Bangalore

Bangalore

Overview
Bengaluru ˈbæŋɡəlɔər, bæŋɡəˈlɔər, formerly called Bengaluru ( ˈbeŋɡəɭuːru) is the capital of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in India, making up the majority of the southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, rising further to more than a kilometers high in the south, forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of...

 in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration.
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Quotations

Bangalore is a brand the world identifies India with. It is also the single biggest reason why India has become such a hot investment destination. ~ :w:Manmohan Singh|Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India. Union Budget 2005-2006, 12 Feb. 2006

Encyclopedia
Bengaluru ˈbæŋɡəlɔər, bæŋɡəˈlɔər, formerly called Bengaluru ( ˈbeŋɡəɭuːru) is the capital of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in India, making up the majority of the southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, rising further to more than a kilometers high in the south, forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of...

 in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration. Bangalore is well known as a hub for India's information technology sector.

Today as a large city and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to many of the most well-recognized colleges and research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries
Heavy industry
Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to light industry. It can mean production of products which are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production. In general, it is a popular term used within the name of many Japanese and Korean firms, meaning...

, software companies, aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

, telecommunications, and defence organisations
Defense industry
The defense industry, also called the military industry, comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military materiel, equipment and facilities...

 are located in the city. Bangalore is known as garden city because of its beautiful gardens. Bangalore is also known as the Silicon Valley of India
Silicon Valley of India
The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname of the Indian city of Bangalore. The name signifies Bangalore's status as a hub for information technology companies in India and is a comparative reference to the original Silicon Valley, based around Santa Clara Valley, California, a major hub for IT...

because of its position as the nation's leading IT exporter. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and cultural hub and the second fastest growing major metropolis in India.

Etymology


The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the town's name in the Kannada language
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

, Bengaḷūru. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" (literally, "hero stone
Hero stone
Hero stone is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle of Tamil People. A hero stone can display a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, statues, and figures of carved stone...

", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada
Halegannada
Proto-Kannada is said to have evolved after separating from its source around c. 1500 BCE, while its script evolved during Ashokan times around the 4th or 3rd century BCE from ancient Brahmi...

 (Old Kannada). An article, published in The Hindu
The Hindu
The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40...

, states:
An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bangalore is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city... written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it.


An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 11th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II
Veera Ballala II was the greatest monarch of the Hoysala Empire. This is proven by his successes against the Seuna, Southern Kalachuri, and the waning Kalyani Chalukya dynasties. He caused the demise of the Kalyani Chalukya dynasty. His period also saw prolific literary activity in Kannada. He...

, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka
Government of Karnataka
The Government of Karnataka is a democratically elected body with the Governor as the constitutional head. The Governor who is appointed for a period of five years appoints the Chief Minister and his council of ministers...

 announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award
Jnanpith Award
The Jnanpith Award is a literary award in India. Along with the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, it is one of the two most prestigious literary honours in the country...

 winner U. R. Ananthamurthy
U. R. Ananthamurthy
Udupi Rajagopalacharya Ananthamurthy is a contemporary writer and critic in the Kannada language and is considered as one of the pioneers of the Navya movement. He is well known among Indian authors. He is the sixth person among eight recipients of the Jnanpith Award for the Kannada language, the...

 to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change, which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006. However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry
Ministry of Home Affairs (India)
Ministry of Home Affairs , known as the Home Ministry or MHA, is an Indian government ministry. It is an interior ministry mainly responsible for the maintenance of Internal security and domestic policy.-Ministerial Team:...

.

History




After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas
Gangas
The Western Ganga Dynasty was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India. They are known as Western Gangas to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas who in later centuries ruled over modern Orissa...

, Bangalore was captured by the Cholas
Chola Dynasty
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling in some parts of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until...

 in 1024 which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire
Hoysala Empire
The Hoysala Empire was a prominent South Indian Kannadiga empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the Hoysalas was initially located at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu....

, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal
Vassal
A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including the grant of land held...

 of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud-brick fort and a Nandi Temple
Nandi Temple
Nandi Temple is located in Basavanagudi, a neighborhood of Bangalore, the capital of the state of Karnataka, India. The temple is exclusively for the worship of the sacred bull in Hinduism, known as Nandi, Lord Shiva's vahana, or animal mount...

 in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Yelahanka is one of the oldest towns in Karnataka and it is believed that it has a history of more than 500 years. It is the home town for the ruling king called Kempegowda (under a provision given by Krishnadevaraya) who built Bangalore City. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes".

Within Bangalore, the town was divided into smaller divisions – each called a "pete" (peːteː). The town had two main streets – Chikkapete Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. Myth says that the city would befall great calamity if it extended beyond these four towers.
During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City").

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur
Adil Shahi
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi dynasty ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1490 to 1686. Bijapur had been a province of the Bahmani Sultanate , before its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518...

 army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle
Shahaji
Shahaji Raje Bhosle was an early exponent of guerilla warfare. He was the eldest son of Maloji Bhosale of Verul . He brought the house of Bhosle into prominence. The princely states of Tanjore, Kolhapur and Satara are Bhosle legacies...

 defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahaji as a jagir
Jagir
In historic India, a jagir was a small territory granted by the ruler to an army chieftain in fairly short terms usually of three years but not extending beyond his lifetime, in recognition of his military service...

. In 1687, the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji I
Ekoji I
Venkoji or Ekoji I was the younger half-brother of Shivaji and founder of Maratha rule in Thanjavur...

/Venkoji, son of Shahaji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees. After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born Hyder Naik, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers...

, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore.

Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War
Third Anglo-Mysore War
The Third Anglo-Mysore War was a war in South India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the British East India Company and its allies, including the Mahratta Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad...

 and formed a centre for British resistance against Tippu Sultan, being incorporated into the British Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War was a war in South India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the British East India Company under the Earl of Mornington....

