Lisbon

Lisbon

Overview
Lisbon (ˈ; , liʒˈβoɐ) is the capital city
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 and largest city of Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of 84.8 km² (33 sq mi). The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of 958 km² (370 sq mi), making it the 9th most populous urban area
Largest urban areas of the European Union
This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 750,000 inhabitants each in 2011.This list is an attempt to present a consistent list of population figures for urban areas in the European Union. All the figures here have been compiled by Demographia.-Important...

 in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. About 2,831,000 people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities in Portugal. The smaller Grande Lisboa area is a subregion of the NUTS II Lisbon Region by its own right....

 (which represents approximately 27% of the population of the country).
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Lisbon'
Start a new discussion about 'Lisbon'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Timeline

1147   After a siege of 4 months crusader knights led by Afonso Henriques, reconquered Lisbon.

1147   The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.

1493   Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.

1499   Portuguese explorer Nicolau Coelho returns to Lisbon, after discovering the sea route to India as a companion of Vasco da Gama.

1500   The fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral leaves Lisbon for the Indies. The fleet will discover Brazil which lies within boundaries granted to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas.

1502   Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India.

1531   Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake--thousands die.

1541   Francis Xavier leaves Lisbon on a mission to the Portuguese East Indies.

1588   The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel. (It will take until May 30 for all ships to leave port).

1588   The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel.

 
Encyclopedia
Lisbon (ˈ; , liʒˈβoɐ) is the capital city
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 and largest city of Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of 84.8 km² (33 sq mi). The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of 958 km² (370 sq mi), making it the 9th most populous urban area
Largest urban areas of the European Union
This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 750,000 inhabitants each in 2011.This list is an attempt to present a consistent list of population figures for urban areas in the European Union. All the figures here have been compiled by Demographia.-Important...

 in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. About 2,831,000 people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities in Portugal. The smaller Grande Lisboa area is a subregion of the NUTS II Lisbon Region by its own right....

 (which represents approximately 27% of the population of the country). Lisbon is the westernmost large city located in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, as well as its westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. It lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

 on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 and the Tagus
Tagus
The Tagus is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is long, in Spain, along the border between Portugal and Spain and in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Lisbon. It drains an area of . The Tagus is highly utilized for most of its course...

 River.

Lisbon is recognised as an alpha- city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 because of its importance in finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

, media
Publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

, entertainment
Entertainment
Entertainment consists of any activity which provides a diversion or permits people to amuse themselves in their leisure time. Entertainment is generally passive, such as watching opera or a movie. Active forms of amusement, such as sports, are more often considered to be recreation...

, arts
The arts
The arts are a vast subdivision of culture, composed of many creative endeavors and disciplines. It is a broader term than "art", which as a description of a field usually means only the visual arts. The arts encompass visual arts, literary arts and the performing arts – music, theatre, dance and...

, international trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

, education
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

, and tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

. It is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial centre and the largest/second largest container port in the "Europe's Atlantic coast", Lisbon Portela Airport serves about 13 million passengers per year, motorway network and hub of high-speed rail
High-speed rail
High-speed rail is a type of passenger rail transport that operates significantly faster than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions by the European Union include for upgraded track and or faster for new track, whilst in the United States, the U.S...

 (Alfa Pendular
Alfa Pendular
Alfa Pendular is the name of the Pendolino high-speed tilting train of Portuguese state railway company CP. It connects the cities of Braga, Porto, Aveiro, Coimbra, Santarém, Lisbon, Albufeira and Faro, among others at speeds of up to ....

) linking main cities in Portugal, and in 2013 will have a rail's high-speed connection to Spain. Lisbon is the 25th most livable city in the World according to lifestyle magazine Monocle
Monocle (2007 magazine)
Monocle is a lifestyle magazine and website founded by Tyler Brûlé, a Canadian journalist and entrepreneur. Described by CBC News reporter Harry Forestell as a "meeting between Foreign Policy and Vanity Fair", the magazine provides a globalist perspective on issues as fashion, international...

. The city is the seventh-most-visited city in Southern Europe
Southern Europe
The term Southern Europe, at its most general definition, is used to mean "all countries in the south of Europe". However, the concept, at different times, has had different meanings, providing additional political, linguistic and cultural context to the definition in addition to the typical...

, after Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

, Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

, Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

, and Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal, GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 PPP
Purchasing power parity
In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

 per capita is 26,100 euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

s (4.7% higher than the average European Union's GDP PPP per capita). It is the tenth richest metropolitan area by GDP on the continent amounting to 98 billion euros and thus €34,850 per capita. This is 40% higher than the average European Union's GDP per capita. The city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the ninth city in the world in terms of quantity of international conferences. It is also the political centre of the country, as seat of Government
Government of Portugal
The Government is one of the four sovereignty organs of the Portuguese Republic. It is also the organ that conducts politics in general in the country and is also the superior body in public administration...

 and residence of the Head of State
President of Portugal
Portugal has been a republic since 1910, and since that time the head of state has been the president, whose official title is President of the Portuguese Republic ....

. The seat of the district of Lisbon and the centre of the Lisbon region.

Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, predating other modern European capitals such as London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 and Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 by hundreds of years. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

 made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic
Germanic peoples
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.Originating about 1800 BCE from the Corded Ware Culture on the North...

 tribes from the fifth century, it was captured by the Moors
Moors
The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

 in the eighth century. In 1147, the Crusaders
Second Crusade
The Second Crusade was the second major crusade launched from Europe. The Second Crusade was started in response to the fall of the County of Edessa the previous year to the forces of Zengi. The county had been founded during the First Crusade by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098...

 under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city
Siege of Lisbon
The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade—it was "the only success of the...

 for the Christians and since then it has been a major political, economic, and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute
Statute
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or county. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. The word is often used to distinguish law made by legislative bodies from case law, decided by courts, and regulations...

 or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention
Constitutional convention (political custom)
A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. In some states, notably those Commonwealth of Nations states that follow the Westminster system and whose political systems derive from British constitutional law, most...

, making its position as de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal
Constitution of Portugal
The first Portuguese Constitution was drafted in 1822. Several revolutions led to the constitutions of 1826 , 1838 , 1911 , 1933 , and 1976 ....

.

Lisbon hosts two agencies of the European Union
Agencies of the European Union
An agency of the European Union is a decentralised body of the European Union , which are distinct from the institutions. Agencies are established to accomplish specific tasks. Each agency has its own legal personality...

: the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction is an agency of the European Union. Established in 1993, the EMCDDA is located in Lisbon, Portugal.-Mission and role:...

 (EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency
European Maritime Safety Agency
The European Maritime Safety Agency is a European Union agency charged with reducing the risk of maritime accidents, marine pollution from ships and the loss of human lives at sea by helping to enforce the pertinent EU legislation...

 (EMSA). The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) is also headquartered in Lisbon.

