, whirling away till late into the night. It is not uncommon to find dancers with swords or lit flames and other spectacles.

The traditional dance steps are simple, though over the years people have been inventing more complex steps. Similarly, the music was traditionally acoustic, principally composed of drums and singing, but most people now use amplified sound systems or a blend in the form of a live band with modern instruments. Vadodara is a good place to find the full range of these styles, traditional to modern, acoustic to amplified, simple to complicated, each one represented in its extreme somewhere in the city. The tenth day, Dashera, also known as Vijayadashami in South India, is celebrated by doing a puja to bless one's vehicle, and is also the day to buy new vehicles, if necessary. It 's also celebrated, probably after getting up far later than usual, by unabashedly eating lots of fafda, a salty fried crunchy snack and jalebi, a sweet fried sticky snack.

Religion and tradition aside, a garba circle can take on a surprising spiritual power. Women often give up certain eatables during these nights, which can be quite a purifying experience, if done right. It is a time for even the most traditional and housebound women to be out of the house and whirling, uninhibited, towards the divinity that hides within her own body. Many of the songs begin slow and gradually speed up, sending the dancers into a trance, especially when the music and dance is in its rawest form. When you come to a garba, wherever in Gujarat you may find yourself for Navratri, imagine this: A circle, or concentric circles, moving around the central representation of a universal creative force, the source of life; everybody performing the same step; a mandala of energetic potential; the Mother Goddess unleashed.

Art


There is an unique Art that is not much exposed to the World in the Kutchchh district of northern part of Gujarat. The Art is being practiced by only one family in the village Nirona. The family members report that they are practicing the "ROGAN ART" since three to four centuries. Castor oil is the base ingredient material for this Art. Natural colour pigments are also mixed for bringing out beautiful and exotic designs and colours. On a plain cloth, without sketch of any design, designs are made with free hand. The painting by the Artist has to be seen to be believed. It is claimed that only 7 members of the family are practicing this Rogan Art and it is not being practiced by anybody probably in the world. After so many centuries, the family has now decided to transfer this Art skills to outsiders. It started organising training course in the Art to the nearby young enthusiastic girls.

Major cities


Gujarat International Finance Tec-City
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City
Gujarat International Finance Tech-City or GIFT is an under-construction city in the Indian state of Gujarat. It will be built on of land...

 is the new upcoming city in the state of Gujarat to provide high quality physical infrastructure (electricity, water, gas, district cooling, roads, telecoms and broadband), so that finance and tech firms can relocate their operations there from Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

 and Gurgaon
Gurgaon
Gurgaon is the second largest city in the Indian state of Haryana. Gurgaon is the industrial and financial center of Haryana. It is located 30 km south of national capital New Delhi, about 10 kilometers from Dwarka Sub City and 268 km south of Chandigarh, the state capital...

 where infrastructure is either very bad or very expensive.

Education




The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board
Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board
The Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board or GSEB is a government of Gujarat body responsible for determining the policy-related, administrative, cognitive, and intellectual direction the state's higher educational system takes....

 (GSHSEB) are in charge of the schools run by the Government of Gujarat
Government of Gujarat
The Government of Gujarat also known as the State Government of Gujarat, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Gujarat and its 26 districts...

. However, most of the private schools in Gujarat are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
The Central Board of Secondary Education is a Board of Education for public and private schools, under the Union Government of India.-History:...

 (CBSE) and Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations is a private, non-governmental board of school education in India. It conducts two examinations in India: the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and the Indian School Certificate...

 (CISCE) board. Gujarat has 13 universities and four agricultural universities.

Gujarat is also known for many national level institutions. The Space Applications Centre
Space Applications Centre
The Space Applications Centre is an institution of research in Ahmedabad, India under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organization...

 (SAC) is an institution for space research and satellite communication in Ahmedabad, India, under the aegis of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was an Indian physicist. He is considered to be the father of the Indian space program; legendary Homi Bhabha’s successor as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission; and was as at home in the world of the arts as in his favourite laboratory. His interests were vast and...

, a renowned scientist, industrialist, and visionary Gujarati, played an important role in it. He also founded Physical Research Laboratory
Physical Research Laboratory
The Physical Research Laboratory is a national Research Institute for space and allied sciences, supported mainly by Department of Space, Government of India. This research laboratory has ongoing research programmes in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Atmospheric Sciences and Aeronomy, Earth Sciences,...

, a research institute encompasses Astrophysics, Solar System, and cosmic radiation. He also envisioned Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
The Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad , better known as IIM Ahmedabad or simply IIM-A, is a business school located in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. It is the second Indian Institute of Management to be established, in 1961.-History:...

, one of the internationally reputed management research institute that is located in Gujarat's commercial capital Ahmedabad and is the top ranked management institutes in the country.

Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute is a constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research . The Institute was opened by Jawahar Lal Nehru on 10 April 1956...

 has been established under Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research is South Africa's central and premier scientific research and development organisation. It was established by an act of parliament in 1945 and is situated on its own campus in the city of Pretoria...

 Govt. of India at Bhavnagar. It was inaugurated by Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru , often referred to with the epithet of Panditji, was an Indian statesman who became the first Prime Minister of independent India and became noted for his “neutralist” policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the...

, the first Prime Minister of India
Prime Minister of India
The Prime Minister of India , as addressed to in the Constitution of India — Prime Minister for the Union, is the chief of government, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in parliament...

 on 10 April 1954, with a view to carry out research on marine salt, and salt from inland lakes and sub-soil brine. It is working on reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis
Reverse osmosis is a membrane technical filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and...

, electro membrane process, salt and marine chemicals, analytical science, marine biotechnology, and other related fields.

B.K. School of Business Management
B.K. School of Business Management
The B. K. School of Business Management is one of the oldest and well-known B-schools in the state of Gujarat. It is a postgraduate department of Gujarat University situated in front of K.S. School of Business Management, Gujarat University Campus, Ahmedabad, a state run university.The school was...

 is ranked 6th in terms of financial Management. K. S. School of Business Management is also an MBA College in Gujarat University
Gujarat University
The Gujarat University is the statewide institution affiliating many reputed colleges across the state of Gujarat, India. It has been given a B++ ranking by National Assessment and Accreditation Council .-History:...

 providing a unique five year's integrated MBA Cource. The National Institute of Design
National Institute of Design, Gandhinagar
The National Institute of Design better known as NID is the foremost design Institute in India. Currently an extension campus of the parent institute , NID Gandhinagar is situated in the city of Gandhinagar...

 (NID) in Gandhinagar is internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost multi-disciplinary institutions in the field of design education and research. In addition, Institute of Rural Management Anand
Institute of Rural Management Anand
Institute of Rural Management, Anand is an autonomous institution in Anand in Gujarat, India with the mandate of contributing to the professional management of rural organisations. It was founded at the initiative of the National Dairy Development Board and the support of Government of India,...

 (IRMA) is one of the leading sectoral institution in rural management. IRMA is a unique institution in the sense that it provides professional education to train managers for rural management. It is the only one of its kind in all Asia.

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology
Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat
The Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat also known as NIT Surat or SVNIT, is an autonomous engineering and technology oriented institute of higher education established by the Government of India in 1961...

 located in Surat
Surat
Surat , also known as Suryapur, is the commercial capital city of the Indian state of Gujarat. Surat is India's Eighth most populous city and Ninth-most populous urban agglomeration. It is also administrative capital of Surat district and one of the fastest growing cities in India. The city proper...

 is one of the best engineering colleges in India. It is one of the 20 National Institutes of Technology
National Institutes of Technology
The National Institutes of Technology , are a group of higher education engineering institutes in India. Comprising thirty autonomous institutes, they are located in one each major state/territory of India. On their inception decades ago, all NITs were referred as Regional Engineering Colleges ...

 created by the central government and is a deemed university
Deemed University
Deemed university is a status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities in India. This status of ‘Deemed-to-be-University’, is granted by Department of Higher Education, Union Human Resource Development Ministry, on the advice of the University Grants...

. It has students from all over India and some foreign students as well. Also, there is Nirma University ranked 14th in self-financed engineering colleges in India. Gujarat Science City
Gujarat Science City
Gujarat Science City is situated at Hebatpur, Ahmedabad. Spreading on 107 hectares the government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, Planet Earth, an amphitheatre, and dancing musical fountains...

, is a government initiative to draw more students towards education in science, which hosts India's first IMAX
IMAX
IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

 3D theatre, an energy park, a hall of science, an amphitheatre
Amphitheatre
An amphitheatre is an open-air venue used for entertainment and performances.There are two similar, but distinct, types of structure for which the word "amphitheatre" is used: Ancient Roman amphitheatres were large central performance spaces surrounded by ascending seating, and were commonly used...

, and dancing musical fountain
Musical fountain
A musical fountain is a type of animated fountain for entertainment purposes that creates an aesthetic design . This is achieved by employing the effects of timed sound waves and timed light against water particles...

s among others.


Apart from that, Mudra Institute of Communication Ahmedabad (MICA) is one of the most famous institutes for mass communication and is well-renowned across India. IIT Indian institute of technology was established at Gandhinagar in the year 2008. IIT Gandhinagar is mentored by IIT Bombay. IIT'S first batch started on 1 August 2008, at a temporary building of government college, Chandkheda, Gandhinagar.The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) has been established by the Science and Technology Department, Government of Gujarat in 2003 and is registered as a Society.ISR campus is at Raisan, Gandhinagar in a sprawling and picturesque area on the banks of Sabarmati river. Aims and objectives include assigning optimum seismic factors for buildings in different regions and long-term assessment of earthquake potential. The ISR is the only institute in India fully dedicated to seismological research and is planned to be developed into a premier International institute in few years time.