 (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore
Maharaja of Mysore
Maharaja of Mysore was the principal title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in India.The Wodeyar dynasty founded a feudatory principality in 1399, which grew into the Kingdom of Mysore...

, choosing only to retain the Cantonment
Cantonment
A cantonment is a temporary or semi-permanent military or police quarters. The word cantonment is derived from the French word canton meaning corner or district, as is the name of the Cantons of Switzerland. In South Asia, the term cantonment also describes permanent military stations...

 under their jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established in Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire...

 relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831.
Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils
Tamil people
Tamil people , also called Tamils or Tamilians, are an ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, India and the north-eastern region of Sri Lanka. Historic and post 15th century emigrant communities are also found across the world, notably Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Canada,...

. Bangalore was hit by a plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

 epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleswaram
Malleswaram
Malleswara or Malleshwaram, located in the north-west of Bangalore, derives its name from the famous Kaadu Malleswara temple. Originally a village named Mallapura, Malleswaram was developed as a suburb during the great plague of 1898, which caused many people to move out from the city center...

 and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra
Shivanasamudra
Shivanasamudra is a small town in the Mandya District of the state of Karnataka, India. It is situated on the banks of the river Kaveri and is the location of the first Hydro-electric Power station in Asia, which was set up in the year 1902.-Waterfalls:The Shivanasamudra Falls is on the Kaveri...

. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee
Silver Jubilee
A Silver Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 25th anniversary. The anniversary celebrations can be of a wedding anniversary, ruling anniversary or anything that has completed a 25 year mark...

 celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State
Mysore State
The Kingdom of Mysore was one of the three largest princely states within the erstwhile British Empire of India. Upon India gaining its independence in 1947, the Maharaja of Mysore merged his realm with the Union of India...

 of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh.

Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000. In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO
Mico
Mico may refer to:* Motor Industries Company, former name for Bosch India* Mico University College, Jamaica* Mitso Asen, Bulgarian tsar* Mico, term in Muskogee meaning chief* Mico, genus of monkey* Mico , Canadian rock band...

 (Motor Industries Company), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate
Real estate
In general use, esp. North American, 'real estate' is taken to mean "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; an item of real property; buildings or...

 market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalow
Bungalow
A bungalow is a type of house, with varying meanings across the world. Common features to many of these definitions include being detached, low-rise , and the use of verandahs...

s into multi-storied apartments. In 1985, Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

 became the first multinational corporation
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

 to set up base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is a term which refers to the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California in the United States. The region is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations...

 of India
.

Geography




Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

n state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian
Precambrian
The Precambrian is the name which describes the large span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale...

 Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned at 12.97°N 77.56°E and covers an area of 741 km² (286 mi²). The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural
Bangalore Rural
Bangalore Rural District is one of the 30 districts in Karnataka. It was formed in 1986, when Bangalore district was divided into Bangalore Rural and Bangalore . Presently in Bangalore Rural district, there are 2 divisions, 4 Talukas, 35 Hoblis , 1,713 inhabited and 177 uninhabited villages, 9...

 district. The region consisting the Bangalore Urban and Rural districts is known as the Bangalore (region). The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge
Ridge
A ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size. There are several main types of ridges:...

 running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura
Vidyaranyapura
Vidyaranyapura is situated in the Northern Part of Bangalore City. Coming under the Greater Bangalore jurisdiction of [BBMP]http://www.bmponline.org), the township is named after the great Kannada poet Vidyaranya...

 Doddabettahalli
Doddabettahalli
Doddabettahalli is a village and the highest point in Bangalore, India . It is located in the Bangalore North Taluk....

, which is 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge.
No major rivers run through the city, though the Arkavathi
Arkavathy River
The Arkavati , is a large mountain river in Karnataka, India, originating at Nandi Hills of Chikkaballapura district. It is a tributary of the Kaveri, which it joins at Kanakapura, called Sangama in Kannada, after flowing through Kolar District and Bangalore Rural district...

 and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills
Nandi Hills, India
Nandi Hills or Nandidurg is an ancient hill fortress of southern India, in the Chikkaballapur district of Karnataka state. It is located just 10 km from Chickballapur town and approximately 60 km from the city of Bangalore...

, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi
River Vrishabhavathi
The Vrishabhavathi River is a minor river that flows north of the Indian city of Bangalore. The Vrishabhavathi is a tributary of the Arkavathy River. Most of the sewage emanating from Bangalore is carried by these two rivers.Nandikeshwara Theertha Kalyani in front of the kadu malleshwara temple is...

, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage
Sewage
Sewage is water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99% water and is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains...

. A sewerage
Sanitary sewer
A sanitary sewer is a separate underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal. Sanitary sewers serving industrial areas also carry industrial wastewater...

 system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment
Sewage treatment
Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants...

 centers located in the periphery of Bangalore.

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks
WaterWorks
WaterWorks is a water park owned by Cedar Fair, located at the back of Kings Dominion in Doswell, Virginia. When it debuted in 1992, it was originally named Hurricane Reef...

 was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail
Mirza Ismail
Amin-ul-Mulq Sir Mirza Muhammad Ismail, KCIE, Kt, OBE ; was a Diwan of the Kingdom of Mysore, Jaipur and Hyderabad....

 (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta
reservoirs of the Arkavathi river. Bangalore receives 800 million litres
Litér
- External links :*...

 (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city.
However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season- more so in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling
Random sample
In statistics, a sample is a subject chosen from a population for investigation; a random sample is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component...

 study of the Air Quality Index (AQI)
Air Quality Index
Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose. Air quality indices are numbers used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location...

 of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tank
Water tank
A Water tank is a container for storing water. The need for a water tank is as old as civilized man, providing storage of water for drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many...

s, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal
Hebbal
Hebbal is an area of Bangalore, India, which was once indicative of the north endpoint of the city. Though originally famous for Hebbal Lake, it is now better known for the serpentine maze of flyovers that network the Outer Ring Road and Bellary Road. The flyover spans a length of over all the...

 lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank
Sankey Tank
Sankey tank , a manmade lake or tank, is situated in the western part of Bangalore in the middle of the suburbs of Malleshwaram, Vyalikaval and Sadashiva Nagar. The lake covers an area of about . At its widest, the tank has a width of...

