Orissa

Orissa

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Orissa officially Odisha since Nov 2011, is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

. It is the modern name of the ancient nation of Kalinga
Kalinga (India)
Kalinga was an early state in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa/Utkal , as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the river Damodar/Ganges to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to...

, which was invaded by the Maurya
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

 Emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 in 261 BC. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in India, and consists predominantly of Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

 speakers. 1 April is therefore celebrated as Utkal Divas. Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian state of Orissa, officially Odisha. The city has a long history of over 2000 years starting with Chedi dynasty who had Sisupalgarh near present-day Bhubaneswar as their capital...

 is the capital of Orissa.

Orissa is the ninth largest state by area in India, and the eleventh largest by population. Oriya is the official and most widely spoken language with 93.33% Oriya speakers according to linguistic survey.Other languages spoken in the state are Hindi, Bengali, and Telugu, Orissa has a relatively unindented coastline (about 480 km
1 E5 m
A length of 100 kilometers , as a rough amount, is relatively common in measurements on Earth and for some astronomical objects.It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin....

 long) and lacked good port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

s, except for the deepwater facility at Paradip
Paradip
Paradip, also spelt Paradeep, is a major seaport town and a designated notified area in Jagatsinghpur district of Orissa, India.-Geography:Paradip is located at . It has an average elevation of .-Paradip Port:...

, until the recent launch of the Dhamara Port (The Dhamra Port Company Limited (DPCL) is a 50:50 joint venture of L&T and Tata Steel. DPCL has been awarded a concession by Government of Orissa to build and operate a port north of the mouth of river Dhamra in Bhadrak district). The narrow, level coastal strip, including the Mahanadi River
Mahanadi River
The Mahanadi in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 km2 and has a total course of 858 km. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa.-Source:...

 delta
River delta
A delta is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river. Deltas are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river...

 supports the bulk of the population. The interior of the state is mountainous and sparsely populated. Deomali
Deomali
Deomali is a census town in Tirap district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India.-Demographics: India census, Deomali had a population of 6060. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Deomali has an average literacy rate of 62%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male...

 at 1672 m is the highest point of the state. Orissa is subject to intense cyclones. The most intense one, in October 1999, Tropical Cyclone 05B caused severe damage and some 10,256 deaths.

Orissa is home to the Hirakud Dam
Hirakud Dam
Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. Built in 1957, the dam is one of the world's longest earthen dam....

, near Sambalpur
Sambalpur
Sambalpur is a city in Sambalpur district in the Indian state of Orissa.It lies at a distance of 321 km from the state capital Bhubaneswar. In the year 1876, Sambalpur was established as a municipality. It is currently the headquarters and the largest city of Sambalpur district. It is also...

 the longest earthen dam in the world. Orissa has several popular tourist destinations. Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, Konark
Konark
Konark is a small town in Puri district in the state of Orissa, India, on the Bay of Bengal, sixty-five kilometers from Bhubaneswar. It is the site of the 13th-century Sun Temple , built in black granite by King Narasimhadeva-I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is a World Heritage Site...

 & Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian state of Orissa, officially Odisha. The city has a long history of over 2000 years starting with Chedi dynasty who had Sisupalgarh near present-day Bhubaneswar as their capital...

 are known as Golden triangle of eastern India. Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, with the Jagannath
Jagannath
Jagannath is a transcendental non-anthropotheistic Hindu god worshiped primarily by the people of Indian state of Orissa, and, to a great extent, West Bengal...

 temple near the sea (famous for Rath Yatra or the Car Festival), and Konark
Konark
Konark is a small town in Puri district in the state of Orissa, India, on the Bay of Bengal, sixty-five kilometers from Bhubaneswar. It is the site of the 13th-century Sun Temple , built in black granite by King Narasimhadeva-I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is a World Heritage Site...

, with the Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple , at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty...

, are visited by thousands of tourists every year. The Jagannath Temple
Jagannath Temple
-India:*Jagannath Temple, Puri, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Koraput, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Baripada, Mayurbhanj, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Nayagarh, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India*Jagannath Temple, Delhi, India...

 of Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, the Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple , at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty...

, the Lingaraj Temple
Lingaraj Temple
Lingaraj Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Harihara, another name for Shiva and is one of the oldest temples of Bhubaneswar, a revered pilgrimage center and the capital of the state of Orissa, India....

, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar in Orissa, India. The caves are situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in Hathigumpha inscription...

, Dhauligiri of Bhubaneshwar, Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

's famous Rock Edict at Jaugada near Berhampur
Berhampur
Brahmapur , nicknamed "The Silk City", is a city located in the eastern coastline of Ganjam district of the Indian state of Orissa, about south to state capital, Bhubaneswar.It is also dubbed as "The Dance City" of Orissa after Prince Dance Group and Harihar Das made the state famous in India's...

 city and the Barabati Fort
Barabati Fort
Barabati Fort is a 14th century fort built by the Ganga dynasty near Cuttack, Orissa. The ruins of the fort remain with its moat, gate, and the earthen mound of the nine-storied palace, which evokes the memories of past days. Today it sits next to the modern Barabati Stadium, the venue of various...

 of Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

 are important in the archaeological history of India
History of India
The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from...

.

Origin of the name of the State


The name Orissa derives from the ancient Sanskrit words Ora (Ura) or Odra Desa or Sumera or Odra bisaya The earliest epigraphic reference to Odras is found in the Soro copper plate grant of Somadatta from which it is clear that Uttara Tosali with its visaya Sarepahara identified with Soro of Baleswar district was part of Odra Visaya. Both Pali
Páli
- External links :* *...

 and Sanskrit Literatures mention the Odra people as Oddaka and Odrah, respectively. Ancient writers like Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

 and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

 described the Odra people as Oretes. In the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 the Odras are mentioned along with the Paundras, Utkals, Mekalas, Kalinga
Kalinga (India)
Kalinga was an early state in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa/Utkal , as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the river Damodar/Ganges to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to...

s and Andhra
Satavahana
The Sātavāhana Empire or Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar and Prathisthan in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward...

s, while according to Manu the Odras are associated with the Paundrakas, Dravidas, Kambojas
Kambojas
The Kambojas were a kshatriya tribe of Iron Age India, frequently mentioned in Sanskrit and Pali literature.They were an Indo-Iranian tribe situated at the boundary of the Indo-Aryans and the Iranians, and appear to have moved from the Iranian into the Indo-Aryan sphere over time.The Kambojas...

, Yavanas, Saka
Saka
The Saka were a Scythian tribe or group of tribes....

s, Paradas, Pallava
Pallava
The Pallava dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which ruled the northern Tamil Nadu region and the southern Andhra Pradesh region with their capital at Kanchipuram...

s, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

s, Kiratas and Khasas. The location of the Odra territory has been given in the Natural History of Pliny in which it is mentioned that the Oretes were inhabiting the country where stood the Mount Maleus. The Greek Oretes is probably the Sanskrit Odra and the Mount Maleus has been identified with Malayagiri near Pala Lahara. Pliny associates the Mount Maleus with the people called Monedes and Sharis who were probably the same as the Mundas and the Savaras respectively inhabiting the upland regions of Orissa.

The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang who visited Orissa in about 636 AD gives an account of the territory named Wu-Che which is very likely the same as Odra. The pilgrim states that the Wu-Cha (Wu-tu) country was above 7,000 li in circuit and its capital was above 20 li in circuit. The area of the territory, which was 7,000 li or (2,253 km) in circuit, was very extensive.

General Cunningham who calls this territory Odra or Odra Desa writes as follows: "The ancient province of Odra desa or Or-desa was limited to the valley of the Mahanadi and to the lower course of the Subarnarekha river. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapore. It was bounded on the West by Gondwana, on the North by the wild hill states of Jashpur and Singhbhum, on the East by the sea and on the South by Ganjam. These also must have been the limits in the time of Hiuen-Tsang as the measured circuit agrees with his estimate".

The Muslim geographer Ibn Khurdadhbin who wrote his geography in 846 AD refers to a territory called Ursfin which is identified by the Russian scholar V. Minorsky with Odra Desa. In another Persian geography called Hudad-al Alam written towards the close of the 10 th century AD mention has been made of a territory called Urshin (Odra Desa) which has been associated with the territories called N. Myas, Harkand, Smnder and Andhras which were more or less contiguous. The territory called N. Myas may be Mahismati and Harkand is suggested to be Akarakhand (eastern Malwa). Urshin may be the same as Odra Desa and Smnder may be the territory bordering the sea. Andhras is without doubt the same as Andhra Desa. Alberuni has referred to a territory called Udra Vishau located 50 forsakhs towards the sea in the south from the Tree of Prayaga. Fifty forsakhs is equal to about 200 miles or 321.86 km. So Udra Vishau may be the same as Odra Desa.

In the mediaeval Muslim chronicles like Tabaquat-I-Nasiri, Tabaquat-I-Akbari, Riyadus-Salatin, Tarkh-I-Firuzsahi, etc., the Odra territory has been referred to as Jajnagar probably after the capital Jajatinagar or Jajatinagar. The territory of Jajnagar very probably denotes to the Ganga empire during the period from Chodagangadeva to Anangabhimdeva III when Jajatinagar (modern Jagati on the Mahanadi) was the capital of that empire. It was Anangabhimadeva III who transferred the capital from Jajatinagar to Baranasi Kataka. Even after the change of capital some Muslim chroniclers continued to call this territory as Jajnagar. Shams-I-Seraj-Afif called this territory as Jajnagar-Udisa with its capital city Banaras on the right bank of the Mahanadi. The word ‘Udisa’ added to Jajnagar appears very significant. It is a developed form of the word Ursfin or Urshin used by earlier Muslim writers of the 9 th and 10 th centuries AD. In Buddhist literature this word is expressed as Odivisa or Udivisa as found in the works of Lama Taranath and the author of Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang. In the Tantric literature of the mediaeval period the word Udisa has been frequently used and in Tantrasara, Jagannath has been referred to as Udisanatha. Poet Sarala Das mentions both the words Odra Rastra and Orissa in his famous treatise Mahabharata while Gajapati
Gajapati Kingdom
The Gajapatis were a medieval Hindu dynasty that ruled over Kalinga , large parts of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, and the eastern and central parts of Madhya Pradesh and the southern parts of Bihar from 1434-1541. Gajapati dynasty was established by Kapilendra Deva in 1434...

 Kapileswaradeva (1435–1467 AD) in his proclamation inscribed on the temple walls of Jagannath calls his territory as Orissa Rajya or Orissa Rastra. Thus from the 15th century AD onward the land of the Oriya people was called Orissa.

On 4 November 2011, Orissa was officially renamed Odisha after Presidential assent and notification in the official Gazette. The change required minor amendments to the Orissa (the Alteration of Name) Bill and the Constitution (113th) Amendment Bill which were approved by both houses of parliament. The state's official language has also been renamed Odia from Oriya.

Orissa in pre-historic age



Since prehistoric days the land of Orissa has been inhabited by various people. The earliest settlers of Orissa were primitive hill tribes. Although prehistoric communities cannot be identified, it is well known that Orissa had been inhabited by tribes like Saora or Sabar from the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 days. Saora in the hills and the Sahara and Sabar of the plains continue to be an important tribe distributed almost all over Orissa. Most of the tribal people have been influenced by Hindus and have adopted Hindu manners, customs and rituals. Bonda Parajas of Koraput district are the best example of these tribes.

Several pre-historic sites have been excavated in Orissa since the arrival of Britishers. Kaliakata of Angul, Kuchai & Kuliana of Mayurbhanj, Vikramkhol near Jharsuguda, Gudahandi and Yogimath of Kalahandi, Ushakothi of Sambalpur, Similikhol near Bargarh etc.

History of Orissa



Orissa has a history spanning a period of over 5,000 years. Before Kalinga it was named as Udra or "Odra Desa". The Ancient Odra desa or Ordesa was limited to the valley of Mahanadi and to the lower course of Subarnarekha River. It comprised the whole of the present districts of Cuttack and Sambalpur and a portion of Midnapur. Bounded on the west by Gondwana, on the north by the wild hill states of Jaspur and Singhbhum, on the east by the sea and on the South by Ganjam, Orissa has a legendary history. The name Oriya originated from Odra or Udra tribes that inhabited the central coastal belt (Khordha District
Khordha district
Khordha is an administrative division of the state of Orissa, India. It was formed on April 1, 1993 by the division of former Puri District into Puri, Khurda and Nayagarh districts. In the year 2000 the district name was changed to Khordha. The district headquarters is Khordha Town, formerly...

 and Nayagarh District
Nayagarh District
Nayagarh district is one of the 30 districts of Orissa State in eastern India. It was created in 1995 when the erstwhile Puri District was split into three distinct districts. It is home to the Baisipali Wildlife Sanctuary.-Maoist attacks:...

) of modern Orissa. Orissa has also been the home of the Kalinga
Kalinga (India)
Kalinga was an early state in central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Orissa/Utkal , as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh. It was a rich and fertile land that extended from the river Damodar/Ganges to Godavari and from Bay of Bengal to...

, Utkal, Mahakantara/Kantara and Kosal that played a particularly prominent role in the region's history, and one of the earliest references to the ancient Kalingas appears in the writings of Vedic chroniclers. In the 6th century BC, Vedic
Vedic period
The Vedic period was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700–1100 BCE, also...

 Sutrakara Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as being beyond the Vedic fold, indicating that Brahminical influences had not yet touched the land. Unlike some other parts of India, tribal customs and traditions played a significant role in shaping political structures and cultural practices right up to the 15th century, when Brahminical influences triumphed over competing traditions and caste differentiation began to inhibit social mobility and erode what had survived of the ancient republican tradition.


A major turning point in world history took place in Orissa. The Kalinga War
Kalinga War
The Kalinga War was a war fought between the Mauryan Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga, a feudal republic located on the coast of the present-day Indian state of Orissa. The Kalinga war is one of the major battles in the History of India. Kalinga put up a stiff resistance,...

 that led emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 to embrace non-violence and the teachings of Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

 was fought here in 261 BC. Ashoka's military campaign against Kalinga
Kalinga
Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Tabuk and borders Mountain Province to the south, Abra to the west, Isabela to the east, Cagayan to the northeast, and Apayao to the north...

 was one of the bloodiest in Mauryan history on account of the fearless and heroic resistance offered by the Kalingas to the mighty armies of the expanding Mauryan empire. Perhaps on account of their unexpected bravery, emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 was compelled to issue two edicts specifically calling for a just and benign administration in Kalinga. Later on, Ashoka was instrumental in spreading Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology.Some scholars assert that early Buddhist philosophy did not engage in ontological or metaphysical speculation, but was based instead on empirical evidence gained by the sense organs...

 all over Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

. However, Ativ Land (South Western Orissa) was unconquered by Ashoka.

Tel river civilization put light towards a great civilization existing in Kalahandi, Balangir, Koraput (KBK) region in the past that is recently getting explored. The discovered archaeological wealth of Tel Valley suggest a well civilized, urbanized, cultured people inhabited on this land mass around 2000 years ago and Asurgarh was its capital. Kalahandi along with Koraput and Bastar was part of Kantara referred in Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

 and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

. In 4th century B.C. this region was known as Indravana from where precious gem-stones and diamond were collected for the imperial Maurya treasury. During the period of Maurya emperor Ashoka, Kalahandi along with Koraput and Bastar region was called Atavi Land. This land was unconquered as per Ashokan record. In the beginning of Chrisitan era probably it was known as Mahavana. In 4th Century AD Vyaghraraja was ruling over Mahakantara comprising Kalahandi, undivided Koraput and Bastar region. Asurgarh was capital of Mahakantara.