Literature


Gujarati literature
Gujarati literature
The history of Gujarati literature may be traced to 1000 AD, and this literature has flourished since then to the present. It is unique in having almost no patronage from a ruling dynasty, other than its composers...

's history may be traced to 1000 AD.Since then literature has flourished till date. Well known laureates of Gujarati literature are Hemchandracharya, Narsinh Mehta
Narsinh Mehta
Narsinh Mehta also known as Narsi Mehta or Narsi Bhagat was a poet-saint of Gujarat, India, and a member of the Nagar Brahmins community, notable as a bhakta, an exponent of Hindu devotional religious poetry. He is especially revered in Gujarati literature, where he is acclaimed as its Adi Kavi...

, Mirabai, Akho
Akho
Akha Bhagat was a medieval period poet in Gujarati literature who wrote in the tradition of the Bhakti movement. He kept Gujarati literature alive and wrote his poems in pattern which is called "chhappa" .- History :He came to Ahmedabad from Jetalpur in the 17th Century...

, Premanand Bhatt
Premanand Bhatt
Premanand Bhatt is known for his contribution in Gujarati literature. Popularly, he is known as Premanand in Gujarat. Premanand is known for his literary form called "Aakhyan" in Gujarati...

, Shamal Bhatt
Shamal Bhatt
Shamal Bhatt was a Gujarati author of the middle age in Gujarati literature. He is known for his "Padhya-Vaarta"....

, Dayaram
Dayaram
Dayaram was a Gujarati poet. He belongs to middle age or " Madhya-kal " in Gujarati literature.He was known for his literary form called " Garbi " in Gujarat.He was a follower of Pushtimarg of Hindu religion....

, Dalpatram
Dalpatram
Nanalal Dalpatram Kavi was a noted author, poet of Gujarati literature, and was given a title of "Kavishwar" by people of Gujarat...

, Narmad, Govardhanram Tripathi
Govardhanram Tripathi
Govardhanram Tripathi was a novel writer of Gujarati literature.-Life:Govardhanram Tripathi was born in Nadiad, India on 20 October 1855 on the day of the Dasara festival....

, Gandhiji, K. M. Munshi
K. M. Munshi
Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi was an Indian independence movement activist, politician, writer and educationist from Gujarat state. A lawyer by profession, he later turned to literature and politics. He was a well known name in Gujarati literature...

, Umashankar Joshi
Umashankar Joshi
Umashankar Joshi was an eminent poet, scholar and writer. He received the Jnanpith Award in 1967 for his contribution to Indian, especially Gujarati literature.-Works:...

, Suresh Joshi
Suresh Joshi
Suresh Joshi was an Indian novelist, short-story writer, critic, poet, translator, writer and academic in the Gujarati language.He was born in Valod, a small town in South Gujarat on 30 May 1921....

, Pannalal Patel
Pannalal Patel
Pannalal Nanalal Patel is a Gujarati author. He was the recipient of Jnanpith Award in 1985. He was born at Mandli village, Dungarpur, Rajasthan.-Works:- Novels :* Maanavi Ni Bhavaai...

 and Rajendra Shah .

Kavi Kant
Kavi kant
Kavi Kant is a poet associated with Gujarat and Gujarati literature.-Life:Kavi Kant was born Manishankar Rataji Bhatt in 1868 in Chavand village, part of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat....

, Zaverchand Meghani and Kalapi are famous Gujarati poets.

Gujarat Vidhya Sabha
Gujarat Vidhya Sabha
Gujarat Vidhya Sabha, originally called The Gujarat Vernacular Society is a literary institution for the promotion of Gujarati literature located in the city of Ahmedabad, India. It was founded by a British judge Alexander Forbes in 1848...

, Gujarat Sahitya Sabha
Gujarat Sahitya Sabha
Gujarat Sahitya Sabha, originally called the Social and Literary Association is a literary institution for the promotion of Gujarati literature located in the city of Ahmedabad, India. It was founded by Ranjitram Vavabhai Mehta in 1898...

, and Gujarati Sahitya Parishad
Gujarati Sahitya Parishad
Gujarati Sahitya Parishad is a literary institution for the promotion of Gujarati literature located in the city of Ahmedabad, India. It was founded by Ranjitram Mehta with an aim of creating literature appealing to all classes of the society and cultivate a literary sense among the people...

 are Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 based literary institutions promoting the spread of Gujarati literature.
Saraswatichandra
Saraswatichandra
Saraswatichandra is a black-and-white Hindi film released in 1968 . It starred Nutan and Manish among others and was directed by Govind Saraiya. It was also the last Bollywood movie to be made in black and white....

 is a landmark novel by Govardhanram Tripathi
Govardhanram Tripathi
Govardhanram Tripathi was a novel writer of Gujarati literature.-Life:Govardhanram Tripathi was born in Nadiad, India on 20 October 1855 on the day of the Dasara festival....