Lisbon has two sites listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

: Belém Tower
Belém Tower
Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

 and Jerónimos Monastery
Jerónimos Monastery
The Hieronymites Monastery is located near the shore of the parish of Belém, in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 and in 1998 organised an Expo '98
Expo '98
Expo '98 was an official specialised World's Fair held in Lisbon, Portugal from Friday, May 22 to Wednesday, September 30, 1998. The theme of the fair was "The Oceans, a Heritage for the Future," chosen in part to commemorate 500 years of Portuguese discoveries...

 (1998 Lisbon World Exposition).

Lisbon enjoys a Mediterranean climate. Among all the metropolises in Europe, it has the warmest winters, with average temperatures 15 °C (59 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46.4 °F) at night in the period from December to February. The typical summer's season lasts about six months, from May to October, although also in November, March and April temperatures sometimes reach around 20 °C (68 °F).

History



During the Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

, the region was inhabited by Iberian
Iberians
The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula at least from the 6th century BC...

 tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megalith
Megalith
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Megalithic describes structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement.The word 'megalith' comes from the Ancient...

s, Dolmen
Dolmen
A dolmen—also known as a portal tomb, portal grave, dolmain , cromlech , anta , Hünengrab/Hünenbett , Adamra , Ispun , Hunebed , dös , goindol or quoit—is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of...

s and menhir
Menhir
A menhir is a large upright standing stone. Menhirs may be found singly as monoliths, or as part of a group of similar stones. Their size can vary considerably; but their shape is generally uneven and squared, often tapering towards the top...

s, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon. The Indo-European
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

 Celt
Celt
The Celts were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages.The earliest archaeological culture commonly accepted as Celtic, or rather Proto-Celtic, was the central European Hallstatt culture , named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria....

s invaded after the first millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European
Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula
This is a list of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian peninsula .-Non-Indo-European:*Aquitanians**Aquitani**Autrigones - some consider them Celtic .**Caristii - some consider them Celtic ....

 population, giving a rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.

Archaeological
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 findings suggest that there was Phoenicia
Phoenicia
Phoenicia , was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. It was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550...

n influences dating back to the 1200 BC, leading some historians to believe that a Phoenician trading post might have occupied the centre of the present city (on the southern slope of the Castle hill). The sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

, was an ideal spot for a settlement and provided a secure port for provisioning of Phoenician ships travelling to the Islands of Tin (modern Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
The Isles of Scilly form an archipelago off the southwestern tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain. The islands have had a unitary authority council since 1890, and are separate from the Cornwall unitary authority, but some services are combined with Cornwall and the islands are still part...

) and Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of , and covers an area of...

. The new city might have been named Allis Ubbo, Phoenician for "safe harbour", according to one of several theories on the origin of Lisbon's toponymy
Toponymy
Toponymy is the scientific study of place names , their origins, meanings, use and typology. The word "toponymy" is derived from the Greek words tópos and ónoma . Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds...

. Another theory suggests that the settlement took the name of the pre-Roman word for the Tagus (Lisso or Lucio). The Tagus settlement was also an important output on commercial trade with inland tribes who collected valuable metals, salt, salted-fish, and the Lusitanian horses
Lusitano
The Lusitano is a Portuguese horse breed, closely related to the Spanish Andalusian horse. Both are sometimes called Iberian horses, as the breeds both developed on the Iberian peninsula, and until the 1960s they were considered one breed, under the Andalusian name...

 (that were renowned in antiquity).
Although Phoenician remains from the 8th century BC were found beneath the Mediaeval Sé Cathedral
Lisbon Cathedral
The Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Mary Major is a Roman Catholic parish church located in Lisbon, Portugal. The oldest church in the city is the see of the Archdiocese of Lisbon. Since the beginning of the construction of the cathedral, in the year 1147, the building has been modified several...

, modern historians however, believe that Lisbon was an ancient autochthon
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

ous settlement (Roman oppidum
Oppidum
Oppidum is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. The word is derived from the earlier Latin ob-pedum, "enclosed space," possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *pedóm-, "occupied space" or "footprint."Julius Caesar described the larger Celtic Iron Age...

) and that, at most, it maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians (accounting Phoenician pottery and artefacts).

Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera and died c. AD 45.His short work occupies less than one hundred pages of ordinary print. It is laconic in style and deficient in method, but of pure Latinity, and occasionally relieved by pleasing...

, a native of Hispania
Hispania
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis....

. It was later referenced as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

, and to the Greeks as Olissipo (Ολισσιπο) and Olissipona (Ολισσιπόνα). According to legend, the location was named for Ulysses
Odysseus
Odysseus or Ulysses was a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in the Epic Cycle....

, who founded the settlement after he left Troy
Troy
Troy was a city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida...

 to escape the Greek coalition. Later, the Greek name was corrupted in vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin is any of the nonstandard forms of Latin from which the Romance languages developed. Because of its nonstandard nature, it had no official orthography. All written works used Classical Latin, with very few exceptions...

 to Olissipona.

Some of the native gods
Lusitanian mythology
Lusitanian mythology is the mythology of the Lusitanians, the Indo-European people of western Iberia, in the territory comprising most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca....

 worshipped in Lisbon were Aracus, Carneus, Bandiarbariaicus, and Coniumbricenses.

Roman era


Following the defeat of Hannibal
Hannibal Barca
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca Hannibal's date of death is most commonly given as 183 BC, but there is a possibility it could have taken place in 182 BC. was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician. He is generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history...

, during the Punic wars
Punic Wars
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 B.C.E. to 146 B.C.E. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place...

, the Romans determined to deprive Carthage of its most valuable possession: Hispania
Hispania
Another theory holds that the name derives from Ezpanna, the Basque word for "border" or "edge", thus meaning the farthest area or place. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania derived from Hispalis....

 (the Iberian Peninsula). The defeat of Carthaginians forces by Scipio Africanus
Scipio Africanus
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus , also known as Scipio Africanus and Scipio the Elder, was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic...

 in Eastern Hispania, allowed the pacification of the west was led by Consul
Consul
Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic...

 Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus
Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus
Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus was a Roman politician and general of the 2nd century BC. He was the son of the consul Marcus Junius Brutus and brother of the praetor Marcus Junius Brutus; he himself was appointed consul in 138 BC...

. Decimus obtained the alliance of Olissipo (which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the Empire, as the Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended 50 kilometres (31.1 mi), exempt from taxes, its citizens were given the privileges of Roman citizenship, and it was integrated within the Roman province of Lusitania
Lusitania
Lusitania or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain . It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people...

 (whose capital was Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is one of the largest and most extensive archaeological sites in Spain. Mainly of Emerita Augusta, ancient capital of Lusitania . It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1993....

).