On the other hand in the third century BC, in the eastern part of Orissa Kalinga flourished as a powerful empire under the Jaina
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 emperor, Kharavela
Kharavela
Khārabēḷa was the third and greatest emperor of the Mahāmēghabāhana Dynasty of Kaḷinga . The main source of information about Khārabeḷa is his famous seventeen line rock-cut Hātigumphā inscription in a cave in the Udayagiri hills near Bhubaneswar, Orissa.During the reign of Khārabēḷa, the Chedi...

. He ruled all the way down south to include parts of the Tamil country
Ancient Tamil country
The Sangam period is the classical period in the history of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and other parts of South India, spanning about the 3rd century BCE to the 3rd century CE...

. He built the superb monastic caves at Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar in Orissa, India. The caves are situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in Hathigumpha inscription...

. Subsequently, the region was ruled under various monarchs, such as Samudragupta
Samudragupta
Samudragupta , ruler of the Gupta Empire , and successor to Chandragupta I, is considered to be one of the greatest military geniuses in Indian history according to Historian V. A. Smith. His name is taken to be a title acquired by his conquests...

 and Shashanka
Shashanka
Shashanka is often attributed with creating the first separate political entity in a unified Bengal called Gauda and as such is a major figure in Bengali history. He reigned in 7th century AD, and some historians place his rule approximately between 590 AD and 625 AD. He is the contemporary of...

. It also was a part of Harsha
Harsha
Harsha or Harsha Vardhana or Harshvardhan was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India from 606 to 647 AD. He was the son of Prabhakara Vardhana and younger brother of Rajya Vardhana, a king of Thanesar, Haryana...

's empire. In 795 AD, the king Jajati Kesari I of Kesari or Soma dynasty of Kosala united Kosala and Utkala into a single empire. He is also supposed to have built the first Jagannath Temple
Jagannath Temple
-India:*Jagannath Temple, Puri, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Koraput, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Baripada, Mayurbhanj, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Nayagarh, Orissa, India*Jagannath Temple, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India*Jagannath Temple, Delhi, India...

 at Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, although the current structure of the temple is entirely different and was built by Kings Choda Gangadeva and Ananga Bhimadeva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty
Eastern Ganga dynasty
The Eastern Ganga dynasty reigned from Kalinga and their rule consisted of the whole of the modern day Indian state of Orissa as well as parts of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh from the 11th century to the early 15th century. Their capital was known by the name Kalinganagar, which is...

 in the 12th century. The famous Lingaraja temple in Bhubaneshwar was started by Keshari dynasty king Jajati Keshari III and completed by his son Lalatendu Keshari in the 10th century. King Narasimha Dev
Narasimhadeva I
Narasimha Deva I was generally thought to be one of the greatest rulers of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. He ruled the dynasty from 1238–1264. Today he is most remembered as the builder of the Konark Sun Temple, a World Heritage Site at Konark, Orissa....

 is reputed to have built the magnificent Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple , at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty...

. Although now largely in ruins, the temple may have once rivaled the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal is a white Marble mausoleum located in Agra, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal...

 in splendour.

Orissa resisted several Muslim attacks until 1568, when was conqurered by Sultanate of Bengal
Sultanate of Bengal
The Sultanate of Bengal was a state that existed from the 14th through the 16th centuries. It was eventually absorbed into the Mughal fold. The Sultanate was ruled by a series of dynasties with both local and foreign origins.-Origins:...

. The Mughals conquered Coastal Orissa in 1576. The last Hindu Emperor of Orissa, Gajapati
Gajapati Kingdom
The Gajapatis were a medieval Hindu dynasty that ruled over Kalinga , large parts of Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal, and the eastern and central parts of Madhya Pradesh and the southern parts of Bihar from 1434-1541. Gajapati dynasty was established by Kapilendra Deva in 1434...

 Mukunda Deva, was defeated and was killed in the battle of Gohiratikiri. The coastal plain of Orissa from Medinipur to Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry is a city and municipal corporation of the Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad, on the banks of the River Godavari. Known as the Cultural Capital, Rajahmundry is noted for its intense Veda culture and intellect...

 came under Mughal rule, which was broadly divided into six parts as Jaleswar
Jaleswar
Jaleswar is a small town that falls under the state of Orissa. It belongs to Balasore district of state Orissa and is adjacent to border of West Bengal. 'Jaleswar' town is a notified area committee...

 Sarkar, Bhadrak
Bhadrak
Bhadrak is a city and a municipality in Bhadrak district in the state of Orissa, India.-Demographics: India census, Bhadrak had a population of 1,33,4000. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Bhadrak has an average literacy rate of 73.86, higher than the national average of...

 Sarkar, Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

 Sarkar, Chicacole
Chicacole
Chicacole, was the former name for the city of Srikakulam that was applied by British colonial rulers. It is said that the word Chicacole came from two Persian words - Chica and Khol. Chica means "a small cloth bag which can be closed by pulling a thread around its neck" and Khol means 'open'...

 (Srikakulam
Srikakulam
Srikakulam is a town, municipality and headquarters of Srikakulam district in the north-eastern Andhra Pradesh, India. It is part of Srikakulam Assembly constituency and Srikakulam Parliament Constituency. Srikakulam was formerly called as Gulshanabad during Muslim rule and was headquarter of...

) Sarkar, Kalinga Dandapat and Rajamundry Sarkar or Godavari Province. Orissa's Central, Northern, Western and Southern hilly areas were ruled independently by Hindu kings. The Nizam of Hyderabad occupied the area between Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry is a city and municipal corporation of the Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad, on the banks of the River Godavari. Known as the Cultural Capital, Rajahmundry is noted for its intense Veda culture and intellect...

 to Srikakulam
Srikakulam
Srikakulam is a town, municipality and headquarters of Srikakulam district in the north-eastern Andhra Pradesh, India. It is part of Srikakulam Assembly constituency and Srikakulam Parliament Constituency. Srikakulam was formerly called as Gulshanabad during Muslim rule and was headquarter of...

 in 16th century. Medinipur was attached to Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 province in 18th century. The remaining parts of Coastal Orissa, were subsequently ceded to the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire covered much of South Asia, encompassing a territory of over 2.8 million km²....

 in 1751.

The British occupied the Northern Circars comprising the southern coast of Orissa as a result of the Carnatic Wars in the early 1760s and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 gradually. In 1803, the British under the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 annexed the Maratha province of Orissa after the Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War
The Second Anglo-Maratha War was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.-Background:...

. The northern and western districts of Orissa were incorporated into Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
The Bengal Presidency originally comprising east and west Bengal, was a colonial region of the British Empire in South-Asia and beyond it. It comprised areas which are now within Bangladesh, and the present day Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Orissa and Tripura.Penang and...

. Following famine and floods in 1866, large scale irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

 projects were undertaken in the last half of the 19th century. The coastal section was separated from Bengal and made into the Province of Bihar and Orissa in 1912, in response to local agitation for a separate state for the Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

-speaking people. In 1936, Bihar
Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

 and Orissa were split into separate provinces. Thus after a long period of struggle the Oriya people got re-united after centuries of political separation. On 1 April 1936, the new province of Orissa came into existence on linguistic basis during the British rule in India with Sir Jhon Austin Hubbak as the first Governor. A long cherished dream of Oriya people and their leaders like Madhusudan Das
Madhusudan Das
Utkal Gourav Madhusudan Das was born on 28 April 1848 in a village called Satyabhamapur, 20 kilometres from Cuttack, Orissa. He was the first Graduate and Advocate of Orissa.-Family:...

, Maharaja Krushna Chandra Gajapati, Pandit Nilakantha Das, Bhubanananda Das and many other came true. The district of Ganjam
Ganjam
Ganjam is a town and a notified area committee in Ganjam district in the state of Orissa, India.-Geography:Ganjam is located at . It has an average elevation of 3 metres .-Demographics:...

 was transferred from Madras Presidency to the new province of Orissa on 1 April 1936. From that time onwards people of Orissa celebrate the day 1 April as Utkal Divas or Orissa Day.

Following Indian independence, the area of Orissa was almost doubled and the population was increased by a third by the addition of 24 former princely states. In 1950, Orissa became a constituent state in the Union of India.
Orissa becomes Odisha
According to source news, dated 5 Nov 2011, the name "Orissa" has been changed to "Odisha".

Prominent People of Modern Orissa


1.Madhusudan Das
2.Gopabandhu Das
3.Acharya Harihar Das
4.Subhas Chandra Bose
5.Krushna Chandra Gajapati
6.Nabakrusna Chaudhary
7.Gopabandhu Chaudhary
8.Harekrushna Mahatab
9.Sadhu Charan Mahanti
10.Malati Chaudhary
11.Harmohan Patnaik
12.Biju Patnaik
13.Biren Mitra
14.Nityanand Kanungo
15.Rajendra Narayan Singh Deo
16.Janaki Ballabh Patnaik
17.Chintamani Panigrahi
18.Lokanath Mishra
19.Ranganath Mishra
20.Gopal Ballabh Patnaik
21.Navin Patnaik
22. Krishna Madhavan

Sub-divisions


There are 30 districts in Orissa—Angul
Angul District
Angul is a district of Orissa state in India. The city of Angul is the district headquarters.-History:A bridge between western and coastal areas of Orissa where the prehistoric and protohistoric relics are found in village Bhimakund, Kankili, Kulei, Samal, Sanakerjang, Kaliakata, Paranga, Kerjang,...

, Boudh
Boudh District
Boudh District, also called Bauda District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. The city of Boudh is the district headquarters. As of 2011 it is the second least populous district of Orissa , after Debagarh....

, Bhadrak, Bolangir
Balangir District
Balangir District, also called Bolangir District, is a district situated in the western orissa region of India. The district has an area of 5,165 km², and a population of 1,335,760 . The town of Balangir is the district headquarters...

, Bargarh
Bargarh District
Bargarh District ', is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. The city of Bargarh is its district headquarters. The district was carved out of the erstwhile district of Sambalpur in 1993.- Geography :...

, Balasore
Balasore District
Balasore District, also known as Baleswar District or Baleshwar District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. The lingua franca is Oriya. The coastal district is known for its beautiful mountains and famous temples. Balasore is a place of scenic beauty and a major...

, Cuttack
Cuttack District
Cuttack district is one of the 30 districts in Orissa state in eastern India. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Cuttack. As of 2011 it is the second most populous district of Orissa , after Ganjam.-Geography:...

 (Kataka
Cuttack District
Cuttack district is one of the 30 districts in Orissa state in eastern India. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Cuttack. As of 2011 it is the second most populous district of Orissa , after Ganjam.-Geography:...

), Debagarh
Debagarh District
Debagarh District, also known as Deogarh District, is a district of Orissa state, India. It is located in the northern part of the state. Debagarh is the district headquarters. The district covers an area of 2781.66 km². The district has a population of 274,095...

, Dhenkanal
Dhenkanal District
Dhenkanal District is an administrative division of Orissa, India. It is bordered by Kendujhar in the north, Jajpur in the east, Cuttack in the south and Anugul in the west. Dhenkanal town, the district headquarters has a cluster of temples, archaeological remains and a mediaeval fort. A former...

, Ganjam
Ganjam
Ganjam is a town and a notified area committee in Ganjam district in the state of Orissa, India.-Geography:Ganjam is located at . It has an average elevation of 3 metres .-Demographics:...

, Gajapati, Jharsuguda
Jharsuguda District
Jharsuguda is a district in Orissa, India with Jharsuguda town as its headquarters. The district once had an airport during World War II. This region is rich in coal and other mineral reserves...

, Jajpur
Jajpur District
Jajpur is a district of Orissa, India, and an historic place of pilgrimage. As Jajpur was once the capital of the Kalinga kingdom, it is now an area of archeological wealth, including the famous Saktipitha of the Goddess Biraja, as well as the shrines of the Goddess Biraja , Sveta Baraha , Sapta...

, Jagatsinghpur
Jagatsinghpur District
Jagatsinghpur District is an administrative district of Orissa, India. The city of Jagatsinghpur is the district headquarters.-Post-independence:...

, Khordha
Khordha district
Khordha is an administrative division of the state of Orissa, India. It was formed on April 1, 1993 by the division of former Puri District into Puri, Khurda and Nayagarh districts. In the year 2000 the district name was changed to Khordha. The district headquarters is Khordha Town, formerly...

, Keonjhar, Kalahandi
Kalahandi
Kalahandi, , is a district of Orissa in India. The region had a glorious past and great civilization in ancient time. Archaeological evidence of stone age and Iron Age human settlement has been recovered from the region. Asurgarh offered an advanced, well civilized, cultured and urban human...

, Kandhamal
Kandhamal
Kandhamal is a district of the state of Orissa, India. The district headquarters of the district is Phulbani.-History:The Kandhmal district was created on 1 April 1993 from the former Boudh-Kandhmal district as a result of district reorganization in the state of Orissa.-Communal unrest and...

, Koraput
Koraput District
Koraput is a tribal dominated district of Orissa, India, and known for rich and diverse types of mineral deposits. It is located along the Eastern Ghats.-History:...

, Kendrapara
Kendrapara District
Kendrapara District is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. The town of Kendrapara is the district headquarters. Kendrapara District is situated in the eastern portion of the state, and is bounded on the north by Bhadrak District, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the...

, Malkangiri
Malkangiri district
Malkangiri district is a district of the state of Orissa, India.-History:This district was carved out as district from the undivided Koraput district on 2nd Oct, 1992. The administrative headquarters of this district is Malkangiri town....

, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nuapada
Nuapada District
Nuapada is a district of Orissa, India.-History:The District of Nuapada was a part of Kalahandi District till early March 1993, but for the administrative convenience, Kalahandi District was divided into two parts i.e. Kalahandi and Nuapada vide State Government Notification No. DRC-44/93/14218/R....

, Nayagarh
Nayagarh District
Nayagarh district is one of the 30 districts of Orissa State in eastern India. It was created in 1995 when the erstwhile Puri District was split into three distinct districts. It is home to the Baisipali Wildlife Sanctuary.-Maoist attacks:...

, Puri
Puri District
Puri being a coastal district of Orissa, is famous for its Historic antiquities, Religious sanctuaries, Architectural Grandeur, Sea-scape beauty,moderate climate.It holds a wealth of attraction for the visitors. It boasts of a continuous history from the 3rd Century B.C...

, Rayagada
Rayagada District
Rayagada is a mineral-rich district in the southern part of the state of Orissa, in India. The city Rayagada is its headquarter. The population of this district consists mainly of tribals.The District occupies a total area of 7,584.7 km2...

, Sambalpur
Sambalpur District
Sambalpur District is a district in the western part of state of Orissa, India. The historic city of Sambalpur is the district headquarters.The district is located in the Mahanadi River basin. It has a total area of 6,702 square kilometers, of which almost 60% of the district is covered in dense...

, Subarnapur, Sundargarh. Each district is governed by a district collector or district magistrate, appointed either by the Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative civil service of the Government of India. It is one of the three All India Services....

 or the Orissa Administrative Service. Each district is subdivided into Sub-Divisions, governed by a sub-divisional magistrate, and again into Blocks. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.

