Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh

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Andhra Pradesh is one of the 28 states
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, situated on the southeastern coast of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third among all states in India. The State has the second-longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all the States in India. The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

 and Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 is the secondary official language in some places, while other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh are Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

, Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

, Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

, Kannada, Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

. 10281 persons declare English as their first language in Andhra Pradesh according to the 2001 census.

Andhra Pradesh lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh is a state in Central India, formed when the 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking South-Eastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained separate statehood on 1 November 2000....

 and Orissa
Orissa
Orissa , officially Odisha since Nov 2011, is a state of India, located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient nation of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka in 261 BC. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April...

 in the north, the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

 in the East, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

 to the south and Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

 to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006. Two major rivers, the Godavari
Godavari River
The Godavari is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India , that runs within the country and also the longest river in South India...

 and the Krishna
Krishna River
The Krishna River , is one of the longest rivers in central-southern India, about . It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature...

, run across the state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (11.6 sq mi)) of Yanam
Yanam district
Yanam district is one of the four districts of the Union Territory of Pondicherry in India.-Revenue Villages:Apart from the town of Yanam itself, the following villages fall under the district's jurisdiction:* Agraharam* Darialatippa* Farampeta...

, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari Delta in the northeast of the state.

On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
-After Indian independence :When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent...

 and the already existing Andhra State .

Early History




An Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana
Aitareya Brahmana
The Aitareya Brahmana is the Brahmana of the Shakala shakha of the Rigveda, an ancient Indian collection of sacred hymns. This work, according to the tradition is ascribed to Mahidasa Aitareya.-Contents:...

 (800 BCE) and Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 (400 BCE). The Natya Shastra
Natya Shastra
The Natya Shastra is an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BC and 200 AD in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata.The Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope...

 written by Bharatha
Bharata Muni
Bharata was an ancient Indian musicologist who authored the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics, dated to between roughly 400 BC and 200 BC. Indian dance and music find their root in the Natyashastra...

 (1st century BCE) also mentions the Andhra people. The roots of the Telugu language
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

 have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur
Guntur
Guntur , is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, located to the north and west of the Bay of Bengal. It is approximately to the south of the national capital, New Delhi and south east of state capital, Hyderabad. Guntur is the fourth largest city in Andhra...

 district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5th century CE.

Megasthenes
Megasthenes
Megasthenes was a Greek ethnographer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica.He was born in Asia Minor and became an ambassador of Seleucus I of Syria possibly to Chandragupta Maurya in Pataliputra, India. However the exact date of his embassy is uncertain...

, a Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 traveller and geographer who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya , was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in conquering most of the Indian subcontinent. Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and its first genuine emperor...

 (322–297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts or tents near the Godavari River
Godavari River
The Godavari is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India , that runs within the country and also the longest river in South India...

 at that time.

Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra or Kosta, is a region of India's Andhra Pradesh State. This region was part of Madras State before 1953 and Andhra State from 1953 to 1956. According to the 2011 census, it has an area of and a population of 3,41,93,868...

 (Guntur District) ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu
Bhattiprolu
Bhattiprolu is a small village in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State in Southern India.-History:The original name of Bhattiprolu was Pratipalapura, a flourishing Buddhist town in the ancient Sala kingdom that predated Andhra Satavahanas. From available inscriptional evidence, King Kuberaka...

) as the capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota
Dharanikota
Dharanikota or Dhanyakatakam or Palden Drepung is a town near Amaravati in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh in India, which means a town of rice or paddy.- Location :...

 (present day Amaravati
Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh
Amaravathi is a small town situated on the banks of the River Krishna in the Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is famous for its Amareswara temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. The temple is one of the famous Pancharamas. Amaravati, also known as Dhanyakataka/Dharanikota was the site of a...

) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

. According to the ancient Tibetan
Tibetan people
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet, which is mostly in the People's Republic of China. They number 5.4 million and are the 10th largest ethnic group in the country. Significant Tibetan minorities also live in India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

 scholar Taranatha
Taranatha
Tāranātha was a Lama of the Jonang school of Tibetan Buddhism. He is widely considered its most remarkable scholar and exponent....

: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra
Chaitra
Chaitra is a month of the Hindu calendar....

 in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa
Stupa
A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship....

 of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala
Mandala
Maṇḍala is a Sanskrit word that means "circle". In the Buddhist and Hindu religious traditions their sacred art often takes a mandala form. The basic form of most Hindu and Buddhist mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point...

 of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra
Kalachakra
Kalachakra is a Sanskrit term used in Tantric Buddhism that literally means "time-wheel" or "time-cycles".The spelling Kalacakra is also correct....

)".

Literary evidence shows that long before Bhogala's, a legendary king named Bhogala Hari Siva Kumar Reddy ruled in and around the Diviseema
Diviseema
Diviseema is a small and fertile island in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India.-Geography:Diviseema is located in the delta area formed at Puligadda , where the Krishna River is divided into two before merging into the Bay of Bengal...

 region of Andhra Pradesh. After his reign, people came to believe that he had an amsa of the divine savior Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Perhaps in his honor, people dedicated a new temple now located at Srikaku?am
Srikakulam village
Srikakulam is a Village located in Ghantasala Mandal in diviseema region of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh.This place is known for the Srikakulandhra Vishnu temple built in the honor of a king named Andhra Vishnu who reigned before Satavahanas...

, Krishna District
Krishna district
Krishna District is a district of India's Andhra Pradesh state. It is named after the Krishna River, the third longest river that flows within India, flows through the district and joins Bay of Bengal here in this district. It has a population of 4,529,009 of which 32.08% is urban as of...

. The lord of the temple is known as Andhra Vi?h?u or Srikaku?andhra Vi?h?u. The Mauryans
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

 extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty
Ikshvaku dynasty
The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty founded by Ikshvaku, grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. This dynasty is also known as . The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit...

, Pallava
Pallava
The Pallava dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which ruled the northern Tamil Nadu region and the southern Andhra Pradesh region with their capital at Kanchipuram...

s, Ananda Gotrika
Ananda Gotrika
Ananda Gotrikas, also referred to as Anandas ruled coastal Andhra with Kapotapuram as the capital from 335-425 AD. The Telegu form of Kapotapuram is Pittalapuram. It is located in Chejerla mandal of Nellore District....

s, Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
The Rashtrakuta Empire was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related, but individual clans. Rastrakutas in inscriptions represented as descendants of Satyaki, a Yadava well known...

s, Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
The Vishnukundina Empire was an Indian imperial power controlling the Deccan, Orissa and parts of South India during the 5th and 6th centuries, carving land out from the Vakataka Empire. It played an important role in the history of the Deccan during the 5th and 6th centuries CE...

s, Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. Their capital was Vengi and their dynasty lasted for around 500 years from the 7th century until c. 1130 C.E. when the Vengi kingdom merged with the Chola empire...

, and Cholas
Chola Dynasty
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling in some parts of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until...

 ruled the land.

During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit
Prakrit
Prakrit is the name for a group of Middle Indic, Indo-Aryan languages, derived from Old Indic dialects. The word itself has a flexible definition, being defined sometimes as, "original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual", or "vernacular", in contrast to the literary and religious...

 and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

. Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
The Vishnukundina Empire was an Indian imperial power controlling the Deccan, Orissa and parts of South India during the 5th and 6th centuries, carving land out from the Vakataka Empire. It played an important role in the history of the Deccan during the 5th and 6th centuries CE...

 kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi
Vengi
The Vengi kingdom extended from the Godavari River in the north to Mount Mahendragiri in the southeast and to just south of the banks of River Krishna in the south of India. This area was part of Kalinga until that kingdom was conquered by Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire in the mid 3rd century...

. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was also Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India. Rajaraja was related to the Cholas of Tanjavur by marital and political links. Rajaraja Narendra established the city Rajahmahendravaram. His period was famous for the Social and Cultural heritage...

 ruled Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry is a city and municipal corporation of the Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad, on the banks of the River Godavari. Known as the Cultural Capital, Rajahmundry is noted for its intense Veda culture and intellect...

 around 1022 CE.

The battle of Palnadu
Palnadu
Palnadu is the northern region of Guntur District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Also known as Pallava Nadu, it occupies an important place in Telugu history. After the decline of the Satavahana dynasty, the Pallavas became independent in Krishna river valley. The region is known as...

 (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq , real name Ghazi Malik was the founder and first ruler of the Turkic Muslim Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over Sultanate of Delhi . He has been the founder of the third city of Delhi called Tughluqabad.Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq was in origin a poor Qarauna who took...

 sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and captured Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks
Musunuri Nayaks
The Musunuri Nayaks were Kamma warrior chieftains in the Kakatiya army, who regained Andhradesa in 1326 from the Delhi Sultanate in the aftermath of the Kakatiya defeat...

 recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years.
State language  Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

 (తెలుగు)
State symbol
Emblems of Indian States
The following galleries display the official emblems of the 28 states and 7 union territories of India:...

 
Poorna kumbham (పూర్ణకుంభం)
State song Maa Telugu Thalliki
Maa telugu thalliki
-Original song:మా తెలుగు తల్లికి మల్లెపూదండ, మా కన్నతల్లికి మంగళారతులు,కడుపులో బంగారు కనుచూపులో కరుణ,చిరునవ్వులో సిరులు దొరలించు మాతల్లి.గలగలా గోదారి కదలిపోతుంటేను బిరాబిరాక్రిష్ణమ్మ పరుగులిడుతుంటేను బంగారు పంటలే పండుతాయీ...

 (మా తెలుగు తల్లికి మల్లె పూదండ)
by Sri Sankarambadi Sundaraachari
Sri Sankarambadi Sundaraachari
Sankarambadi Sundarachari penned Maa Telugu Talliki, state anthem for Andhra Pradesh, was said to be an authority on Ramayana.He penned a different version of Ramayana by the name Sundara Ramayanam. Later on, he also wrote Sundara Bharatam, besides half-a-dozen other works...

State animal  Black Buck
Blackbuck
Blackbuck is a species of antelope native to the Indian subcontinent. Their range decreased sharply during the 20th century. Since 2003, the IUCN lists the species as near threatened....

 (కృష్ణ జింక)
State bird  Indian Roller
Indian Roller
The Indian Roller , also called the Blue Jay in former times is a member of the roller family of birds. They are found in southern Asia from Iraq to Thailand and are best known for the aerobatic displays of the male during the breeding season...

 (పాల పిట్ట)
State tree  Neem
Neem
Azadirachta indica is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to India growing in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil...

 (వేప)
State sport Kabaddi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi is a South Asian team sport...

 (చెడుగుడు)
State dance Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi is a Classical Indian dance form Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also popular all over South India. Kuchipudi is the name of a village in the Divi Taluka of Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal and with resident Brahmins practicing this traditional dance form, it acquired the...

 (కూచిపూడి)
State flower  Water lily
Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants. Members of this family are commonly called water lilies and live in freshwater areas in temperate and tropical climates around the world. The family contains eight genera. There are about 70 species of water lilies around the world. The genus...

 (కలువ పువ్వు)


Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
The Vijayanagara Empire , referred as the Kingdom of Bisnaga by the Portuguese, was an empire based in South Indian in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts...

, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara
Harihara
Harihara is the name of a combined deity form of both Vishnu and Shiva from the Hindu tradition. Also known as Shankaranarayana , Harihara is thus worshipped by both Vaishnavites and Shaivities as a form of the Supreme God, as well as being a figure of worship for other Hindu traditions in general...

 and Bukka
Bukka
Bukka was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty. Bukka patronised Telugu poet Nachana Soma....

, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms...

, was established in south India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

 by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty
Qutb Shahi dynasty
The Qutb Shahi dynasty was a Turko-Persian dynasty ; its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis. They were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda in modern-day Andra Pradesh, India. They were Shia Muslims and belonged to Kara Koyunlu...

 held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.

Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC. Approximately over 1000 years ago this region was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 AD, and fell under Delhi sultanate from (1310–1345), when the central sultanate became weak the Bahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq and established an independent state in Deccan within the Delhi Sultanates southern provinces and ruled until 1518 AD. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor of golconda, declared Independence from Bahmani Dynasty, and announced himself a sultan of golconda in the year 1518 AD, and founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty.

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a fifth Sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (the ruling family of the Golconda Sultanate, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in 1512) founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591[20] to relieve a water shortage the dynasty had experienced at its old headquarters at Golconda city(11 kilometers west of Hyderabad city on the other side of Musi). He also ordered the construction of the Charminar. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured kingdom of Golconda including the city of Hyderabad in 1687 and, during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors of the city soon gained autonomy.

In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over kingdom of Golconda renamed it as Hyderabad state. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad State until a year after India's independence from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad city both culturally and economically. Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the kingdom (Hyderabad state) and Golkonda city was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, and Himayat Sagar, were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams, which is a tourist attraction. The state was the richest and the largest among the princely states of India. The land area of the state was 90,543 mi²; its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £90,029,000.

Early modern history




In Colonial India
Colonial India
Colonial India refers to areas of the Indian Subcontinent under the control of European colonial powers, through trade and conquest. The first European power to arrive in India was the army of Alexander the Great in 327–326 BC. The satraps he established in the north west of the subcontinent...

, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra or Kosta, is a region of India's Andhra Pradesh State. This region was part of Madras State before 1953 and Andhra State from 1953 to 1956. According to the 2011 census, it has an area of and a population of 3,41,93,868...

 region. Later the Nizam
Nizam
Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad popularly known as Nizams of Hyderabad was a former monarchy of the Hyderabad State, now in the states of Andhra Pradesh , Karnataka , and Maharashtra in India...

 rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema is a geographic region in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It includes the districts of Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, Kurnool. These Telugu speaking districts were part of Madras Presidency until 1953 when Telugu speaking districts of Madras presidency were carved out to form...

 region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state
Princely state
A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

 of Hyderabad
Hyderabad State
-After Indian independence :When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent...

, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem
Komaram Bheem
Komaram Bheem is a tribal leader who fought against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.On December 17, 2009, it was announced that a statue of Bheem would be installed in Hyderabad....

, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
-After Indian independence :When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan came into existence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent...