. Writers like Kavi Nanalal, Sundaram
Tribhuvandas Luhar
Tribhuvandas Luhar Sundaram was an Indian, Gujarati poet.-Introduction:He was born on 22 March 1908 at Miyamatar, Bharuch, Gujarat, India and died on 13 January 1991-Awards:...

, Aanand Shankar Dhruv, Khabardar, Balwantray Thakore
Balwantray Thakore
Balwantray Thakore , as popularly he is known, was born at Bharuch in Gujarat.He was very well known poet of Gujarati literature.-Contribution:...

, Suresh Dalal, Harindra Dave, Jyotindra Dave, Tarak Mehta, Harkisan Mehta, Chandrakant Bakshi
Chandrakant Bakshi
Chandrakant Keshavlal Bakshi was a Gujarati author. He was a son of Keshavlal and Chanchalbahen. He completed his primary education at Palanpur. Fans also address him as "Bakshi" or "Bakshibaabu".He completed his M.A. in History and Bachelor of Laws from Calcutta...

, Ashvini Bhatt, Vinod Bhatt, Kanti Bhatt, Makarand Dave, Gunvant Shah
Gunvant Shah
Gunvant Shah , also known as Dr Gunvant B Shah, is a noted thinker, writer and columnist...

 and Varsha Adalja have influenced Gujarati thinkers.

A huge contribution to Gujarati language literature came from the Swaminarayan
Bhagwan Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan , also known as Sahajanand Swami, is the central figure in a modern sect of Hinduism known as the Swaminarayan Faith, a form of Vaishnavism...

 paramhanso, like Bramhanand, Premanand, with prose like Vachanamrut
Vachanamrut
The Vachanamrut of Swaminarayan is a foundational scripture of the Swaminarayan faith. It is considered one of the most sacred scriptures by Swaminarayan followers...

 and poetry in the form of bhajans.

Gujarati theatre owes a lot to Bhavai
Bhavai
Bhavai is a popular folk theatre form of Gujarat. Jasma Odan based on Gujarati folk tale, wriiten and directed by Shanta Gandhi and Mena Gujari produced by Deena Gandhi are some of most popular Bhavai musicals..-History:...

. Bhavai is a folk
Folk music
Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional folk music and contemporary folk music. The term originated in the 19th century. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers....

 musical performance of stage plays. Ketan Mehta
Ketan Mehta
Ketan Mehta is an Indian film director, who has also directed documentaries and television serials.-Early life and education:Born in Navsari in Gujarat, Ketan Mehta did his schooling from Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, Delhi and later graduated in film direction from Film and Television Institute of...

 and Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali
Sanjay Leela Bhansali is an Indian film director. He is an alumnus of the Film and Television Institute of India...

 explored artistic use of bhavai in films such as Bhavni Bhavai
Bhavni Bhavai
Bhavni Bhavai is a 1980 Gujarati film directed by Ketan Mehta. Ketan Mehta's debut film is a successful adaptation of folk idioms into cinema. The film is dedicated to Bertolt Brecht, Goscinny and to the inventor of the Bhavai, Asait Thakore, who was a Brahmin outcast and lived among the lower...

, Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India
Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India
Oh Darling! Yeh Hai India! is an 1995 Indian musical spoof film directed by Ketan Mehta, and starring Shahrukh Khan, Deepa Sahi, Jaaved Jaffrey and Amrish Puri...

 and Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam
Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam
The music was composed by Ismail Darbar with lyrics by Mehboob. It received nine Filmfare Awards nominations in the music and singing categories and produced some winners as well.-Track listing:-2000 National Awards:* Best Music Direction - Ismail Darbar...

. Dayro (gathering) involves singing and conversation reflecting on human nature.

Gujarati films


Gujarati film industry is one of the largest regional and vernacular film industry of India. It all started in year 1932 when first Gujarati film "Narsinh Mehta" was released.
"Bhavni Bhavai
Bhavni Bhavai
Bhavni Bhavai is a 1980 Gujarati film directed by Ketan Mehta. Ketan Mehta's debut film is a successful adaptation of folk idioms into cinema. The film is dedicated to Bertolt Brecht, Goscinny and to the inventor of the Bhavai, Asait Thakore, who was a Brahmin outcast and lived among the lower...

" released in the year 1980 was directed by Ketan Mehta
Ketan Mehta
Ketan Mehta is an Indian film director, who has also directed documentaries and television serials.-Early life and education:Born in Navsari in Gujarat, Ketan Mehta did his schooling from Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, Delhi and later graduated in film direction from Film and Television Institute of...