The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian state of Orissa, officially Odisha. The city has a long history of over 2000 years starting with Chedi dynasty who had Sisupalgarh near present-day Bhubaneswar as their capital...

 and it is also famous by the name "Temple City". Other major cities in Orissa are Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

, Brahmapur
Brahmapur
Brahmapur is a semi-rural suburb of Kolkata. It is located in the southern fringes of the city and is flanked by Bansdroni to the north and west, Naktala to the east and by Boral to the south.-History:...

, Rourkela
Rourkela
Rourkela is located in the northwestern tip of the Indian state of Orissa at the heart of a rich mineral belt. It is situated about north of state capital Bhubaneswar.It is surrounded by a range of hills and encircled by rivers. One of the largest steel plants of the Steel Authority of India...

, Sambalpur
Sambalpur
Sambalpur is a city in Sambalpur district in the Indian state of Orissa.It lies at a distance of 321 km from the state capital Bhubaneswar. In the year 1876, Sambalpur was established as a municipality. It is currently the headquarters and the largest city of Sambalpur district. It is also...

, Bolangir, Balasore
Balasore
Balasore is a strategically located city in the state of Orissa, about north of the state capital Bhubaneswar, in eastern India. It is the administrative headquarters of Balasore district. It is best known for Chandipur beach. It is also the site of the Indian Ballistic Missile Defense...

 , Kendrapara
Kendrapara
Kendrapara is a city and a municipality in Kendrapara district in the Indian state of Orissa. It is the headquarters of Kendrapara district.-Geography:Kendrapara is located at . It has an average elevation of...

 & Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

.

Geography


Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar is the capital of the Indian state of Orissa, officially Odisha. The city has a long history of over 2000 years starting with Chedi dynasty who had Sisupalgarh near present-day Bhubaneswar as their capital...

 is the capital of Orissa. It is famed for its magnificent temples, numbering around a thousand. Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

, the former capital of Orissa, is 22 km from Bhubaneswar. With the rapid expansion of two cities and better road connectivity, the two cities are now almost conjoined and considered as twin cities. The city of Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

 is about 60 kilometers from Bhubaneswar and lies on the coast of the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

. Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

 is considered a holy city and the abode of the deity Lord Jagannath. It is one of the Char Dham
Char Dham
The Chota Char Dham , is an important Hindu pilgrimage circuit in the Indian Himalayas...

s (Four holy places) of Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

. The world-famous "car festival" (rath yatra) is celebrated every year in the Hindu month of Ashadha (Mid June to Mid July) in Puri.

The Chota Nagpur
Chota Nagpur Plateau
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, and the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the south...

 plateau occupies the western and northern portions of the state, while along the coast are fertile alluvial plains and the valleys of the Mahanadi
Mahanadi River
The Mahanadi in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 km2 and has a total course of 858 km. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa.-Source:...

, Brahmani
Brahmani River
The Brahmani is a major seasonal river in the Orissa state of Eastern India. The Brahmani is formed by the confluence of the Sankh and South Koel rivers, and flows through the districts of Sundargarh, Kendujhar, Dhenkanal, Cuttack and Jajapur...

, and Baitarani
Baitarani River
The Baitarani River or River Vaitarani is one of six major rivers of Orissa, India. Venerated in popular epics and legends, the Baitarani River is a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Most of the potentially arable land in the area is not under cultivation. The coastal plain of Orissa...

 rivers, which fall into the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

. These alluvial plains are home to intensive rice cultivation. The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Asia's largest rice research Institute is situated along the bank of Mahanadi in Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

. One of the major nesting ground for the Olive Ridley sea turtles can be found in the Beaches of Orissa; in Devi, Gahirmatha and Rushikulya, which are known to be the nesting sites for the L. olivacea Indian Ocean population. In 2007, around 130,000 turtles nested on the beaches of Gahirmatha. The shore line also acts as their mating site and have attracted various scientific communities for research and studies.

Although most of Orissa's forest cover has been denuded lately, one of the greatest attractions of Orissa is its still vast expanses of unspoiled natural landscape that offer a protected yet natural habitat to the state’s incredible wildlife. There are many wildlife sanctuaries in Orissa. The Simlipal National Park
Simlipal National Park
Simlipal National Park is a national park and an elephant reserve situated in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Orissa. Simlipal National Park derives its name from the abundance of Semul or red silk cotton trees that bloom vividly....

 Tiger Reserve is a huge expanse of lush green forest with waterfalls, inhabited by tigers, elephants, and other wildlife. The Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary has been protecting estuarine crocodiles since 1975.


Chilka Lake
Chilka Lake
Chilka Lake is a brackish water lagoon, spread over the Puri, Khurda and Ganjam districts of Orissa state on the east coast of India, at the mouth of the Daya River, flowing into the Bay of Bengal...

, a brackish water coastal lake on the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

, south of the mouth of the Mahanadi River
Mahanadi River
The Mahanadi in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 km2 and has a total course of 858 km. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa.-Source:...

, is the largest coastal lake in India and the second largest in the world. It is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds on the Indian sub-continent. It is protected by the Chilka Lake
Chilka Lake
Chilka Lake is a brackish water lagoon, spread over the Puri, Khurda and Ganjam districts of Orissa state on the east coast of India, at the mouth of the Daya River, flowing into the Bay of Bengal...

 Bird Sanctuary, which harbors over 160 migratory and resident species of birds. Birds from as far as the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, Aral Sea and other remote parts of Russia, Kirghiz steppes of Mongolia, Central and southeast Asia, Ladakh and Himalayas come here. It also has the small area of Satpada which is a safe sanctuary for the lesser known and endangered Irrawaddy Dolphins.

The highest mountain peak in the state is Deomali (1672 m), which is situated in Koraput
Koraput
Koraput is a town and a Notified Area Council in Koraput district in the Indian state of Orissa.-History:The district of Koraput derives its name from its headquarters the present town of Koraput. In ancient times when the Nalas were ruling over this tract, Pushkari near modern Umarkot was the...

 district in southern Orissa. It is also the tallest peak of the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
The Eastern Ghats or Eastern Ghauts are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from West Bengal state in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka. They are eroded and cut through by the...

. It is part of the Chandragiri-Pottangi mountain system. Location: 18°40'3"N 82°58'59"E (Deomali on Wikimapia).

Physiography


On the basis of homogeneity, continuity and physiographical characteristics, Orissa has been divided into five major morphological regions : 1) the Orissa Coastal Plain in the east, 2) the Middle Mountainous and Highlands Region, 3) the Central plateaus, 4) the western rolling uplands and 5) the major flood plains.

Orissa Coastal Plains


The Orissa Coastal Plains or Utkal Plains
Utkal Plains
The Utkal Plains are coastal plains in the Orissa state of eastern India. They include the delta of the Mahanadi River, Brahmani River, Baitarani River. Ranges from Swarnarekha River in north to Chilika in south ....

 are the depositional landforms of recent origin and geologically belong to the Post-Tertiary Period. The 75 metre contourline delimits their western boundary and differentiates them from the Middle Mountainous Region. This region stretches from the West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

 border, i.e. from the River Subarnarekha in the north to the River Rushikulya in the south.

This region is the combination of several deltas of varied sizes and shapes formed by the major rivers of Orissa, such as the Subarnarekha, the Budhabalanga, the Baitarani, the Brahmani, the Mahanadi, and the Rushikulya. Therefore, the coastal plain of Orissa is called the "Hexadeltaic region" or the "Gift of Six Rivers". It stretches along the coast of the Bay of Bengal having the maximum width in the Middle Coastal Plain (the Mahanadi Delta), narrow in the Northern Coastal Plain (Balasore Plain) and narrowest in the Southern Coastal Plain (Ganjam Plain). The North Coastal Plain comprises the deltas of the Subarnarekha and the Budhabalanga rivers and bears evidences of marine transgressions. The Middle Coastal Plain comprises the compound deltas of the Baitarani, Brahmani and Mahanadi rivers and bears evidences of past 'back bays' and present lakes. The South Coastal Plain comprises the laccustrine plain of Chilika lake and the smaller delta of the Rushikulya River.

Middle Mountainous and Highlands Region


The region covers about three-fourth of the entire State. Geologically it is a part of the Indian Peninsula which as a part of the ancient landmass of the Gondwanaland. The major rivers of Orissa with their tributaries have cut deep and narrow valleys. This region mostly comprises the hills and mountains of the Eastern Ghats which rise abruptly and steeply in the east and slope gently to a dissected plateau in the west running from north-west (Mayurbhanj) to south-west (Malkangirig). This region is well marked by a number of interfluves or watersheds. The Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
The Eastern Ghats or Eastern Ghauts are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from West Bengal state in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka. They are eroded and cut through by the...

 is interrupted by a number of broad and narrow river valleys and flood plains. The average beight of this region is about 900 metres above the mean seal level. The highest peak is Deomali
Deomali
Deomali is a census town in Tirap district in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India.-Demographics: India census, Deomali had a population of 6060. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Deomali has an average literacy rate of 62%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male...

.

Forests



Almost one-third of Orissa is covered by forests which make up about 37.34% of the total land area of the state. These forests cover most of southern and western Orissa. The eastern plains adjacent to the coast are covered by farmlands.The forest cover of Orissa extends over an area of 58,136.869 square kilometres out of which reserve forests make up an area of 26,329.12 square kilometres (10,165.73 sq mi), demarcated protected forests make up 11,687.079 square kilometres (4,512.406 sq mi) and undemarcated protected forests make up 3,638.78 square kilometres (1,404.94 sq mi). Other types of forests make up 16,261.34 square kilometres (6,278.54 sq mi) while unclassed forests make up 20.55 square kilometres (7.93 sq mi) of the total forest cover.
The State Government of Orissa also classifies forests based on their density. About 538 square kilometres (208 sq mi) of land are classified as very dense forests with a canopy density of over 70 percent, 27,656 square kilometres (10,678 sq mi) of forests are classified as moderately dense cover with a canopy density of 40 to 70 percent and 20,180 square kilometres (7,790 sq mi) of land are classified as open forest with a canopy density of 10 to 40 percent.

Central Plateaus


The plateaus are mostly eroded plateaus forming the western slopes of the Eastern Ghats with elevation varying from 305–610 metres. There are two broad plateaus in Orissa : (i) the Panposh – Keonjhar -Pallahara plateau comprises the Upper Baitarani catchment basin, and (ii) the Nabrangpur – Jeypore plateau comprises the Sabari basin.

Western Rolling Uplands


These are lower in elevation than the plateaus having heights varying from 153 metres to 305 metres.

Rivers



There are four groups of rivers which flow through Orissa into the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

 (Table-2). They are :

(i) Rivers that have a source outside the State (the Subarnarekha
Subarnarekha River
Subarnarekha River flows through the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa.-Etymology:As per tradition, gold was mined near the origin of the river at a village named Piska near Ranchi. This is why it was named Subarnarekha, meaning ‘streak of gold’. Legend has it that traces of...

, the Brahmani
Brahmani
In Hinduism, Brahmani is a kind and benevolent aspect of Devi, the Divine mother. Brahmani is associated with the Hindu creator god, Brahma as His consort or Shakti . She is one of the seven Mother Goddesses called Matrikas.-As Kuldevi:Many Kshatriya clans consider Her to be their Kuldevi...

 the IB and the Mahanadi
Mahanadi River
The Mahanadi in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 km2 and has a total course of 858 km. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa.-Source:...

).

(ii) Rivers having a source inside the State (the Budhabalanga, the Baitarani, the Salandi, and the Rushikulya
Rushikulya
Rushikulya river is one of the major rivers of Orissa State , India. It meets the Bay of Bengal at Puruna Bandha, Chhatrapur block of Ganjam district.It originates from the Rushyamala hills of the Eastern Ghats in Phulbani in Kandhamal district. It is 165 km long with 8900 km2 of...

).

(iii) Rivers having a source inside the Orissa, but flow through other states (the Bahuda, the Vamsadhara River
Vamsadhara River
River Vamsadhara is an important east flowing river between Mahanadi and Godavari, in Southern Orissa and North Eastern Andhra Pradesh states in India....

, and the Nagavali River
Nagavali River
The River Nagavali is one of the main rivers of Southern Orissa and North Eastern Andhra Pradesh States in India, between Mahanadi and Godavari basins.-Origin and Course:...

).

(iv) Rivers having a source inside Orissa, but tributary to rivers which flow through other states (the Machkund, the Sileru River
Sileru River
Sileru River is a tributary of Sabari River. It originates in Andhra Pradesh, flows through Chhattisgarh before merging with Sabari. Sabari river crosses the border to Andhra Pradesh to merge with Godavari river. The river is 100 km long.- References :...

, the Kolab
Kolab
Kolab is an open source groupware suite. It consists of the Kolab server and a wide variety of Kolab clients, including KDE PIM-Suite Kontact, Horde Webfrontend, Mozilla Thunderbird and Mozilla Lightning with SyncKolab extension and Microsoft Outlook with proprietary Kolab-Connector PlugIns.-Basic...

, and the Indravati River
Indravati River
Indravati River is a tributary of the Godavari River, located in central India. The river rises in the Eastern Ghats in Kalahandi Orissa, and flows west to join the Godavari, forming the boundary between Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh states at places....

).
  • River Mahanadi
    Mahanadi River
    The Mahanadi in East Central India. It drains an area of around 141,600 km2 and has a total course of 858 km. The river flows through the states of Chhattisgarh and Orissa.-Source:...

    : It is the major river of Orissa and the sixth largest river in India. It originates from the sihawa hills of the Bastar Plateau in Raipur district
    Raipur District
    Raipur district is a district in the Chhattisgarh state of India. Raipur is the administrative headquarter of the district. The district is rich in mineral resources. There are many wild life sanctuaries and sight seeing places worth visiting...

     of [Chhattishgarh]. It is about 857 km Long (494 km in Orissa) and its catchment area spreads over 141,600 km2. (65,580 km².) in Orissa. The river carries on an average about 92,600 million m of water.

  • River Kathajodi: Around Naraj Bridge which is approx. 10 K.M. from Cuttack City there are following villages:- Naraja Marthapur (Local Railway Station), Godi Sahi, Sandhapur, Bidyadharapur, Nua Sahi & Ratagarh. All these villages are rich in ancient heritage. Ratagarh, there is an ancient Shiva Temple of Chola Dynasty
    Chola Dynasty
    The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling in some parts of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until...

    . It is 15  K.M. (approx.) distance from the City of Bhubaneswar & 6  K.M. (approx.) from Nandan Kanan, the Zoological Park. A canal arises from the Main Mahanadi River at Naraj Bridge is running besides which is the main source of water system.In Ratagarh there are 3-4 small hills which connects to the Chandaka-Damapada elephant reservoir. The main cultivation of the people of these villages are paddy besides vegetales also. The railway line running between the above villages connects Bhubaneswar with Talcher, the thermal power station, Sambalpur, Athagarh and then run into the states of Madhya Pradesh.

  • The Brahmani
    Brahmani
    In Hinduism, Brahmani is a kind and benevolent aspect of Devi, the Divine mother. Brahmani is associated with the Hindu creator god, Brahma as His consort or Shakti . She is one of the seven Mother Goddesses called Matrikas.-As Kuldevi:Many Kshatriya clans consider Her to be their Kuldevi...