. Groundwater occurs in silt
Silt
Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between sand and clay whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as suspended sediment in a surface water body...

y to sand
Sand
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal...

y layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex
Peninsular Gneiss
Peninsular Gneiss is a term coined to highlight the older gneissic complex of the abundant rock type found all over the Indian Peninsula. This term was first fashioned by W.F.Smeeth of the Mysore Geological Department in 1916 based on the first scientific study of this rare rock exposure...

 (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granite
Granite
Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite usually has a medium- to coarse-grained texture. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a porphyritic...

s, gneiss
Gneiss
Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.-Etymology:...

es and migmatite
Migmatite
Migmatite is a rock at the frontier between igneous and metamorphic rocks. They can also be known as diatexite.Migmatites form under extreme temperature conditions during prograde metamorphism, where partial melting occurs in pre-existing rocks. Migmatites are not crystallized from a totally...

s, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite
Laterite
Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock...

 and red, fine loam
Loam
Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration . Loam soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and drainage than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils...

y to clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

ey soils.

Vegetation
Vegetation
Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa, life forms, structure, spatial extent, or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. It is broader...

 in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

 canopy and minority coconut
Coconut
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae . It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word...

 trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.

Climate


Bangalore experiences a tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and '"As."...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Aw) with distinct wet
Wet season
The the wet season, or rainy season, is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region occurs. The term green season is also sometimes used as a euphemism by tourist authorities. Areas with wet seasons are dispersed across portions of the...

 and dry
Dry season
The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year...

 seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make things very uncomfortable in the summer. The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 33.6 °C. The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C(recorded in March 1931) and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (recorded in January 1884). Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 34–35 °C (<100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

s and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order. The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorm
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, a lightning storm, thundershower or simply a storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere known as thunder. The meteorologically assigned cloud type associated with the...

s, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.

Civic administration


Bangalore City officials
Municipal Commissioner: Shankarlinge Gowda
Chief Commissioner of Income Tax: M.L Aggarwal
Mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

:
Sharadamma
Police Commissioner: Jyothi Prakash Mirji


The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city. It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore. The BBMP is run by a city council composed of 250 members, including 198 councillor
Councillor
A councillor or councilor is a member of a local government council, such as a city council.Often in the United States, the title is councilman or councilwoman.-United Kingdom:...

s representing each of the wards of the city and 52 other elected representatives, consisting of members of Parliament and the state legislature. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. Members contesting elections to the council usually represent one or more of the state's political parties. A mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 and deputy mayor are also elected from among the elected members of the council. Elections to the BBMP were held on March 28, 2010, after a gap of three and a half years since the expiry of the previous elected body's term, and the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 was voted into power – the first time it had ever won a civic poll in the city.

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem
Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving , physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight....

s were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic
Traffic
Traffic on roads may consist of pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel...

, quality of life
Quality of life
The term quality of life is used to evaluate the general well-being of individuals and societies. The term is used in a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, and politics. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of...

) scored poorly. The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlock
Gridlock
The term gridlock is defined as "A state of severe road congestion arising when continuous queues of vehicles block an entire network of intersecting streets, bringing traffic in all directions to a complete standstill; a traffic jam of this kind." The term originates from a situation possible in...

s that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic. In 2005 both the Central Government
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

 and the State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore's infrastructure. The BBMP works with the Bangalore Development Authority
Bangalore Development Authority
The Bangalore Development Authority of Bangalore, India, is a governmental organization that oversees planning and development of infrastructure, provision of development-related sites and services, and the housing needs of underprivileged citizens in Bangalore.BDA was created on January 6, 1976...

 (BDA) and the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastructure and Development Task Force (ABIDe) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste
Waste
Waste is unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from living organisms, metabolic waste; such as urea, sweat or feces. Litter is waste which has been disposed of improperly...

 per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.

The Bangalore City Police
Bangalore City Police
Bangalore City Police is the premier enforcer of law and order in the city of Bangalore, India. The BCP works under the jurisdiction of the Karnataka State Police....

 (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations. As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha
Vidhana Soudha
The Vidhana Soudha, located in Bengaluru , is the seat of the state legislature of Karnataka. It is an imposing building, constructed in a style sometimes described as Neo-Dravidian, and incorporates elements of Indo-Saracenic and Dravidian styles...

 (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan
Raj Bhavan (Karnataka)
Raj Bhavan is the official residence of the Governor of Karnataka. It is located in the capital city of Bangalore, Karnataka. The present governor of Karnataka is Hansraj Bhardwaj.-History:...

 (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes three members to India's lower house
Lower house
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide the lower house has come to wield more power...

 of parliament
Parliament
A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French , the action of parler : a parlement is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which...

, the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

, and 28 members to the Karnataka State Assembly.

Electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

 in Bangalore is regulated through the Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM), while water supply
Water supply
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavours or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes...

 and sanitation
Sanitation
Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic...

 facilities are provided by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB).

Economy


Bangalore's economy (2006–07 Net District Income) makes it one of the major economic centres in India, with the value of city's exports totalling in 2004–05. With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the fastest growing major metropolis in India, and is also the country's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods
Fast Moving Consumer Goods
Fast moving consumer goods or Consumer Packaged Goods are products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost. Examples include non-durable goods such as soft drinks, toiletries, and grocery items...

 (FMCG) market. With a per capita income of in 2006–07, the city is the third largest hub for high net worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of and respectively.
The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited
Bharat Electronics Limited is a state-owned electronics company with about nine factories, and few regional offices in India. It is owned by the Indian Government & primarily manufactures advanced electronic products for the Indian Armed Forces.BEL is one of the eight PSUs under Ministry of...