. Meanwhile, the French
French colonial empire
The French colonial empire was the set of territories outside Europe that were under French rule primarily from the 17th century to the late 1960s. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the colonial empire of France was the second-largest in the world behind the British Empire. The French colonial empire...

 occupied Yanam
Yanam (India)
Yanam or Yanaon is a town in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry ; it is located in Yanam district. Yanam has some 300 years of history and is well known as French Yanam even now although it was transferred to India in 1954. It forms a 30 km² enclave in the district of East Godavari in...

, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.

India became independent
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

 from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo
Operation Polo
Operation Polo code name for The Hyderabad Police Action was a military operation in September 1948 in which the Indian Armed Forces engaged those of the State of Hyderabad and ended the rule of Nizam, annexing the state into the Indian Union....

 in 1948.

In an effort to gain an independent state based on the linguistic and protect the interests of the Andhra (Telugu-speaking) people of Madras State
Madras State
Madras State was the name by which the Indian districts in Tamil Nadu, Andhra, Northern Kerala, Bellary and Dakshina Kannada were collectively known as from 1950 to 1953....

, Potti Sreeramulu
Potti Sreeramulu
Potti Sreeramulu , was an Indian revolutionary. He became famous for undertaking a fast-unto-death for achieving the Andhra State and losing his life in the process. His sacrifice became instrumental in the linguistic re-organisation of states. He is revered as Amarajeevi in Andhra for his...

 fasted until death in 1952. After his death, Andhra attained statehood on 1 November 1953, with Kurnool
Kurnool
Kurnool is located at . It has an average elevation of 273 metres .Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Handry and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C...

 as its capital.

On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Hyderabad state with the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Madras state to form the state of Vishalandhra, which is named as Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state.

There were several movements to disintegrate Andhra Pradesh into two states viz. Andhra and Telengana in the late 1960 which are continuing till date.

On 9 December 2009, it was announced that a separation proposal for Telangana would be introduced to the state assembly. Controversy arose as to the future status of Hyderabad City, part of one of the ten districts of Telangana region. This move was opposed by protesters from Kosta and Rayalaseema regions. On 23 December 2009, the government decided to put the decision of bifurcating the state on hold until a consensus is achieved among the different political parties.

This agitated supporters of a separate Telangana state. On 5 January 2010, the Central Government represented by Home Minister P Chidambaram conducted a meeting by inviting all the recognised political parties of AP and recorded their stand on the issue. The Government of India appointed a committee, headed by B. N. Srikrishna, to guide the central government to settle the issue of Telangana amicably. The committee
Srikrishna committee on Telangana
Srikrishna committee on Telangana or Committee for consultations on the situation in Andhra Pradesh is a committee headed by former chief justice B. N. Srikrishna to look into the demand for separate statehood for Telangana or keep the state united in the present form, Andhra Pradesh...

 submitted its report on 30 December 2010, a day before its term was to expire.

Geography and climate



Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau
Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in India, making up the majority of the southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, rising further to more than a kilometers high in the south, forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of...

 and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
The Eastern Ghats or Eastern Ghauts are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. The Eastern Ghats run from West Bengal state in the north, through Orissa and Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka. They are eroded and cut through by the...

. Andhra Pradesh is divided into three regions. The northern part of the plateau is the Telangana
Telangana
Telangana is a region in the present state of Andhra Pradesh, India and formerly was part of Hyderabad state which was ruled by Nizam. It is bordered with the states of Maharashtra on the north and north-west, Karnataka on the west, Chattisgarh on the north-east and Orissa to the east...

 region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema is a geographic region in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It includes the districts of Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, Kurnool. These Telugu speaking districts were part of Madras Presidency until 1953 when Telugu speaking districts of Madras presidency were carved out to form...

. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. The third region is Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra or Kosta, is a region of India's Andhra Pradesh State. This region was part of Madras State before 1953 and Andhra State from 1953 to 1956. According to the 2011 census, it has an area of and a population of 3,41,93,868...

. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains
Eastern Coastal Plains
The Eastern Coastal Plains refer to a wide stretch of landmass of India, lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north....

. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral rich area. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari
Godavari River
The Godavari is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India , that runs within the country and also the longest river in South India...

, Krishna, and Penner
Penner River
The Penner is a river of southern India. The Penner rises on the hill of Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka state, and runs north and east through the state of Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal...

 rivers. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern Ghat region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions.

Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
The Indian Space Research Organisation is an independent Indian governmental agency established in 1969 for the research and development of vehicles and activities for the exploration of space within and outside of Earth’s atmosphere. Headquartered in Bangalore...

's Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Satish Dhawan Space Centre
The Satish Dhawan Space Centre is the launch centre for the Indian Space Research Organisation . It is located in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, India, north of Chennai in South India. It was originally called Sriharikota High Altitude Range , and was sometime known as Sriharikota Launching Range...

 is located at the Barrier Island
Barrier island
Barrier islands, a coastal landform and a type of barrier system, are relatively narrow strips of sand that parallel the mainland coast. They usually occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen...

 of Sriharikota
Sriharikota
Sriharikota is a barrier island off the coast of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It houses India's only satellite launch centre in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre and is used by the Indian Space Research Organisation to launch satellites using multi-stage rockets such as the Polar...

, in Nellore
Nellore
Nellore , is a city and headquarters of Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore District, formerly Nellore district.And in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Ancient name of Nellore was "Vikrama Simhapuri"....

 district of Andhra Pradesh.

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.

July to September is the seasons for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the Northeast Monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.

Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Secunderabad popularly known as the twin city of Hyderabad is located in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh north of Hyderabad. Named after Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, Secunderabad was founded in 1806 AD as a British cantonment...

, is the largest city in the state.Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam is a major sea port on the south east coast of India. With a population of approximately 1.7 million, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city on the east coast of India after Kolkata and Chennai. According to the history, the city was...

, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city and is home to the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. The President of India serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. The Chief of Naval Staff , usually a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral, commands the Navy...

's Eastern Naval Command. Due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes, Vijayawada
Vijayawada
Vijayawada is the third largest city in Andhra Pradesh, India, located on the banks of the Krishna River and bounded by the Indrakiladri Hills on the West and the Budameru River on the North. The city is located in the Krishna District, about from the state capital Hyderabad.Vijayawada literally...

 is a major trading center and is the third largest city of the state, Guntur
Guntur
Guntur , is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, located to the north and west of the Bay of Bengal. It is approximately to the south of the national capital, New Delhi and south east of state capital, Hyderabad. Guntur is the fourth largest city in Andhra...

 is the fourth largest city of the state, followed by Warangal
Warangal
Warangal is a city and a municipal corporation in Warangal district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Warangal is located northeast of the state capital of Hyderabad and is the administrative headquarters of Warangal District. This district is a combination of three cities: Warangal,...

, Tirupati, Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry is a city and municipal corporation of the Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad, on the banks of the River Godavari. Known as the Cultural Capital, Rajahmundry is noted for its intense Veda culture and intellect...

, Kakinada
Kakinada
Kakinada is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad. It is also the headquarters of East Godavari district. It is nicknamed "Fertilizer City" , "Pensioner's Paradise" and "Second Madras"...

. Other important places of the state are Nellore
Nellore
Nellore , is a city and headquarters of Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore District, formerly Nellore district.And in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Ancient name of Nellore was "Vikrama Simhapuri"....

, Srikakulam
Srikakulam
Srikakulam is a town, municipality and headquarters of Srikakulam district in the north-eastern Andhra Pradesh, India. It is part of Srikakulam Assembly constituency and Srikakulam Parliament Constituency. Srikakulam was formerly called as Gulshanabad during Muslim rule and was headquarter of...

, Kurnool
Kurnool
Kurnool is located at . It has an average elevation of 273 metres .Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Handry and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C...

, and Kadapa
Kadapa
Kadapa , formerly Cuddapah, is a city in the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India . The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate...

.

Demographics


Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

 and Urdu are the official languages of the state, spoken by 83% and 8.63% of the population. Major linguistic minority groups are Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 (3.23%), and Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 (1.01%).

Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% each are Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

(0.80%),Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 (0.74%), and Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

 (0.44%). Languages spoken by less than 0.2% of the population include Malayalam
Malayalam language
Malayalam , is one of the four major Dravidian languages of southern India. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India with official language status in the state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry. It is spoken by 35.9 million people...

 (0.08%), Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

 (0.06%), Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

 (0.05%), Gorkhali/Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 (0.03%), Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

 (0.01%) and Sindhi
Sindhi language
Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of Pakistan that is spoken by the Sindhi people. In India, it is among 22 constitutionally recognized languages, where Sindhis are a sizeable minority. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan, according to the national government's Statistics Division...

(0.01%).

The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh is the Telugu people
Telugu people
The Telugu people or Telugu Prajalu are an ethnic group of India. They are the native speakers of the Telugu language, the most commonly spoken language in India after Hindi and Bengali...

, who are primarily Dravidians.

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth compared to all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores with a score of 0.416.

The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Khammam
Khammam district
Khammam District is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It had a population of 2,565,412 of which 19.81% were urban as of 2001 census. Khammam town is the district headquarters. The present name of Khammam is derived from the old name Kammamet. Later it was called Khammam Mettu and subsequently...

, Krishna
Krishna district
Krishna District is a district of India's Andhra Pradesh state. It is named after the Krishna River, the third longest river that flows within India, flows through the district and joins Bay of Bengal here in this district. It has a population of 4,529,009 of which 32.08% is urban as of...

, West Godavari
West Godavari
West Godavari District is one of the 23 districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. Eluru, is the district headquarter...

, Chittoor
Chittoor district
Chittoor District , also known as Chittur, is a district of India's Andhra Pradesh state. The district headquarters is Chittoor City. The district has a population of 4,170,468 according to 2011 census of India. Chittoor district is famous for the Tirupati, Kanipakam and Sri Kalahasti temples...

, and Medak
Medak district
Medak District is located in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Sangareddy is the district headquarters of Medak. The district had a population of 2,670,097, of which 14.36% were urban as of 2001...

 are the five districts with the highest Human Development Index
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate "very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries...

scores in ascending order in rural AP. The data show that the poor make up 16.3 per cent of the total population in rural AP and expenditure on consumption is around 13.5 per cent of the total consumption expenditure. The female literacy rate is 0.66 compared to male literacy rate in rural AP. The district-wise variations for poverty ratio are high and low for the ratio of female/male literacy rate.

Religions


The state is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important figure is Saint Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami. He was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste and had Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

 and Dalit
Dalit
Dalit is a designation for a group of people traditionally regarded as Untouchable. Dalits are a mixed population, consisting of numerous castes from all over South Asia; they speak a variety of languages and practice a multitude of religions...

 disciples. Fisherman Raghu was a Shudra
Shudra
Shudra is the fourth Varna, as prescribed in the Purusha Sukta of the Rig veda, which constitutes society into four varnas or Chaturvarna. The other three varnas are Brahmans - priests, Kshatriya - those with governing functions, Vaishya - agriculturalists, cattle rearers and traders...

 saint. Saint Kakkayya was a chura
Chura
Chura is a caste in Punjab whose traditional occupation is sweeping. Churas are largely followers of Sikhism and secondly Christianity. A small minority practice Valmikism an off shoot or cult form of mainstream Hinduism which still incorporates elements of Sikhism in its practices...

(sweeper) Harijan saint.
Several important Hindu modern-day saints are from Andhra Pradesh. These include Nimbarka
Nimbarka
Nimbarka , is known for propagating the Vaishnava Theology of Dvaitadvaita, duality in unity. According to scholars headed by Prof. Roma Bose, he lived in the 13th Century, on the assumption that Śrī Nimbārkācārya was the author of the work Madhvamukhamardana...

, who founded Dvaitadvaita
Dvaitadvaita
Dvaitadvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a Vaishnava Philosopher who hailed from Andhra Region. Nimbarka’s philosophical position is known as Dvaitadvaita . The categories of existence, according to him, are three, i.e., Chit, acit, and Isvara...

; Mother Meera
Mother Meera
Mother Meera, born Kamala Reddy is believed by her devotees to be an embodiment of the Divine Mother .-Life account:...

, who runs an ashram in Madanapalle
Madanapalle
Madanapalle , is a town and a Municipality located in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state, India - population 107,512 . Legend has it that the name of the town was originally " Maryaada raamanna puram" which has over time, changed into " Madanapalle".It is one of the biggest Revenue...

; Sri Sathya Sai Baba, Sri Sivabala Yogi Maharaj who advocates religious unity in worship; Swami Sundara Chaitanyanandaji of the Aurobindo Mission; and Brahmarshi Subhash Patri
Brahmarshi Subhash Patri
Subhash Patri was born in the year 1947 at Shakkar Nagar of Nizamabad dist. to P.V.Ramana Rao and Savitri Devi. With the aim of making ' Dhyana Jagat ' by the year 2012, Patriji founded Pyramid Spiritual Societies movement in the year 1990...

, founder of the pyramid spiritual societies movement.Islam in Hyderabad, with historical patronizing by the rulers, has a strong Sufi influence, with various moments active in the last two decades. Hyderabad has also produced many renowned religious scholars of representing different Islamic sects and trends, including Abul Ala Maududi, Turab-ul-Haq Qadri, and Allamah Rasheed Turabi.
Most Telugu Christians are Protestant belonging to major Indian Protestant denominations such as the Church of South India, the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Samavesam of Telugu Baptist Churches and several others.

Economy


GDP by year
Year State GDP ( MM)
1980 81,910
1985 152,660
1990 333,360
1995 798,540
2000 1,401,190
2007 2,294,610


Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2010 was estimated at $100.35 billion in current prices. The state ranks third in terms of overall Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union. In terms of per capita GSDP the state compares very favorably with other large states. In the 2010 list by Forbes Magazine, there are Seven from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.

Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari
Godavari River
The Godavari is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India , that runs within the country and also the longest river in South India...

, Krishna
Krishna River
The Krishna River , is one of the longest rivers in central-southern India, about . It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature...

, Penna
Penner River
The Penner is a river of southern India. The Penner rises on the hill of Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka state, and runs north and east through the state of Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal...

