1905 Kangra earthquake
1905 Kangra earthquake was a major earthquake that occurred in the Kangra Valley
Kangra Valley
Kangra Valley is situated in Himachal Pradesh, India. It is a popular tourist destination, with the peak season around March and April.Dharamsala, the headquarters of Kangra district, lies on the southern spur of Dhauladhar in the valley .-Geography:...

 and the Kangra
Kangra district
Kangra is the most populous district of the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. Dharamsala is the administrative headquarters of the district.-Geography:Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh is situated in Western Himalayas between 31°2 to...

 region of Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is a state in Northern India. It is spread over , and is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west and south-west, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh on the south, Uttarakhand on the south-east and by the Tibet Autonomous Region on the east...

 in India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 on 4 April 1905. The earthquake measured 7.8 on the surface wave magnitude
Surface wave magnitude
The surface wave magnitude scale is one of the magnitude scales used in seismology to describe the size of an earthquake. It is based on measurements in Rayleigh surface waves that travel primarily along the uppermost layers of the earth...

 scale and killed more than 20,000 people. Apart from this most buildings in towns of Kangra, Mcleodganj and Dharamshala were destroyed.


The calculated epicenter
The epicenter or epicentre is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates...

 of the earthquake lies within the zone of thrusts
Thrust fault
A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust across which there has been relative movement, in which rocks of lower stratigraphic position are pushed up and over higher strata. They are often recognized because they place older rocks above younger...

 along the front of the Himalayas formed by the continuing collision of the Indian plate into the Eurasian plate
Eurasian Plate
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia , with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia...



As many as 100,00 buildings were reported to have been demolished by the earthquake. At least 20,000 people are estimated to have been killed and 53,000 domestic animals were also lost. There was also major damage to the network of hillside aqueduct
An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose....

s that fed water to the affected area. The total cost of recovering from the effects of the earthquake were calculated as 2.9 million (1905) rupees.

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