 (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited based in Bangalore, India, is one of Asia's largest aerospace companies. Under the management of the Indian Ministry of Defence, this state-owned company is mainly involved in aerospace industry, which includes manufacturing and assembling aircraft, navigation and...

 (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories
National Aerospace Laboratories
National Aerospace Laboratories , is India's second largest aerospace firm after Hindustan Aeronautics . It was established by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research at Delhi in 1959 and its headquarters was later moved to Bangalore in 1960...

 (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools
Hindustan Machine Tools
Hindustan Machine Tools was incorporated in 1953 by the Government of India as a machine tool manufacturing company.Over the years diversified into watches, tractors, printing machinery, metal forming presses, die casting & plastic processing machinery, CNC systems & bearings...

 (HMT) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
The Indian Space Research Organisation is an independent Indian governmental agency established in 1969 for the research and development of vehicles and activities for the exploration of space within and outside of Earth’s atmosphere. Headquartered in Bangalore...

 (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city.

Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's IT exports in 2006–07. Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters
Business cluster
A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete, nationally and globally. In urban studies, the term agglomeration is used...

 — Software Technology Parks of India
Software Technology Parks of India
'Software Technology Parks of India' is a government agency in India, established in 1991 under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, that manages the Software Technology Park scheme. It is an export oriented scheme for the development and export of computer software,...

 (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore
International Tech Park, Bangalore
International Tech Park Bangalore or simply ITPB , developed and managed by Ascendas, is India’s first hi-tech park of its kind designed to provide a complete "work and play" environment for IT and technology-related businesses opened in 1998...

 (ITPB); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone. Infosys
Infosys
Infosys Limited, formerly Infosys Technologies Limited is a global technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is the second largest IT exporter in India with 133,560 employees as of March 2011. It has offices in 33 countries and development centers in India, China,...

 and Wipro
Wipro
Wipro Limited formally Western India Products Limited is a global IT services and consulting company headquartered in Bangalore, India. As of 2011, Wipro is the second largest IT services company by turnover in India and employs more than 120,000 people worldwide as of March 2011...

, India's second and third largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies.

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka. The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has, instead, increased land values and forced out small enterprise. The state has also resisted the massive investments required to reverse the rapid decline in intra-city transport which has already begun to drive new and expanding businesses to other centers across India. Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon
Biocon
Biocon Limited is a global biopharmaceutical company with products and research services ranging from pre-clinical to clinical development through to commercialization. Within biopharmaceuticals, the Company manufactures generic active pharmaceutical ingredients like Statins and...

, India's largest biotechnology company.

Infosys
Infosys
Infosys Limited, formerly Infosys Technologies Limited is a global technology services company headquartered in Bangalore, India. It is the second largest IT exporter in India with 133,560 employees as of March 2011. It has offices in 33 countries and development centers in India, China,...

, Wipro
Wipro
Wipro Limited formally Western India Products Limited is a global IT services and consulting company headquartered in Bangalore, India. As of 2011, Wipro is the second largest IT services company by turnover in India and employs more than 120,000 people worldwide as of March 2011...

, iGate
IGate
iGATE Patni is an information technology firm headquartered in Fremont, California, USA. The company was founded by Bala and Ashok Trivedi. iGate Patni specializes in business data processing and uses a structure known as iTOPS to meet customer demands...

, Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a global IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is the largest provider of information technology in Asia and second largest provider of business process outsourcing services in India...

, Accenture
Accenture
Accenture plc is a global management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company headquartered in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. It is the largest consulting firm in the world and is a Fortune Global 500 company. As of September 2011, the company had more than 236,000 employees across...

, Nokia Siemens Networks
Nokia Siemens Networks
Nokia Siemens Networks is a global data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland. It is a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany...

 and US based companies like Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments Inc. , widely known as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, United States, which develops and commercializes semiconductor and computer technology...

, Google
Google
Google Inc. is an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, and advertising technologies. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, and generates profit primarily from advertising through its AdWords program...

, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

, Yahoo, Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation that specializes in developing and marketing hardware systems and enterprise software products – particularly database management systems...

, Cisco
Cisco
Cisco may refer to:Companies:*Cisco Systems, a computer networking company* Certis CISCO, corporatised entity of the former Commercial and Industrial Security Corporation in Singapore...

, Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

, Intuit and Intel have their research and development centers along with their corporate offices in Bangalore.

Transport



Air


Bangalore is served by the newly built Bengaluru International Airport  which started operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport which was India's fourth busiest airport. Kingfisher Airlines
Kingfisher Airlines
Kingfisher Airlines is an airline group based in India. Its head office is Kingfisher House in Vile Parle , Mumbai. Kingfisher Airlines, through its parent company United Breweries Group, has a 50% stake in low-cost carrier Kingfisher Red....

 has its registered office in Bangalore. It is now the fourth busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements (ATMs) with about 280 per day.
The airport is around 40 km from the city centre. The most hassle-free way to commute is by taxi. Meru cabs and Easy cabs have taxis present in the rank at the airport. There are also certain private cab companies.

Rail


A rapid transit system
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 called the Namma Metro is being built. A 7 km stretch from Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011. Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3 km (26.3 mi) elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations. It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore to Devanahalli
Devanahalli
Devanahalli previously called Devanadoddi, Devanapura, and Yusufabad) is a city in the state of Karnataka in India. The city is located outside the city limits of Bangalore. Devanahalli is the site of the newly constructed Bengaluru International Airport, the second largest in India...

 and the Chikballapur
Chikballapur
Chikkaballapur is the District Headquarters of the newly created Chikkaballapur district in the state of Karnataka, India. Located within 3 km of Muddenahalli and its nearby town, Kanivenarayanapura, the sites of the upcoming Sri Sathya Sai Baba University and College of Medicine, Indian...

 regions.
This much-delayed project is the city’s primary response to the worsening intra-city transport infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth.