, and Thungabhadra
Tungabhadra River
The Tungabhadra River is a sacred river in southern India that flows through the state of Karnataka to Andhra Pradesh, where it serves as the chief tributary of the Krishna River...

 flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice, sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

, Chili pepper
Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper.Chili peppers originated in the Americas...

, mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

, and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil
Vegetable fats and oils
Vegetable fats and oils are lipid materials derived from plants. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are solid. Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides, as contrasted with waxes which lack glycerin in their structure...

 production such as sunflower
Sunflower
Sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence . The sunflower got its name from its huge, fiery blooms, whose shape and image is often used to depict the sun. The sunflower has a rough, hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads...

 and peanut
Peanut
The peanut, or groundnut , is a species in the legume or "bean" family , so it is not a nut. The peanut was probably first cultivated in the valleys of Peru. It is an annual herbaceous plant growing tall...

s have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects
Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects
The Godavari River has its catchment area in five states of India: Maharashtra, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Orissa.* Dowleswaram Barrage* Jalaput* Balimela Reservoir* Upper Indravati* Nizam Sagar* Sriram Sagar...

 and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is the world's largest masonry dam built across Krishna River in Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh, India, between 1955 and 1967. The dam contains the Nagarjuna Sagar reservoir with a capacity of up to 11,472 million cubic metres. The dam is . tall and...

.

The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force. Andhra Pradesh economy has registered over 5.5% annual economic growth rate during the last two decades. The state is one of the most industrially developed states of India.

Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes. The Tumalappalli Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its current size, The Times of India quoted Srikumar Banerjee as saying. The mine's proven reserve is enough to support a 8,000 mega watts nuclear power plant for 40 years, the report added. The Krishna Godavari Basin
Krishna Godavari Basin
Krishna-Godavari basin is a peri-cratonic passive margin basin in India. It is spread across more than 50,000 square kilometers in the Krishna River and Godavari River basins in Andhra Pradesh. The site is known for the D-6 block where Reliance Industries discovered the biggest natural gas reserves...

 has huge reserves of natural gas and petroleum. The state has a large amount of coal reserves. The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation
States of India by installed power capacity
This is a list of States and Union Territories of India by installed capacity of power utilities with generation mode break-up as of 31-03-11 by the Ministry of Power with figures in millions of watts ....

, with a national market share of over 11%. Andhra Pradesh has the second largest power generating utility in the country, with an installed capacity of around 10,650 MW. The two cheapest sources of thermal power generation – coal and natural gas – are in abundance.

Information technology and other key sectors




In 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the second position in the list of top information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 exporting states of India. The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.3% every year. The IT exports reached 19,000 crores ($4.5 billion) in 2006–2007, contributed to 14 per cent of total IT exports of the nation and ranked fourth in India. Other key sectors include, Biopharmaceuticals, Power, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather, Mining and Religious tourism.

Administration


Andhra Pradesh has a Vidhan Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
The Vidhan Sabha or the Legislative Assembly is the lower house or the sole house of the provincial legislature in the different states of India. The same name is also used for the lower house of the legislatures for two of the union territories, Delhi and Pondicherry...

 (legislative assembly, lower house) of 294 seats, and a Vidhan Parishad
Vidhan Parishad
The Vidhan Parishad is the upper house in those states of India that have a bicameral legislature. , six states have a Legislative Council: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh...

 (legislative council, upper house) of 90 members. 31 members are elected from local bodies, 31 members are elected from the assembly, eight members are elected from teachers, eight members are elected from graduates, and 12 members are nominated by the Governor. In the Parliament of India
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India. Founded in 1919, the Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all political bodies in India. The Parliament of India comprises the President and the two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha...

 Andhra Pradesh has 18 in the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Rajya means "state," and Sabha means "assembly hall" in Sanskrit. Membership is limited to 250 members, 12 of whom are chosen by the President of India for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature,...

, the Upper House, and 42 in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

, the Lower House.

Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004). P. V. Narasimha Rao
P. V. Narasimha Rao
Pamulaparti Venkata "Narasimha Rao" was the ninth Prime Minister of India . He led an important administration, overseeing a major economic transformation and several home incidents affecting national security of India. Rao accelerated the dismantling of the Licence Raj. He is often referred to as...

 served as the chief minister of the state from 1971 to 1973, and went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was the sixth President of India, serving from 1977 to 1982 and was the only person to be elected President of India unopposed....

, who later served as President of India. The Congress Chief Ministers of the state are Damodaram Sanjivayya
Damodaram Sanjivayya
Damodaram Sanjivayya was the chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, India from 11 January 1960 to 12 March 1962.-Early life:...

, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy
Kasu Brahmananda Reddy at Hyderabad, was the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, India from 29 February 1964 to 30 September 1971. On 3 June 1977 he was elected president of the Indian National Congress.-Early life:...

, P. V. Narasimha Rao
P. V. Narasimha Rao
Pamulaparti Venkata "Narasimha Rao" was the ninth Prime Minister of India . He led an important administration, overseeing a major economic transformation and several home incidents affecting national security of India. Rao accelerated the dismantling of the Licence Raj. He is often referred to as...

, Jalagam Vengala Rao
Jalagam Vengala Rao
Jalagam Vengal Rao or Jalagam Vengala Rao was the Chief Minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh from December 10, 1973 to March 6, 1978. Vengal Rao held a World Telugu Conference in Hyderabad in 1975. .He belongs to esteemed Velama caste...

, Marri Chenna Reddy
Marri Chenna Reddy
Marri Channa Reddy was an Indian politician active in several states. He was the governor of Uttar Pradesh , governor of Punjab , governor of Rajasthan from February 1992 to May 1993, and governor of Tamil Nadu from 1993 until his death. He was a leader of Indian National Congress Party...

, Tanguturi Anjaiah
Tanguturi Anjaiah
Tanguturi Anjaiah or Ramakrishna Reddi Talla was the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, India from October 1980 to February 1982.-Career:T...

, Bhavanam Venkatarami Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao
Nadendla Bhaskara Rao
Nadendla Bhaskara Rao was the chief minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh for a brief period in 1983. He holds the dubious distinction of serving the shortest term as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh – 31 days...

, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy
Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy
Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy is a member of the 12th, 13th and 14th Lok Sabha of India. He represents the Visakhapatnam constituency of Andhra Pradesh and is a member of the Indian National Congress. He was also a Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh from 1990 to 1992...

, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy
Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy
Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy , popularly known as YSR, was a two-time Chief Minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. He is seen as the most popular chief minister of Andhra pradesh. His popularity is often attributed to various welfare schemes and development programs he championed for the...

, Konijeti Rosaiah
Konijeti Rosaiah
Konijeti Rosaiah is the current Governor of Tamil Nadu and a former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. He was previously an MLC, MLA & MP of the Indian National Congress numerous times and has handled many ministerial posts over his long political career spanning over half a century...

 and N. Kiran Kumar Reddy.


Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties, played an important role as opposition parties. Parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played important role in 1950's. In the 1967 state assembly elections all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. N.G. Ranga's Swatantra Party became the Opposition Party. They also failed to hold control later and became defunct. In 1978 Jalagam Vengal Rao and Kasu Brahmananda Reddy formed the Reddy Congress and contested against Congress (I) but lost.

In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party or TDP is a regional political party in India's Andhra Pradesh state. It was founded by former Telugu film star N. T...

 (TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. A few months after the election, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao
Nadendla Bhaskara Rao
Nadendla Bhaskara Rao was the chief minister of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh for a brief period in 1983. He holds the dubious distinction of serving the shortest term as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh – 31 days...

 usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of the majority of the elected MLAs. The governor Thakur Ram Lal
Thakur Ram Lal
Thakur Ram Lal was an Indian politician and a leader of the Indian National Congress in Himachal Pradesh. He was elected to the Himachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha from Jubbal Kotkhai constituency in 1957. Later, he was re-elected to the Himachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha from the same constituency in 1962,...

 was ousted by Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

 and in his place she appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma
Shankar Dayal Sharma
Shankar Dayal Sharma was the ninth President of India serving from 1992 to 1997. Prior to his presidency, Dr Sharma had been the eighth Vice President of India, serving under President Ramaswamy Venkataraman...

. NTR was reinstated as Chief Minister. Within a month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections. Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the sixth Prime Minister of India . He took office after his mother's assassination on 31 October 1984; he himself was assassinated on 21 May 1991. He became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he took office at the age of 40.Rajiv Gandhi was the elder son of Indira...

 was made Prime Minister by President Giani Zail Singh
Zail Singh
Giani Zail Singh was an Indian politician and member of the Congress Party. He served as the seventh President of India.His term was marked by Operation Blue Star, the assassination of Indira Gandhi, and the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. He died of injuries in 1994 after a car accident.-Early Life:He...

. In the ensuing elections for Lok Sabha and the AP Assembly, the Telugu Desam Party won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back to power.

The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy
Marri Chenna Reddy
Marri Channa Reddy was an Indian politician active in several states. He was the governor of Uttar Pradesh , governor of Punjab , governor of Rajasthan from February 1992 to May 1993, and governor of Tamil Nadu from 1993 until his death. He was a leader of Indian National Congress Party...

 at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy
Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy
Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy is a member of the 12th, 13th and 14th Lok Sabha of India. He represents the Visakhapatnam constituency of Andhra Pradesh and is a member of the Indian National Congress. He was also a Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh from 1990 to 1992...

 in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992. In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, usurped power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. There was an assassination attempt on Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi; he survived the attack. In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent Congress Party and its allies. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister.

Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the CM again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party
Praja Rajyam Party
Praja Rajyam was a regional political party in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, founded by Telugu cinema actor Chiranjeevi on August 26, 2008.On 2011, 6 February it was officially announced that the party would be merging into Indian National Congress...

 and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah
Konijeti Rosaiah
Konijeti Rosaiah is the current Governor of Tamil Nadu and a former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. He was previously an MLC, MLA & MP of the Indian National Congress numerous times and has handled many ministerial posts over his long political career spanning over half a century...

, a senior statesman and former State Finance Minister, became the Chief Minister of AP on 3 September 2009. On 24 November 2010, Rosaiah submitted his resignation on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy
Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy
Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy is an Indian politician who has been the 16th Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh since 2010. A four-time MLA in Andhra Pradesh, he belongs to the Indian National Congress...

 Reddy was sworn in as the new CM on the following day.

Tourism



Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department as the "Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
The Kōh-i Nūr which means "Mountain of Light" in Persian, also spelled Koh-i-noor, Koh-e Noor or Koh-i-Nur, is a 105 carat diamond that was once the largest known diamond in the world. The Kōh-i Nūr originated in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India along with its double, the Darya-ye Noor...

 of India."

Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple ), is a Hindu temple in the hill town of Tirumala, near Tirupati in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, South India. It is around from Chennai, from Hyderabad, and from Bangalore....

 in Tirupati, the abode of Hindu god Venkateswara, is most visited religious center of any faith in the world. Srisailam
Srisailam
Srisailam is a holy town and mandal, situated in Nallamala Hills of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the banks of River Krishna, about 232 km south of Hyderabad....

, nestled in the Nallamala Hills is the abode of Mallikarjuna
Mallikarjuna
Mallikarjuna was Shilahara ruler of north Konkan branch from 1155–1170 CE.Mallikarjuna, who succeeded Haripaladeva, was followed by Aparaditya I, but his relation to his predecessor is not known. Three inscriptions of his reign, dated in Shaka 1106, 1107, and 1108 have been discovered at Lonad,...

and is one of twelve Jyothirlingas
Jyotirlinga
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirling or Jyotirlingam is a shrine where Lord Shiva, an aspect of God in Hinduism is worshipped in the form of a Jyotirlingam or "Lingam of light." There are twelve traditional Jyotirlinga shrines in India....

in India. Amaravati's Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

 temple is one of the Pancharamams, as is Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Lakshmi Narasimha
Narasimha
Narasimha or Nrusimha , also spelt as Narasingh and Narasingha, whose name literally translates from Sanskrit as "Man-lion", is an avatar of Vishnu described in the Puranas, Upanishads and other ancient religious texts of Hinduism...

. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for their temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati
Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh
Amaravathi is a small town situated on the banks of the River Krishna in the Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is famous for its Amareswara temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. The temple is one of the famous Pancharamas. Amaravati, also known as Dhanyakataka/Dharanikota was the site of a...

, Nagarjuna Konda
Nagarjuna Konda
Nagarjunakonda is a historical Buddhist town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district/Nalgonda district,, in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is 150 km south east of the capital, Hyderabad. It was formed when a hill was submerged in the waters of the Nagarjuna...

, Bhattiprolu
Bhattiprolu
Bhattiprolu is a small village in Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State in Southern India.-History:The original name of Bhattiprolu was Pratipalapura, a flourishing Buddhist town in the ancient Sala kingdom that predated Andhra Satavahanas. From available inscriptional evidence, King Kuberaka...

, Ghantasala
Ghantasala (town)
Ghantasala , is a town and Mandal headquarters in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is 21 km west of Machilipatnam and 11 km east of river krishna.The largest city of this district, Vijaywada, is around 60 km away. It is a rare and reputed center for Buddhist sculptures....

, Nelakondapalli
Nelakondapalli
NelaKondapally is the headquarter of a mandal in Khammam district in Andhra Pradesh of India, located 21 km from Khammam.-HISTORY:Nelakondapally is a historic site encompassed by a mud fortification wall covering nearly...

, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda
Thotlakonda
Thotlakonda Buddhist Complex Lies about 15 km from Visakhapatnam city on the way to Bheemili town on a hill about 128 mts. Above Mean Sea Level overlooking the sea. The telugu name Thotlakonda derived from the presence of a number of a rock-cut throughs hewn in the bedrock of the hillock...

, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Bojjannakonda
Bojjannakonda
Bojjannakonda and Lingalakonda are two Buddhist sites which exist on adjacent hillocks near a village called Sankaram. It is located at about 45 km from Vishakhapatnam and just a few kilometers from Anakapalle...