    : It is the second largest river in Orissa. It originates as two major rivers like the Sankh and the Koel
    Koel
    The true koels, Eudynamys, are a genus of cuckoos from Asia, Australia and the Pacific. They are large sexually dimorphic cuckoos which eat fruits and insects and have loud distinctive calls. They are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species.In New Zealand the Long-tailed...

     from the Chota Nagpur Plateau
    Chota Nagpur Plateau
    The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, and the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the south...

     of Bihar
    Bihar
    Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

     and both join at Veda Vyasa near Rourkela
    Rourkela
    Rourkela is located in the northwestern tip of the Indian state of Orissa at the heart of a rich mineral belt. It is situated about north of state capital Bhubaneswar.It is surrounded by a range of hills and encircled by rivers. One of the largest steel plants of the Steel Authority of India...

     of Sundargarh district of Orissa forming the major River Brahmani
    Brahmani
    In Hinduism, Brahmani is a kind and benevolent aspect of Devi, the Divine mother. Brahmani is associated with the Hindu creator god, Brahma as His consort or Shakti . She is one of the seven Mother Goddesses called Matrikas.-As Kuldevi:Many Kshatriya clans consider Her to be their Kuldevi...

    . It flows through the Eastern Ghats
    Eastern Ghats
    The Eastern Ghats or Eastern Ghauts are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from West Bengal state in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka. They are eroded and cut through by the...

     in Sundargarh, Deogarh, Kendujhar
    Kendujhar District
    Kendujhar District, also known as Keonjhar District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. The town of Kendujhar or Kendujhargarh is the district headquarters....

    , Dhenkanal
    Dhenkanal District
    Dhenkanal District is an administrative division of Orissa, India. It is bordered by Kendujhar in the north, Jajpur in the east, Cuttack in the south and Anugul in the west. Dhenkanal town, the district headquarters has a cluster of temples, archaeological remains and a mediaeval fort. A former...

    , Cuttack
    Cuttack District
    Cuttack district is one of the 30 districts in Orissa state in eastern India. Its administrative headquarters is the city of Cuttack. As of 2011 it is the second most populous district of Orissa , after Ganjam.-Geography:...

     and Jajpur district
    Jajpur District
    Jajpur is a district of Orissa, India, and an historic place of pilgrimage. As Jajpur was once the capital of the Kalinga kingdom, it is now an area of archeological wealth, including the famous Saktipitha of the Goddess Biraja, as well as the shrines of the Goddess Biraja , Sveta Baraha , Sapta...

    s into the Coastal Plains and enters into the Bay of Bengal
    Bay of Bengal
    The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

     along with a combined mouth with the Mahanadi known as the Dhamara. The Brahmani is 799 km long (541 km In Orissa) and its catchment area spreads over 39,033 km2. in Orissa).

  • The Baitarani: It originates from the Gonasika hills of the Kendujhar district
    Kendujhar District
    Kendujhar District, also known as Keonjhar District, is an administrative district of Orissa state in eastern India. The town of Kendujhar or Kendujhargarh is the district headquarters....

    . It is 365 km long and its catchment area spread over 12,790 km2. It entres into the Bay of Bengal
    Bay of Bengal
    The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

     after joining of the Brahmani at Dhamara mouth near Chandbali, Bhadrak
    Bhadrak
    Bhadrak is a city and a municipality in Bhadrak district in the state of Orissa, India.-Demographics: India census, Bhadrak had a population of 1,33,4000. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Bhadrak has an average literacy rate of 73.86, higher than the national average of...

    .

  • The Subarnarekha
    Subarnarekha River
    Subarnarekha River flows through the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa.-Etymology:As per tradition, gold was mined near the origin of the river at a village named Piska near Ranchi. This is why it was named Subarnarekha, meaning ‘streak of gold’. Legend has it that traces of...

    : It originates from the Chhotanagpur
    Chhotanagpur
    Chhotanagpur is an area including the tribal areas of Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and West Bengal states in India. Many residents of the area identify with the name even though there is no political recognition of the area. A local dialect of Hindi called Nagpuri is common in the area....

     plateau of Bihar. It is 433 km (70 km in Orissa) and has a catchment area of 19,500 km (3,200 km in Orissa) with a mean annual flow of 7,900 million.

  • The Budhabalanga: It originates from the easterns slops of the Similipal massif. It is about 175 km long having a total catchment area of 4840 km2 with an annual flow of 2177 million. It is major tributaries are the Sone, the Gangadhar, the Catra etc.

  • The Rushikulya
    Rushikulya
    Rushikulya river is one of the major rivers of Orissa State , India. It meets the Bay of Bengal at Puruna Bandha, Chhatrapur block of Ganjam district.It originates from the Rushyamala hills of the Eastern Ghats in Phulbani in Kandhamal district. It is 165 km long with 8900 km2 of...

    : It originates from the Rushyamala hills of the Eastern Ghats
    Eastern Ghats
    The Eastern Ghats or Eastern Ghauts are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from West Bengal state in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka. They are eroded and cut through by the...

     in Kandhamal district. It is 165 km long with 8900 km2 of catchment areas. Its tributaries are the Baghua the Dhanei Badanadi etc. It has no delta at its mouth.

  • The Bahuda: It originates from the Ramgiri hills of the Eastern Ghats in Gajapati districts and joins the Bay of Bengal
    Bay of Bengal
    The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

     in Andhra Pradesh
    Andhra Pradesh
    Andhra Pradesh , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third...

    . Its length 73 km having a catchment area of 1250 km2.

  • The Vanshadhara
    Vamsadhara River
    River Vamsadhara is an important east flowing river between Mahanadi and Godavari, in Southern Orissa and North Eastern Andhra Pradesh states in India....

    : It originates from the Flanks of the Durgakangar hills (Lingaraj hills) of the Eastern Ghats in Kalahandi districts. It is 230 km long out of which only 150 km in Orissa. It entres in to the Bay of Bengal at Kalingapatnam
    Kalingapatnam
    -History:Kalingapatnam is a panchayat and mandal headquarters located in Srikakulam district, where the River Vamsadhara meets the Bay of Bengal and It is one of the safe and clean beach resorts in North Andhra....

     in Andhra Pradesh. It has a catchment area of 11500 km2.

  • The Nagavali
    Nagavali River
    The River Nagavali is one of the main rivers of Southern Orissa and North Eastern Andhra Pradesh States in India, between Mahanadi and Godavari basins.-Origin and Course:...

    : It originates from the Bijipur Hills of the Eastern Ghats near Lanji Garah. It is 210 km long out of which 100 km is in Orissa. It has a total catchment area of about 9410 km2.

  • The Salandi: It originates from the Meghasani Hills of the Similipal Massif in Keonjhar district. It is 144 km long with a catchment areas of 1793 km2.

  • The Indravati: It originates from the Eastern Ghats in Kalahandi districts. It is 530 km long with a catchment area of 41700 km2 as a tributary it flows into the Godavari river.

  • The Kolab
    Kolab
    Kolab is an open source groupware suite. It consists of the Kolab server and a wide variety of Kolab clients, including KDE PIM-Suite Kontact, Horde Webfrontend, Mozilla Thunderbird and Mozilla Lightning with SyncKolab extension and Microsoft Outlook with proprietary Kolab-Connector PlugIns.-Basic...

    : It originates from the Sinkaran hills of the Eastern Ghats in Koraput districts. It has catchment areas of 20400 km2.

  • Tel River: It is one of the largest river of Orissa originating in Nabaramgpur district and touching Chhattisgarh, Kalahandi, Balangir, Sonepur districts of Orissa and finally falling in Mahanadi.

Springs


There are a number of Mountain springs and hotspring in Orissa. The Badaghagara and Sanaghagara in Keonjhar districts Saptasajya in Denkanal districts the Chandikhole in Jajpur distrcts the Barunei in Khorda districts, the Narayani and Nirmalajhar in Ganjam district, the Patalaganga in Kalahandi districts, the Nursinghanath in Bargarh distrcts and the Harisankar in Bolangir distrcts.

Waterfalls


Most of the rivers, either at the point of origin or over the mountainous bed, have waterfalls. The Barehipani and Joranda (Similipal) in Mayurbhanja districts, Sanaghagara and Badaghagara in Keonjhar district, Pradhanpat in Deogarh district, khandadhar (Banei) in Sundargarh district, Koilighugar in Jharsuguda district, Phurlijharan, Khandabaladhar, and Rabandhara in Kalahandi district, Kentamari and Putudi in Boudh and Phulbani district Duduma in Malkangiri district and Bogra in Koraput district are some of the major waterfalls of Orissa.

Lakes

  • The Chilika Lake is brackish water lagoon located in the southern part of the Orissa coastal plane. It areas varies 780 km2 and 144 km2; during the two monsson months it is 71 km long and 32 km wide. It salinity decleans to a minimum during the monsson. However in winter, due to the overflow of the tidal water through the narrow opening from the Bay of Bengal, it is maximum.
  • Anshupa is a sweet water lake located in Athagarh of Cuttack district. It is 3 km long and 1.5 km wide. Sara is another sweet water lake located near Puri. It is 5 km long and 3 km wide. Kanjia is another sweet water lake with about 134 acre (0.54227924 km²) of area located in Nandankanan of Cuttack district near Bhubaneswar.
  • Pata is another sweet water lake located alongside the town of Chatrapur. It is 4 km long and 0.5 km wide.
  • Hirakud Dam
    Hirakud Dam
    Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. Built in 1957, the dam is one of the world's longest earthen dam....

    : Artificial Lake in Sambalpur
    Sambalpur
    Sambalpur is a city in Sambalpur district in the Indian state of Orissa.It lies at a distance of 321 km from the state capital Bhubaneswar. In the year 1876, Sambalpur was established as a municipality. It is currently the headquarters and the largest city of Sambalpur district. It is also...

     and Jharsuguda
    Jharsuguda
    Jharsuguda is the district headquarters of Jharsuguda district of Orissa, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Jharsuguda district. It is an upcoming industrial hub, basically in the metal and cement sectors. Jharsuguda is well connected to all major cities of India through rail network...

     largest in Asia.
  • Indravati Dam: Artificial Lake in Kalahandi and Nabarangpur.
  • Kolab Dam: Artificial Lake in Koraput. And khandadhar at Rourkela.

Macro-economic trend


This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Orissa at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
Year Gross State Domestic Product
1985 37,080
1987 68,230
1990 109,040
1995 271,180
2000 387,280
2005 670,900


The state's debt is estimated at almost 59 per cent of its GDP in 2005.

Industrial growth


Orissa has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. It contains a fifth of India's coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite
Bauxite
Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al3, boehmite γ-AlO, and diaspore α-AlO, in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2...

 reserves and most of the chromite
Chromite
Chromite is an iron chromium oxide: FeCr2O4. It is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. Magnesium can substitute for iron in variable amounts as it forms a solid solution with magnesiochromite ; substitution of aluminium occurs leading to hercynite .-Occurrence:Chromite is found in...

. Rourkela Steel Plant
Rourkela Steel Plant
Rourkela Steel Plant ,set up in 1958, is an integrated steel plant of Steel Authority of India Limited located in Rourkela, Orissa. It is the first Public Sector Integrated Steel Plant to be set up in India. The blast furnace was inaugurated by the President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad. The...

 was the first integrated steel plant in the Public Sector in India. It receives unprecedented investments in steel, aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

, power, refineries and ports. India's topmost IT consulting firms, including Mahindra Satyam, TCS (Tata Consultancy Services)
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a global IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is the largest provider of information technology in Asia and second largest provider of business process outsourcing services in India...

, MindTree Consulting, PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

 and Infosys
Infosys
Infosys Limited, formerly Infosys Technologies Limited is a global technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is the second largest IT exporter in India with 133,560 employees as of March 2011. It has offices in 33 countries and development centers in India, China,...

 have large branches in Orissa. IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, Syntel
Syntel
Syntel, Inc. is a global provider of Information Technology and Knowledge Process Outsourcing solutions, with global development centers in India and the United States....

 and Wipro
Wipro
Wipro Limited formally Western India Products Limited is a global IT services and consulting company headquartered in Bangalore, India. As of 2011, Wipro is the second largest IT services company by turnover in India and employs more than 120,000 people worldwide as of March 2011...

 are setting up development centers in Orissa. So far, two of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Orissa, for example, National Aluminium (2005 gross income .51,162 million) and Tata Sponge Iron (2005 gross income .2,044 million).

Orissa is notable as one of the first Indian states to have tackled its structural problems during the post-1994 Indian economic reforms. Orissa was also the first state in India to begin to privatise its electricity transmission and distribution businesses. Over the period between 1994 and 2000 Orissa's former state electricity board (SEB) was restructured to form Gridco. This corporation was then divided into Transco and a collection of distribution companies. Attempts were then made to sell the distribution companies to the private sector. Like many other states, in 1996 Orissa was losing over 50% of the electricity it was delivered. The scale and importance of these reforms is notable and an important milestone in India's dramatic economic development.
Recently the number of companies who have signed Memoranda of Understanding (MoUs) to set up steel plants in the state has gone up to 50, including POSCO
POSCO
POSCO is a multinational steel-making company headquartered in Pohang, South Korea. It is the world's third-largest steelmaker by market value and the most profitable Asia-based steelmaker....

 of South Korea which has agreed to construct a mammoth $12 billion steel plant near Paradip port, named POSCO India
POSCO India
POSCO-India Private Limited is a planned Indian subsidiary of POSCO, an integrated steel producer with headquarters in Korea.POSCO signed a Memorandum of Understanding in June 2005, to incorporate an Indian subsidiary and build a steel plant in Orissa - a state in eastern India...

. It would be the largest single investment in India's history. Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Orissa too. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminum, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, Reliance Power
Reliance Power
Reliance Power Limited a part of the Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, was established to develop, construct and operate power projects in the domestic and international markets...

 (Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US $13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda district
Jharsuguda District
Jharsuguda is a district in Orissa, India with Jharsuguda town as its headquarters. The district once had an airport during World War II. This region is rich in coal and other mineral reserves...

. Vedanta Resources
Vedanta Resources
Vedanta Resources plc is a global mining and metals company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the largest mining and non-ferrous metals company in India and also has mining operations in Australia and Zambia. Its main products are copper, zinc, aluminium, lead and iron ore...

’ 1.4 million tonne alumina project in Kalahandi
Kalahandi
Kalahandi, , is a district of Orissa in India. The region had a glorious past and great civilization in ancient time. Archaeological evidence of stone age and Iron Age human settlement has been recovered from the region. Asurgarh offered an advanced, well civilized, cultured and urban human...

 district is the largest investment in aluminium. Vedanta has also announced a $3.2 billion dollar huge private University project on the lines of the Ivy League
Ivy League
The Ivy League is an athletic conference comprising eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group...

 Universities, which is unprecedented in the history of education in India. Bandhabahal
Bandhabahal
Bandhabahal Is a small town in the Sambalpur District. It has number of coal mines, which come under M.C.L and the B.O.C.M . The place is now getting huge attention because of its development in the field of infrastructure and finance. The School DAVPS Bandhabahal is a known name among the CBSE...

 is a major area which consist of Open Cast Coal Mines.

The Central Government has agreed to accord SEZ (Special Economic Zone
Special Economic Zone
A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

) status to eight sites in Orissa, among which are Infocity at Bhubaneshwar and Paradip. But all these plans are facing massive resistance from the people of the state who mainly depend on agriculture for livelihood.