Bangalore comes under the South Western Railway
South Western Railway
The South Western Railway is one of the 16 railway zones in India. It is headquartered at Hubli and comprises Bangalore, Mysore divisions of the erstwhile Southern Railway and the reorganized Hubli division of the erstwhile South Central Railway which includes Hospet and Bellary. The division...

 zone of the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

. Bangalore City Railway station
Bangalore City Railway Station
Bangalore City Railway station is located across the Kempegowda Bus Station in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. It is an important hub of the South Western Railway. The station has 10 platforms and two entrances.-Junction:...

 and Yesvantpur Junction connect it to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways
Indian Railways
Indian Railways , abbreviated as IR , is a departmental undertaking of Government of India, which owns and operates most of India's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India....

. The Bangalore Rajdhani Express connects the city to New Delhi
New Delhi
New Delhi is the capital city of India. It serves as the centre of the Government of India and the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi is situated within the metropolis of Delhi. It is one of the nine districts of Delhi Union Territory. The total area of the city is...

, the capital of India. Bangalore is also connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and other major cities in India. The sprawling Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of Wheel & Axle for Railways and headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore.

Road


Three-wheeled, green and yellow auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi services within Bangalore is provided by several operators. Taxis
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation
Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation
The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation is a government agency that operates the public transport bus service in Bangalore, India.-History:...

 (BMTC) are an important means of public transport available in the city, and are highly reliable. While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users. BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to the Bengaluru International Airport. The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation
Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation or KSRTC is the state owned road transportation company in Karnataka.-About:KSRTC was set up in the year 1961 under the provisions of Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. It is wholly owned by the Government of Karnataka. The Government of India is also...

 operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states. The main bus depots that BMTC
BMTC
BMTC may refer to:*the Bangla Mountaineering and Trekking Club in Bangladesh*the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation in Bangalore, India*the Basic Military Training Centre on Pulau Tekong, Singapore...

 maintains are the Kempegowda Bus Station
Kempegowda Bus Station
Kempegowda Bus Station, also called Majestic Station, is a large bus station in central Bangalore, India. It is located opposite the Bangalore City Railway Station.This bus station provides connectivity to almost all the areas of Bangalore...

, locally known as "Majestic", Shantinagar Bus Depot, and Shivajinagar Bus Depot.

Demographics





With an estimated population of 5.8 million in 2001, Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 28th most populous city in the world. Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991–2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada.

The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore, which has in recent years given rise to tensions between immigrants and locals. Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Besides Kannada, other major languages spoken in the city are Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

, Telugu, Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

. A good number of Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

 speakers have settled in Bangalore since last century from Canara
Kanara
The Kanara or Canara region comprises three coastal districts of Karnataka, namely Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada and Kasaragod district of Kerala in southwestern India. Kanara forms the southern part of the Konkan coast...

 districts of Karnataka and Goa. Similarly, Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 is spoken by a small but significant minority of the society.

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.4% of Bangalore's population is Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

, roughly the same as the national average
Demographics of India
The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people , more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, surpassing...

. Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s comprise 13.4% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s and Jains account for 5.8% and 1.1% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. Anglo-Indians also form a substantial group within the city. Women make up 47.5% of Bangalore's population. Bangalore has the second highest literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai. Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slum
Slum
A slum, as defined by United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the...

s—a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (50%) and Nairobi
Nairobi
Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya. The city and its surrounding area also forms the Nairobi County. The name "Nairobi" comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nyirobi, which translates to "the place of cool waters". However, it is popularly known as the "Green City in the Sun" and is...

 (60%). The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau
NCRB
NCRB or the National Crime Records Bureau is a governmental agency of India responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code . The NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi....

 statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India.

Culture


Dasara
Mysore Dasara
Mysore Dasara is the Nadahabba of the state of Karnataka. It is also called Navaratri and is a 10-day festival with the last day being Vijayadashami, the most auspicious day of Dasara. Dasara usually falls in the month of September or October...

, a traditional celebration of the old Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire...

, is the state festival and is celebrated with great vigour.

Bangalore is known as the Garden City of India because of its greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh
Lal Bagh
- History :Hyder Ali commissioned the building of this garden in 1760 but his son, Tipu Sultan, completed it. Hyder Ali decided to create this garden on the lines of the Mughal Gardens that were gaining popularity during his time. Hyder Ali laid out these famous botanical gardens and his son added...

 and Cubbon Park
Cubbon Park
Cubbon Park is a landmark 'lung' area of the Bangalore city, located within the heart of city in the Central Administrative Area. Originally created in 1870, when Major General Richard Sankey was the then British Chief Engineer of Mysore state, it covered an area of and subsequent expansion has...

.

The city celebrates its most important and oldest festival, "Karaga Shaktyotsava" or Bangalore Karaga
Bangalore Karaga
Bangalore Karaga One of the oldest festivals celebrated in the heart of Bangalore. Bangalore Karaga is primarily a well-known tradition of Thigala community in southern Karnataka.The Karaga festival is generally led by the men of the community...

. Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi , also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha also called Vinayagar in Tamil Nadu, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival...

, Ugadi
Ugadi
Yugadi or Ugadi or "Samvatsradi" , Konkani/Marathi: युगादी yugādi, , formed by sandhi of yuga "age" and ādi "beginning": the beginning of an age) is the New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. It falls on the different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar...

, Sankranthi
Sankranthi
Makar Sankranti or Sankranti or Sankranthi marks the transition of the Sun into Makara rashi on its celestial path...

, Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

, and Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

 are also celebrated.

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year.