. It boasted of superlative performances, fine camerawork and won awards like – National Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, National Film Award for Best Art Direction
National Film Award for Best Art Direction
The National Film Award for Best Art Direction winners:...

 for Meera Lakhia and another award at the Nantes festival in France. In 1992," Hun Hunshi Hunshilal", directed by Sanjiv Shah was sought to be post-modern. Other notable films are "Lohi Ni Sagai", "Manvini Bhavai", "Meru Malan", etc.
Recently "Little Zizou", a 2009 film in Hindi, Gujarati, and English, written and directed by Sooni Taraporevala
Sooni Taraporevala
Sooni Taraporevala is an internationally acclaimed screenwriter and photographer, currently based in India. She is best known as the screenwriter of Mississippi Masala, The Namesake and Oscar-nominated Salaam Bombay , all directed by Mira Nair.She directed her first feature film, based on a...

 won "Silver Lotus Award" or "Rajat Kamal" in 'National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare
National Film Award for Best Film on Family Welfare
The National Film Award - Best Film on Family Welfare winners:...

' category at 56th National Film Awards
56th National Film Awards
The 56th National Film Awards is presented to the best of Indian Cinema released during the year 2008.-Feature Films:Films made in any Indian language shot on 16 mm, 35 mm or in a wider gauge or digital format but released on a film format or video/digital but certified by the Central Board of Film...

.

Many famous actors have worked in Gujarati film industry like Sanjeev Kumar, Rajendra Kumar
Rajendra Kumar
Rajendra Kumar was one of the most successful Indian Bollywood actors in the 1960s and 1970s. He also produced several films in the 1980s starring his son Kumar Gaurav....

, Bindu (actress)
Bindu (actress)
Bindu is an actress in Indian cinema who was most popular, receiving several award nominations, in the 1970s. She has acted in over 160 movies in a career that spanned four decades.-Early life:...

, Asha Parekh
Asha Parekh
Asha Parekh is a Bollywood actress, director, and producer. She was one of the top stars in Hindi films from 1959 to 1973.-Early life:...

, Kiran Kumar, PRASHANT Trivedi, Arvind Trivedi
Arvind Trivedi
Arvind Trivedi is an Indian actor. He, alongside his brother Upendra Trivedi, has been prolific in Gujarati cinema. He is also famous for portraying Ravan in Ramanand Sagar's television series Ramayan...

, Aruna Irani
Aruna Irani
Aruna Irani is an Indian actress. An accomplished actress and dancer of her time, Aruna Irani has acted in about 300 movies, with many memorable acting performances to her credit...

, Mallika Sarabhai
Mallika Sarabhai
Mallika Sarabhai is an activist and Indian Classical Dancer from Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Daughter of Classical Dancer Mrinalini Sarabhai and renowned Space Scientist Vikram Sarabhai, Mallika is an accomplished Kuchipudi and Bharatanatyam dancer.-Early life:Mallika Sarabhai was born in...

, Asrani
Asrani
Govardhan Asrani , popularly known simply as Asrani, is an actor in Indian films whose Bollywood career has spanned over 35 years. His wife Manju Bansal is an actress.-Early life:...

, Naresh Kanodia
Naresh Kanodia
Naresh Kanodia is a Gujarati cinema actor. He is the brother of Mahesh Kanodia, another well known Gujarati actor and was a member of the Vidhansabha, Gujarat.-References:...

, Sneh Lata, Jayshree T.
Jayshree T.
Born in Marathi family, Jayshree T is a Bollywood Actress/Dancer, who is still active in the bollywood movies and some Marathi movies.-Career:...

, Paresh Rawal
Paresh Rawal
Paresh Rawal is an Indian actor of Gujarati background.Making his film debut in 1984, he mainly played supporting and villain roles throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Since 2000 he has mostly played comic roles.- Family and early life :...

, Niraj Vora, Dilip Joshi
Dilip Joshi
Dilip Joshi is an Indian film and television actor. He has appeared in a number of tele serials as well as films. He acts mostly in comedy and is currently playing the role of Jethalal Gada in Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah.-Career:...

, Ayesha jhulka
Ayesha Jhulka
Ayesha Jhulka is a Bollywood actress. She is the daughter of Wing Commander Jhulka, an Indian Air Force Officer. During her career, she has worked with major stars like Mithun Chakraborty, Govinda, Jackie Shroff, Nana Patekar, Aamir Khan, Salman Khan, Ajay Devgan, Suniel Shetty, Akshay Kumar,...

, Himesh Reshmiya etc.

Museums


Gujarat's museums are run by the state's Department of Museums located at the principal state museum, Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery
Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery
The famous museum was built in 1894 on the lines of Victoria & Albert and Science Museums of London. Major Mant in association with R.F. Chisholm who refined some of Mant's finest works to make genuine Indo-Saracenic architecture designed the Building of this Museum. It preserves a rich collection...