In the year 2009 Orissa was second top Domestic Investment destination with Gujarat first and Andhra Pradesh in third place according to an analysis of ASSOCHAM
ASSOCHAM
The ASSOciated CHAMbers of Commerce and Industry of India is the umbrella body of chambers of commerce in India. The organisation represents the interests of trade and commerce in India, and interacting with the Government of India on policy issues, and liaisoning with their international...

 Investment Meter (AIM) Study on Corporate Investments. Orissa's share was 12.6 percent in total investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth . 2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state.

Flood and cyclone are the major hurdles in Orissa's development as the important districts are situated near to the Bay of Bengal.
In the five-year period between 2004–05 and 2008–09, Orissa's GDP has grown by a stunning 8.74% way beyond the definition of 7% growth. It should be noted that the all-India growth during this period was 8.49%.In this period, Orissa is the fourth fastest growing state, just behind Gujarat, Bihar, Uttarakhand.

Infrastructure development


Although Paradip
Paradip
Paradip, also spelt Paradeep, is a major seaport town and a designated notified area in Jagatsinghpur district of Orissa, India.-Geography:Paradip is located at . It has an average elevation of .-Paradip Port:...

 is home to Orissa's only large port, the coastal towns of Dhamra and Gopalpur are also undergoing major port development. The government of India has selected the coastal region of Orissa, stretching from Paradip
Paradip
Paradip, also spelt Paradeep, is a major seaport town and a designated notified area in Jagatsinghpur district of Orissa, India.-Geography:Paradip is located at . It has an average elevation of .-Paradip Port:...

 in the north to Gopalpur in the south, to be developed into one of five or six Special Economic Regions (SERs) of the country. The government of India and the state government of Orissa are working together to erect world-class infrastructure in this region to match that of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

, Houston, and Pudong
Pudong
Pudong |Bank]]") is an area of Shanghai, China, located along the east side of the Huangpu River, across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. Formerly a little-developed agricultural area linked only by ferries, Pudong has grown rapidly since the 1990s and emerged as China's financial...

. This is aimed at further private investment in petrochemicals, steel, and manufacturing. A recent Morgan Stanley report forecasts that Orissa would be flooded with massive investments for manufacturing related activities in the same manner that Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

 had attracted software investment in the 1990s. The scale of the investments in Orissa would, however, be much higher. As of July 2006, total planned investment in the state is $90 billion. This includes investment in research, education, hospitals, roads, ports, airports, and hotels. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects
Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects
The Godavari River has its catchment area in five states of India: Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Orissa.* Dowleswaram Barrage* Jalaput* Balimela Reservoir* Upper Indravati* Nizam Sagar* Sriram Sagar...

. 14 locations have been identified on Orissa coast to be developed as port. These locations are Gopalpur (Ganjam district), Bahuda Muhan (Sonepur) in Ganjam district, Palur (Ganjam), Bali Harchandi (Puri), Astaranga (Puri), Jatadhari Muhan (Jagatsinghpur), Barunei Muhan (Kendrapara), Dhamra (Bhadrak), Chudamani (Bhadrak), Inchuri (Balasore), Chandipur (Balasore), Bahabalpur (Balasore), Subarnarekha mouth (Kirtania) in Balasore district and Talsara (Balasore). Most of the locations among them already been developing as port in the public private partnership (PPP).

Transportation


Orissa has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. Bhubaneshwar is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India. The Biju Patnaik airport is being expanded to accommodate wide bodied aircraft. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes.

Regular airports

  • Biju Patnaik Airport
    Biju Patnaik Airport
    Biju Patnaik Airport , also known as Bhubaneswar Airport, is situated in the city of Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. It is currently the only major airport in Orissa...

  • Jharsuguda Airport ( Proposed by AAI)


In addition to the above, there are numerous air strips in the state of Orissa.

Seaports


Dists of Orissa

1:Balasore
2:Bhadrak
3:Anugul
4:Baragarh
5:Bauda
6:Cuttack
7:Deogarh
8:Dhenkanal
9:Gajapati
10:Ganjam
11:Jagatsinghapur
12:Jajapur
13:Jharsuguda
14:Kalahandi
15:Kandhamal
16:Kendrapara
17:Kendujhar
18:Khordha
19:koraput
20:Malkangiri
21:Mayurbhanj
22:Nabarangpur
23:Nayagarh
24:Nuapara
25:Puri
26:Rayagada
27:Sonepur
28:Sundergarh
29:Balangir
30:Sambalpur

Demographics


According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Orissa is 41,947,358, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680 (49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a 13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is 269 per km².

The dominant ethnic group are the Oriya people
Oriya people
The Oriya, known classically by various names , are an ethnic group of eastern India and of eastern Indo-Aryan stock...

 and Oriya (Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

) is the official language of Orissa and spoken as a native language by about 73% of the people. Other linguistic minorities in the state are Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

, Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

, Santali
Santali language
Santhali is a language in the Santhali subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. It is spoken by about six million people in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan . Most of its speakers live in India, in the states of Jharkhand, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal. It has...

.
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes  form 16.53% and 22.13% of the state population, constituting 38.66% of the State population. Some of the important tribes are Santhal, Bonda
Bonda
Bonda is a typical South Indian snack that has various sweet and spicy versions of it at different regions.-Preparation:The process of making a spicy bonda involves deep-frying potato filling dipped in gram flour batter.Bonda has a sweet and a spicy variant...

, Munda
Munda people
The Munda are tribal people of the Chota Nagpur Plateau region.They are found across Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Assam states of India, and into parts of Bangladesh...

, Oraon
Oraon
The Oraon उरांव or Kurukh कुड़ुख tribe , also spelled Uraon, Oran, or Oram, are tribal aborigines inhabiting various states across central and eastern India as well as Bangladesh...

, Kora and Mahali
Mahali
Mahle is the name of a religion of India, Nepal and Bangladesh. It is a indigenous scheduled of the state of West Bengal and Orissa. They mostly reside in areas adjoining to Santhal Parganas in Orissa and West Bengal. Mahle people forms a different tribe which is clubbed together with the Munda tribe...

.

The literacy rate is 73.45% with 82.4% of males and 64.36% of females being literate,according to 2011 census.

The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000 was 47.15% which is nearly double the all India average of 26.10%.

Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a birth rate
Birth rate
Crude birth rate is the nativity or childbirths per 1,000 people per year . Another word used interchangeably with "birth rate" is "natality". When the crude birth rate is subtracted from the crude death rate, it reveals the rate of natural increase...

 of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a death rate
Mortality rate
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time...

 of 9.1 per 1,000 people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Orissa has a Human Development Index
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate "very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries...

 of 0.579 in 2004.

Literature



The history of Oriya Literature has been mapped by historians and linguists along the following stages, Old Oriya (900–1300 AD), Early Middle Oriya (1300–1500 AD), Middle Oriya (1500–1700 AD), Late Middle Oriya (1700 AD – 1850 AD) and Modern Oriya (from 1850 AD till the present). But this rude categorization could not skillfully draw the real picture on account of development and growth of Oriya Literature. Here, we split the total periods in different stages such as: Age of Charya Literature, Age of Sarala Das, Age of Panchasakha, Age of Upendra Bhanja, Age of Radhanath, Age of Satyabadi, Age of Marxism or Pragati yuga, Age of Romanticism or Sabuja Yuga, Post Independent Age.

The beginnings of Oriya poetry coincide with the development of Charya Sahitya, the literature thus started by Mahayana Buddhist poets. This literature was written in a specific metaphor named "Sandhya Bhasha" and the poets like Luipa, Kanhupa are from the territory of Orissa. The language of Charya was considered as Prakrita.

The first great poet of Orissa is the famous Sarala Dasa
Sarala Dasa
Sarala Dasa was one of the great scholars of Oriya literature whose work formed a perennial source of information for succeeding generations....

 who wrote the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

, not an exact translation from the Sanskrit original, rather an imitation of the same. Among many of his poems and epics, he is best remembered for his Mahabharata. Chandi Purana and the Vilanka Ramayana are also two of his famous creations. Arjuna Das, a contemporary to Sarala Dasa, wrote Rama-Bibha, a significant long poem in Oriya.

Towards the 16th century, five poets emerged, though there are hundreds year gap in between them. But they are known as Panchashakhas as they believed to same school of thought, Utkaliya Vaishnavism. The poets are: Balaram Das, Jagannath Das, Achyutananada Das, Ananta Das and Jasobanta Das. The Panchasakhas are very much Vaishnavas by thought. In 1509 Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a Vaishnava saint and social reformer in eastern India in the 16th century, believed by followers of Gaudiya Vaishnavism to be the full incarnation of Lord Krishna...

 came to Orissa with his Vaishnava message of love. Before him Jaydev had prepared the ground by heralding the cult of Vaishnavism through his Geetagovinda. Chaitanya’s path of devotion was known as Raganuga Bhakti Marga, but the Panchasakhas differed from Chaitanyas and believed in Gyana Mishra Bhakti Marga, which has similarities with the Buddhist philosophy of Charya Literature stated above.

The Panchashakhas, however, are the direct disciples of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Along with another seer Shri Arakhsita Das, they are called also as sada-goswami (six Lords). These five saints primarily believed in Vaishnavism and also additionally cultured and developed Gyana Mishra Bhakti Marga as stated earlier (beliefs about the body, the mind, the soul, and the Parambrahm). They have composed numerous manuscripts, mâlikas, devotional poems, Sadhana descriptions, and other religious scriptures. Also, many prophecies are described by these seers in there numerous literature. Most of the literature were written in hand on palm-leaves using the Devanagari or the Oriya script.

The two prime works from the five writers are the Bhâgavata by Jagannath Das and the Jagamohana Râmâyana by Balarâm Das. Till today Jagannath Das’s Bhâgavata is the most valued book in Oriya literature. Besides this great work he (Jagannath Das) also composed Artha Koili, Darubrahma Geetâ, Shunya Bhâgabata, Dhruba Stuti etc. Balaram Das, apart from Jagamohana Râmâyana, has also composed various works such as the Lakshmi Purâna, Vendântasâra Guptagitâ, Nâma-mâhatmya, Bhâva samudra, Sisu Veda, Kamalalochana Chautisâ, Kânta Koili. Shri Ananta Das, also known as Shishu Ananta Das has composed various devotional literature, e.g., Chumbaka malikâ, Nilagiri charita, Hetu Udaya Bhâgabata, Artha Târeni Prasnottara, Anâkâra Samhitâ, Bhaktimuktipradâyaka Geetâ. Similarly, Shri Jasovanta Das composed Shiba Shirodaya, Premabhaktibrahma Geetâ, Âtmaparatey Geetâ, Gobindachandra.

Acyutananda
Acyutananda
Achyutananda Das was a 16th century poet seer and Vaisnava saint from Orissa, India. He was considered to have the power to see the past, present and future...

 was the most prolific writer of the Panchasakhas and has written numerous books (called as pothi's), believed not in one life but in many successive lives. He is known as the Mahapurusha, which means - a great man. A few works of him are: Shunya Samhita, Chaurashi Yantra, Gurubhakti Geeta, Khila Haribamsa, Gupta Bhagabata, Kaivarta Geeta, Kaala Nirghanta, Tera Janma Sharana, Brahma Ekahshara Geeta, Gopala Ogâla, Bhava Samudra, Garuda Geeta, Brahma Shankuli, Ananta Bata Geeta, Kali Kalkpa Geeta, Asta Gujjari, Gujjari Raasa, Brahma Kundali, Mahagupta Padmakalpa, Chausathi Patala, Chayalisha Patala, Chabisa Patala, Dasa Patala, Neetya Raasa, Manmatha Chandrika, Shiva Kalpa, Achyutananda Janma Sharana, Chitta Bodha, Raasa Maala, and Panchasakhaa Bhajana. The Shunya Samhita dealt with spiritual knowledge as well as physical sciences like solar science, atomic and molecular concepts, and aerospace concepts. The term Chauraashi Yantra describes '84 yantras' embedded within the human body, the later itself is ~84 fingers in length and each Yantra is located for each finger-length space. However, the most popular one seems to be an "Oracle of Prophecies" named as Bhavishya Malika. Among prophecies also are Aagata bhabishya lekhanaa and Bhavishya Paraardha. About the Identification of his disciple and the primary devotees, he had composed the Jaiphula Malika. Also his copper oracle (Tamrapothi) which appears to mysteriously read the mind and provide suitable answers is still available today, operated by a priest in Kakatpur. Shri Arakhsita Das, the seer of Olasuni, had written the Mahimandala Geeta, the Bhakti Tikaa, the Saptaanga Abadhuta Samhita, and the Tatvasara Geeta.

At the end of age of Panchasakha, the prominent poets are Dinakrushna Das, Upendra Bhanja and Abhimanyu Samanta Simhar. Verbal jugglery, obscenity and eroticism as the characteristics of Shringara Kavyas, became the trend of this period to which Upendra Bhanja took a leading role. His creations were Baidehisha Bilasa, Koti Brahmanda Sundari, Lavanyabati were proved landmark in Oriya Literature. Upendra Bhanja was conferred with the title Kabi Samrat of Oriya literature for the aesthetic poetic sense and verbal jugglery proficiency. Dinakrushna Das’s Rasokallola and Abhimanyu Samanta Simhara’s Bidagdha Chintamani are prominent kavyas of this time.

The first Oriya printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries which made a great revolution in Oriya literature. Instead of palm leaf inscription, the books were being printed and the periodicals and journals were published. The first Oriya Magazine of 'Bodha Dayini' was published from Balasore in 1861. The main object of this magazine was to promote Oriya literature and to draw attention to the lapses in government policy. The first Oriya paper, 'The Utkal Deepika' made its appearance in 1866 under the editorship of late Gouri Sankar Ray with the help of late Bichitrananda. The publication of these papers during the last part of the 19th century encouraged the modern literature and acted as a media to provide a wide readers range for the writers, The educated intellectuals came in contact with the English literature
English literature
English literature is the literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; for example, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Joseph Conrad was Polish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, J....

 and got influenced. Radhanath Ray
Kabibar Radhanath Ray
Radhanath Ray is the principal architect of the era of initial modernity in Oriya poetry during the later part of nineteenth century and is honoured in Oriya literature with the title “Kabibara”...

 (1849–1908) is the prime figure, who tried to write his poems with the influence of Western literature
Western literature
Western literature refers to the literature written in the languages of Europe, including the ones belonging to the Indo-European language family as well as several geographically or historically related languages such as Basque, Hungarian, and so forth...

. He wrote Chandrabhaga, Nandikeshwari, Usha, Mahajatra, Darbar and Chilika wee the long poems or Kavyas. Fakir Mohan Senapati
Fakir Mohan Senapati
Fakir Mohan Senapati born on January 13, 1843, at Mallikashpur in Balasore, played a leading role in establishing the distinct identity of Oriya, a language mainly spoken in the Indian state of Orissa...

 (1843–1918), the prime figure of modern Oriya Fiction Prose is the product of that generation. He was considered the Vyasakabi
Fakir Mohan Senapati
Fakir Mohan Senapati born on January 13, 1843, at Mallikashpur in Balasore, played a leading role in establishing the distinct identity of Oriya, a language mainly spoken in the Indian state of Orissa...

 or founder poet of Oriya language
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

. Fakir Mohan Senapati is well known for his novel Chha Maana Atha Guntha. It is the first Indian novel to deal with the exploitations of landless peasants by the feudal Lord. It was written much before the October revolution of Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 or much before the emerging of Marxist ideas in India.