(Sankaram), Phanigiri and Kolanpaka. The Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
The Vijayanagara Empire , referred as the Kingdom of Bisnaga by the Portuguese, was an empire based in South Indian in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts...

 built number of monuments, including the Srisailam
Srisailam
Srisailam is a holy town and mandal, situated in Nallamala Hills of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the banks of River Krishna, about 232 km south of Hyderabad....

 temple and Lepakshi
Lepakshi
Lepakshi is a small village and Mandal headquarters located in the Anantapur District, in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is east of Hindupur and about north of Bangalore. From Bangalore, it can be reached by going west at Kodikonda checkpost on Hyderabad highway NH 7...

 temples.


The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam is a major sea port on the south east coast of India. With a population of approximately 1.7 million, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city on the east coast of India after Kolkata and Chennai. According to the history, the city was...

, the one-million-year-old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley
Araku Valley
Araku Valley is a hill station and a Mandal in Visakhapatnam district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India.It has got an amazing nature with thick forests surrounded all over.Araku is popular for its world famous coffee plantations.For every traveller it gives a wonderful and a unique...

, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona
Talakona
The Talakona waterfall is in Sri Venkateswara National Park, Chittoor District of Andhra pradesh in India. With a -fall, Talakona is the highest waterfall in the Andhra pradesh state. Talakona is also known for the Lord Siddeswara Swamy Temple, which is located close to the...

 are some of the natural attractions of the state. Kailashagiri is a park near the sea in Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam is home to other tourist attactions such as the INS Kursura S20 Submarine museum (the only one of its kind in India), the longest beach road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley, and Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens.

The Borra Caves
Borra Caves
The Borra Caves, also called Borra Guhalu in Telugu language , are located on the East Coast of India, in the Ananthagiri hills of the Araku valley of the Visakhapatnam district in Andhra Pradesh...

 are located in the Anatagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam. They are at an altitude of about 800 to 1300 metres and are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by British geologist William King George in 1807. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known as burra. The Belum caves were formed due to erosion in limestone deposits in the area by the weakly acidic water of the Chitravati River millions of years ago.

The Papi Hills
Papi Hills
-Introduction:Papi kondalu is a lovely place whose scenery resembles the scenery of Kashmir . Papi kondalu are distributed between East Godavari, West Godavari and Khammam district. The entrance of Papi kondalu can be seen from Koruturu...

 are located in Khammam
Khammam
Khammam , is the headquarters of the Khammam District in Andhra Pradesh state of India and is located about east of state capital, Hyderabad...

 district, near Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam , a town known for the Sri Rama Temple constructed in the year 1674 A.D., is a Municipality in Khammam district, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located east of state capital, Hyderabad. The Bhadrachalam Temple, where the presiding deity is Lord Rama, is an important site...

. Boat cruises are available on the river Godavari.

The Belum Caves
Belum Caves
Belum Caves is the second largest cave in Indian subcontinent and the longest caves in plains of Indian Subcontinent, known for its stalactite and stalagmite formations. Belum Caves have long passages, spacious chambers, fresh water galleries and siphons. The caves reach its deepest point at the...

 in Kurnool District have a length of 3229 metres (10,593.8 ft), making them the second largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. The Belum Caves derive their name from Bilum, the Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu, the caves are known as Belum Guhalu. The caves have long passages, spacious chambers, freshwater galleries, and siphons. The caves' deepest point is 120 feet (36.6 m) from the entrance and is known asPatalganaga.

Horsley Hills
Horsley Hills
Horsley Hills , elevation 1,769 m, is a famous summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km from Bangalore, India and 144 km from Tirupathi. Madanapalle is the closest town near the hills. The major tourist attractions here include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi Valley School...

, elevation 1265 metres (4,150.3 ft), is a summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km (99.4 mi) from Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

 and144 km (89.5 mi) from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi Valley School
Rishi Valley School
Rishi Valley School is a boarding school in India, founded by the philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti. It is located close to the town of Madanapalle, Krishnamurti's birthplace, in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Rishi Valley is a three hour drive from the city of Bangalore.- Founder's...

. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary
Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary
Kaundinya Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is about 60 kilometers from Chittoor and about 30 kilometers from the city of Kolar Gold Fields in Karnataka. It starts in the forest near Palamaner and the area is also known as Mogili Ghat...

 at a distance of 87 km (54.1 mi).

Nirmal
Nirmal
Nirmal is a town, mandal headquarters and a municipality in Adilabad district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.It is the political headquarters of the district having a history of 400years.The name "NIRMAL" has been derived from one of its famous rulers NIMMA NAIDU way back in 17th century.He...

 is famous for its handicrafts and paintings. Kuntala waterfall, at 45 metres (147.6 ft), is the biggest in the state. Charminar
Charminar
Charminar built in 1591 AD, is a landmark monument located in Hyderabad, India. The two words Char Minar of Urdu language are combined to which it is known as Charminar . These are four ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches, it has become the global icon of Hyderabad and is...

, Golconda Fort
Qutb Shahi dynasty
The Qutb Shahi dynasty was a Turko-Persian dynasty ; its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis. They were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda in modern-day Andra Pradesh, India. They were Shia Muslims and belonged to Kara Koyunlu...

, Chandragiri Fort
Chandragiri
Chandragiri , is a suburb of Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recently it is included under Municipal Corporation limits of Tirupati...

, Chowmahalla Palace
Chowmahalla Palace
Chowmahalla Palace or Chowmahallat , was a palace belonging to the Nizams of Hyderabad state. It was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizam....

, and Falaknuma Palace
Falaknuma Palace
Falaknuma Palace is one of the finest palaces in Hyderabad, India belonging to the Paigah State but later owned by the Nizams. It is located on a 32 acre, 19400 square meters area. It is located in Falaknuma, 5 km. from Charminar was built by Nawab Vikar-ul-Umra, the then Prime Minister of...

 are some of the monuments in the state.

Kanaka Durga Temple
Kanaka Durga Temple
Kanaka Durga Temple is a famous Hindu Temple of Goddess Kanaka Durga located in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. The temple is located on the Indrakeeladri hill, on the banks of Krishna River....

 in Vijayawada
Vijayawada
Vijayawada is the third largest city in Andhra Pradesh, India, located on the banks of the Krishna River and bounded by the Indrakiladri Hills on the West and the Budameru River on the North. The city is located in the Krishna District, about from the state capital Hyderabad.Vijayawada literally...

 in Krishna district
Krishna district
Krishna District is a district of India's Andhra Pradesh state. It is named after the Krishna River, the third longest river that flows within India, flows through the district and joins Bay of Bengal here in this district. It has a population of 4,529,009 of which 32.08% is urban as of...

, Venkateswara Temple in Dwaraka Tirumala
Dwaraka Tirumala
Dwaraka Tirumala or Dwarakatirumala is a village and a mandal in West Godavari district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India....

, West Godavari District, and Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District
Srikakulam district
Srikakulam District , formerly known as Chicacole, is the extreme northeastern District of Andhra Pradesh, situated within the geographic co-ordinates of 18°-20’ and 19°-10’ N and 83°-50’ and 84°-50’ E...

 are also places to see in Andhra Pradesh.

The Annavaram
Annavaram
Annavaram village is situated on the banks of the Pampa River in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh in India.-Etymology:Anna means whatever you say or you desire and varam means boon, hence whatever you desire will be given as boon by the deity.-Temple:The most distinctive feature of...

 Satayannarayana Swami temple is in East Godavari
East Godavari
East Godavari District is a district situated on the northeast of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Its district headquarters is Kakinada. It is the second richest district in the whole country...

, near Kakinada
Kakinada
Kakinada is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad. It is also the headquarters of East Godavari district. It is nicknamed "Fertilizer City" , "Pensioner's Paradise" and "Second Madras"...

.Konaseema
Konaseema
Konaseema is a delta located in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This delta is surrounded on all sides by waters .Konaseema is very near to the,District head quarters Kakinada....

 is another place in East Godavari
East Godavari
East Godavari District is a district situated on the northeast of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Its district headquarters is Kakinada. It is the second richest district in the whole country...

 for nature lovers with scenic greenery of lush paddy fields and coconut groves. All along the banks of river Godavari and its canals.

Religious Tourism





Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
Tirumala Venkateswara Temple ), is a Hindu temple in the hill town of Tirumala, near Tirupati in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, South India. It is around from Chennai, from Hyderabad, and from Bangalore....

 in the town of Tirumala in Chittoor
Chittoor
Chittoor also known as Chittur, is a City and municipal corporation located in the Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is conveniently located on major highways linking the cities of Bangalore and Chennai....

 district is a very important pilgrimage site for Hindus throughout India. It is the richest piligrimage city of any religious faith in the world. Its main temple is dedicated to the god Venkateswara. In 1517 Vijayanagara ruler Sri Krishna Deva Raya, on one of his many visits to the temple, donated gold and jewels, enabling the Vimana (inner shrine) roofing to be gilded. Statues of Sri Krishna Deva Raya and his spouse stand in the premises of the temple.

The five ancient Hindu temples of Lord Shiva, known as Pancharama Kshetras
Pancharama Kshetras
The Pancharama Kshetras are five ancient Hindu temples of Lord Shiva situated in Andhra Pradesh. The Sivalingas at these temples are made from a single Sivalinga....

, are located at - Amararama
Amararama
Amararama is one of the Pancharama Kshetras which is located at Amaravati town near Guntur City in Andhra Pradesh in South India. Lord Shiva is known as Amareswara Swamy or Amaralingeswara Swamy here. The temple is situated on the southern bank of Krishna River. The consort of Lord Amareswara...

, Draksharama
Draksharama
Draksharama is one of the Pancharama Kshetras in South India. It is located approximately 28 km southwest of the city of Kakinada, in the East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh....

, Somarama
Somarama
Somarama is one of the Pancharama Kshetras which is located in Bhimavaram West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh in South India. Lord Shiva is known as Someswara Swamy here. The consort of Lord Someswara is Sri Rajarajeswari Ammavaru. The Sivalinga at this place is installed and established by...

, Ksheerarama
Ksheerarama
Ksheerarama is one of the Pancharama Kshetras which is located in Palakollu near Narsapuram in West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh in South India. Lord Shiva is known as Ksheera Ramalingeswara Swamy here. The Sivalinga at this place is installed and established by Lord Vishnu.-External links:*...

 and Kumararama
Kumararama
Kumararama or Bhimarama is one of the five Pancharama Kshetras that are sacred to the Hindu god Shiva. The temple is located in Samarlakota in the East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh in South India....

. The Sivalingas at these temples are made from a single Sivalinga.

Simhachalam
Simhachalam
Simhadri or Simhachalam temple is a Hindu temple located near Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, South India. It is dedicated to the incarnation of Vishnu known as Narasimha...

 is another popular pilgrimage site of national importance located on a hill 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) north of the Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam is a major sea port on the south east coast of India. With a population of approximately 1.7 million, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city on the east coast of India after Kolkata and Chennai. According to the history, the city was...

 city centre. Simhachalam is said to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha
Narasimha
Narasimha or Nrusimha , also spelt as Narasingh and Narasingha, whose name literally translates from Sanskrit as "Man-lion", is an avatar of Vishnu described in the Puranas, Upanishads and other ancient religious texts of Hinduism...

, who rescued Prahlada
Prahlada
Prahlada is a character from the Puranic texts of Hinduism, wherein he is famed for his exclusive devotion to Vishnu, despite attempts in the story by his father, Hiranyakashipu, to turn him to the contrary...

 from his abusive father Hiranyakashipu
Hiranyakashipu
Hiranyakashipu [golden-haired] is an Asura from the Puranic scriptures of Hinduism. The Puranas describe Hiranyakashipu as an Asura. His younger brother, Hiranyaksha was slain by Varaha, one of the Avatars of Vishnu and angered by this, Hiranyakashipu decided to gain magical powers by performing...

. One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, it has a beautifully carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and a 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa. The temple was built in 11th century by Kullotunga chola. Engaged couples go to this temple as a ritual just before marriage. It is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.

Srisailam
Srisailam
Srisailam is a holy town and mandal, situated in Nallamala Hills of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located on the banks of River Krishna, about 232 km south of Hyderabad....

 temple in Kurnool district
Kurnool district
Kurnool District is a district in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, located in the west-central part of the state on the southern banks of the Tungabhadra and Handri rivers. The town of Kurnool is currently the headquarters of the district...

 is a very famous Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

 temple, and is one of the twelve Jyotirlinga
Jyotirlinga
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirling or Jyotirlingam is a shrine where Lord Shiva, an aspect of God in Hinduism is worshipped in the form of a Jyotirlingam or "Lingam of light." There are twelve traditional Jyotirlinga shrines in India....

 shrines. Lord Rama
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

himself installed the Sahasralinga
Lingam
The Lingam is a representation of the Hindu deity Shiva used for worship in temples....

, while the Pandavas lodged the Panchapandava lingas in the temple courtyard. The Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
The Skanda Purana is the largest Mahapurana, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts. The text is devoted mainly to the lilas of Kartikeya , a son of Shiva and Parvati. It also contains a number of legends about Shiva, and the holy places associated with him...

, an ancient religious text, has a chapter called "Srisaila Kandam" dedicated to this temple, which points to its ancient origin. It is said that Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara Adi Shankara Adi Shankara (IAST: pronounced , (Sanskrit: , ) (788 CE - 820 CE), also known as ' and ' was an Indian philosopher from Kalady of present day Kerala who consolidated the doctrine of advaita vedānta...

 (c. 788–821 CE) visited this temple at the time that he composed his Sivananda Lahiri
Shivanandalahari
Shivanandalahari is a devotional hymn composed by Adi Shankara, the Advaita philosopher, on Shiva. It literally means Wave of Auspicious Bliss. It consists of one hundred stanzas of Sanskrit poetry in various chandas . It was composed by Adi Shankara while staying in Srisailam. It begins with an...

. Srisailam is located in Kurnool
Kurnool
Kurnool is located at . It has an average elevation of 273 metres .Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Handry and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C...

 district.

Bhadrachalam Temple
Bhadrachalam Temple
Lord Sree Sita Ramachandra Swamy Temple in Badrachalam is a Hindu temple of Lord Rama located in Andhra Pradesh, India...

 is a temple to Lord Rama in the town of Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam , a town known for the Sri Rama Temple constructed in the year 1674 A.D., is a Municipality in Khammam district, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located east of state capital, Hyderabad. The Bhadrachalam Temple, where the presiding deity is Lord Rama, is an important site...

 in Khammam district
Khammam district
Khammam District is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It had a population of 2,565,412 of which 19.81% were urban as of 2001 census. Khammam town is the district headquarters. The present name of Khammam is derived from the old name Kammamet. Later it was called Khammam Mettu and subsequently...