. Other famous museums include:
  • "The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya"

The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

 is run by a public trust established in 1951. The museum's new premises were built in 1963. The museum's main objective was to house the personal memorabilia of Mahatma Gandhi. Consequently, the exhibits on view depict the vivid and historic events of Gandhiji's life. There are books, manuscripts, and photostat copies of his correspondence, photographs of Gandhiji with his wife Kasturba and other ashram associates, life size oil paintings, and actual relics like his writing desk.
  • "Calico Museum of Textiles"

The Calico Museum of Textiles at Ahmedabad, India, is the premier textile museum of the country, and one of the most celebrated institutions of its kind in the world for its distinguished and comprehensive collection of textiles and artifacts.
Ahmedabad Tourism
  • "The Vadodara Museum"

The Vadodara Museum in Vadodara
Vadodara
Vadodara formerly known as Baroda is the third most populated city in the Indian State of Gujarat . It is one of the four cities with the population of over 1 million...

, located in the popular Sayaji Bagh, the museum houses a collection which belonged to the former maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad. Indian rulers during the Raj often collected all kinds of European art and other knick knacks. Largely being the personal collection of the maharaja, the exhibits span across centuries and continents, as well as diverse art forms. There are Greek and Roman sculpture with European paintings of earlier periods. The Asian section has items from Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, China, and Japan made of wood, ivory, bronze and pottery.
  • "Maharaja Fatehsingh Museum"

The impressive Laxmi Vilas Palace, in the Indo Saracenic style of architecture, was once the residence of the Gaekwad
Gaekwad
The Gaekwad or Gaikwad was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-18th century until 1947...

 family. Maharaja Fatehsingh Museum in Vadodara, located in the sprawling grounds of the palace complex, is a multi purpose museum and houses the Gaekwad family's rich collection of an treasures.
  • "The Gandhi Museum"

The Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

 Museum in Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
-Topography:Bhavnagar is a coastal city in the eastern coast of Saurashtra, also known as Kathiawar, located at . It has an average elevation of 24 metres . It occupies area of 53.30 km². General slope dips in the northeasterly direction at the apex of Gulf of Khambhat...

 showcases a rare collection of photographs relating to the life of Mahatma Gandhi are on view at the Gandhi Museum. These recreate the significant events of Gandhiji's life. Also displayed are documents, letters, and his personal relics. The collection of audio-visual material includes microfilms, a voice library, prayers, and lecture records.
  • "The Watson Museum"


The 'Watson Museum
Watson Museum
The Watson Museum in Rajkot, India is a museum of human history and culture. Its collections precious objects of colonial period of India and History of Rajkot. It is amongst the largest and most comprehensive museum in State of Gujarat...

' in Rajkot, is a museum of human history and culture. Its collections precious objects of colonial period of India and History of Rajkot. It is amongst the largest and most comprehensive museum in State of Gujarat. Watson Museum is considered to be the finest amongst 7 such museums located across Saurashtra (region) and run by the State Government because it holds invaluable articles and state-of-the-art facilities like photography, guide service, reference library and sales counter of the museum's publication.
  • "The Lakhota museum"

The 'Lakhota Museum' in Jamnagar
Jamnagar
Jamnagar is a city and a municipal corporation in Jamnagar district in the Indian state of Gujarat. The city was built up substantially by Maharaja Kumar Shri Ranjitsinhji in the 1920s, when the district was known as Nawanagar. The district lies just to the south of the Gulf of Kutch and is...

, is a museum of history and royalty of jamnagar. It was built in center of Lakhota Lake. It was built by Jam Ranjitsinh.
  • Other museums include:


Kite Museum in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

,

The Lady Wilson Museums — Dharampur, Valsad.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Museum,Surat.

SardarVallabhbhai Patel MuseumKaramsad

Air


Gujarat has ten airports. All are domestic airports except Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport is India's eighth busiest airport with an average of 250 aircraft movements a day. It services the metropolitan areas of two cities in the State of Gujarat - Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. The airport is located from the Ahmedabad Railway Station. It is...

 in Ahmedabad, which also offers international flights.

International airport

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport is India's eighth busiest airport with an average of 250 aircraft movements a day. It services the metropolitan areas of two cities in the State of Gujarat - Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar. The airport is located from the Ahmedabad Railway Station. It is...

     (Ahmedabad) — Many domestic as well as international flights operate from here.
  • [Integrated Terminal Airport] (vadodara).

Domestic airports

  • Bhavnagar Airport
    Bhavnagar Airport
    Bhavnagar Airport is located near Bhavnagar in the state of Gujarat, India.-Airlines and destinations:-External links:*...