With rise of freedom movement, a literary though was emerged with the influence of Gandhiji and idealistic trend of Nationalism formed as a new trend in Oriya Literature. Much respected personality of Orissa culture and history, Utkalmani Gopabandhu Dash (1877–1928) has founded a school at avillage Satyabadi near Sakshigopal of Orissa and an idealstic literary movement influenced the writers of this age. Godabarisha Mohapatra, Kuntala-Kumari Sabat the other renowned name of this age.

With the emergence of Soviet Russia in 1935, a Communist party was formed in Orissa and a periodical named "Adhunika" was published by the party. Bhagawati Charan Panigrahi and Sachidananda Routray were the founder members and writer/poets of the party. Bhagwati turned to fiction writing and though Sachidananda Routray (who is better known as "Sachi Routra" or Sachi Babu) has written some short stories is actually remembered for his poems. Influenced by the romantic thoughts of Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore , sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European Nobel laureate by earning the 1913 Prize in Literature...

, during the thirties when the progressive Marxist movements was in full flow in Oriya Literature, Kalindi Charan Panigrahi, the brother of Bhagabati Charan Panigrahi, the founder of Marxist trend in Orissa, formed a group circa 1920 called "Sabuja Samiti." Mayadhar Mansingh was a renowned poet of that time though he was considered as a romantic poet, but he kept the distance away from the influence of Rabindranath successfully.

As the successor of Sachi Babu, two poets Guruprasad Mohanty (popularly known as Guru Prasad) (1924–2004) and Bhanuji Rao came with T.S. Eliot and published their co-authored poetry book "Nutan Kabita". Later, Ramakanta Rath modified the ideas. Sitakanta Mohapatra, Soubhagya Kumar Mishra, Rajendra Kihore Panda, Brajanath Rath, Jayanta Mahapatra, Kamalakant Lenka, J.P. Das, Brahmotri Mohanty, Mamata Dash, Amaresh Patnaik, Hrushikesh Mallick, Sunil Kumar Prusty, Sucheta Mishra, Aparna Mohanty, Pritidhara Samal, Basudev Sunani, Gajanan Mishra, Bharat Majhi are some poets of this contemporary age. In the Post-Independence-Era Oriya fiction assumed a new direction. The trend which Fakir Mohan has started actually developed more after 50’s of last century. Gopinath Mohanty
Gopinath Mohanty
Gopinath Mohanty ,winner of the prestigious jnanpith award, eminent Oriya novelist of the mid-twentieth century is arguably the greatest Oriya writer after Fakir Mohan Senapati .-Early life and education:...

 (1914–1991), Surendra Mohanty
Surendra Mohanty
Surendra Mohanty born in Orissa is an award-winning author who writes in Oriya. He is the recipient of prestigious Orissa Sahitya Academy Award for his novel Nilashaila.- Career :...

 and Manoj Das
Manoj Das
Manoj Das is an Indian award-winning author who writes in Oriya and English.Manoj Das, a profilic author,he is India's foremost short story writers. He writes both in Oriya and english and is a proffesor of English at the Sri Aurobindo International University, Pondicherry.Manoj Das was born in a...

 are considered as three jewels of this time. The other significant fiction writers are Chandrasekhar Rath, Dr Jagannath Prasad Das, Shantanu Acharya, Mohapatra Nilamani Sahoo, Rabi Patnaik, Debraj Lenka, Krushna Prasad Mishra, Akhil Mohan Patnaik, Jagadish Mohanty
Jagadish Mohanty
Jagadish Mohanty ' is a renowned Oriya writer, considered as a trendsetter in modern Oriya fiction, has received the prestigious Sarala Award 2003, Orissa Sahitya Akademy Award 1990, Jhankar Award, 1985 Dharitri Award, Prajatantra Award....

, Kanheilal Das.

Satya Mishra, Ramchandra Behera, Padmaja Pal, Binapani Mohanty, Prativa Ray, Yashodhara mishra and Sarojini Sahoo
Sarojini Sahoo
Sarojini Sahoo is an Orissa Sahitya Academy Award winner Indian feminist writer, a columnist in The New Indian Express and associate editor of Chennai based English magazine Indian AGE, who has been enlisted among 25 Exceptional Women of India by ‘Kindle’ English magazine of Kolkata.Born in the...

 are a few writers whose writings have created a new age in the field of fiction. Jayanti Ratha, Susmita Bagchi. Paramita Satpathy, Hiranmayee Mishra, Chirashree IndraSingh Supriya Panda, Gayatri Saraf, Mamata Chowdhry are few fiction writerw in this period. In the field of drama, the traditional Oriya theatre is the folk opera, or Jatra, which flourishes in the rural areas of Orissa. Modern theatre is no longer commercially viable. But in the 1960, experimental theatre made a mark through the works of Manoranjan Das, who pioneered the new theatre movement with his brand of experimentalism. Bijay Mishra, Biswajit Das, Kartik Rath, Ramesh Chandra Panigrahi, Ratnakar Chaini, Ranjit Patnaik continued the tradition. As a whole, Oriya literature is a strong wing of Indian Literature to represent in world forum.

Literary magazine: Jhankar, Nabarabi, Apurba, Galpa, Kahani, Kadambini, Istahara, Udbhasa, Amrutayana, Nabalipi, Pratibeshi, Paschima, Bijaya, Bartika, Chitra, Bishwamukti, Ama Samaya, Sananda, Godhuli Lagna, Bigyan Diganta (Science), and pourusha.

Culture



The language spoken by the majority of the people is Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

. English is widely used for official purpose and Oriya is used as regional language. Oriya belongs to the Indo-Aryan
Indo-Aryan languages
The Indo-Aryan languages constitutes a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family...

 branch of the Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 language family
Language family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' comes from the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a...

, and is closely related to Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

 and Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

. A few tribal languages belonging to the Dravidian
Dravidian languages
The Dravidian language family includes approximately 85 genetically related languages, spoken by about 217 million people. They are mainly spoken in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran, and...

 and Munda
Munda languages
-Anderson :Gregory Anderson's 1999 proposal is as follows. Individual languages are highlighted in italics.*North Munda **Korku**Kherwarian***Santhali***Mundari*South Munda **Kharia–Juang***Juang***Kharia...

 language families are spoken by the Adivasi
Adivasi
Adivasi is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups claimed to be the aboriginal population of India. They comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India...

s (original inhabitants) of the state. The state has a very opulent cultural heritage, one of the richest in India. The capital city of Bhubaneshwar is known for the exquisite temples that dot its landscape. The famous classical dance form, Odissi
Odissi
Odissi, also spelled Orissi , is one of the eight classical dance forms of India. It originates from the state of Orissa, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences. The classic treatise of Indian dance, Natya Shastra, refers to it as...

 originated in Orissa. Contemporary Orissa has a proud cultural heritage that arose due to the intermingling of three great religious traditions – Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 and Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

. The culture of the Adivasis is an integral part of modern Oriya heritage.

Dance


Odissi
Odissi
Odissi, also spelled Orissi , is one of the eight classical dance forms of India. It originates from the state of Orissa, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences. The classic treatise of Indian dance, Natya Shastra, refers to it as...

 or Orissi dance and music is classified as a classical music of India. Odissi is the oldest surviving dance form in India on the basis of archaeological evidence. Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years, and finds mention in the Natyashastra
Natya Shastra
The Natya Shastra is an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BC and 200 AD in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata.The Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope...

 of Bharatamuni
Bharata Muni
Bharata was an ancient Indian musicologist who authored the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, dated to between roughly 400 BC and 200 BC. Indian dance and music find their root in the Natyashastra...

, possibly written circa 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly went extinct during the British period, only to be revived after India's independence by a few Gurus, such as Guru Deba Prasad Das, Guru Mayadhar Raut
Mayadhar Raut
Guru Mayadhar Raut is an Indian classical Odissi dancer and Guru.-Early life and education:Mayadhar Raut was born in the village Kantapenhara in Cuttack district, subsequently he received his dance training under the Guru-shishya tradition of Odissi by Rukmini Devi Arundale at Kalakshetra.He is...

, Guru Pankaj Charan Das, Guru Mahadev Rout, Guru Raghu Dutta, and Guru Kelu Charan Mahapatra. Odissi classical dance is about the love of Krishna and his supposed consort Radha, mostly drawn from compositions by the notable Oriya poet Jayadeva
Jayadeva
Jayadeva was a Sanskrit poet circa 1200 AD. He is most known for his composition, the epic poem Gita Govinda, which depicts the divine love of Krishna-an avatar of Vishnu and his consort, Radha, and it is mentioned that Radha is greater than Hari, and is considered an important text in the...

, who lived in the twelfth century AD.
Ghumura Dance
Ghumura Dance
Ghumura Folk Dance[ , Kalahandia : ଘୁମ୍ରା ନାଚ୍ ] has earned both national and international name and fame in past three decades, after winning heart of Oriya people throughout Orissa. Its popular music is considered as one of those ancient folk musics, which after struggling a lot with the current...

 (or Ghumra Dance) is one of the most sought and leading folk dance form in Orissa. It is classified as folk dance as the dress code of Ghumura resembles more like a tribal dance, but recent researchers argue different mudra and dance form present in Ghumura bear more resemblance with other classical dance form of India. The timeline of Ghumura dance is not clear. Many researchers claim it was a War dance in ancient India
Ancient India
Ancient India may refer to:* The ancient history of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the Asian Subcontinent, including:*Science and technology in ancient India**Indian mathematics**Astronomy**List of Indian inventions...

 and used by Ravana in Ramayana. Ghumura dance is depicted in Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple
Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple , at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is an example of Orissan architecture of Ganga dynasty...

 confirming this dance form is since the medieval period. In the Madhya Parba of Sarala Mhabharata Ghumura has been mentioned as:
"Dhola Madala Gadi je Ghumura Bajai Ghumura je Ghumu Ghumu Hoi Garajai"
In Chandi Purana mentions:
"Biratwara Biradhola Daundi Ghumura Kadamardala Bajanti Mari Galatura"
Ghumura was also used as a Darbari dance in the princely state of Kalahandi and played by the earstwhile Kalahandi state during war times. The typical mixed sound that comes out of the musical instruments like Ghumura, Nishan, Dhol, Taal, Madal etc. and the expressions and movements of the artists make this dance to be a Heroic Dance. Since thousands of years Ghumura dance has evolved from a war dance to a dance form for cultural and social activities. The dance is associated with social entertainment, relaxation, love, devotion and friendly brotherhood among all class, creed and religion in the present days. Traditionally this dance is also associated with Nuakhai and Dasahara celebration in Kalahandi and large parts of South Western Orissa. Ghumura dance is still hidden in the village level in South Western Orissa and some parts of bordering Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Kalahandi region has taken a leading rule in popularizing and retaining its unique identity of Ghumura dance. Kalahandi
Kalahandi
Kalahandi, , is a district of Orissa in India. The region had a glorious past and great civilization in ancient time. Archaeological evidence of stone age and Iron Age human settlement has been recovered from the region. Asurgarh offered an advanced, well civilized, cultured and urban human...

 is mainly known as land of Ghumura. Ghumura dance has got the opportunity to represent the nation in various international events Delhi, Moscow, Kolkata, and various other cities in India. Ghumura dance is also one of the most researched folk dance form in Orissa.

Kau dance (or Chau dance) is a form of tribal martial dance attributed to origins in Mayurbhanj princly state of Orissa and seen in the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n states of West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

 and Orissa. There are three subtypes of the dance, based on the original places where the subtypes were developed. Seraikella Chau was developed in Seraikella, the administrative head of the Seraikela Kharsawan
Seraikela Kharsawan
Seraikela-Kharsawan district ; formerly the princely state of Seraikella/Saraikella is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India. Seraikela town is the district headquarters of Saraikela Kharsawan district. The district is well-known for Seraikela Chhau, one of the three...

 district of Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

, Purulia Chau in Purulia district
Purulia District
Purulia district is one of the nineteen districts of West Bengal state in eastern India. The town of Purulia is the administrative headquarters of the district.-History:...

 of West Bengal and Mayurbhanj Chau in Mayurbhanj district
Mayurbhanj District
Mayurbhanj district is one of the 30 districts in Orissa state in eastern India. It is the largest district of Orissa by area. Baripada city is the district headquarters. As of 2011 it is the third most populous district of Orissa , after Ganjam and Cuttack.-History:Mayurbhanj District was formed...

 of Orissa.

Mahari Dance is one of the important dance forms of Orissa and originated in the temples of Orissa. History of Orissa provides evidence of the 'Devadasi' cult in Orissa. Devadasis were dancing girls who were dedicated to the temples of Orissa. The Devadasis in Orissa were known as 'Maharis' and the dance performed by them came to be known as Mahari Dance.

It was during the reign of Chodagangadeva, Maharis were employed in the temples of Puri. After Chodagangadeva's death, Ananabhimadeva built Natyamandapa in the Jagannath temple for the dance performances inside the temple. Moreover, in those days, the Mahari dancers belonged to different categories namely, the 'Nachunis' (dancers), the Bahara Gauni, the Bhitara Gauni and the Gaudasanis.

The Mahari Dancers of Orissa are supposed to follow certain restrictions, such as:
  • They cannot enjoy.
  • They should dance on the ceremonies connected to Jagannath.
  • They should adhere to the specifications made by the Sastras.
  • They must always wear clean cloths.
  • The dancer cannot be physically handicapped.
  • At the time of the performances, the dancers are not supposed to look at the audience.
  • The Maharis are married to the Lord at the age of nine.
  • Before their performances, the Mahari dancers pay their obeisance to the Lord.

In Orissa, one can also come across another type of Mahari dancers, who are known as 'Samarpada Niyoga'. The duty of the 'Samarpada Niyoga' is to dance during the ceremonial procession of the deities. These dancers perform during the Ratha Yatra, Jhulana Yatra, Dola Yatra, etc.

The Western Orissa has also great variety of dance forms unique to Orissa culture. The children's verses are known as "Chhiollai", "Humobauli" and "Dauligit", the adolescent poems are "Sajani", "Chhata", "Daika", "Bhekani" : the eternal youth composes "Rasarkeli", "Jaiphul", "Maila Jada", "Bayamana", "Gunchikuta" and "Dalkhai". The work-man's poetry comprises "Karma" and "Jhumer" pertaining to Vishwakarma and the "Karamashani" deities. The professional entertainers perform Dand, Danggada, Mudgada, Ghumra, Sadhana, Sabar – Sabaren, Disdigo, Nachina – Bajnia, Samparda and Sanchar. They are for all occasions, for all time with varieties of rhythm and rhyme.

Pala is a unique form of balladry in Orissa, which artistically combines elements of theatre, classical Odissi music, highly refined Oriya and Sanskrit poetry, wit, and humour. The literal meaning of pala is turn. It is more sophisticated than the other Oriya ballad tradition, Daskathia. Pala is presented in three ways. The names can be mentioned as baithaki or `seated`, in which the performers sit on the ground throughout. The other one is thia or `standing`. This is more popular and aesthetically more satisfying, in which they stand. Badi is a kind of thia in which two groups vie for excellence. This is the most entertaining, as there is an element of competition.