. It is situated on the banks of the river Godavari
Godavari River
The Godavari is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the big river basins in India. With a length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India , that runs within the country and also the longest river in South India...

. This is the place where Kancherla Gopanna
Kancherla Gopanna
Kancherla Gopanna , popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or Bhadrachala Ramadasu, was a 17th century Indian devotee of Rama and a composer of Carnatic music. He is one among the famous vaggeyakaras in the Telugu language, the others being Tyagaraja, Annamayya, Kshetryya...

 (1620–1680) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to lord Rama. It was believed that lord Rama spent some years on the banks of river Godavari here in Treta Yuga
Treta Yuga
Treta Yuga is the second out of four yugas, or ages of mankind, in the religion of Hinduism, and follows the Satya Yuga of perfect morality and precedes the Dvapara Yuga. The most famous events in this yuga were Lord Vishnu's fifth, sixth and seventh incarnations as Vamana, Parashurama and...

. Kancherla Gopanna
Kancherla Gopanna
Kancherla Gopanna , popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or Bhadrachala Ramadasu, was a 17th century Indian devotee of Rama and a composer of Carnatic music. He is one among the famous vaggeyakaras in the Telugu language, the others being Tyagaraja, Annamayya, Kshetryya...

 raised the funds and constructed the temple during the reign of Tanisha in the 17th century. Sri Rama Navami, a celebration of the Marriage of Lord Rama and sita, is celebrated here every year. Government of Andhra Pradesh sends pearls for the event.

Kanaka Durga Temple
Kanaka Durga Temple
Kanaka Durga Temple is a famous Hindu Temple of Goddess Kanaka Durga located in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. The temple is located on the Indrakeeladri hill, on the banks of Krishna River....

 is a temple to the goddess Durga situated on the Indrakeeladri Hill in the city of Vijayawada
Vijayawada
Vijayawada is the third largest city in Andhra Pradesh, India, located on the banks of the Krishna River and bounded by the Indrakiladri Hills on the West and the Budameru River on the North. The city is located in the Krishna District, about from the state capital Hyderabad.Vijayawada literally...

 on the banks of Krishna River
Krishna River
The Krishna River , is one of the longest rivers in central-southern India, about . It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature...

. Special pujas are performed during Dasara, also called Navratri. The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam. The festival of Dasara for the Goddess Durga
Durga
For the 1985 Hindi Film of Rajesh Khanna see DurgaaIn Hinduism, Durga ; ; meaning "the inaccessible" or "the invincible"; , durga) or Maa Durga "one who can redeem in situations of utmost distress" is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having eighteen arms, riding a lion...

 is celebrated there every year. A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna River.

Other temples and piligrimage sites in Andhra Pradesh

  • Gnana Saraswati Temple, Basar is a temple to the goddess Saraswati
    Saraswati
    In Hinduism Saraswati , is the goddess of knowledge, music, arts, science and technology. She is the consort of Brahma, also revered as His Shakti....

    , goddess of education. Basar is located in Adilabad district
    Adilabad district
    Adilabad District is a district in Andhra Pradesh, India. The district headquarters is at Adilabad town. A famous Temple of the Goddess Saraswathi, the Hindu Goddess of Education, is located here in the town of Basara.-Origin of name:...

     50 kilometers from Nirmal
    Nirmal
    Nirmal is a town, mandal headquarters and a municipality in Adilabad district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.It is the political headquarters of the district having a history of 400years.The name "NIRMAL" has been derived from one of its famous rulers NIMMA NAIDU way back in 17th century.He...

    .
  • Yaganti Caves and Mahanandi
    Mahanandi
    Mahanandi is a village located east of the Nallamala Hills in Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is a picturesque village surrounded by thick forests. Within 15 km of Mahanandi, there are nine Nandi shrines known as Nava Nandis. Mahanandi is one of the Nava Nandis. The Mahanandiswara...

     are pilgrimage centres in Kurnool District.
  • Kailasagiri Temple Hill, in Visakhapatnam.
  • Birla Mandir
    Birla Mandir
    Birla Mandir refers to different Hindu temples or Mandirs built by the Birla family, in different cities. All these temples are magnificently built in white marble.-Birla Mandirs across India:-Continuous Construction:...

    , in Hyderabad.
  • Sanghi Temple
    Sanghi Temple
    Sanghi Temple, located at Sanghi Nagar in Andhra Pradesh in India, is about 35 km from Hyderabad city. The sacred Raja Gopuram, which is very tall, can be seen from several kilometers away....

    , at Hayathnagar
    Hayathnagar
    Hayathnagar is a suburban town and Mandal in Rangareddi district of Andhra Pradesh, India, situated on Hyderabad - Vijayawada, NH9 highway, about 20 km from Hyderabad, and is most known for the Ramoji Film City nearby....

    , in Hyderabad.
  • Chilkur Balaji Temple
    Chilkur Balaji Temple
    Chilkur Balaji Temple Chilkur Balaji Temple Chilkur Balaji Temple popularly known as Visa Balaji Temple or Visa God , is an ancient Hindu temple of Lord Balaji on the banks of Osman Sagar Lake near Hyderabad, India. It is 33 Kms away from Mehedipatnam...

    , on the banks of Osman Sagar
    Osman Sagar
    Osman Sagar popularly known as Gandipet, is an artificial lake in the Indian city of Hyderabad. The lake is around 46 km², and the reservoir is around 29 km².-History:...

     Lake.
  • Ramappa Temple
    Ramappa Temple
    Ramappa Temple also known as the Ramalingeswara temple, is located 77 km from Warangal, the ancient capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, 157 km from Hyderabad in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India...

    , constructed in 1213, is located 77 km (48 mi) from Warangal
    Warangal
    Warangal is a city and a municipal corporation in Warangal district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Warangal is located northeast of the state capital of Hyderabad and is the administrative headquarters of Warangal District. This district is a combination of three cities: Warangal,...

    .
  • Mecca Masjid
    Mecca Masjid
    Makkah Masjid is one of the oldest mosques in Hyderabad, India, And it is one of the largest Mosques in India. Makkah Masjid is a listed heritage building in the old city of Hyderabad, close to the historic landmarks of Chowmahalla Palace and Laad Bazaar...

     in Hyderabad.
  • There is a statue of Buddha
    Gautama Buddha
    Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

     that was erected in 1992 on the Hussain Sagar Lake
    Hussain Sagar
    Hussain Sagar is a lake in Hyderabad, India, built by Hazrat Hussain Shah Wali in 1562, during the rule of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah. It was a lake of 24 square kilometres built on a tributary of the River Musi to meet the water and irrigation needs of the city. There is a large monolithic statue of...

     in Hyderabad.
  • Srikalahasti Temple is an ancient Shiva
    Shiva
    Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

     temple located on the banks of river Swarnamukhi
    Swarnamukhi
    The Swarnamukhi is a river of southern India. It was mentioned as Mogaleru in the works of Dhurjati.The river flows near famous piligrimage Srikalahasti in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh state, India.The Swarnamukhi river has five major Saivite shrines along its course in the district...

     in Chittoor
    Chittoor
    Chittoor also known as Chittur, is a City and municipal corporation located in the Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is conveniently located on major highways linking the cities of Bangalore and Chennai....

     district.
  • Satyanarayana Swamy temple in Annavaram
    Annavaram
    Annavaram village is situated on the banks of the Pampa River in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh in India.-Etymology:Anna means whatever you say or you desire and varam means boon, hence whatever you desire will be given as boon by the deity.-Temple:The most distinctive feature of...

     in East Godavari
    East Godavari
    East Godavari District is a district situated on the northeast of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Its district headquarters is Kakinada. It is the second richest district in the whole country...

     district.
  • Vemulavada
    Vemulavada
    Vemulawada is a town 35 km from Karimnagar, in the Andhra Pradesh state, India. It is chiefly notable for the Sri Raja Rajeshwara Swamy Temple complex, a site of pilgrimage for both Hindu and worshippers.The city has a population of more than 50 thousand...

     in Karimnagar district is another popular place of pilgrimage. It is best known for the Sri Raja Rajeshwara temple
    Sri Raja Rajeshwara temple
    Sri Raja Rajeshwara Kshetram is a Hindi temple in the town of Vemulavada, Andhra Pradesh, India.-References:...

    .
  • Venkateswara Temple in Chinna Tirupathi(Dwaraka Tirumala) near to Tadepalligudem
    Tadepalligudem
    Tadepalligudem is a town and a municipality in Andhra Pradesh, India.It is situated in the middle of West Godavari District, nearly 50 km from the district headquarters, Eluru. It is a rapidly growing business town in the lap of nature, surrounded by beautiful fields and canals...

     and Eluru
    Eluru
    Eluru is a city and a municipal corporation in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the headquarters of West Godavari district and has a population of 5,15,343 approximately. Eluru is situated on the national highway NH 5 connecting Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam and about east of state...

    .
  • Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi
    Lepakshi
    Lepakshi is a small village and Mandal headquarters located in the Anantapur District, in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is east of Hindupur and about north of Bangalore. From Bangalore, it can be reached by going west at Kodikonda checkpost on Hyderabad highway NH 7...

     in Ananthapur district.
  • Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya Adhyatmika Peetham
    Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya Adhyatmika Peetham
    Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya Adhyatmika Peetham is a theosophical congregation which states that it is based on the principles of oneness of God, and discovering divinity in the self. The ashram is situated in Pithapuram, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India.-Origin:Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya...

     is a theosophical congregation based on the principles of oneness of God, and discovering divinity in the self. The ashram is situated in Pithapuram
    Pithapuram
    For famous Playback singer see Pithapuram Nageswara RaoPithapuram is a town and a municipality in East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh....

    , East Godavari district.

Culture


Bapu's
Bapu (artist)
Bapu is an Indian film director, known for his works in Telugu cinema.He is a music artist, painter, cartoonist, and designer...

 paintings, Nanduri Venkata Subba Rao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs about a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi
Mullapudi Venkata Ramana
Mullapudi Venkata Ramana was a Telugu story writer. He was especially known for his hilarious style of writing. He also created a child character called Budugu...

), Annamayya's
Annamacharya
Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya was the official songmaster of the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, and a Telugu composer who composed around 36000 keertana songs, many of which were in praise of Venkateswara, the presiding deity of the temple...

 songs, Aavakaaya
Aavakaaya
Aavakaaya is a variety of Indian pickle popular in South India with its origin in Andhra Pradesh. The main ingredients are mangoes and aavalu and a combination of other spices used for pickling.-Preparation:...

 (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura
Gongura
Gongura , a relative of the Roselle, is an edible plant grown in India.-Culinary Information:Gongura pacchadi is quintessentially Telugu cuisine along with pacchadi . While it has many culinary uses, the most popular is the pickled version...

 (a chutney
Chutney
Chutney is a a condiment used in South Asian cuisine that usually contains a spice and vegetable mix.Chutneys are wet or dry, having a coarse to fine texture. The Anglo-Indian loan word refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. At least several...

 from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), the banks of river Godavari, and the Dudu basavanna (the ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranthi
Sankranthi
Makar Sankranti or Sankranti or Sankranthi marks the transition of the Sun into Makara rashi on its celestial path...

) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi
Durgi
Durgi is a village and mandal in the Palnadu region of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India.-Attraction:Durgi stone craft originated here in the 15th century....

 is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols
Cult image
In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents...

 in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering. Kalamkari
Kalamkari
Kalamkari or Qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, produced in parts of India. The word is derived from the Persian words kalam and kari , meaning drawing with a pen....

is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization that was located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting of what is now mainly modern-day Pakistan and northwest India...

. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli
Kondapalli
Kondapalli is an industrial town near Vijayawada city, Andhra Pradesh, India with population of nearly 38000. It is 16 km by road from Vijayawada on National Highway 221 and on Hyderabad–Vijayawada railway line.....

 is famous for mud toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka
Etikoppaka
Etikoppaka is a small village on the banks of Varaha River in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This village is known for wood toys made with lacquer colors.- History :...

, located in Visakhapatnam district
Visakhapatnam district
Visakhapatnam district , also known as Visakha Zilla, is an administrative division of Andhra Pradesh, India. The administrative headquarters of the Visakhapatnam District is Visakhapatnam.-Post-Independence:...

, produces lacquered toys. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra Pradesh is an art form in itself. Folk dances unique to Andhra Pradesh include Yaksha ganam, Burra katha (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), Jangama kathalu, Hari kathalu, Chekka bajana, Urumula natyam (usually done at festivals, where a group of people dance in circles with loud music), and Ghata natyam (performances done with earthen pots over one's head).

Andhra Pradesh has many museums, the Salar Jung Museum
Salar Jung Museum
The Salar Jung Museum is an art museum located at Darushifa, on the southern bank of the Musi river in the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India...

 in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati
Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh
Amaravathi is a small town situated on the banks of the River Krishna in the Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is famous for its Amareswara temple dedicated to Lord Shiva. The temple is one of the famous Pancharamas. Amaravati, also known as Dhanyakataka/Dharanikota was the site of a...

 near Guntur City
Guntur
Guntur , is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, located to the north and west of the Bay of Bengal. It is approximately to the south of the national capital, New Delhi and south east of state capital, Hyderabad. Guntur is the fourth largest city in Andhra...

 that features relics of nearby ancient sites, and the Visakha Museum
Visakha Museum
Visakha Museum is a museum located in the port city of Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, India which houses the historical treasures and artifacts of the Kalingandhra region...

, in Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam is a major sea port on the south east coast of India. With a population of approximately 1.7 million, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city on the east coast of India after Kolkata and Chennai. According to the history, the city was...