     — Bhavnagar Airport, 9 km from the city of Bhavnagar.
  • Bhuj Airport
    Bhuj Airport
    Bhuj Airport is located in Bhuj in the Kutch District of the state of Gujarat, India.The airport was previously made up of two bunkers/buildings near the Bhuj Rudra Mata Air Force Base, with which it shares the runway. On one side of the passing road there was an Indian Airlines bunker, and on the...

     — In the Bhuj city of Gujarat. This airport has been recently been named Shyamji Krishna Verma, Bhuj Airport.
  • Jamnagar Airport
    Jamnagar Airport
    Jamnagar Airport or the Govardhanpur Airport Jamnagar is an airport in Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. It is owned by the Indian Air Force and also permits both commercial as well as private flights....

     — 10 km from the City of Jamnagar.
  • Kandla Airport
    Kandla Airport
    Kandla Airport or Gandhidham Airport is located north of Kandla and Gandhidham in the Kutch District of the state of Gujarat, India.-External links:*...

     (Gandhidham) — situated at Kandla, near Gandhidham, in Kutch district.
  • Keshod Airport
    Keshod Airport
    Keshod Airport is a public airport located in Keshod, in the state of Gujarat, India. It primarily serves the cities of Junagadh and Veraval and the surrounding region....

     (Junagadh) — Keshod Airport is found 3 km from Keshod city in Junagadh District.
  • Porbandar Airport
    Porbandar Airport
    Porbandar Airport is an airport in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. A new terminal was opened in the spring of 2008.-References:*...

     — is situated 5 km from the city of Porbandar.
  • Rajkot Airport
    Rajkot Airport
    -Modernisation Plans:Rajkot Urban Development Authority and Rajkot Municipal Corporation have proposed a plan to extend Rajkot airport runway from current to to accommodate larger aircraft and to provide connectivity to major cities than Mumbai to cater to a large demand from the Manufacturing...

     — 4 km from the city of Rajkot.
  • Surat Airport
    Surat Airport
    Surat Airport is a domestic airport , located in Magdala, 11 kilometres south-west of Surat in the Western Indian state of Gujarat. The total area of the airfield is 312 Hectares...

     — Recently inaugurated on Magdalla Road.
  • Vadodara Airport
    Vadodara Airport
    Vadodara Airport or Civil Airport Harni is a civilian airport located in the north-east of Vadodara, Gujarat, India in the suburb of Harni....

     — Integrated Terminal Building will be completed by 2010, enabling international fights to Vadodara.
  • Mehsana Airport — Meshana Airport is about 2 km from Meshsana city.
  • Deesa airport — 5 km from deesa
  • Naliya airport — airforce airport
  • Amreli airport — air strip ( trainning airport )
  • Talod airport — state security airport
  • Fedra airport — India's first cargo airport

Future airports

  • Zalawad Airport
    Zalawad Airport
    The another name of this airport is Sardarsinh Rana Airport, this name is arrived from the name of Sardarsinh Rana, a great freedom fighter of India who belonged to Surendranagar and was living at Paris, France....

     — Future airport for Surendranagar area.
  • Fedara
    Fedara
    Fedara is a small village near Dholera in Ahmedabad district in Indian state of Gujarat.Gujarat Government has proposed a new International Airport for Ahmedabad city. The proposed international airport has been strategically located near the planned 335 million USD Port-cum-SEZ project of the...

     (Ahmedabad) — Proposed International Airport near Fedara
    Fedara
    Fedara is a small village near Dholera in Ahmedabad district in Indian state of Gujarat.Gujarat Government has proposed a new International Airport for Ahmedabad city. The proposed international airport has been strategically located near the planned 335 million USD Port-cum-SEZ project of the...

     village of Bhāl region
    Bhal region
    Bhāl region is spread across political boundaries of two districts of the Indian state of Gujarat, namely Bhavnagar district and Ahmedabad district . The word Bhaal seems to have been derived from the Sanskrit word भाल which means forehead...

    .
  • Ambaji (Danta) near Palanpur, Banaskantha

Rail


Gujarat comes under the Western Railways zone of the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

. Vadodara Railway Station
Vadodara Railway Station
Vadodara Railway Station is the main station in the city of Vadodara, Gujarat, India. It is the busiest Railway Station of Gujarat and one of the most busiest stations in the nation. The station is a major stop on the western railway zone of Indian railways...

 is the busiest railway station in Gujarat and the fourth busiest railway station in India. It is situated on the Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 – Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 Western Railway Mainline. Other important railway stations are Surat Railway Station
Surat railway station
Surat Railway Station, station code ST, is the largest and very important railway station serving surat city, beside Gotahngam, Kosad, Uttran, Udhan Jn, Bhestan, Niol and Sachin railway station serving Surat city, the second largest city in the Gujarat state of India. It is under the administrative...