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western
Western world
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident , is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe , the countries of the Americas, as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand...

 fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi
Udupi cuisine
Udupi cuisine is a world-renowned cuisine of South India. It forms an important part of the Cuisine of Karnataka and takes its name from Udupi, a town on the southwest coast of India in the state of Karnataka. The Udupi cuisine has its origin in the Ashta mathas of Udupi founded by...

 restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine. Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture, so much that Bangalore Restaurant Week – an event that involved some of the best restaurants in Bangalore – was held between November 12 to 21, 2010.

Bangalore is also a major center of Indian classical music and dance. Classical music and dance recitals are widely held throughout the year and particularly during the Ramanavami and Ganesha Chaturthi festivals. The Bengaluru Gayana Samaja has been at the forefront of promoting classical music and dance in the city.

The city has a vibrant English and regional language theater scene with organizations such as Ranga Shankara
Ranga Shankara
Ranga Shankara is one of Bangalore's best known theatres. It is located in the south Bangalore area of J.P Nagar and is run by the Sanket Trust...

 and Chowdiah Memorial Hall
Chowdiah Memorial Hall
Chowdiah Memorial Hall is a cultural centre in Bangalore which provides a home for musical and theatrical performances as well as competitions. Located in Malleswaram, it was built as a tribute to Tirumakudalu Chowdiah. It is administered by Academy of Music, an independent registered body, founded...

 leading the way. Bangalore is also sometimes called as the "Pub
Public house
A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

 Capital of India" and is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts.

Sister cities


Bangalore is currently twinned with three sister cities:
City Region Country
Minsk
Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

Minsk Region  Belarus
San Francisco  California  United States
Cleveland  Ohio  United States


Sports



Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 is the most popular sport in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team
Indian cricket team
The Indian cricket team is the national cricket team of India. Governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India , it is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status....

 captains Rahul Dravid
Rahul Dravid
Rahul Sharad Dravid , is a cricketer in the Indian national team, of which he has been a regular member since 1996. He was appointed as the captain of the Indian cricket team in October 2005 and resigned from the post in September 2007. Dravid was honoured as one of the top-five Wisden Cricketers...

 and Anil Kumble
Anil Kumble
Anil Kumble is a former Indian cricketer and captain of the Indian Test cricket team. He is a right-arm leg spin bowler and a right-hand batsman. He is currently the leading wicket-taker for India in both Test and One Day International matches...

. Some of the other players who have represented India include Javagal Srinath
Javagal Srinath
Javagal Srinath is a former Indian cricketer. He was a frontline fast bowler for the Indian cricket team until his retirement, being the second Indian pace bowler after Kapil Dev to take 200 Test wickets. One ball that he bowled during the 1996 tour of South Africa measured...

, Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani
Syed Kirmani
Padma Sri Syed Mujtaba Hussain Kirmani played cricket for India and Karnataka as a wicket-keeper.-International career:...

, E. A. S. Prasanna
E. A. S. Prasanna
Erapalli Anantharao Srinivas Prasanna is a famous former cricket player from Bangalore, India. He was a spin bowler, specializing in off spin and a member of the Indian spin quartet. He is an alumunus of National Institute of Engineering , Mysore.-Career:Prasanna played his debut Test cricket...

, Venkatesh Prasad
Venkatesh Prasad
Bapu Krishnarao Venkatesh Prasad is a former Indian cricketer. He is the bowling coach for Royal Challengers Bangalore in the Indian Premier League, having formerly performed the same role for the Indian cricket team from 2007 to 2009. He made his debut in 1996...

, Sunil Joshi
Sunil Joshi
Sunil Bandacharya Joshi is a former Indian cricketer. He is an all-rounder who bowls slow left arm spin and bats left-handed. He used to travel 40 miles to Hubli each morning for practice, and then return to his native town of Gadag in time for school...

, Robin Uthappa
Robin Uthappa
Robin Venu Uthappa is an Indian cricketer. His father is Venu Uthappa, an international hockey referee from Kodagu, Karnataka, mother Roselyn is a home maker and hails from Kozhikode, Kerala and his sister Sharon is a business owner. He studied at St. Joseph's Boys High School, Bangalore...

, Vinay Kumar
Vinay Kumar
Vinay Kumar is an Indian cricket player who represents the state of Karnataka.He was signed to play for the Bangalore Royal Challengers team in the Indian Premier League for the first three seasons. In the fourth season he was contracted by Kochi Tuskers Kerala for US$475,000...

, Roger Binny
Roger Binny
Roger Michael Humphrey Binny is an Indian former cricket all-rounder who is best known for his impressive bowling performance in the 1983 Cricket World Cup where he was the highest wicket-taker , and in the 1985 World Series Cricket Championship in Australia where he repeated this feat .Binny...

 and Abhimanyu Mithun
Abhimanyu Mithun
Abhimanyu Mithun is an Indian international cricketer. In first class cricket, he plays for Karnataka. A right-arm fast-medium bowler, Mithun was called up to the India squad for the first Test against South Africa in 2009–10, only ten weeks after making his first-class debut. He has also...

. Many children play gully cricket
Forms of cricket
Various forms of cricket exist and the sport may broadly be divided between major and minor versions. Major cricket includes several variations in which top-class players have taken part such as Test cricket, first-class cricket, single wicket, limited overs cricket and Twenty20. At all levels,...

 on the roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
M. Chinnaswamy Stadium
The M. Chinnaswamy Stadium , located in Bangalore, Karnataka, is one of the cricket stadiums of India. Flanked by the picturesque Cubbon Park, Queen's Road, Cubbon and uptown MG Road, this four decade old stadium is situated in the heart of the city of Bangalore. Formerly known as the Karnataka...

, which has a seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 of 55,000 and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup
1987 Cricket World Cup
The 1987 Cricket World Cup was the fourth edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament. It was held from October 8 to November 8, 1987 in India and Pakistan — the first held outside England. The format was unchanged from 1983 except for a reduction in the number of overs a team played from 60...