Lusitanians
Lusitanians
The Lusitanians were an Indo-European people living in the Western Iberian Peninsula long before it became the Roman province of Lusitania . They spoke the Lusitanian language which might have been Celtic. The modern Portuguese people see the Lusitanians as their ancestors...

 raids and rebellions during Roman occupation necessitated the construction of a wall around the settlement. During Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

' reign, the Romans also built a great theatre
Theatre
Theatre is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance...

; the Cassian Baths (underneath Rua da Prata); temples to Jupiter
Jupiter (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Jupiter or Jove is the king of the gods, and the god of the sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus in the Greek pantheon....

, Diana
Diana (mythology)
In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt and moon and birthing, being associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis, though she had an independent origin in Italy...

, Cybele
Cybele
Cybele , was a Phrygian form of the Earth Mother or Great Mother. As with Greek Gaia , her Minoan equivalent Rhea and some aspects of Demeter, Cybele embodies the fertile Earth...

, Tethys
Tethys (mythology)
In Greek mythology, Tethys , daughter of Uranus and Gaia was an archaic Titaness and aquatic sea goddess, invoked in classical Greek poetry but not venerated in cult. Tethys was both sister and wife of Oceanus...

, and Idea Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Asia Minor is a geographical location at the westernmost protrusion of Asia, also called Anatolia, and corresponds to the western two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey...

), in addition to temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis
Necropolis
A necropolis is a large cemetery or burial ground, usually including structural tombs. The word comes from the Greek νεκρόπολις - nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead"...

 under Praça da Figueira
Praça da Figueira
The Praça da Figueira is a large square in the centre of Lisbon, in Portugal. It is part of the Baixa Pombalina, the area of the city reurbanised after the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake....

; a large forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the Castle Hill and the historic downtown.

The city prospered as piracy
Piracy
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea. The term can include acts committed on land, in the air, or in other major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against persons traveling on the same vessel as the perpetrator...

 was eliminated, technological advances were introduced and as Felicitas Julia became the a centre of trade with the Roman provinces of Britannia
Britannia
Britannia is an ancient term for Great Britain, and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain. However, by the...

 (particularly Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of , and covers an area of...

) and the Rhine. Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its garum
Garum
Garum, similar to liquamen, was a type of fermented fish sauce condiment that was an essential flavour in Ancient Roman cooking, the supreme condiment....

 (fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the Empire and exported in Amphora
Amphora
An amphora is a type of vase-shaped, usually ceramic container with two handles and a long neck narrower than the body...

e to Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

), wine, salt and horse-breeding, while Roman culture permeated into the hinterland. The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (Portuguese Braga
Braga
Braga , a city in the Braga Municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the Braga District, the oldest archdiocese and the third major city of the country. Braga is the oldest Portuguese city and one of the oldest Christian cities in the World...

), and Emerita Augusta
Emerita Augusta
The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is one of the largest and most extensive archaeological sites in Spain. Mainly of Emerita Augusta, ancient capital of Lusitania . It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1993....

, the capital of Lusitania
Lusitania
Lusitania or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain . It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people...

 (Mérida
Mérida, Spain
Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, western central Spain. It has a population of 57,127 . The Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida is a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1993.- Climate :...

 in Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

). The city was ruled by an oligarchical
Oligarchy
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with an elite class distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, commercial, and/or military legitimacy...

 council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae, although regional authority was administered by the Roman Governor
Governor
A governor is a governing official, usually the executive of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state...

 of Emerita or directly to Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

. Among the majority of Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 speakers lived a large minority of Greek
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 traders and slaves.

Around 80 BCE, the Roman Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius was a Roman statesman and general, born in Nursia, in Sabine territory. His brilliance as a military commander was shown most clearly in his battles against Rome for control of Hispania...

 led a rebellion against the dictator Sulla. During this period, he organized the tribes of Lusitania (and Hispania) and was on the verge of forming an independent province in the Sertorian War
Sertorian War
The Sertorian War was a conflict of the Roman civil wars in which a coalition of Iberians and Romans fought against the representatives of the regime established by Sulla. It takes its name from Quintus Sertorius the main leader of the opposition to Sulla. The war lasted from 80 BC to 72 BC. The...

 when he died.

Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the dissemination of Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

. Its first attested Bishop
Patriarch of Lisbon
The Patriarch of Lisbon is an honorary title possessed by the archbishop of the Archdiocese of Lisbon.The first patriarch of Lisbon was D. Tomás de Almeida, who was appointed in 1716 by Pope Clement XI...

 was Potamius (c. 356), and there were several martyr
Martyr
A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for refusing to renounce, or accept, a belief or cause, usually religious.-Meaning:...

s during the period of Christina persecutions: Maxima
Maxima of Rome
Maxima of Rome was a slave and friend of Saint Ansanus of Siena. She was martyred by being beaten to death in the persecutions of Diocletian, circa 304. Locally recognized as saint, her feast day is September 2.-Martyrology:-References:...

, Verissimus and Eulalia of Mérida are the most significant examples. By the Fall of Rome, Olissipo was one of the first Christian centres.

Following Roman disintegration and barbarian invasions, between 409 and 429 the centre was occupied by Sarmatian Alans
Alans
The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani, were a group of Sarmatian tribes, nomadic pastoralists of the 1st millennium AD who spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian.-Name:The various forms of Alan —...

 and Germanic Vandals
Vandals
The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. The Vandals under king Genseric entered Africa in 429 and by 439 established a kingdom which included the Roman Africa province, besides the islands of Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearics....

. The Germanic Suebi
Suebi
The Suebi or Suevi were a group of Germanic peoples who were first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with Ariovistus' campaign, c...

, who established a kingdom in Gallaecia
Gallaecia
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province and an early Mediaeval kingdom that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania...

 (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with capital in Bracara Augusta, also controlled the region of Lisbon from until 585. In 585, the Suebi Kingdom was integrated into the Germanic Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo, that comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula: Lisbon was then called Ulishbona.

Muslim invasion period



On 6 August 711, Lisbon was taken by Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 forces. These conquerors, who were mostly Berber
Berber
Berber may refer to:*a member of the Berber people**the Berber languages, a family of Afro-Asiatic languages**Berberism, a political-cultural term supporting a distinct Berber identity**Berber calendar**Berber cuisine...

s and Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

s from North Africa and the Middle East, built many mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

s and houses, rebuilt the city wall (known as the Cerca Moura) and established administrative control, while permitting the diverse population (Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s, Berbers
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

, Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

s, Jews, and Saqaliba
Saqaliba
Saqaliba refers to the Slavs, particularly Slavic slaves and mercenaries in the medieval Arab world, in the Middle East, North Africa, Sicily and Al-Andalus. It is generally thought that the Arabic term is a Byzantine loanword: saqlab, siklab, saqlabi etc. is a corruption of Greek Sklavinoi for...

s) to maintain their socio-cultural lifestyles. Mozarabic was the mother language spoken by most of the Christian population. Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 was the official religion practised by the Arabs and Muladi
Muladi
The Muladi were Muslims of ethnic Iberian descent or of mixed Arab, Berber and European origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages. They were also called "Musalima" .-Etymology:...