Gotipua dance is another form of dance in Orissa. In Oriya colloquial language Gotipua means single boy. The dance performance done by a single boy is known as Gotipua dance. When decadence and declination came in to Devadasi or mahari tradition due to various reasons this Gotipua dance tradition evolved as sequel as these performance were practiced to please the gods. It is totally unknown that when exactly this danced form came in to practice. Still some historians say that this dance tradition appears to have originated during the region of Prataprudradev (1497 AD to 1540 AD) and gained popularity in the subsequent Muslim Rule. Ray Remananda the famous Vaishnavite Minister of King Pratapruda and ardent follower of Sri Chitanya is the originator of this boy dancing tradition. As Vasishnavs were not approving of the females in to dance practices so it possible that the dance tradition must have come after Sri Chaitanya came to Orissa. The Gotipua Dance Tradition is now seen in the village Raghurajpur
Raghurajpur
Raghurajpur is a heritage crafts village in Puri district, Orissa, known for its master Pattachitra painters, an art form which dates back to 5 BC. in the region and Gotipua dance troupes, the precursor to the Indian classical dance form of Odissi; it also known as the birthplace of one of finest...

 situated 10 km away from Puri town, situated on the banks of river Bhargabi. It is otherwise known as the Crafts Village as various Oriya handicrafts’ craftsmen reside in this village contributing their expertise in Patta Painting and other handukrafts.

Prince Dance Group
Prince Dance Group
Prince Dance Group, a dance troupe based in Berhampur, Orissa, India led by T. Krishna Mohan Reddy. It has won a reality show India's Got Talent on an Indian TV channel "Colors" Colors . The group is unique that the members are from a remote part of India and most of them are from disadvantaged...

, a dance group based in Berhampur, Orissa, India led by Krishna Mohan Reddy. It has won a reality show India's Got Talent
India's Got Talent
India's Got Talent is the Indian franchise of the Got Talent series, and is a cooperative effort between India's TV channel Colors and Britain's FremantleMedia. The first episode of India's Got Talent premiered on June 27, 2009. India's Got Talent follows the global Got Talent format, in which...

 on an Indian TV channel "Colors". The group is unique that the members are from a remote part of India and most of them are from disadvantaged sections of different parts of Ganjam district. Two of them, Padmanabha Sahu (24) and Telu Tarini (13) are physically challenged. They have won the hearts of all Oriyas, including chief minister Naveen Patnaik
Naveen Patnaik
Naveen Patnaik is an Indian politician and the current Chief Minister of Orissa, India and the chief of Biju Janata Dal, a regional political party in Orissa.-Personal life:...

, and even outsiders with their performance in the programme "India's Got Talent". The group, comprising 26 artistes held the audience and the judges engrossed with their act from the mythological Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 and Vande Mataram
Vande Mataram
Vande Mataram is a poem from the famed novel Anandamath which was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1882. It was written in Bengali and Sanskrit....

.

Music


Sixteenth century witnessed the compilation of literature on music. The four important treatises written during that time are Sangitamava Chandrika, Natya Manorama, Sangita Kalalata and Gita Prakasha. Odissi music is a combination of four distinctive kinds of music, namely, Chitrapada, Dhruvapada, Panchal
Panchal
Panchal is an Indian title, in tune with the Hindu caste system, that represents some of the castes that are predominant in the Indian state of Gujarat that are either agriculturalists or blacksmiths.-Ethnicity:...

 and Chitrakala. When music uses artwork, it is known as Chitikala. A unique feature of Oriya music is the Padi, which consists of singing of words in fast beat.

Being a part of the rich culture of Orissa, its music is also as much charming and colorful. Odissi music is more than two thousand five hundred years old and comprises a number of categories. Of these, the five broad ones are Tribal Music, Folk Music
Folk music
Folk music is an English term encompassing both traditional folk music and contemporary folk music. The term originated in the 19th century. Traditional folk music has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted by mouth, as music of the lower classes, and as music with unknown composers....

, Light Music, Light-Classical Music and Classical Music. Anyone who is trying to understand the culture of Orissa must take into account its music, which essentially forms a part of its legacy.

In the ancient times, there were poets who wrote the lyrics of poems and songs that were sung to rouse the religious feelings of people. It was by the eleventh century that the music of Orissa, in the form of Triswari, Chatuhswari, and Panchaswari, underwent transformation and was converted into the classical style.

Folk music like Jhumar, yogi gita, kendara gita, dhuduki badya, prahallad natak, palla, sankirtan, mogal tamasa, gitinatya, kandhei nacha, kela nacha, ghoda nacha, danda nacha and daskathia are popular in Orissa. Almost every tribal group has their own distinct song and dance style.

Structural art


Other cultural attractions include the Jagannatha Temple in Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, known for its annual Rath Yatra or Car Festival, the unique and beautiful applique artwork of Pipili, silver filigree ornamental works from Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

, the Patta chitras (palm leaf paintings), famous stone utensils of Nilgiri
Nilagiri
Nilagiri is a town and a notified area committee in Balasore district in the Indian state of Orissa.-History:Orissa Freedom Fighters like Banamali Das, Baishnab Patnaik and Nanda Kishore Patnaik violently fought against the local prince and forced him to surrender to newly formed Indian National...

 (Balasore) and various tribal influenced cultures. The Sun temple at Konark is famous for its architectural splendour and erotic sculpture, while the 'Sambalpuri textiles' equals it in its artistic grandeur. The sari
Sari
A sari or sareeThe name of the garment in various regional languages include: , , , , , , , , , , , , , is a strip of unstitched cloth, worn by females, ranging from four to nine metres in length that is draped over the body in various styles. It is popular in India, Bangladesh, Nepal,...

 of Orissa is much in demand throughout the entire world. The different colors and varieties of sarees in Orissa make them very popular among the women of the state. The handloom sarees available in Orissa can be of four major types; these are Ikat, Bandha, Bomkai and Pasapalli. Orissa sarees are also available in other colors like cream, maroon, brown and rust. The tie-and-dye technique used by the weavers of Orissa to create motifs on these sarees is unique to this region. This technique also gives the sarees of Orissa an identity of their own.

Sand art


A unique type of art form was developed at Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, but it has spread all over the world. To carve a sand sculpture, the raw material is clean and fine-grained sand mixed with water. With the help of this type of sand and by the magic of fingers, an artist can carve a beautiful and attractive sculpture on the beach. Sudarshana Pattanaik is one of the major world-class artists in this sculpture.

Although not historically proved, there is a story in the Oriya myths regarding the origin of sand sculpture: "Poet Balaram Das, the author of Dandi Ramayan was a great devotee of Jagannath. Once during Ratha Yatra (Car Festival), he tried to climb the chariot of Jagannath to offer his prayer. He wasn't allowed by the priests of the chariot to climb it and was also insulted by them. With great frustration and humiliation he came to the beach (Mahodadhi) and carved statues of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra on the golden sand.

Religion



The majority (over 94% of people in the state of Orissa are Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example, Orissa is home to several Hindu figures. Sant Bhima Bhoi
Bhima Bhoi
Bhima Bhoi was a poet and Satya Mahima Dharma activist from Orissa, India.The most permanent contribution of Orissa toour cultural heritage is Bhima Bhoi, Poet-prophet of Mahima dharma, who wielded his pen against the prevailing social injustice, religious bigotry, and caste discrimination...

 was a leader of the Mahima sect movement
Mahima Religion
The Mahima Dharma is a Hindu sect primarily prevalent in Orissa and near by states...

. Sarala Dasa
Sarala Dasa
Sarala Dasa was one of the great scholars of Oriya literature whose work formed a perennial source of information for succeeding generations....

, an adivasi
Adivasi
Adivasi is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups claimed to be the aboriginal population of India. They comprise a substantial indigenous minority of the population of India...

, was the translator of the epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 in Oriya. Chaitanya Dasa was a Buddhistic-Vaishnava
Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism is a tradition of Hinduism, distinguished from other schools by its worship of Vishnu, or his associated Avatars such as Rama and Krishna, as the original and supreme God....

 and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva
Jayadeva
Jayadeva was a Sanskrit poet circa 1200 AD. He is most known for his composition, the epic poem Gita Govinda, which depicts the divine love of Krishna-an avatar of Vishnu and his consort, Radha, and it is mentioned that Radha is greater than Hari, and is considered an important text in the...

 was the author of the Gita Govinda
Gita Govinda
The Gita Govinda is a work composed by the 12th-century poet, Jayadeva, who was born in Kenduli Sasan near Puri in Orissa. It describes the relationship between Krishna and the gopis of Vrindavana, and in particular one gopi named Radha...

.

The Orissa Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the Government of Orissa to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the Harijans.

Perhaps the oldest scripture of Orissa is the Madala Panji from the Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Oriyan scripture includes the 16th century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa. In the modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Oriya writer, who was a Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj is the societal component of the Brahmo religion which is mainly practiced today as the Adi Dharm after its eclipse in Bengal consequent to the exit of the Tattwabodini Sabha from its ranks in 1859. It was one of the most influential religious movements responsible for the making of...

ist and shaped modern Oriya literature at the turn of the 20th century.

About 2.4% of the population is Christian
Christianity in Orissa
Followers of Christianity are a small minority in Orissa state of India. According to the 2001 Census, Christians make up about 2.44% of the population ....

 and 2.1% is Muslim
Oriya Muslims
Oriya Muslims are an Islamic community in the Indian state of Orissa. Many members of Oriya Muslim community have migrated to Pakistan after independence and have settled in Karachi, Sindh.-History:...

.

Cinema



The Oriya film production in the initial years was very slow. After first Oriya film Sita Bibaha in 1936, only two films were produced till 1951. A joint consortium of landlords and businessmen who collected funds after 1948 produced those two movies. The first film 'Sita Bibaha' was directed by Mohan Sunder Dev Goswami and was released in Laxmi Theatre, Puri. The 1951 production Roles to Eight was the first Oriya film having an English name. It was released after 15 years of the first Oriya film Sita Bibaha. It was the fourth Oriya film produced by Ratikanta Padhi. The eleventh Oriya film Sri Lokenath
Sri Lokenath
Sri Lokenath is an Oriya film directed by Prafulla Sengupta, and based on the story by Aswini Kumar Ghosh. The Indian socio-fantasy film won a National Film Award in 1960, and was the 11th Oriya film produced under Ruprang Pvt. Ltd..-Plot:...

 was the first Oriya film, which got National Award in 1960 directed by Prafulla Sengupta.

One of the major trail blazers and pioneers of the Oriya film industry were Gour Prasad Ghose and his wife, Parbati Ghose. They introduced and mastered innovative ways of technical story-telling. Over the years, some of their most notable films such as Maa and Kaa brought them national fame and numerous awards, including many National awards and lifetime acheivement awards for their contribution to cinema as directors, producers and actors.

The same year, Prasant Nanda won a National Award as best actor for the film Nua Bou
Nua Bou
Nua Bou , is a 1962 Indian Oriya film directed by Prabhat Mukherjee, which presents the sociocultural scenario of rural village in India in 70's.- Synopsis :...

 with his debut film. The name of Prasantha Nanda would always come while dealing with Oriya Film Industry. He was present in Oriya films since 1939, but he became active only after 1976. Nanda served Oriya Film Industry as an actor, director, screenplay writer, and lyricist and even as a playback singer. Such a versatile genius is quite rare in Indian cinema history. Nanda alone carried Oriya films into the national honor list by winning National Awards three times in 1960, 1966 and 1969 for his acting in Nua Bou
Nua Bou
Nua Bou , is a 1962 Indian Oriya film directed by Prabhat Mukherjee, which presents the sociocultural scenario of rural village in India in 70's.- Synopsis :...

, Matira Manisha
Matira Manisha
Matira Manisha is a 1966 Oriya film, from India, directed by Mrinal Sen.Based on the novel by Kalindi Charan Panigrahi of the same name, the film contrasts traditional and modern values as exemplified by the different attitudes of two brothers towards their inherited family land...

 and Adina Megha
Adina Megha
-Cast:* Prashanta Nanda - Suresh* Jharana Das -Champak* Sandhya* Bhanumati Devi* Dukhiram Swain* Niranjan* Geeta* Sagar* Janaki- Songs :*Alapa Hashare**Lyric:Narayan Prasad Singh , Singers: Akshya Mohanty & Sikandara Alam...

. Uttam Mohanty
Uttam Mohanty
Uttam Mohanty is one of the most popular Ollywood stars in the state of Orissa in India.-Early life:Uttam Mohanty is one of the most popular Ollywood stars in the state of Orissa in India. He has to his credit more than 135 Oriya films to date and has acted in 30 Bengali films and in the only...

, whose debut film Abhiman won accolades all over, is now the veteran actor of the Oriya Film Industry. His wife Aparajita Mohanty
Aparajita Mohanty
Aparajita Mohanty is an Oriya movie actress based in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. She is the wife of Oriya actor Uttam Mohanty and mother of actor Babushan Mohanty.-Filmography:-External links:**...

 is also a renowned actress. Sarat Chandra Pujari was one of the most popular actor of the 60S era. His popular films are Nua Bou, Jeevan Sathi, Sadhana, Manika Jodi, Naba Janma, Matira Manisa, Arundhati, Ghara Sansara, Bhookha, etc. His films portrayed the general condition of the state of Orissa with a strong social message. Sarat Chandra Pujari is a prominent figure till now. Apart from being an actor he was also a successful director and an academician. He still continues to act in a few selected films. Currently he is enjoying his retired life and writes columns in the newspapers as his hobby. Raju Mishra is another rising star in Oriya film industry. He is an international award winning photographer, director, choreographer and lyricist of Oriya film industry. Other well known actors are Bijaya Mohanty,Utam Mohyanty, Sriram Panda, Mihir Das, Sidhhant, Aparajita, Maheswata, Tandra Ray, Anubhav Mohanty and many more.

Cuisine



Orissa has culinary tradition spanning centuries if not millennia. The kitchen of the famous Jagannath temple in Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

 is reputed to be the largest in the world, with a thousand chefs, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people each day.
The famous Indian sweet "rasogolla" has its origin from this state. Salepur Rasogolla is famous and it is mainly prepared by Kar and Brothers (Bikalananda Kar) of salepur
Salepur
Salepur is a town in the district of Cuttack, and the headquarters of the Salepur block. It is situated near the bank of river Chitrotpala, 25 km from the city of Cuttack and 55 km from the state capital Bhubaneswar....

. Its branches are also present in Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

 and Bhubaneswar. Pahala, located on the Cuttack-Bhubaneshwar road, is famous for its variety of Rasgullas. The well-known rice pudding, kheeri (kheer) that is relished all over India, also originated in Puri two thousand years ago. Chhenapoda is also a major Orissa sweet cuisine originated in Nayagarh
Nayagarh
Nayagarh is a town and a notified area committee in Nayagarh district in the Indian state of Orissa. It is the headquarters of Nayagarh district.-Geography:Nayagarh is located at...

, it is made by caramelizing cottage cheese with sugar, cardamom and other ingredients and then burning it over a chula (wood-burning clay hearths). Chhena Jheeli and malpua are other famous sweet deserts. One of the most famous delicacies of Orissa is Kakara Peetha (made of sooji or finely grained wheat) especially with coconut filling sauteed with pepper, cardamom, sugar and ghee and sometimes cottage cheese (chhena). Its one of the major delicacy during the festival occasions. Arisha is another delicacy. The sweet aroma of powdered rice and Gud being deep fried in Ghee is mesmerizing. Poda Pitha, Haladi Patra Pitha(enduri pitha), Manda Pitha, Chitou Pitha are more examples of Oriya specialitites. Mudhi (puffed rice) is an integral part of every Oriya household. Baripada is famous for its Mudhi. Mudhi serves the purpose of an instant snacks. It perfectly blends with any thing. Be it Chenachur (mix salty fried snacks), milk, tea, curries, peanuts or mango pulp.