, which displays the history of the pre-Independence and thotla konda which depicts the age old budhist stupa's and cultural style, Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada
Vijayawada
Vijayawada is the third largest city in Andhra Pradesh, India, located on the banks of the Krishna River and bounded by the Indrakiladri Hills on the West and the Budameru River on the North. The city is located in the Krishna District, about from the state capital Hyderabad.Vijayawada literally...

 has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions. Other ancient sites include dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an island in Nagarjuna Sagar, an artificial lake that formed after the construction of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is the world's largest masonry dam built across Krishna River in Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda District of Andhra Pradesh, India, between 1955 and 1967. The dam contains the Nagarjuna Sagar reservoir with a capacity of up to 11,472 million cubic metres. The dam is . tall and...

. The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics.

Just like in other parts of the country, many festivals are celebrated in Andhra Pradesh, which include -
Ugadi
Ugadi
Yugadi or Ugadi or "Samvatsradi" , Konkani/Marathi: युगादी yugādi, , formed by sandhi of yuga "age" and ādi "beginning": the beginning of an age) is the New Year's Day for the people of the Deccan region of India. It falls on the different day every year because the Hindu calendar is a lunisolar...

, Sankranthi
Sankranthi
Makar Sankranti or Sankranti or Sankranthi marks the transition of the Sun into Makara rashi on its celestial path...

, Dasara
Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami also known as Dasara, is one of the most important festivals celebrated in various forms, across India, Nepal and Bangladesh...

, Varalakshmi Vratham
Varalakshmi Vratham
] performed by many women in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.The Hindu festival going by the name 'Vara Lakshmi Vrata' is celebrated on the Second Friday in the month of Śravaṇā, also called Śawan, which corresponds to the English months of July–August- History :In the kingdom...

, Vinayaka Chavithi
Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi , also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha also called Vinayagar in Tamil Nadu, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival...

, Deepavali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Batukamma
Batukamma
Bathukamma is a spring festival celebrated by the Hindu women of Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also called as Bodemma. This festival falls in the months of September/October called as Ashvin or Aswiyuja. Bathukamma festival is celebrated for nine days during Durga Navratri. It...

, Rakhi poornima, Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

, Sri Rama Navami, Bonalu
Bonalu
Bonalu is a Hindu festival of the Goddess of power, Mahakali, celebrated in Hyderabad, Secunderabad and parts of Telangana and Rayalaseema in India. It is celebrated in the month of Ashada masam, in July/August. Special poojas are performed for Yellamma on the first and last day of the festival...

, Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivratri or Maha Sivaratri or Shivaratri or Sivarathri is a Hindu festival celebrated every year on the 13th night/14th day in the Krishna Paksha of the month of Maagha or Phalguna...

, Nagula Chaviti
Nagula chaviti
Nagula Chavithi is an auspicious day to observe Naga Puja. Nagula Chavithi is observed on the fourth day after Deepavali Amavasya during Karthika masam. Nag Panchami and Nagasashti are observed after Naga Chaturthi...

, Holi
Holi
Holi , is a religious spring festival celebrated by Hindus. Holi is also known as festival of Colours. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United...

, Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

, Eid al-Adha, Muharram
Muharram
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

, Milad-un-Nabi etc.

Cuisine



The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is one of the spiciest of all Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine consists of thousands of regional cuisines which date back thousands of years. The dishes of India are characterised by the extensive use of various Indian spices, herbs, vegetables and fruit. Indian cuisine is also known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society...

s. There are many variations to the cuisine (all involving rice) depending on geographical regions, caste, and traditions. Pickles
Indian pickle
Indian pickles are made from certain individual varieties of vegetables and fruits that are chopped into small pieces and cooked in edible oils like sesame oil or brine with many different Indian spices like asafetida, red chili powder, turmeric, fenugreek and plenty of salt. Some regions also...

 and chutney
Chutney
Chutney is a a condiment used in South Asian cuisine that usually contains a spice and vegetable mix.Chutneys are wet or dry, having a coarse to fine texture. The Anglo-Indian loan word refers to fresh and pickled preparations indiscriminately, with preserves often sweetened. At least several...

s, called thoku also called as pachadi in Telugu, are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle
Roselle (plant)
The roselle is a species of Hibiscus native to the Old World tropics, used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to tall...

 (Gongura
Gongura
Gongura , a relative of the Roselle, is an edible plant grown in India.-Culinary Information:Gongura pacchadi is quintessentially Telugu cuisine along with pacchadi . While it has many culinary uses, the most popular is the pickled version...

).Avaakaya (mango) is probably the best known of the Andhra Pradesh pickles.
Rice is the staple food
Staple food
A staple food is one that is eaten regularly and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a diet, and that supplies a high proportion of energy and nutrient needs. Most people live on a diet based on one or more staples...

 and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled and eaten with curry
Curry
Curry is a generic description used throughout Western culture to describe a variety of dishes from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Thai or other Southeast Asian cuisines...

, or made into a batter
Batter (cooking)
Batter is a semi-liquid mixture of one or more flours combined with liquids such as water, milk or eggs used to prepare various foods. Often a leavening agent such as baking powder is included to aerate and fluff up the batter as it cooks, or the mixture may be naturally fermented for this purpose...

 for use in a crepe
Crêpe
A crêpe or crepe , is a type of very thin pancake, usually made from wheat flour or buckwheat flour . The word is of French origin, deriving from the Latin crispa, meaning "curled". While crêpes originate from Brittany, a region in the northwest of France, their consumption is widespread in France...

-like dish called attu (pesarattu
Pesarattu
Pesarattu is a crepe-like bread unique to Telugu cuisine that is similar to dosa. It is made with batter of green gram , but unlike a dosa, it does not contain rice. Pesarattu is eaten both in breakfast and as snack that popular in Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is typically served with ginger...

is made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosa
Dosa
Dosa or Dhosai is a fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is indigenous to and is a staple dish in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as being popular in Sri Lanka...

s
, a crepe filled with black beans or lentils.

Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices (masala
Masala
Masala or massala is a term used in South Asian cuisines to mostly describe a mixture of spices. A masala can either be a combination of dried spices, or a paste made from a mixture of spices and other ingredients—often garlic, ginger, onions and chilli paste...

) into a variety of strongly flavored dishes such as Hyderabadi Biryani, fish curry, brinjal curry, and Gongura pachadi the most popular dish of andhra pradesh.An Andhra dish is recognized with the dish being listed in the menu. The coastal region is even more well versed with the varieties in sea food specially known for "Chapala Pulusu", "Bommidala pulusu", "Koramenu kura". Especially Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee
Ghee
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in South Asia and is commonly used in South Asian cuisine....

(clarified butter). Lamb, chicken, and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. Biriyani
Biryani
Biryani, biriani, or beriani is a set of rice-based foods made with spices, rice and meat, fish, eggs or vegetables. The name is derived from the Persian word beryā which means "fried" or "roasted"....

 is perhaps the most distinctive and popular dish of Hyderabadi cuisine.

Dance


Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi is a Classical Indian dance form Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also popular all over South India. Kuchipudi is the name of a village in the Divi Taluka of Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal and with resident Brahmins practicing this traditional dance form, it acquired the...

 is the state's best-known classical dance form
Dance forms of Andhra Pradesh
The Dance forms of Andhra Pradesh take on a wide variety of colors, costumes, and types; and involve different settings and musical instruments...

. The various dance forms that existed through the state's history are Bonalu, Dappu, Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi is a Classical Indian dance form Andhra Pradesh, India. It is also popular all over South India. Kuchipudi is the name of a village in the Divi Taluka of Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal and with resident Brahmins practicing this traditional dance form, it acquired the...

, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha
Burra katha
Burra katha, also spelled burrakatha, is a storytelling technique used in villages of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes...

, Veeranatyam
Veeranatyam
Veeranatyam or Dance of the brave is an ancient form of dance from the state of Andhra Pradesh, with associated religious significance....

, Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, Kolattam, and Chindu. Jaanapadam theenmar is a popular folk dance.

Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.

Literature



Nannayya
Nannayya
Nannaya Bhattaraka is the earliest known Telugu author, and the author of the first third of the Andhra Mahabharatamu, a Telugu retelling of the Mahabharata. Nannaya is held in high regard as the person who revived the Telugu language...

, Tikkana
Tikkana
Tikkana was born into a family of Shaivite family during the Golden Age of the Kakatiya dynasty. He was the second poet of the "Trinity of Poets " that translated Mahabharatamu into Telugu over a period of centuries. Nannaya Bhattaraka was the first, though he translated only two and a half...

, and Yerrapragada
Yerrapragada
Errana was a great Telugu poet in the court of Prolaya Vemareddy , the founder of Reddy dynasty of Kondaveedu, who ruled Guntur, Prakasam, Nellore, and Kurnool districts of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Errana was also known as Yellapregada or Errapregada...

 form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

into Telugu. Pothana
Pothana
Bammera Potana was an Indian Telugu poet best known for his translation of the Bhagavata Purana from Sanskrit to Telugu. He was a Telugu and Sanskrit Scholar. His work, Andhra Maha Bhaagavathamu, is popularly called as Pothana Bhagavatham in Telugu.-Early life:Bammera Potanamatyulu was born into...

 is the poet who composed the classic SriMad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

. Nannayya
Nannayya
Nannaya Bhattaraka is the earliest known Telugu author, and the author of the first third of the Andhra Mahabharatamu, a Telugu retelling of the Mahabharata. Nannaya is held in high regard as the person who revived the Telugu language...

 (c. 11th century AD), the earliest known Telugu author, was patronized by the king Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra
Rajaraja Narendra was the Eastern Chalukya king of the Vengi kingdom in South India. Rajaraja was related to the Cholas of Tanjavur by marital and political links. Rajaraja Narendra established the city Rajahmahendravaram. His period was famous for the Social and Cultural heritage...

 who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry
Rajahmundry is a city and municipal corporation of the Andhra Pradesh state in India. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad, on the banks of the River Godavari. Known as the Cultural Capital, Rajahmundry is noted for its intense Veda culture and intellect...

). The Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. It is the name of the now-ruined capital city "which was regarded as the second Rome" that surrounds modern-day Hampi, of the historic Vijayanagara empire which extended over the southern part of India....

 emperor Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
Śrī Kriṣhṇa Devarāya , , , and also known as Krishna Devarayulu in some inscriptions was the famed Emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529 CE.He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians...

 wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana
Vemana
Kumaragiri Vema Reddy popularly known as Vemana was a 14th century Telugu poet. His poems were written in the popular vernacular of Telugu, and are known for their use of simple language and native idioms. His poems discuss the subjects of Yoga, wisdom and morality...

, a native of Kadapa
Kadapa
Kadapa , formerly Cuddapah, is a city in the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India . The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate...

, is notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam
Kandukuri Veeresalingam
Rao Bahadur Kandukuri Veeresalingam , also known as Kandukuri Veeresalingham Pantulu , was a social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was born in an orthodox Niyogi Telugu Brahmin family...

 (1848–1919) is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Jnanpith Award
Jnanpith Award
The Jnanpith Award is a literary award in India. Along with the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, it is one of the two most prestigious literary honours in the country...

 winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana , popularly known as the Kavi Samraat , was a modern Telugu poet.He was a disciple of the Tirupati Venkata Kavulu duo...

 and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy
C. Narayanareddy
Dr. Cingireddy Narayana Reddy is an Indian poet and writer. He is a winner of the Jnanpith Award in 1988 for his contribution to Telugu literature. He is considered a foremost authority on Telugu Literature...

. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri
Srirangam Srinivasarao
Srirangam Srinivasarao , often called Sri Sri , was a popular modern Telugu poet and lyricist. Sri Sri was given the title Mahakavi .-Early life:...

 brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.

Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, the only person nominated from India for a Nobel prize in literature since Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore , sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European Nobel laureate by earning the 1913 Prize in Literature...

. The West Bengal Government conferred on him the title Rashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Telugu University awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. He received the Kalidas Samman award from the Madhya Pradhesh government, and he won the Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999. Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. He wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva
Gurram Jashuva
Gurram Jashuva was a popular Telugu poet. He belonged to a Yadav family but was also part Madiga and so he was discriminated against as an untouchable in school, college and professional life.-Early life:Jashuva was born into a poor yaadava caste family in Vinukonda, Guntur district, Andhra...

, Chinnaya Suri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana
Viswanatha Satyanarayana , popularly known as the Kavi Samraat , was a modern Telugu poet.He was a disciple of the Tirupati Venkata Kavulu duo...

.
Dr.vempalli gangadhar,popular telugu story writer.see web;www.vempalligangadhar.com

Cinema


In the early 90's the Telugu film industry, had completely shifted its base to Hyderabad from Madras. Hyderabad, houses Prasads IMAX
Prasads IMAX
Prasads IMAX was built by demolishing the historical "Hussain Sagar Thermal Power Station" which was supposed to be South India's first thermal power plant. It is South India's first IMAX theater, built by L. V. Prasad group. It has the largest IMAX 3D screen in the world and is located in the...

 theatre which was the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007. Tollywood is among the, highest number of film producing industries in India.
It is also home to Ramoji Film City
Ramoji Film City
Ramoji Film City is one of the world’s largest integrated film studio complexes at over of land, situated in India near Hayathnagar and Peddamberpet on Hyderabad. It is also a popular tourism and recreation centre, containing both natural and artificial attractions including an amusement park...

 which is the world’s largest integrated film studio complex at over 2000 acre (809 ha) of land. Prolific film producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu
D. Ramanaidu
Daggubati Ramanaidu is an Indian movie producer. In 2010, He was conferred with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, India's highest award in cinema by the Government of India for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema. The Guinness Book of Records lists him as the most prolific producer with 130 films...

 holds a Guinness Record for the most number of films produced by a person.
Andhra Pradesh has around 5500 cinema halls. The state produces about 200 films a year. It has around 40% (330 out of 930) of the Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories. It was originally called Dolby Stereo Digital until 1994. Except for Dolby TrueHD, the audio compression is lossy. The first use of Dolby Digital was to provide digital sound in cinemas from 35mm film prints...

 theatres in India.

Music


Many composers of Carnatic music
Carnatic music
Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu...

 like Annamacharya
Annamacharya
Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya was the official songmaster of the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, and a Telugu composer who composed around 36000 keertana songs, many of which were in praise of Venkateswara, the presiding deity of the temple...

, Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam , colloquially known as Tyāgarājar and Tyagayya was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music or classical South Indian music. He, along with his contemporaries Muthuswami Dikshitar and Shyama Shastry, forms the Trinity of Carnatic music...

, Kshetrayya
Kshetrayya
Kshetrayya was a prolific Telugu poet and composer of Carnatic music. He lived in the area of Andhra Pradesh in South India. He composed a number of padams and keertanas, the prevalent formats of his time. He is credited with more than 4000 compositions, although only a handful have survived...

, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala
Ghantasala (singer)
Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao was a famous & popular Indian Playback Singer and music composer of Telugu films and many other languages such as Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu and Hindi. He is the recipient of the Padmashree award, India's fourth highest civilian award. For nearly a quarter of a...

 and Sri M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
S. P. Balasubrahmanyam
Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubrahmanyam is a multilingual Indian playback singer, actor, music director, voice actor and a film producer. He is referred to as S. P. B. or Balu by the media. He has won the National Film Award for Best Male Playback Singer six times closely following K. J. Yesudas...

. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha
Burra katha
Burra katha, also spelled burrakatha, is a storytelling technique used in villages of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India. The troupe consists of one main performer and two co-performers. It is a narrative entertainment that consists of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes...

and Poli are still performed today.

Sports


The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, Field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

, Association Football, Olympic weightlifting, Chess
Chess
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.Each player...

, Water Sports, Tennis
Tennis
Tennis is a sport usually played between two players or between two teams of two players each . Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all...

, Badminton
Badminton
Badminton is a racquet sport played by either two opposing players or two opposing pairs , who take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court that is divided by a net. Players score points by striking a shuttlecock with their racquet so that it passes over the net and lands in their...

, Table Tennis
Table tennis
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net...

, Cycling
Cycling
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are cyclists or bicyclists...

 etc. Sports like kho kho
Kho Kho
Kho Kho is an Indian and Pakistani sport played by teams of twelve players who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team, only 9 players of the team enter the field...

, kabaddi
Kabaddi
Kabaddi is a South Asian team sport...

, chinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in coastal Andhra & Telangana areas.

One of the most popular sports in Andhra pradesh is cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

. The Hyderabad Cricket Association
Hyderabad Cricket Association
Hyderabad Cricket Association is the governing body of the Cricket activities in the Hyderabad and remaining districts of Andhra Pradesh state of India and the Hyderabad cricket team...

 nurtures potential international players. The Hyderabad cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between different city and state sides, equivalent to the County Championship in England and the Sheffield Shield in Australia...

 twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the principal cricket stadium in Hyderabad, India and is the home ground of the Hyderabad Cricket Association . It is located in Uppal, an eastern suburb of the city. It has a capacity of 55,000 spectators presently and extends across of land. The...

 in Hyderabad, regularly hosts international matches. The Deccan Chargers
Deccan Chargers
Hyderabad Deccan Chargers known in short as DC or 'Chargers' is a cricket franchise that represents the city of Hyderabad in the Indian Premier League...

, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad.

Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include C. K. Nayudu
C. K. Nayudu
Cottari Kanakaiya Nayudu , also known as CK, was an Indian cricketer who served as India's first Test captain. He was born in Nagpur, Maharashtra and died in Indore, Madhya Pradesh. He played first-class cricket regularly till 1958, and returned for one last time in 1963 at the age of 68...

, Maharajkumar of Vizianagram
Maharajkumar of Vizianagram
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Vijayananda Gajapathi Raju , better known as the Maharajkumar of Vizianagram or Vizzy, was an Indian cricketer, cricket administrator and politician.- Childhood :...

, M. V. Narasimha Rao, Mohammad Azharuddin
Mohammad Azharuddin
Mohammad Azharuddin also known as Azhar, is an Indian politician and former cricketer. He was an accomplished batsman and captained the Indian cricket team for much of the 1990s, until his involvement in a match-fixing scandal forced him into retirement...

,
M. S. K. Prasad
M. S. K. Prasad
Mannava Sri Kanth Prasad is an Indian cricketer. He is a right-handed batsman and a wicketkeeper....

, V.V.S. Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman
Tirumalasetti Suman
Tirumalasetti Laxminarayana Suman is an Indian first class cricketer. He made his debut in first class cricket for hyderabad He is a right-handed opening or middle order batsman. In the second season of the Indian Premier League in 2009, Suman represented Deccan Chargers with success. In the 3rd...

, Arshad Ayub
Arshad Ayub
Arshad Ayub is a former Indian cricketer who played in 13 Tests and 32 ODIs from 1987 to 1990. As of January 2010, he became the manager for the Indian Cricket team for the ODI's and Test-series held in Bangladesh. He is also the president of HCA....

, Ambati Rayudu
Ambati Rayudu
Ambati Thirupathi Rayudu , is an Indian cricketer. He is a right-handed batsman and a right-arm off-break bowler. He was banned from Indian cricket due to his signing with the rebel ICL. Subsequently Rayudu left the ICL and, following an amnesty offer from BCCI, returned to Indian domestic...

, Paul Valthaty
Paul Valthaty
Paul Chandrashekar Valthaty is an Indian cricketer who currently plays for Kings XI Punjab in the Indian Premier League...

, Venkatapathy Raju
Venkatapathy Raju
Venkatapathy Raju came into the Indian side in 1989–90 after capturing 32 wickets in the domestic season. He made his Test and One Day International debut in the tour of New Zealand. When sent in as a night-watchman in his first Test innings, he batted for more than two hours for 31 runs while six...

, Sravanthi Naidu
Sravanthi Naidu
Sravanthi Naidu is a cricketer who has played in four women's One Day Internationals and one Test for India.-References:...

, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc.

Other accomplished sports-persons include, A. Ramana Rao
A. Ramana Rao
Arikapudi Ramana Rao is a former Indian volleyball player. He was born in Chamallamudi village, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. He is a recipient of both the Arjuna Award for the year 1977-1978 and Dronacharya Award for the year 1990-1991....

, Karnam Malleswari
Karnam Malleswari
Karnam Malleswari is an Indian Weightlifter. To her first time she participated in the 'National Junior weight lifting championship and stood First. In 1992 she participated in the Asian champion ship which took place in Thailand and stood second and won three silver medals. She also won three...

, Pullela Gopichand
Pullela Gopichand
Pullela Gopichand is an Indian Badminton player.He won the All England Open Badminton Championships in 2001 defeating Chen Hong of China in the finals by 15-12,15-6. He became the second Indian to achieve this feat after Prakash Padukone, who won it in 1980...

, Sania Mirza
Sania Mirza
Sania Mirza is a professional Indian tennis player. She began her tennis career in 2003 and is well known for her powerful forehand ground strokes. She is the first ever Indian to break into the top 30 WTA rankings...

, Saina Nehwal
Saina Nehwal
Saina Nehwal is an Indian Khel Ratna badminton player currently ranked 4 in the world by Badminton World Federation. Saina is the first Indian woman to reach the singles quarterfinals at the Olympics and the first Indian to win the World Junior Badminton Championships...

, Sharath Kamal
Sharath Kamal
Achanta Sharath Kamal is a professional table tennis player from Tamil Nadu India. His mother tongue is Telugu. He won the men's singles gold in the 16th Commonwealth table tennis championship held at Kuala Lumpur in 2004. He is a recipient of the Arjuna award for the year 2004. He lives in...

, Chetan Anand
Chetan Anand (badminton)
Chetan Anand Buradagunta is a badminton player from India. He is considered to be one of the best male badminton players in the country after Prakash Padukone, Syed Modi and Pullela Gopichand. Chetan Anand was a four time National Badminton champion in 2003, 2006, 2007 & 2009 but his world ranking...

 (Badminton), Mukesh Kumar (Hockey), Abdul Najeeb Qureshi
Abdul Najeeb Qureshi
Abdul Najeeb Qureshi is an Indian sprinter from Hyderabad. Najeeb, along with Anil Kumar Prakash, jointly holds the current 100 metres Indian national record of 10.30 s....

, Jwala Gutta, Raman Subbarao, Kamineni Eswara Rao, etc. Grandmasters in Chess
Chess
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.Each player...

 like, Koneru Humpy
Koneru Humpy
Humpy Koneru is an Indian chess Grandmaster. Her January 2010 FIDE Elo rating is 2614, placing her number two in the world for women . In 2007 she surpassed the rating of 2577 set by Susan Polgar to become the second-highest ranked female player in history...

, Pendyala Harikrishna
Pendyala Harikrishna
Pentala Harikrishna is a chess player from Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Harikrishna became the youngest grandmaster from India in 2001. He is No. 3 in India after Viswanathan Anand & Krishnan Sasikiran, No. 9 in Asia & ranked 71st in the world as per FIDE rating as on November 2011.In November...

, Dronavalli Harika
Dronavalli Harika
Dronavalli Harika is an Indian chess player. She was born on January 12, 1991 in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, and learned to play chess at age 7. She holds the titles of Grandmaster, Woman Grandmaster and International Master....

 and Gogineni Rohit hail from the state.

Education and Research


Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary science are offered, with first degrees and postgraduate awards available. Advanced research is conducted in all major areas.

Andhra Pradesh has 1,330 arts, science and commerce colleges; 1,000 MBA
Master of Business Administration
The Master of Business Administration is a :master's degree in business administration, which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. The MBA designation originated in the United States, emerging from the late 19th century as the country industrialized and companies sought out...

 and MCA
Master of Computer Applications
The Master of Computer Applications is a postgraduate degree in computer application streams awarded in India. Full time MCA programmes normally take three academic years. The primary emphasis in MCA curriculum is on the development of diverse types of application software rather than designing...

 colleges; 847 engineering colleges; 53 medical colleges, and one Indian Institute of Technology (in Hyderabad). The student to teacher ratio in higher education is 19:1. According to the 2001 census, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 61.11% (as per Andhra pradesh Govt's official website). The male literacy rate is 70.3% and the female literacy rate is 67.4%.

Andhra Pradesh is the home to Osmania University, it is one of the oldest modern universities in India. It is one of the largest university systems in the subcontinent with over 300,000 students on its various campuses and affiliated colleges. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies , also known as Andhra Pradesh - Indian Institute of Information Technologies , is an institute in Andhra Pradesh, India. The school was created by the Government of India, under the auspices of the then Chief Minister Sri. Rajashekar Reddy and...

 (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh. The Institute specializes in teaching and research in Information Technology and other emerging disciplines under the control of a common university Governing Council and following a common syllabus.

The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes. Andhra Pradesh is home to the Birla Institute of Technology and Science
Birla Institute of Technology and Science
Birla Institute of Technology & Science, is a private university located in Pilani, Rajasthan, India. BITS Pilani is considered one of the most prestigious and selective universities in India...

 (Hyderabad Campus),Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad
Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad
-See also:* List of universities in India* Colleges and institutes in India* Education in India* University Grants Commission * Ministry of Human Resource Development * Indian Institutes of Technology-External links:*...

, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Hyderabad
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Hyderabad
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Hyderabad is a research institution coming up in Hyderabad, India. It is an affiliate of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.-The institute:...

, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H)
International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad
International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad is an autonomous university in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. It was established in 1998 with seed support from the Government of Andhra Pradesh...

, National Institute of Technology NIT Warangal
National Institute of Technology, Warangal
National Institute of Technology, Warangal is an undergraduate and post graduate engineering institute located in Warangal, India...

, the Nalsar University of Law
Nalsar University of Law
The Nalsar University of Law, or officially the National Academy of Legal Studies and Research , is a legal studies institution located in Shamirpet, Hyderabad, India. It was established in 1998 as a state university in an Act of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly...

, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology
Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology
The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology or CCMB is a National level Research laboratory located in Hyderabad, India. CCMB is one of the constituent national laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR, the premier multidisciplinary Research & Development...

 (CCMB) Hyderabad, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad, University of Hyderabad
University of Hyderabad
The University of Hyderabad is a post-graduate teaching and research institute in India. It was established by an act of the Parliament in 1974 as a Central University. The university also offers courses under distance learning programs...

, School of Planning and Architecture
School of Planning and Architecture
School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi is a National Resource Institute of India. It is also one of the few premier 'Centrally Funded Technical Institutions ' under the Government of India. Currently there are 3 SPAs all over India, administered under the MHRD, Government of India...

, Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies
Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies , also known as Andhra Pradesh - Indian Institute of Information Technologies , is an institute in Andhra Pradesh, India. The school was created by the Government of India, under the auspices of the then Chief Minister Sri. Rajashekar Reddy and...

 and the Indian School of Business
Indian School of Business
The Indian School of Business is a business school in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India and is widely recognized as one of the top business schools in the world. It offers a Post Graduate Programme in Management , a Fellow Program in Management, and a Post Graduate Programme in Management for Senior...

 (ISB). The National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) and The Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition are also located in Hyderabad. Also Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Institute of Technology
The Georgia Institute of Technology is a public research university in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States...

, is in the process of setting up their campus in Hyderabad.

Apart from this Andhra Pradesh was home to many more top class university's like English and Foreign Languages University
English and Foreign Languages University
The English and Foreign Languages University , formerly the Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages , is a Central University in India. Its main campus is located in Hyderabad...

, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad is a university, primarily focused on engineering, located in Hyderabad, India. Founded in 1965 as the Nagarjuna Sagar Engineering College, it was established as a university in 1972 by The Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Act, 1972,...

, Osmania University
Osmania University
Osmania University , , since 1918, is a public university located in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. It was established and named after the last Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan. It is one of the oldest modern universities in India. It is the first Indian University to have Urdu and...

, Andhra University
Andhra University
Andhra University or Andhra Viswa Kala Parishad , located in Visakhapatnam, north east coastal Andhra Pradesh, is one of the older premier universities in India with a broad focus...

, Nagarjuna University, Kakatiya University
Kakatiya University
Kakatiya University is a public university located in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is one of the largest recipients of central government educational funds, evidenced by the recent external campus facelift and vast expansion and acquisition of the latest IT equipment and related peripherals...

, Sri Venkateswara University
Sri Venkateswara University
Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, is a state university, which was established in 1954, in the famous temple city of Tirupati, South India, under the auspices of Late Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu, the chief minister of Andhra Pradesh, and with support of Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams...