 (muwallad); the Christians were allowed to keep their religion, but under a second-class (Dhimmi
Dhimmi
A , is a non-Muslim subject of a state governed in accordance with sharia law. Linguistically, the word means "one whose responsibility has been taken". This has to be understood in the context of the definition of state in Islam...

) status and were required to pay the jizyah (in return for paying this surtax, Christians and Jews were not required to join the Islamic army, as their security was guaranteed by the Islamic state, as long as they accepted their submittal to the country rules).

The Muslim influence is still present in the Alfama
Alfama
Alfama is the oldest district of Lisbon, spreading on the slope between the Castle of Lisbon and the Tejo river. Its name comes from the Arabic Al-hamma, meaning fountains or baths...

, an old quarter of Lisbon that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake
1755 Lisbon earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, was a megathrust earthquake that took place on Saturday 1 November 1755, at around 9:40 in the morning. The earthquake was followed by fires and a tsunami, which almost totally destroyed Lisbon in the Kingdom of Portugal, and...

: many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama
Alfama
Alfama is the oldest district of Lisbon, spreading on the slope between the Castle of Lisbon and the Tejo river. Its name comes from the Arabic Al-hamma, meaning fountains or baths...

 (the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "al-hamma".

For a brief time, Lisbon was the central town in the Regulo Eslavo of the Taifa
Taifa
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate or petty kingdom, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.-Rise:The origins of...

 of Badajoz
Badajoz
Badajoz is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain, situated close to the Portuguese border, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid–Lisbon railway. The population in 2007 was 145,257....

, and then as an independent Taifa
Taifa
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate or petty kingdom, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.-Rise:The origins of...

.

Reconquista - Return to Christian rule


In 1108 the city was conquered by Norwegian crusaders led by Sigurd I
Sigurd I of Norway
Sigurd I Magnusson , also known as Sigurd the Crusader , was King of Norway from 1103 to 1130. His rule, together with his brother Eystein I of Norway , has been regarded by historians as a golden age for the medieval Kingdom of Norway...

 on their way to the Holy Land as part of the Norwegian Crusade
Norwegian Crusade
The Norwegian Crusade was a crusade that lasted from 1107 to 1110, in the aftermath of the First Crusade, by the lead of the Norwegian king Sigurd I. Sigurd was the first European king to ever go on crusade to the Holy Land, and not one battle during the crusade was lost...

.

In 1147, as part of the Reconquista
Reconquista
The Reconquista was a period of almost 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus...

, crusader
Crusades
The Crusades were a series of religious wars, blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church with the main goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem...

 knights led by Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I of Portugal
Afonso I or Dom Afonso Henriques , more commonly known as Afonso Henriques , nicknamed "the Conqueror" , "the Founder" or "the Great" by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali and Ibn-Arrik by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal...

, besieged and reconquered Lisbon
Siege of Lisbon
The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords. The Siege of Lisbon was one of the few Christian victories of the Second Crusade—it was "the only success of the...

. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, returned to Christian rule. The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of Christianity is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history, described through the chronicle Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, telling that the local bishop was killed by the crusaders
Crusaders
The Crusaders are a New Zealand professional rugby union team based in Christchurch that competes in the Super Rugby competition. They are the most successful team in Super Rugby history with seven titles...

 and that its residents were praying to the Virgin Mary. As Arabic lost its place in the everyday life of the city, many of the remaining Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 residents were converted to Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 by force, or were expelled, and the mosque
Mosque
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. The word is likely to have entered the English language through French , from Portuguese , from Spanish , and from Berber , ultimately originating in — . The Arabic word masjid literally means a place of prostration...

s were either destroyed or converted into churches.

Middle Ages



Although, Lisbon received its first foral
Foral
thumb|left|200px|Foral of Castro Verde - PortugalThe word foral derives from the Portuguese word foro, ultimately from Latin forum, equivalent to Spanish fuero, Galician foro, Catalan furs and Basque foru ....

 (charter) in 1179, periodically, raiders from Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

 were sent, or challenged, the control of the Iberian Christian kingdoms (capturing slaves and taking local treasures). In a raid against Lisbon in 1189, the Almohad
Almohad
The Almohad Dynasty , was a Moroccan Berber-Muslim dynasty founded in the 12th century that established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120.The movement was started by Ibn Tumart in the Masmuda tribe, followed by Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi between 1130 and his...

 caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives. Due to its central location, Lisbon became the capital city of the new Portuguese territory in 1255. The first Portuguese university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 was founded in Lisbon in 1290 by King Denis I; for many years the Studium Generale
Studium Generale
Studium generale is the old customary name for a Medieval university.- Definition :There is no clear official definition of what constituted a Studium generale...

(General Study) was transferred several times to Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra is a city in the municipality of Coimbra in Portugal. Although it served as the nation's capital during the High Middle Ages, it is better-known for its university, the University of Coimbra, which is one of the oldest in Europe and the oldest academic institution in the...

, where it was installed definitively in the 16th century (University of Coimbra).

During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both northern Europe and Mediterranean cities.

Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations , was a period in history starting in the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans engaged in intensive exploration of the world, establishing direct contacts with...

 left from Lisbon during the 15th to 17th centuries, including Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India...

's expedition to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 in 1497. In 1506, thousands of "New Christians
Marrano
Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian peninsula who converted to Christianity rather than be expelled but continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret...

" (converted Jews
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

) were massacred in Lisbon. The 16th century was Lisbon's golden era: the city was the European hub of commerce between Africa, India, the Far East and, later, Brazil
Colonial Brazil
In the history of Brazil, Colonial Brazil, officially the Viceroyalty of Brazil comprises the period from 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese, until 1815, when Brazil was elevated to kingdom alongside Portugal as the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.During the over 300 years...

, exploiting the riches from trade in spices, slaves, sugar, textiles, and other goods. This was the time of the exuberant Manueline
Manueline
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral...

-style, which left its mark in many 16th century monuments (including Lisbon's Belém Tower
Belém Tower
Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

 and Jerónimos Monastery
Jerónimos Monastery
The Hieronymites Monastery is located near the shore of the parish of Belém, in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

, which were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

). A description of Lisbon in the 16th century was written by Damião de Góis
Damião de Góis
Damiao de Góis , born in Alenquer, Portugal, was an important Portuguese humanist philosopher. He was a friend and student of Erasmus. He was appointed secretary to the Portuguese factory in Antwerp in 1523 by King John III of Portugal...

 and published in 1554.