, 1996 Cricket World Cup
1996 Cricket World Cup
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, was the sixth edition of the tournament organized by the International Cricket Council . It was the second World Cup to be hosted by Pakistan and India, and for the first time by Sri Lanka...

 and the 2011 Cricket World Cup
2011 Cricket World Cup
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup. It was played in India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. It was Bangladesh's first time co-hosting a World Cup...

. The Chinnaswamy Stadium is also the home of India's National Cricket Academy
National Cricket Academy
The National Cricket Academy located in Chinnaswamy Stadium Bangalore, Karnataka in India, established in 2000 is a cricket facility of the Board of Control for Cricket in India for training young cricketers who are identified as having the potential to represent the Indian cricket team...

.

The Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier League is a professional league for Twenty20 cricket competition in India. It was initiated by the Board of Control for Cricket in India , headquartered in Mumbai, and is supervised by BCCI Vice President Rajeev Shukla, who serves as the league's Chairman and Commissioner...

 franchise Bangalore Royal Challengers, the Premier Hockey League
Premier Hockey League
The now defunct Premier Hockey League was a professional league competition for field Hockey clubs in the top division of the Indian hockey system. There were seven teams in the PHL. The competition was held every year from 2005 till 2008.-History:...

 franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers
Bangalore Hi-Fliers
The Bangalore Hi-Fliers are the Premier Hockey League team from the IT Hub of India, Bangalore, Karnataka. The team is led by Tushar Khandekar a member of Indian Hockey team...

, and the Karnataka Premier League
Karnataka Premier League
Mantri Karnataka Premier League is an Indian Twenty20 cricket league established by the Karnataka State Cricket Association in August, 2009. The domestic cricket competition is modeled along the lines of the popular Indian Premier League...

 franchisees Bangalore Brigadiers
Bangalore Brigadiers
Bangalore Brigadiers is a Bangalore Urban based Twenty20 cricket team part of the Karnataka Premier League.The team is owned by the Brigade Group, one of India's leading developers....

 and Provident Bangalore are based in the city. India's Davis Cup
Davis Cup
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested between teams of players from competing countries in a knock-out format. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between Britain and the United States. By...

 team members, Mahesh Bhupathi
Mahesh Bhupathi
Mahesh Shrinivas Bhupathi is an Indian professional tennis player widely regarded as among the best doubles players in the world with 11 Grand Slam titles to his credit. In 1997, he became the first Indian to win a Grand Slam tournament...

 and Rohan Bopanna
Rohan Bopanna
Rohan Bopanna is an Indian professional tennis player. His singles career high ranking was 213th in 2007. Recently, most of his appearances in professional tournaments has been in doubles matches. He is a member of the Indian Davis Cup team since 2002...

 also reside in Bangalore. The city hosts the Women's Tennis Association
Women's Tennis Association
The Women's Tennis Association , founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organizing body of Women's Professional Tennis. It governs the WTA Tour which is the worldwide professional tennis tour for women. Its counterpart organization in the men's professional game is the Association of...

 (WTA) Bangalore Open
Bangalore Open
The Bangalore Open was a tennis tournament held in Bangalore, India. The tournament began in Hyderabad in 2003, and moved to Bangalore in 2006. This WTA Tour event was played on outdoor hardcourts. It as a Premier Mandatory event with a prize Money of US$175,000...

 tournament annually. Beginning September 2008, Bangalore has also been hosting the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open
Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open
The Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open was a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It was part of the International Series of the ATP Tour...

 ATP
Association of Tennis Professionals
The Association of Tennis Professionals or ATP was formed in 1972 by Donald Dell, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. Since 1990, the association has organized the worldwide tennis tour for men and linked the title of the tour with the...

 tournament annually. Bangalore is also home to the Bangalore Rugby Football Club (B.R.F.C)

Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club
Bangalore Club
Located in Bangalore, India, The Bangalore Club is the oldest club in the city, founded in 1868. It counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharajah of Mysore. A ledger on display in the main building of the club is open to a page that has a list of "irrecoverable debts" that...

, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

 and the Maharaja of Mysore. The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet
Nisha Millet
Nisha Millet is a swimmer from Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Nisha Millet, and the Arjuna Award winner, was the only woman in the 2000 Sydney Olympics swim team for India.-Career:...

, world snooker
Snooker
Snooker is a cue sport that is played on a green baize-covered table with pockets in each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions. A regular table is . It is played using a cue and snooker balls: one white , 15 worth one point each, and six balls of different :...

 champion, Pankaj Advani
Pankaj Advani
Pankaj Arjan Advani is an Indian Billiards and Snooker player. A winner of seven World Titles in Billiards and Snooker, he is considered to be the one of the best Billiards Player India has produced...

 and former All England Open badminton
Badminton
Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players or two opposing pairs , who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their...

 champion Prakash Padukone
Prakash Padukone
Prakash Padukone is a former badminton player from Karnataka, India. Among other championships, he won the All England Championship and became the first Indian to do so. Prakash was awarded the Padma Sri in 1982...

.

Education




Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion. The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar
Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar
Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar was the ruling Maharaja of the princely state of Mysore in India. Also known as Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, he belonged to the Wodeyar dynasty and ruled his state for nearly seventy years, from 30 June 1799 to 27 March 1868. He is known for his contribution and patronage...

, when two schools were established in Bangalore. Subsequently, Wesleyan Mission established a school in 1851 and the Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in 1858.

In post-independent India, schools for young children are mainly based on the kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

 form of education. Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), ICSE
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education or ICSE examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, a private, non-governmental board of school education in India, for class 10, i.e., grade 10...

, CBSE, IB and NIOS
National Institute of Open Schooling
The National Institute of Open Schooling , is the Board of Education for open schools in India. It was established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India in 1989 to provide education inexpensively to remote areas...

. Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government). After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University
Pre University Course
Pre University Course, popularly known as PUC is an intermediate course of duration two years conducted by state education boards in India. A person desiring admission to any Indian university must pass this course. The course can be considered a bridge course to prepare students for university...