, Sri Krishnadevaraya University
Sri Krishnadevaraya University
Sri Krishnadevaraya University is a public university in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India, founded on July 25, 1981. The University is named after a patron of learning and the arts, Sri Krishnadevaraya, of the Vijayanagara empire of the 16th century.-History:...

, Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University
Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University
Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University or simply Telugu University , is one of the few language universities in India.-University:...

, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
The Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University is a University in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.-History:...

, Rayalaseema university, Kurnool, and private engineering colleges like Vasavi College of Engineering
Vasavi College of Engineering
Vasavi College of Engineering is a self-financed, technical institution located in Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad, India. It is 12 km from the city center. The institution is affiliated to Osmania University, Hyderabad...

, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology
Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology
Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology is one of the premiere institutions in the self-financing category in India.It is located in Gandipet, Osman Sagar, Hyderabad, India. It is 25 km away from Secunderabad railway station. The college is affiliated to Osmania University, Hyderabad...

, MVSR Engineering College, GRIET to serve their people across Andhra Pradesh.

The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established the first University of Health Sciences, fulfilling the recommendations of several committees. The Andhra Pradesh University of Health Sciences was established by Act.No. 6 of the Andhra Pradesh legislature and was inaugurated in 1986 by the late Sri N.T. Rama Rao, then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. After the death of its founder Sri N.T. Rama Rao the University was named after him as NTR University of Health Sciences
NTR University of Health Sciences
NTR University of Health Sciences is a public university in the city of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is named after its founder N.T. Rama Rao.-History:...

, Andhra Pradesh.

By road




A total of 146954 km (91,313.2 mi) of roads are maintained by the State, of which State Highways comprise 42511 km (26,415.2 mi), National Highways 2949 km (1,832.4 mi), and District Roads 101484 km (63,059.4 mi). The growth rate for vehicle ownership in Andhra Pradesh is the highest in the country at 16%.

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation or APSRTC is the state owned road transport corporation in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is acknowledged as the single corporation having the largest fleet in the world...

 (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh that connects all the cities and villages. APSRTC is in the Guinness Book of World Records
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records , is a reference book published annually, containing a collection of world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world...

for having the largest fleet of vehicles (approximately 21,000), and the longest distance covered daily. Vijayawada is the 2nd largest Bus-Standing in Asia. Thousands of private operators also run buses connecting major cities and towns. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters, and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.

By rail



Railways are a major means of transport connecting all major cities and towns. The history of railways in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. This Railway Station is located in the heart of Telangana Region. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under the auspices of the South Central Railway
South Central Railway
The South Central Railway is one of the 16 railway zones in India. It is headquartered at Secunderabad and has the following divisions:# Secunderabad# Hyderabad# Guntakal # Vijayawada# Guntur# Nanded...

, founded in 1966 with its headquarters at Secunderabad
Secunderabad
Secunderabad popularly known as the twin city of Hyderabad is located in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh north of Hyderabad. Named after Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, Secunderabad was founded in 1806 AD as a British cantonment...

. The East Coast Railway
East Coast Railway
The East Coast Railway is one of the sixteen railway zones of Indian Railways came into existence from 1 April 2003.The geographical jurisdiction of this railway zone extends over three states encompressing almost all parts of Orissa along with parts of Srikakulam, Vizainagaram and Visakhapatnam...

 serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City. Vijayawada Railway Station is one of the busiest railway junctions in India.5th largest Railway station in South.

By air


Hyderabad International Airport
Hyderabad International Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport also known as Hyderabad International Airport, is an international airport near Shamshabad, about south of downtown Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India....

, also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is the international airport for the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide. Other airports in the state are Visakhapatnam Airport, Vijayawada Airport
Vijayawada Airport
Vijayawada Airport is located in Gannavaram at Vijayawada in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.This airport is connected with major metro cities of India like New Delhi, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Vishakapatnam, Chennai, Mangalore.Currently Air India, Kingfisher Airlines, Jet Airways and spicejet...

, Rajahmundry Airport
Rajahmundry Airport
Rajahmundry Airport is located at Rajahmundry in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.It is located at Madhurapudi 18 Km from Northern side of city.-Airlines and destinations:PassengerCargo-Future plans:...

, and Tirupati Airport
Tirupati Airport
Tirupati Airport is located at Tirumala - Tirupati in Chittoor Dist in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. The airport is situated at a distance of 14 km from Tirupati city. The night landing facility has been installed. The runway is going to be increased by another 900 metres...

. The government also has plans to start airports in eight other cities: Guntur
Guntur
Guntur , is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, located to the north and west of the Bay of Bengal. It is approximately to the south of the national capital, New Delhi and south east of state capital, Hyderabad. Guntur is the fourth largest city in Andhra...

, Ongole, Nellore
Nellore
Nellore , is a city and headquarters of Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore District, formerly Nellore district.And in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Ancient name of Nellore was "Vikrama Simhapuri"....

, Warangal
Warangal
Warangal is a city and a municipal corporation in Warangal district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Warangal is located northeast of the state capital of Hyderabad and is the administrative headquarters of Warangal District. This district is a combination of three cities: Warangal,...

, Kadapa
Kadapa
Kadapa , formerly Cuddapah, is a city in the south-central part of Andhra Pradesh, India . The city's name originated from the Telugu word "Gadapa" meaning threshold or gate...

, Tadepalligudem
Tadepalligudem
Tadepalligudem is a town and a municipality in Andhra Pradesh, India.It is situated in the middle of West Godavari District, nearly 50 km from the district headquarters, Eluru. It is a rapidly growing business town in the lap of nature, surrounded by beautiful fields and canals...

, Kurnool
Kurnool
Kurnool is located at . It has an average elevation of 273 metres .Kurnool lies on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. The Handry and Neeva rivers also flow through the city. The K.C...

, Karimnagar
Karimnagar
As of 2011 India census Estimation, Karimnagar city had a population of 2,99,660. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49% has an average literacy rate of 86.75%, higher than the national average of 74.04%: male literacy is 92.61%, and female literacy is 80.79%. In Karimnagar, 12% of...

, Ramagundam
Ramagundam
-Road:Ramagundam is connected to major parts of the state through a well connected road, Rajiv Rahadari in remembrance of the Gandhi family and the political party he hailed from, the...

 and Kothagudem
Kothagudem
Kothagudem is an industrial town in the Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh, about 270 km from Hyderabad. It is also known as the coal town of South India. Kothagudem and palvancha are the twin industrial towns in the state. Kothagudem is located at . It has an average elevation of...

.

By sea


Andhra Pradesh has two of the major ports of India at Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam is a major sea port on the south east coast of India. With a population of approximately 1.7 million, it is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city on the east coast of India after Kolkata and Chennai. According to the history, the city was...

 and Kakinada
Kakinada
Kakinada is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located east of the state capital, Hyderabad. It is also the headquarters of East Godavari district. It is nicknamed "Fertilizer City" , "Pensioner's Paradise" and "Second Madras"...

 and three minor ports at Krishnapatnam
Krishnapatnam
Krishnapatnam or Kistnapatam is a port town in Muthukur mandal of Nellore district in Andhra Pradesh, India.-Description:Krishnapatnam is a major port and market center. It is situated at a distance of 24 km from Nellore City in Nellore District, the southernmost coastal district in the state...

 (Nellore
Nellore
Nellore , is a city and headquarters of Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore District, formerly Nellore district.And in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Ancient name of Nellore was "Vikrama Simhapuri"....

), Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam is a city and a special grade municipality in the Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is located south east of state capital, Hyderabad.-History:...

, and Nizampatnam
Nizampatnam
Nizampatnam, also known as Petapolly , is a seaport town in Andhra Pradesh state of southern India. Nizampatnam is located in Guntur District, of which it is a mandal, in the delta of the Krishna River, which empties into the Bay of Bengal...

 (Guntur
Guntur
Guntur , is a city and a municipal corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, located to the north and west of the Bay of Bengal. It is approximately to the south of the national capital, New Delhi and south east of state capital, Hyderabad. Guntur is the fourth largest city in Andhra...

). A private port is being developed at Gangavaram
Gangavaram Port
Gangavaram Port, located in Andhra Pradesh, is India's deepest port. Inaugurated in July 2009, it has a depth of 21m. It is managed by Gangavaram Port Ltd., a special-purpose company floated by Mr. DVS Raju, who serves as its Chairman and Managing Director...

, near Visakhapatnam. This deep seaport can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT
Deadweight tonnage
Deadweight tonnage is a measure of how much weight a ship is carrying or can safely carry. It is the sum of the weights of cargo, fuel, fresh water, ballast water, provisions, passengers, and crew...

.

In Telugu

  • Andhra Bhoomi
    Andhra Bhoomi
    Andhra Bhoomi is a Telugu daily newspaper. It covers whole of Andhra Pradesh with editions from Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Rajahmundry, Anantapur, Karimnagar, Nellore, etc. It also comes with Monthly Magazine named Andhra Bhoomi Sachitra Vaara Patrika. With a circulation of 3,65,794 it...

  • Andhra Jyothy
  • Andhra Prabha
    Andhra Prabha
    Andhra Prabha is a Telugu daily newspaper launched in 1938. It is a part of the New Indian Express Group of Companies.-Early history:The paper was started from Chennai on August 15, 1938 by Ramnath Goenka to challenge the sway of the leading Telugu newspaper at the time, Andhra Patrika...

  • Eenadu
    Eenadu
    Eenadu , headquartered in Hyderabad, India, is the largest circulated Telugu news daily in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the world. According to NRS 2011 it has a readership of 17,00,000 and is the third most circulated regional language daily and 10th most circulated daily in India...

  • Islamic Voice - Telugu
  • Namaste Telangana
    Namaste Telangana
    Namasthe Telangana is a registered Telugu language newspaper. It was launched on June 6, 2011. The newspaper will be published from seven centres in seven districts of the region. The daily aims to mainly focus on politics and developments in Telangana region. It supports the movement of Separate...

  • Prajasakti
    Prajasakti
    Prajasakti is a Telugu newspaper that is published in Andhra Pradesh, India. It started as a daily newspaper in 1981 with Vijayawada as the centre. Currently it is being published with nine centres at Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Tirupati , Khammam, Kurnool, Rajahmundry, Srikakulam and...

  • Suryaa
    Suryaa
    Surya headquartered in Hyderabad. This newspaper is being promoted by Nukarapu Surya Prakash Rao. This telugu newspaper is being published from seventeen cities in India.- External links :* http://www.suryaa.com/...

  • Vaartha
    Vaartha
    Vaartha , headquartered in Hyderabad, India is a Telugu news paper.Vaartha means "News" in Telugu. Vaartha is the firstly daily in Andhra Pradesh to have facilitated Information Technology in publishing all the news that broke as late as 4 a.m. Vaartha is extremely popular in the beginning of its...

  • sakshi
    Sakshi
    Sakshi is a Telugu media group. The group has a news daily and a Telugu News channel. It is headquartered in Hyderabad, India.-Sakshi Newspaper:Main article: Sakshi...


In Urdu

  • Awam
    Awam
    Awam stands for common people or general public in Urdu language. In early 1900 the word is extensively used by political system in Indian sub continent to refer general population. Later the word remained in use in Pakistan but India adopted Hindi word Log or Praja. Awam is an Urdu and Sindhi...

  • Etemaad daily
  • The Munsif Daily
    The Munsif Daily
    The Munsif Daily is a Urdu language newspaper published from Hyderabad in India. Its editor is Khan Abdul Lateef Khan. The Munsif Daily is the largest circulating Urdu newspaper in the area ....

  • The Siasat Daily
    The Siasat Daily
    Siasat is a popular Urdu newspaper from the south Indian city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.Established in 1948 and based out of Hyderabad, Siasat is the largest circulated Urdu daily . The founder Editor Mr. Abid Ali Khan started The Siasat Daily in 1948 with his friend Mr. Mehboob Hussain Jigar....


In English

  • Deccan Chronicle
  • Hindustan Times
    Hindustan Times
    Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ....

  • The Business Line
    Business line
    Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India.-History:...

  • The Economic Times
    The Economic Times
    The Economic Times is an English-language Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.. The Economic Times was started in 1961. It is the most popular and widely read financial daily in India, read by more than 8 lakh people...

  • The Hindu
    The Hindu
    The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40...

  • The New Indian Express
    The New Indian Express
    The New Indian Express is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper published by the Express Publications. It was founded in 1932 as the Indian Express, under the ownership of Chennai-based P. Varadarajulu Naidu. In 1991, following the death of the then owner Ramnath Goenka, the Goenka...

  • The Times of India
    The Times of India
    The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...


See also

  • Andhra State
    Andhra State
    Andhra State was a state in India created on October 1, 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras Presidency. On November 1, 1956 it was merged with the Telangana region of Hyderabad State to form the united Telugu-speaking state of Andhra Pradesh.- Madras Manade movement :In 1953,...

  • Dravidian
  • History of India
    History of India
    The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from...

  • List of people from Andhra Pradesh
  • Middle kingdoms of India
    Middle kingdoms of India
    Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 3rd century BC after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BC...

  • Rayalaseema
    Rayalaseema
    Rayalaseema is a geographic region in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It includes the districts of Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, Kurnool. These Telugu speaking districts were part of Madras Presidency until 1953 when Telugu speaking districts of Madras presidency were carved out to form...

  • Telangana
    Telangana
    Telangana is a region in the present state of Andhra Pradesh, India and formerly was part of Hyderabad state which was ruled by Nizam. It is bordered with the states of Maharashtra on the north and north-west, Karnataka on the west, Chattisgarh on the north-east and Orissa to the east...

  • Traditional games of Andhra Pradesh
    Traditional Games of Andhra Pradesh
    Traditional games of Andhra Pradesh may date back to ancient times, and some are extinct.-Gujjana Goollu:Gujjana Goollu is a very popular ancient time pass game, especially played by the children of Andhra Pradesh. This traditional game is devoid of logic, but to children, it gives a picture on...

  • Uttarandhra
    Uttarandhra
    The Uttarandhra region consists of three north coastal districts in Andhra Pradesh state in India. This region is also called Kalingandhra. The people speak Telugu language and most people depend on agriculture for farming.- Districts :...


External links