Portugal lost its independence to Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 in 1580 after a succession crisis
Iberian Union
The Iberian union was a political unit that governed all of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees from 1580–1640, through a dynastic union between the monarchies of Portugal and Spain after the War of the Portuguese Succession...

, and the 1640 revolt
Portuguese Restoration War
Portuguese Restoration War was the name given by nineteenth-century 'romantic' historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon . The revolution of 1640 ended the sixty-year period of dual monarchy in Portugal...

 that restored the Portuguese independence took place in Lisbon.

Kingdom


In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed King John V to sponsor the building of several Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 churches and theatres in the city.

1755 Earthquake



Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several significant earthquakes – eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses, and the 1597 earthquake when three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755, the city was destroyed by another earthquake
1755 Lisbon earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, was a megathrust earthquake that took place on Saturday 1 November 1755, at around 9:40 in the morning. The earthquake was followed by fires and a tsunami, which almost totally destroyed Lisbon in the Kingdom of Portugal, and...

, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents and destroyed 85 percent of the city. With a population estimated at between 200,000 and 275,000 residents, Among several important structures of the city, the Ribeira Palace and the Hospital Real de Todos os Santos
Hospital Real de Todos os Santos
The Hospital Real de Todos os Santos was a major hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. The hospital was built between 1492 and 1504 and was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, along with most of the city.-Foundation:...

 were lost. In coastal areas, such as Peniche, situated about 80 km (50 mi) north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the tsunami. In Setúbal
Setúbal
Setúbal is the main city in Setúbal Municipality in Portugal with a total area of 172.0 km² and a total population of 118,696 inhabitants in the municipality. The city proper has 89,303 inhabitants....

, 30 km (19 mi) south of Lisbon, the water reached the first floor (second floor, in U.S. terms) of buildings. The destruction was also great in the Algarve, southern Portugal, where the tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed houses. In some places the waves crested at more than 30 m (98.43 ft). Almost all the coastal towns and villages of Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro
Faro, Portugal
Faro is the southernmost city in Portugal. It is located in the Faro Municipality in southern Portugal. The city proper has 41,934 inhabitants and the entire municipality has 58,305. It is the seat of the Faro District and capital of the Algarve region...

, which was protected by sandy banks. In Lagos
Lagos, Portugal
Lagos is a municipality at the mouth of Bensafrim River and along the Atlantic Ocean, in the Barlavento region of the Algarve, in southern Portugal....

, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many Portuguese coastal regions, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake proper.

By 1755, Lisbon was one of the largest cities in Europe: the event shocked the whole of Europe. In southwestern Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, the tsunami caused damage to Cadiz
Cádiz
Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia....

 and Huelva
Huelva
Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia. It is located along the Gulf of Cadiz coast, at the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. According to the 2010 census, the city has a population of 149,410 inhabitants. The...

, and the waves penetrated the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville
Seville
Seville is the artistic, historic, cultural, and financial capital of southern Spain. It is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and of the province of Seville. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of above sea level...

. In Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British overseas territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean. A peninsula with an area of , it has a northern border with Andalusia, Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the major landmark of the region...

, the sea rose suddenly by about two metres. In Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 the tsunami was strong, but in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

, it decreased rapidly. On the other hand, it caused great damage and casualties to the western coast of Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, from Tangier
Tangier
Tangier, also Tangiers is a city in northern Morocco with a population of about 700,000 . It lies on the North African coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar where the Mediterranean meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel...

, where the waves reached the walled fortifications of the town, to Agadir
Agadir
Agadir is a major city in southwest Morocco, capital of the Agadir province and the Sous-Massa-Draa economic region .-Etymology:...

, where the waters passed over the walls, killing many. The tsunami also reached Cornwall
Cornwall
Cornwall is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. It is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of , and covers an area of...

, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, at a height of three metres. Along the coast of Cornwall, the sea rose rapidly in vast waves, and then ebbed equally rapidly. A two metre tsunami also hit Galway
Galway
Galway or City of Galway is a city in County Galway, Republic of Ireland. It is the sixth largest and the fastest-growing city in Ireland. It is also the third largest city within the Republic and the only city in the Province of Connacht. Located on the west coast of Ireland, it sits on the...

 in Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, and did some considerable damage to the Spanish Arch
Spanish Arch
The Spanish Arch in Galway city, Ireland was originally an extension of the city wall from Martin's Tower to the bank of the Corrib, as a measure to protect the city's quays, which were located in the area once known as the Fish Market...

 section of the city wall. Voltaire
Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet , better known by the pen name Voltaire , was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, free trade and separation of church and state...

 wrote a long poem, "Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne", shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel
Novel
A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....

 Candide
Candide
Candide, ou l'Optimisme is a French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment. The novella has been widely translated, with English versions titled Candide: or, All for the Best ; Candide: or, The Optimist ; and Candide: or, Optimism...

(indeed, many argue that this critique of optimism
Optimism
The Oxford English Dictionary defines optimism as having "hopefulness and confidence about the future or successful outcome of something; a tendency to take a favourable or hopeful view." The word is originally derived from the Latin optimum, meaning "best." Being optimistic, in the typical sense...

 was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. was an American physician, professor, lecturer, and author. Regarded by his peers as one of the best writers of the 19th century, he is considered a member of the Fireside Poets. His most famous prose works are the "Breakfast-Table" series, which began with The Autocrat...

 also mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay. In the town of Cascais
Cascais
Cascais is a coastal town in Cascais Municipality in Portugal, 30 kilometres west of Lisbon, with about 35,000 residents. It is a cosmopolitan suburb of the Portuguese capital and one of the richest municipalities in Portugal. The former fishing village gained fame as a resort for Portugal's royal...

, some 30 km (19 mi) west of Lisbon, the waves wrecked several boats and when the water withdrew, large stretches of sea bottom were left uncovered.

After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquess of Pombal; the lower town began to be known as the Baixa Pombalina (Pombaline Downtown
Pombaline Downtown
The Pombaline Lower Town area covers about 235,620 square metres of central Lisbon, Portugal. It comprises the grid of streets north of the Praça do Comércio, roughly between the Cais do Sodré and the Alfama district beneath the Lisbon Castle, and extends northwards towards the Rossio and...

). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish the remains of the earthquake and rebuild the downtown in accordance with modern urban rules. It was reconstructed in a open rectangular plan with two great squares: the Praça do Rossio and the Praça do Comércio. The first, the central commercial district, is the traditional gathering place, and location of the older cafés, theatres and restaurants; the second, became the city's main access to the Tagus, point of departure and arrival, with its triumphal arch (1873) and monument to King Joseph I.

19th century


In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of Napoléon Bonaparte, forcing Queen Maria I
Maria I of Portugal
Maria I was Queen regnant of Portugal and the Algarves from 1777 until her death. Known as Maria the Pious , or Maria the Mad , she was the first undisputed Queen regnant of Portugal...

 and Prince-Regent John
John VI of Portugal
John VI John VI John VI (full name: João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael; (13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826) was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (later changed to just King of Portugal and the Algarves, after Brazil was recognized...