Pakhala
Pakhala
Pakhaḷa is an Oriya term for an Indian food consisting of cooked rice washed or little fermented in water. The liquid part is known as Toraṇi. It is popular in Orissa, Bengal, Assam, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. The Bengali name for this dish is Panta Bhat. Eating pakhal has been recommended to...

, a dish made of rice, water, and yoghurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer, particularly in the rural areas. Oriyas are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end.
A typical meal in Orissa consists of a main course and dessert. Typically breads are served as the main course for breakfast, whereas rice is eaten with lentils (dals) during lunch and dinner. The main course also includes one or more curries, vegetables and pickles. Given the fondness for sweet foods, the dessert course may include generous portions of more than a single item. Oriya desserts are made from a variety of ingredients, with milk, chhena (a form of ricotta cheese), coconut, rice, and wheat flour being the most common.

Also one of the most famous veg dishes are Dalma (made of lentils and vegetables boiled together and then fried with other spices) and Santula. Even the former Indian President Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam introduced these into the Rashtrapati Bhavan Menu. Ghanta and Posta curries are also some of the signature dishes.

Orissa food habit is pretty balanced between the non-vegetarian and vegetarian habits. Due to its vast shoreline and number of rivers flowing across, fish is a very important part of the diet. Orissa also expertises in sea food cuisines like Prawn and Crab. The famous Chilika Lake is particularly famous for offering best sea food cuisines that are one of a lifetime experience.

Orissa's food habit is actually the horizon between the South Indian food habit and the North Indian food habits. One can easily find Dosa
Dosa
Dosa or Dhosai is a fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is indigenous to and is a staple dish in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as being popular in Sri Lanka...

s, Vadas and idlis being served as breakfast and snacks which are typically south Indian food and also can find Poori- Chole, Samosa's (locally called Singada), and other north Indian delicacies in the menu. One of the best combination of both the North and South of India is Dahibara-Aludum-Ghuguni especially in the city of Cuttack. Dahibara (vadaa dipped and soaked in curd), aludum (a spicy curry made from potato) and Ghuguni (chickpea curry) really go well together and is one of the best fusion of the Indian recipes.

Education



The ruins of a major ancient university and center of Buddhist learning, Ratnagiri, were recently discovered in the Jajpur district of Orissa. Scholars from far away lands, such as Greece, Persia and China used to study philosophy, astronomy, mathematics and science at this famed university. Taxila, Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

 and Ratnagiri are amongst the oldest universities in the world. The ruins of Ratnagiri University have not been fully excavated yet.

Recognized Universities or Deemed Universities
  1. Berhampur University
    Berhampur University
    Berhampur University is a university near Berhampur, Orissa, India. It is one of the oldest and major universities of Orissa, the others being Utkal at Bhubaneswar and Sambalpur University.-History:...

     at Berhampur
  2. Biju Patnaik University of Technology
    Biju Patnaik University of Technology
    The Biju Patnaik University of Technology was created by an act of the Orissa state legislature in November 2002. Almost all the engineering, pharmacy, architecture and most of the colleges offering MBA, MCA, M.Tech, M.Pharma degree programmes are either constituent or affiliated colleges of BPUT...

     at Rourkela
  3. Central University of Orissa, Koraput
    Central University of Orissa, Koraput
    Central University of Orissa has been established by the Parliament under the Central Universities Act, 2009 by Govt. of India, situated at Koraput Town, Koraput district in the Indian state of Orissa...

    .
  4. Fakir Mohan University
    Fakir Mohan University
    Fakir Mohan University is a university situated in Balasore, Orissa, India. It was carved out of the Utkal University in 1999 and acts as an affiliating university...

     at Balasore
  5. IIT Bhubaneshwar
    Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneshwar
    The Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar is the third and one of the largest of eight new Indian Institutes of Technology established by the MHRD, Government of India in 2008-2009...

     at Bhubaneshwar
  6. KIIT University in Bhubaneshwar
  7. National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar
  8. National Institute of Technology Rourkela at Rourkela
  9. National Law University, Orissa
    National Law University, Orissa
    National Law University, Orissa is the newest addition to the list of the National Law Universities in India. It is located at Cuttack, Orissa. The university offers courses for undergraduate and graduate legal education...

  10. North Orissa University
    North Orissa University
    The North Orissa University is a public and open university located in the regional city of Baripada in the state of Orissa, India. There are 80 affiliated colleges, both general and professional, catering to the demand of higher education. Ths university mainly provided higher education through...

     at Baripada,
  11. Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
    Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
    Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology was established in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India in 1962. It is the second oldest agricultural university in the country. It is dedicated to agriculture related research, extension and education.At present, the University has 8 constituent colleges...

     (OUAT) at Bhubaneshwar
  12. Ravenshaw University
    Ravenshaw University
    Ravenshaw University is a co-educational state university situated in Cuttack, Orissa, on the east coast of India.-Early Years:...

     at Cuttack
  13. Sambalpur University
    Sambalpur University
    Sambalpur University is located at Sambalpur, India in the Indian state of Orissa. Popularly known as Jyoti Vihar. It offers courses at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. Governor of Orissa is the Chancellor of the university...

    , Sambalpur
  14. Siksha O Anusandhan University
    Siksha O Anusandhan University
    Siksha O Anusandhan University is a university in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, declared Siksha O Anusandhan deemed to be a university on 17 July 2007...

  15. Sri Jagannatha Sanskrit University Puri
  16. Government Ayurvedic College, Bolangir
  17. M.K.C.G. Medical College, Berhampur
    MKCG Medical College and Hospital
    The Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College & Hospital, Bramhapur, Ganjam, Orissa, also popularly known as MKCG Medical College and Hospital, is a government medical college and hospital which started functioning in 1962 and 1966 respectively, as a medical college...

  18. SCB Medical College, Cuttack
    Cuttack
    Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

  19. SCB Dental College, Cuttack
  20. Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
    Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
    Veer Surendra Sai Medical College is a premier Government run Medical College & Hospital in the Indian state of Orissa. Established in 1959, it is one of the oldest institutes of Orissa for imparting highly specialized medical education in both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels...

    , Burla
    Burla
    Burla may refer to:*Burla: alternative name for burletta, a musical entertainmentPeople*Mikhail Burla, politician in Transnistria*Oded Burla, Israeli writer*Yehuda Burla , Israeli writerPlaces*Burla, India, a town in India...

  21. Utkal University
    Utkal University
    Utkal University, Bhubaneswar is the oldest university in Orissa and the 17th oldest university in India. It is a teaching-cum-affiliating university that has produced some of the best brains in Orissa. There are at 26 post-graduate departments at the university campus for studies and research in...

     (at Bhubaneshwar)
  22. Utkal University of Culture at Bhubaneshwar
  23. Vedanta University
    Vedanta University
    Vedanta University was a proposed, private, multi-disciplinary, co-educational university to be started by Anil Agarwal of Vedanta Resources corporation near Puri-Konark highway, Orissa, India.-The vision:...

  24. Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla

Entry to various institutes of higher education especially into engineering degrees is through a centralised Joint Entrance Examination
Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination
The Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Examination is an annual college entrance examination in India. It is used as a sole criterion for the Indian Institutes of Technology as well as other institutes.The exam is conducted by the various IITs by a policy of rotation...

, conducted by the Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT), Rourkela where seats are provided according to order of merit.

One of the prestigious institutions of India, NIT Rourkela, National Institute of Technology was upgraded from Regional Engineering College and is an Institute of National Importance. Another premier college of Orissa is the Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, which is the first engineering college in Orissa and is famous for its excellent infrastructure and state-of-art teaching methodology. Orissa is also home to one of the two Indian Institute of Mass Communication IIMC
Indian Institute of Mass Communication
The Indian Institute of Mass Communication is India's premier media school funded and promoted by the Government of India. IIMC is an autonomous society under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. The institution was established on August 17, 1965 with support from UNESCO.-The...

 situated in Dhenkanal
Dhenkanal, India
Dhenkanal is a city and a municipality in Dhenkanal district in the state of Orissa, India.-Geography:Dhenkanal is located at . It has an average elevation of 80 metres .-Demographics:...

. This is a premier institute for mass communication and journalism.


The Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar , is a business school in India, located in Bhubaneswar, the capital of the eastern Indian state of Orissa.-Foundation:...

 (XIMB) is a premier business school of national and international significance located in the state capital. The National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar
National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar
The National Institute of Science Education and Research is a research institution in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. The Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone on August 28, 2006, establishing the institute along the lines of the IISc in Bangalore, and its five sister institutions, the...

 (NISER
National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar
The National Institute of Science Education and Research is a research institution in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. The Prime Minister of India laid the foundation stone on August 28, 2006, establishing the institute along the lines of the IISc in Bangalore, and its five sister institutions, the...

) is another premier educational cum research institution that is located in the state capital. The government of Orissa has provided 935 acres (3.8 km²) of land at Arugul near Jatni Railway Station for IIT Bhubaneshwar. Classes have already started from 2008 batch.IIT BBSR The plans of setting up of an AIIMS is also in advanced stages. Meanwhile Vedanta University
Vedanta University
Vedanta University was a proposed, private, multi-disciplinary, co-educational university to be started by Anil Agarwal of Vedanta Resources corporation near Puri-Konark highway, Orissa, India.-The vision:...

 Project, a not-for-profit initiative by the Anil Agarwal Foundation, is an epoch-making dream to have a world class centre for learning and research on the picturesque Puri-Konark marine drive in Orissa. It will have about 100,000 students with an international mix of students pursuing around 95 diverse streams of learning in a sprawling campus of around 56000000 sq ft (5,202,570.2 m²) built up area supported by state of the art, IT and Communications systems. Even more recently, Reliance industries has expressed its intention of establishing a new Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT), as well as a health city for medical education and research in Bhubaneshwar. Some of the research institutes of Orissa includes Institute of Physics at Bhubaneshwar, Institute of Life Sciences at Bhubaneshwar, Central Rice Research Institute at Cuttack, Central Institute of Fresh water Aquaculture (CIFA)at Bhubaneshwar, Regional Medical Research centre at Bhubaneshwar, Institute of Minerals and Material Technology at Bhubaneshwar and Regional Plant Resource Centre at Bhubaneshwar. As of now, Orissa receives the lowest per capita investment of all 28 states from the central government towards human resource development.

Orissa also boasts of many renowned medical Colleges such as SCB Medical College, Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

, Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
Veer Surendra Sai Medical College
Veer Surendra Sai Medical College is a premier Government run Medical College & Hospital in the Indian state of Orissa. Established in 1959, it is one of the oldest institutes of Orissa for imparting highly specialized medical education in both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels...

, Burla
Burla, India
Burla is a town and a notified area committee in Sambalpur District in the state of Orissa, India. It is a small town on the banks of Mahanadi, and is 15 kilometers from Sambalpur.- Geography :...

 and MKCG Medical College, Berhampur. These colleges have been able to produce excellent doctors who have gone on to head various top posts in the Union Medical Departments. Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneshwar and Hi-tech Medical College, Bhubaneshwar are some of the private world-class medical colleges and hospitals serving the state of Orissa. Many students from the neighboring state of Jharkhand, Bihar and Chattisgarh come to Orissa for better education and expertise. Various International and National Universities have signed MoUs with top colleges for various seminars and workshop to be conducted within the campuses. The elite IIT have started its classes in Bhubaneshwar and for which the plans have already been laid out and is already taking shape.

Tourism


The landscape of Orissa is dotted with a large number of temples. The temples of Orissa conform to the Indo Aryan Nagara style of architecture, with distinctive features specific to this region. The best known of these are the Lingaraja temple at Bhubaneshwar, Jagannath Temple at Puri and the Sun Temple at Konark. The temples of Orissa exhibit a majestic grandeur. An Oriya temple (deula) usually consists of a sanctum, one or several front porches (jagamohana) usually with pyramidal roofs, a dancing hall (nata mandir) and a hall of offerings (bhog mandir).

The Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneshwar boasts of a 150 feet (45.7 m) high deul while the Jagannath Temple at Puri is about 200 feet (61 m) high and it dominates the skyline of the town. Only a portion of the Sun Temple at Konark
Konark
Konark is a small town in Puri district in the state of Orissa, India, on the Bay of Bengal, sixty-five kilometers from Bhubaneswar. It is the site of the 13th-century Sun Temple , built in black granite by King Narasimhadeva-I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is a World Heritage Site...

, the largest of the temples of the Golden triangle exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Orissa architecture. Orissa is also well known as a Buddhist and Jain pilgrimage destination. North-east of Cuttack
Cuttack
Cuttack is the former capital of the state of Orissa, India. It is the headquarters of Cuttack district and is located about 20 km to the north east of Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka that literally means The Fort, a reference to the...

, about 10 km from Bhubaneshwar, there are Buddhist relics and ruins at the three hilltop complexes of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar in Orissa, India. The caves are situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in Hathigumpha inscription...

, which still bear witness to Buddhism's fruitful tryst with this region until well into the 13th century.

Orissa's varying topography – from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin – has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. Thereby creating such treasure troves of flora and fauna that even seem inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitar Kanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in Chilika (Asia's biggest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral part of any eco tours in Orissa, arranged by Tourism of Orissa.

The Gharial Sanctuary at Tikarpada and the Olive Ridley
Olive Ridley
The olive ridley sea turtle , also known as the Pacific ridley, is a species of sea turtle.- Description :The olive ridley is a small extant sea turtle, with an adult carapace length averaging 60 to 70 cm 1...

 Sea Turtles in Gahirmatha turtle sanctuary also feature on the list of avid nature watchers. The city wildlife sanctuaries of Chandaka and Nandan Kanan are a must visit for the lessons they teach is conservation and revitalization of species from the brink of extinction.

Orissa is blessed with around 500 km long coastline and has some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Chilika, Asia's largest brackish water lake, not only provides a haven for millions of birds, but is also one of the few places in India where one can view dolphins. The lush green forest cover of Orissa plays host to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including the famed Royal Bengal Tiger. Amidst the picturesque hills and valleys nestle a number of breathtaking waterfalls and rivulets that attract visitors from all over. Orissa beaches include Puri
Puri
Puri is district headquarter, a city situated about south of state capital Bhubaneswar, on the eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal in the Indian state of Orissa. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the Jagannath Temple . It is a holy city of the Hindus as a part of the Char Dham pilgrimages...

, Gopalpur-on-Sea
Gopalpur-on-Sea
Gopalpur is a town and notified area in Ganjam district in the Indian state of Orissa. Gopalpur is located at . It has an average elevation of 1 metres ....

, Chandipur, Ramachandi Beach, Balighai Beach, Astarang Beach, Paradeep Beach. The famous Shiva Temple is near Dhenkanal
Dhenkanal, India
Dhenkanal is a city and a municipality in Dhenkanal district in the state of Orissa, India.-Geography:Dhenkanal is located at . It has an average elevation of 80 metres .-Demographics:...

.

External links