 (PUC) or continue High School in one of three streamsArts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

, Commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

 or Science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

. Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities. The Bangalore University
Bangalore University
Bangalore University is a public university located in Bangalore, Karnataka State, India. The university is one of the oldest in India, dating back to 1886...

,established in 1886, provides affiliation to about 500 colleges, with a total student enrollment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.

Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science is a research institution of higher learning located in Bangalore, India. It was established in 1909.-History:After a chance meeting between Jamsetji N...

, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India. Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), National Institute of Design
National Institute of Design, Bangalore
See National Institute of Design for the main article about the university and the main campus at Paldi, AhmedabadThe National Institute of Design R&D Campus better known as NID Bangalore is a design institute located in Bangalore, in Karnataka...

 (NID), National Law School of India University
National Law School of India University
The National Law School of India University is the leading institution for undergraduate and graduate legal education in India. By popular estimates, the school consistently ranks as the most prestigious law school in India...

 (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B), the Indian Statistical Institute
Indian Statistical Institute
Indian Statistical Institute is a public research institute and university in Kolkata's northern outskirt of Baranagar, India founded by Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1931...

 and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B) are located in Bangalore. The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences
NIMHANS
The National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences is located in Bangalore, and is the premier neuroscience institute of India. It is recognised by the Government of India as a 'medical institute of national importance'...

 (NIMHANS). Bangalore also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St. John's Medical College
St. John's Medical College
St. John's Medical College is one of India's premier medical institutions. It is part of the St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences run by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India. It was established in 1963 and is situated in Bangalore, India....

 (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI).

Media


The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year 1840. In 1859, punjab kesri became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore. Currently, Vijaya Karnataka
Vijaya Karnataka
Vijaya Karnataka is a Kannada newspaper. It is the largest circulated Kannada daily and published from a number of cities in Karnataka. This was founded by VRL group, started in October 2000. During its initial days this news paper was distributed for free for one month. Later on this paper was...

and The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani
Prajavani
Prajavani is a leading Kannada-language newspaper in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is a sister publication of the Deccan Herald. , it had a circulation of 364,000, making it the second-largest-circulation newspaper in Karnataka , and the largest-circulation Kannada-language newspaper in the...

and Deccan Herald
Deccan Herald
The Deccan Herald is a leading English-language daily newspaper distributed in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is published by the Printers Private Limited and has a number of editions in Bangalore, Hubli, Mysore, Mangalore and Gulbarga....

both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited – the largest print media house in Karnataka.

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955. The radio transmission was AM
Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM
Frequency modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant...

 radio from Bangalore. In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore. The city also has India's Oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio Club – Bangalore Amateur Radio Club VU2ARC celebrating its Golden Jubilee along with Hamfest India HFI 2009 this November amongst various clubs for HAM radio enthusiasts. There are two operational community radio stations in Bangalore called Radio Active and Ramana Voices, managed by Mahaveer Jain College and Shree Ramana Maharishi Academy of the Blind (SRMAB), respectively. The latter is being co-managed by a media advocacy group in Bangalore called VOICES.

Bangalore has a number of newspapers and magazines that cater to the varied interests. number of news channels operate in the city, as well as in the state too. Magazines like Open and 080 cater to lifestyle, citizen issues and fashion, newspapers like Mid-Day
Mid-day
Mid Day is an afternoon daily Indian compact newspaper. Editions in various languages are published in Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi and Pune .-Establishment:...

, Bangalore Mirror, Vijaya Karnataka provide localised news updates. On the web, Explocity
Explocity
Explocity Pvt Ltd is a media and publishing company headquartered in Bangalore. The company was formed by Ramjee Chandran. Prior to the inception of Explocity, Chandran first began a Bangalore based magazine, Bangalore This Fortnight, in 1989. This was followed by the launch of the Bangalore...

 provides listings information. Deccan Herald
Deccan Herald
The Deccan Herald is a leading English-language daily newspaper distributed in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is published by the Printers Private Limited and has a number of editions in Bangalore, Hubli, Mysore, Mangalore and Gulbarga....

, The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

 and The Hindu
The Hindu
The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40...

 provide e-paper services.

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

 established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981. A production center was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983. Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now named DD Chandana
DD Chandana
DD Chandana is a Kannada TV channel owned and operated by Prasar Bharati under Doordarshan, supported by Doordarshan studios in Bangalore and Gulbarga. Launched in 1994 DD Chandana has entertainment serials, infotainment programmes, news and current affairs, social programmes and film programmes...

. The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV
STAR TV (Asia)
Satellite Television Asian Region is an Asian TV service owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation.In 2009, News Corporation restructured STAR Asia into four units – STAR India, STAR Greater China, STAR Select and Fox International Channels....

 started to broadcast its channels. Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years, the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts. Direct To Home services are also available in Bangalore now.

The first Internet service provider
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is a company that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect customers to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and host other people servers...

 in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s. This Internet service was however restricted to corporates, until VSNL started offering dial-up internet
Dial-up access
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network to establish a dialled connection to an Internet service provider via telephone lines...

 services to the general public at the end of 1995. Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India.

See also


  • Outline of India
  • Karnataka
    Karnataka
    Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

  • List of tourist attractions in Bangalore
  • Mysore
  • Mangalore
    Mangalore
    Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about west of the state capital, Bangalore. Mangalore lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, and is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district in south western...

  • Hubli
  • Bangalored


Further reading

  • Hasan, Fazlul. Bangalore Through The Centuries. Bangalore: Historical Publications, 1970.
  • Plunkett, Richard. South India. Lonely Planet
    Lonely Planet
    Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book and digital media publisher in the world. The company is owned by BBC Worldwide, which bought a 75% share from the founders Maureen and Tony Wheeler in 2007 and the final 25% in February 2011...

    , 2001. ISBN 1-86450-161-8
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External links