 (future John VI) to flee temporarily to Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

. By the time the new King returned to Lisbon, many of the buildings and properties were pillaged, sacked or destroyed by the invaders.

During the 19th century, the Liberal movement introduced new changes into the urban landscape. The principal areas were in the Baixa and along the Chiado district, where shops, tobacconists shops, cafés, bookstores, clubs and theatres proliferated. The development of industry and commerce determined the growth of the city, extending north along the Avenida da Liberdade
Avenida da Liberdade (Lisbon)
Avenida da Liberdade is an important avenue in central Lisbon, in Portugal. It is a 90 metre-wide boulevard, 1100 m long, with ten lanes divided by pedestrian pavements decorated with gardens...

(1879), distanciing itself from the Tagus River.

20th century



Lisbon was the stage of the regicide
Regicide
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a monarch. In a narrower sense, in the British tradition, it refers to the judicial execution of a king after a trial...

 of Carlos I of Portugal
Carlos I of Portugal
-Assassination:On 1 February 1908 the royal family returned from the palace of Vila Viçosa to Lisbon. They travelled by train to Barreiro and, from there, they took a steamer to cross the Tagus River and disembarked at Cais do Sodré in central Lisbon. On their way to the royal palace, the open...

 (1908), which culminated two years later in the First Republic.

The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica – now Faculdade de Ciências). Today there are 3 public universities in the city (University of Lisbon, Technical University of Lisbon
Technical University of Lisbon
The Technical University of Lisbon is a Portuguese public university. It was created in 1930 in Lisbon, as a confederation of older schools, and comprises, nowadays, the faculties and institutes of veterinary medicine; agricultural sciences; economics and business administration; engineering,...

 and New University of Lisbon
New University of Lisbon
Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, , also known as NOVA ) was established in 1973 and is the youngest of the three public universities of Lisbon, in Portugal....

), a public university institute (ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute) and a polytechnic
Polytechnic (Portugal)
A polytechnic is a higher education educational institution in Portugal created in the 1980s. After 1998 they were upgraded to institutions which are allowed to confer licenciatura degrees. Before then, they only awarded short-cycle degrees which were known as bacharelatos and didn't provide...

 institute (IPL – Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa). See list of universities in Portugal.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a spy nest. More than 100,000 refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany via Lisbon.

During the Estado Novo regime (1926–1974), Lisbon was expanded at the cost of other districts within the country, resulting in nationalist and monumental projects. New residential and public developments were constructed; the zone of Belém was modified for the 1940 Portuguese Exhibition, while in along the periphery new neighborhoods appeared to house the growing populations. The inauguration of the bridge over the Tagus, allowed the rapid connect between the two margins of the river.

Lisbon was the centre of the republican coup of 5 October 1910 which established the democratic Portuguese Republic. The period following the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

 resulted in a euphoria and modernization of Lisbon. In the 1990s, many of the neighborhoods were renovated and projects in the historic quarters were established to modernize the areas; architectural and patrimonial buildings were recuperated; the northern margin of the Tagus was re-purposed for leisure and residential use; the Vasco da Gama bridge was constructed; and the eastern part of the municipality was re-purposed for Expo '98
Expo '98
Expo '98 was an official specialised World's Fair held in Lisbon, Portugal from Friday, May 22 to Wednesday, September 30, 1998. The theme of the fair was "The Oceans, a Heritage for the Future," chosen in part to commemorate 500 years of Portuguese discoveries...

 (intended to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India...

's sea voyage to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

).

In 1988, a fire near the historical centre of Chiado
Chiado
Chiado is the name of a square and its surrounding area in the city of Lisbon, in Portugal. The Chiado is located between the neighbourhoods of Bairro Alto and Baixa Pombalina....

 greatly disrupted normal life in the area for about 10 years.

In 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

.

21st century


The Lisbon Agenda was a European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 agreement on measures to revitalize the EU economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000. In October 2007 Lisbon hosted the 2007 EU Summit, where agreement was reached regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting Treaty of Lisbon
Treaty of Lisbon
The Treaty of Lisbon of 1668 was a peace treaty between Portugal and Spain, concluded at Lisbon on 13 February 1668, through the mediation of England, in which Spain recognized the sovereignty of Portugal's new ruling dynasty, the House of Braganza....

 was signed on the 13 December 2007 and came into force on 1 December 2009.

On the 3 November 2005, Lisbon hosted the MTV European Music Awards. The show was opened by a leotard-clad Madonna
Madonna (entertainer)
Madonna is an American singer-songwriter, actress and entrepreneur. Born in Bay City, Michigan, she moved to New York City in 1977 to pursue a career in modern dance. After performing in the music groups Breakfast Club and Emmy, she released her debut album in 1983...

, who exploded from a shiny disco ball to the tune "Hung Up".

On the 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World" election, in Luz stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all over the world.

It is the host city for the Portuguese editions of Rock in Rio
Rock in Rio
Rock in Rio is a series of music festivals held in three cities: Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, Lisbon in Portugal and Madrid in Spain.Four incarnations of the festival were in Rio de Janeiro, in 1985, 1991, 2001 and 2011, four in Lisbon, in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, and two in Madrid in 2008 and 2010....

, the largest rock festival in the world.

It hosted the NATO summit (19–20 November 2010), a summit meeting
Summit (meeting)
A summit meeting is a meeting of heads of state or government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security and a prearranged agenda.Notable summit meetings include those of Franklin D...

 that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 and Heads of Government
Head of government
Head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. In a parliamentary system, the head of government is often styled prime minister, chief minister, premier, etc...

 of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities.

Physical geography



Lisbon is located at 38°42′49.75"N 9°8′21.79"W, situated at the mouth of the Tagus River and is the westernmost capital of a mainland European country.

The westernmost part of Lisbon, is occupied by the Parque Florestal de Monsanto , an 10 km² (4 sq mi) urban park, that occupies 10% of the municipality of Lisbon, considered one the largest in Europe.

The city occupies an area of 84.94 km² (33 sq mi), and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, are narrowly defined by historical center. The rest of the urbanized area of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities in Portugal. The smaller Grande Lisboa area is a subregion of the NUTS II Lisbon Region by its own right....

, known generically as Greater Lisbon , are actually several administratively defined cities and municipalities, such as Amadora
Amadora
Amadora is a city and a municipality in Portugal, in the northwest of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The city and municipality population is 175,872 in eleven freguesias . With an area of 23.77 km², it is the most densely populated municipality of Portugal...

, Queluz
Queluz, Portugal
Queluz is a Portuguese city located in the municipality of Sintra, in the Greater Lisbon Area.. It comprises the parishes of Massamá, Monte Abraão and Queluz and has over four parishes in his area of influence: Almargem do Bispo, Belas, Barcarena and Casal de Cambra. The city has a population of...