, Ahmedabad Railway Station
Ahmedabad Railway Station
Ahmedabad Railway Station is the main railway station of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. It is also the biggest & busiest railway station within Gujarat...

 and Rajkot Railway Station
Rajkot Railway Station
Rajkot Railway Station also known as Rajkot Junction is main railway station in the city of Rajkot in Gujarat, India. It is the primary terminus for rail transport for the city. It falls under the Western Railways zone of the Indian Railways. Bhaktinagar Railway Station is the other railway...

. Indian Railways is planning Delhi–Mumbai dedicated rail freight route passing through the state.

Work on Rs 1,100 crore (Rs 11 billion) first phase of the metro rail project in Ahmedabad-Gandhinagar will start by 2011 and the line is expected to be operational within 2–3 years. The first phase of the metro rail project will cover a distance of 32.65 kilometre in the north-south direction between Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad and 10.90 kilometre east-west corridor between Kalupur and Thaltej.

Sea


Kandla Port is one of the largest ports serving Western India. Other important ports in Gujarat are the Port of Navlakhi
Port of Navlakhi
Navlakhi Port is an all-weather lighterage non-major intermediate Port. The Port is situated on the southwest end of the Gulf of Kutch in Hansthal Creek. The Port is about 45 km from Morbi and 160 km from Kandla. Navigation is permitted only during daylight hours; boats use channel buoys...

, Port of Magdalla
Port of Magdalla
The Port of Magdalla is a port located on the western shores of India in southern Gujarat, on the southern bank of the Tapti river. A deep water anchorage is located southwest from the port. It is connected with Udhana city GIDC and Pandesara Industrial Estate which is about away. The port is...

, Port of Pipavav, Port of Porbandar and the privately owned Mundra Port
Mundra Port
Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Limited manages the largest privately owned port in the country. The port project was initiated in 1988 by the Adani Group as a logistics base for their international trade operations when the sector was opened for private sector...

.

Road



Bus

Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation
Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation
The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation is a state owned corporation for passenger transport providing bus services both within state of Gujarat, India and neighboring states. GSRTC came into existence on 1 May, 1960 on formation of Gujarat...

 (GSRTC) is the primary body responsible for providing the bus services within the state of Gujarat and also with the neighboring states. It is a public transport corporation providing bus services and public transit within Gujarat and to the other states in India. Apart from this, there are a number of services provided by GSRTC.
  • Mofussil Services — It connects major cities, smaller towns and villages within Gujarat.
  • Intercity Bus Services — It also connects major cities — Ahmedabad, Vapi, Vadodara (Baroda) and Rajkot.
  • Interstate Bus Services — It connects various cities of Gujarat with the neighboring states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan.
  • City Services — GSRTC also provides city bus services at Surat, Baroda, Vapi, Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad, within the state of Gujarat.
  • Parcel Services — This service is used for transporting goods.

Apart from this, the GSRTC provides special bus services for festivals, industrial zones, schools, colleges and pilgrim places.
Auto rickshaws


  • Auto rickshaw
    Auto rickshaw
    An auto rickshaw or three-wheeler is a usually three-wheeled cabin cycle for private use and as a vehicle for hire. It is a motorized version of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw...

     is an important and frequently used mode of transport in Gujarat. The Government of Gujarat is promoting Bicycle
    Bicycle
    A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

    s to reduce pollution.


See also


  • Gujarati people
    Gujarati people
    Gujarati people , or Gujaratis are an ethnic group that is traditionally Gujarati-speaking and can trace their ancestry to the state of Gujarat in western India...

  • Gandhinagar — Capital of Gujarat
  • Ahmedabad
    Ahmedabad
    Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

  • Mumbai
    Mumbai
    Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

  • List of people from Gujarat
  • Mahatma gandhi
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
    Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was an Indian barrister and statesman, one of the leaders of the Indian National Congress and one of the founding fathers of India...

  • Narendra Modi
    Narendra Modi
    Narendra Damodardas Modi is the current Chief Minister of the Indian state of Gujarat.He was born in a middle class family in Vadnagar; and is a member of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh since childhood, as also an active politician since early in life. He holds a masters degree in political...

  • 2001 Gujarat earthquake
    2001 Gujarat earthquake
    The 2001 Gujarat earthquake occurred on January 26, 2001, India's 52nd Republic Day, at 08:46 AM local time and lasted for over two minutes. The epicentre was about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District of Gujarat, India...

  • Vibrant Gujarat
    Vibrant Gujarat
    Vibrant Gujarat is the name given to a biennial investors' summit held by the government of Gujarat in Gujarat, India. The event is aimed at bringing together business leaders, investors, corporations, thought leaders, policy and opinion makers; the summit is advertised as a platform to understand...

     — biennial Global Investors' Summit
  • Parsi


External links