, Agualva-Cacém
Agualva-Cacém
Agualva-Cacém is a Portuguese city located in Sintra Municipality. It comprises the parishes of Agualva, Cacém, Mira-Sintra, and São Marcos. The city has a population of 81,845. It is mainland Europe's westernmost city....

, Odivelas
Odivelas
Odivelas is a civil parish in Odivelas Municipality in Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal.. The city has a population of 50,846. The municipality is composed of 7 parishes, and is located in the District of Lisbon....

, Loures
Loures
Loures Municipality is a municipality to the north of Lisbon. Created on 26 July 1886 by a royal decree, the municipality currently occupies an area of 169 km² and has about 200,000 inhabitants . It borders the municipalities of Odivelas, Sintra, Mafra, Arruda dos Vinhos, Vila Franca de Xira...

, Sacavém
Sacavém
Sacavém is a Portuguese civil parish , in the municipality of Loures, just a few kilometers northeast of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. The parish covers an area of , with a population of 17,659 inhabitants...

, Almada
Almada
Almada is a municipality in Portugal, covering an area of 70.2 km² located on the southern margin of the Tagus River. Its municipal population in 2008 was 164,844 inhabitants; the urbanized center had a population of 102,357.The seat is the city of Almada....

, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras

Climate


Lisbon has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Csa) with mild winters and warm to hot summers. The average annual temperature is 17 °C (62.6 °F): 21 °C (69.8 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55.4 °F) at night. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C (63.5 °F). In the coldest month – January – the temperature typically ranges from 8 to 17 °C (46.4 to 62.6 F) during the day, 4 to 12 °C (39.2 to 53.6 F) at night and the average sea temperature is 15 °C (59 °F). In the warmest month – August – the temperature typically ranges from26 to 32 °C (78.8 to 89.6 F) during the day (sometimes there are higher temperatures), around 18 °C (64.4 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 20 °C (68 °F). Generally – typical summer's season lasts about 6 months, from May to October. Three months – November, March and April – are transitional, at times the temperature exceeds20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of these three months amounting 18.5 °C (65 °F) during the day and 11.2 °C (52.2 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with an average temperature of these three months amounting 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) during the day and 8.9 °C (48 °F) at night. Among all metropolises in Europe continent, Lisbon has the warmest winters. Also, are here one of the mildest nights in Europe: one of the warmest in the winter - from average 8 °C (46.4 °F) in the coldest month and comfortable in the summer - to average 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the warmest month. Rain occurs mainly in winters, the summers being generally dry. Sunshine hours are about 2,800 per year, from an average of 4.6 hours of sunshine / day in December to an average of 11.4 hours of sunshine / day in July.

Demographics



The population of the city proper is, as of 2011, 545,245 and the metropolitan area (Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities in Portugal. The smaller Grande Lisboa area is a subregion of the NUTS II Lisbon Region by its own right....

) more than 2,800,000 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística . The Lisbon Metropolitan Area incorporates two NUTS II (European statistical subdivisions): Grande Lisboa
Grande Lisboa
Grande Lisboa is a Portuguese NUTS III subregion integrated in the Lisboa Region. It includes the capital city of Portugal - Lisbon . It is the main economical subregion of the country. It covers 1,376 km² and is the most populated and densely populated Portuguese subregion...

, along the northern bank of the Tagus River, and Península de Setúbal
Península de Setúbal
The Península de Setúbal is a NUTS III subdivision of Lisbon Region , in Portugal. The subregion's administrative center is Setúbal, and the largest cities are Almada and Setúbal.It takes its name from the Setúbal Peninsula.Area: 1,729 km²...

, along the southern bank (which represents the Portuguese sub-regions of Região Lisboa . The population density of the city itself is 6429 PD/sqkm.

Like most metropolitan cities, Lisbon is surrounded by many satellite cities or suburbs, and it is estimated that more than one million people enter Lisbon every day for business or employment from these communities. Cascais
Cascais
Cascais is a coastal town in Cascais Municipality in Portugal, 30 kilometres west of Lisbon, with about 35,000 residents. It is a cosmopolitan suburb of the Portuguese capital and one of the richest municipalities in Portugal. The former fishing village gained fame as a resort for Portugal's royal...

 and Estoril
Estoril
Estoril is a seaside resort and civil parish of the Portuguese municipality of Cascais, Lisboa District. The Estoril coast is close to Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. It starts in Carcavelos, 15 kilometres from Lisbon, and stretches as far as Guincho, often known as Costa de Estoril-Sintra or...

 are among the most neighbouring towns for night life. Beautiful palaces, landscapes and historical sites can be found in Sintra
Sintra
Sintra is a town within the municipality of Sintra in the Grande Lisboa subregion of Portugal. Owing to its 19th century Romantic architecture and landscapes, becoming a major tourist centre, visited by many day-trippers who travel from the urbanized suburbs and capital of Lisbon.In addition to...

 and Mafra. Other major municipalities around Lisbon include Amadora
Amadora
Amadora is a city and a municipality in Portugal, in the northwest of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The city and municipality population is 175,872 in eleven freguesias . With an area of 23.77 km², it is the most densely populated municipality of Portugal...

, Oeiras, Odivelas
Odivelas
Odivelas is a civil parish in Odivelas Municipality in Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal.. The city has a population of 50,846. The municipality is composed of 7 parishes, and is located in the District of Lisbon....

, Loures
Loures
Loures Municipality is a municipality to the north of Lisbon. Created on 26 July 1886 by a royal decree, the municipality currently occupies an area of 169 km² and has about 200,000 inhabitants . It borders the municipalities of Odivelas, Sintra, Mafra, Arruda dos Vinhos, Vila Franca de Xira...

, Vila Franca de Xira
Vila Franca de Xira
Vila Franca de Xira is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 317.7 km² and a total population of 133,224 inhabitants. Situated on the west bank of the Tagus River, just 32 km north-east of the Portuguese capital Lisbon, Vila Franca de Xira is said to have been founded by French...

 and, in the south bank of the Tagus river estuary
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

, Almada
Almada
Almada is a municipality in Portugal, covering an area of 70.2 km² located on the southern margin of the Tagus River. Its municipal population in 2008 was 164,844 inhabitants; the urbanized center had a population of 102,357.The seat is the city of Almada....

, Barreiro and Seixal.

In terms of Portuguese cities, Lisbon was considered the most livable in a survey of living conditions
Standard of living
Standard of living is generally measured by standards such as real income per person and poverty rate. Other measures such as access and quality of health care, income growth inequality and educational standards are also used. Examples are access to certain goods , or measures of health such as...

 published yearly by Expresso
Expresso (Portuguese newspaper)
right||thumb|Expresso Expresso is the flagship publication of the Group IMPRESA, and was founded by Francisco Pinto Balsemão in 1973...

.

Civil parishes



The municipality of Lisbon includes 53 freguesias , including:
  • Ajuda
    Ajuda
    Ajuda is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon with an area and 17,961 inhabitants ; its density was 5707.3 inhabitants/km².-History:...

  • Alcântara
    Alcântara (Lisbon)
    Alcântara is a civil parish of the city and municipality of Lisbon. Its name is derived from the Arabic , meaning the bridge, and refers to an ancient Roman bridge that once existed there, until the reign of John V...

  • Alto do Pina
    Alto do Pina
    Alto do Pina is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 10,253 inhabitants and a total area of 0.82 km²....

  • Alvalade
    Alvalade (Lisbon)
    Alvalade is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 9,620 inhabitants and a total area of 0.58 km².-External links:*...

  • Ameixoeira
    Ameixoeira (Lisbon)
    Ameixoeira is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 9,644 inhabitants and a total area of 1.62 km².-External links:*...

  • Anjos
    Anjos (Lisbon)
    Anjos is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created in 1564. It has a total area of 0.48 km² and total population of 9,738 inhabitants ; density: 20,372.4 hab/km².-External links:...

  • Beato
    Beato (Lisbon)
    Beato is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created in 1756 with the designation of São Bartolomeu do Beato....

  • Benfica
    Benfica (Lisbon)
    Benfica is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 38,523 inhabitants and a total area of 7.94 km².The biggest park of Lisbon, Monsanto Forest Park, is located in Benfica.-20th century:...

  • Campo Grande
    Campo Grande (Lisbon)
    Campo Grande is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main institutions:*University of Lisbon*Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal*Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo*Câmara Municipal de Lisboa's Services*Museu da Cidade...

  • Campolide
    Campolide
    Campolide is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959.Campolide was the site of a major battle on 5 September 1833, when the forces of Dom Miguel attacked those of Dom Pedro, as Pedro attempted to wrest back control of Portugal from his...

  • Carnide
    Carnide (Lisbon)
    Carnide is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Colégio Militar*Nossa Senhora da Luz Church*São Lourenço de Carnide Church*Colombo Shopping Center...

  • Castelo
    Castelo (Lisbon)
    Castelo is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It is one of the oldest parishes of Lisbon dated from 1147-Main sites:*Castle of São Jorge...

  • Charneca
    Charneca
    Charneca or Charneca do Lumiar, is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created in 1585. Between 1852 and 1886 this parish was part of the former municipality of Olivais....

  • Coração de Jesus
    Coração de Jesus (Lisbon)
    Coração de Jesus is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 11, 1770....

  • Encarnação
    Encarnação (Lisbon)
    Encarnação is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Bairro Alto...

  • Graça
    Graça (Lisbon)
    Graça is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Nossa Senhora do Monte Chapel*Convento das Mónicas*Convento da Graça...

  • Lapa
    Lapa (Lisbon)
    Lapa is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.72 km² and total population of 8,671 inhabitants ; density: 12,026.4 hab/km²....

  • Lumiar
    Lumiar
    Lumiar is a parish in the northern area of the Portuguese capital of Lisbon. Located in the municipality of Lisbon it was officially created in the 13th century.It has a estimated population of 45000, inhabiting a land area of about ....

  • Madalena
    Madalena (Lisbon)
    Madalena is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.11 km² and total population of 380 inhabitants ; density: 3,423.4 hab/km².-Main sites:*Praça do Comércio...

  • Mártires
    Mártires
    Mártires is a Portuguese civil parish in the city and municipality of Lisbon. It's the smallest civil parish of Lisbon , and one one the oldest dated from 1147...

  • Marvila
    Marvila (Lisbon)
    Marvila is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959...

  • Mercês
    Mercês (Lisbon)
    Mercês is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.30 km² and total population of 5,093 inhabitants ; density: 16,808.6 hab/km².-External links:*...

  • Nossa Senhora de Fátima
    Nossa Senhora de Fátima (Lisbon)
    Nossa Senhora de Fátima is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 1.87 km² and total population of 27.111 inhabitants ; density: 14,528.9 hab/km². It was created on February 7, 1959.-Main sites:...

  • Pena
    Pena (Lisbon)
    Pena is a Portuguese civil parish in the heart of the historical quarter of the municipality of Lisbon. In 2001, the population of the district included 6038 residents, in an are of 0.5 km², representing a highly compact population.-History:...

  • Penha de França
    Penha de França
    Penha de França is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on April 13, 1918. In 1959 its area was reduced in order to create the parishes of Alto do Pina and São João.-Main sites:...

  • Prazeres
    Prazeres (Lisbon)
    Prazeres is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Prazeres Cemetery*São Francisco de Paula Church*Palace of Necessidades...

  • Sacramento
    Sacramento (Lisbon)
    Sacramento is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.08 km² and total population of 880 inhabitants ; density: 18,864.2 hab/km².-Main sites:*São Roque Church*Carmo Convent...

  • Santa Catarina
    Santa Catarina (Lisbon)
    Santa Catarina is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon, within an area of 0.21 km², but whose population exceeds 4081 inhabitants .-History:...

  • Santa Engrácia
    Santa Engrácia
    Santa Engrácia is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.57 km² and total population of 5,860 inhabitants ; density: 10,335.1 hab/km².-Main sites:...

  • Santa Isabel
    Santa Isabel (Lisbon)
    Santa Isabel is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on May 14, 1741, by Cardinal Tomás de Almeida.-Main sites:*Pedro Álvares Cabral Statue*Condes de Anadia Palace...

  • Santa Justa
    Santa Justa (Lisbon)
    Santa Justa is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 700 inhabitants and a total area of 0.24 km²....

  • Santa Maria de Belém
    Santa Maria de Belém
    Santa Maria de Belém, or just Belém , whose name is derived from the Portuguese word for Bethlehem, is a civil parish of the municipality of Lisbon, in central Portugal...

  • Santa Maria dos Olivais
  • Santiago
    Santiago (Lisbon)
    Santiago is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.06 km² and total population of 857 inhabitants ; density: 13,822.6 hab/km².-External links: ]'s Câmara Municipal]...

  • Santo Condestável
    Santo Condestável
    Santo Condestável is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Santo Condestável Church...

  • Santo Estevão
    Santo Estêvão (Lisbon)
    Santo Estêvão is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Santo Estêvão Church*Nossa Senhora dos Remédios Chapel*Azevedo Coutinho Palace*Condes de Balsemão Palace*Military Museum*Santa Apolónia Station...

  • Santos-o-Velho
    Santos-o-Velho
    Santos-o-Velho is one of the 53 freguesias of Lisbon, Portugal, with an area of 0.51 km² and 4,013 inhabitants...

  • São Cristóvão e São Lourenço
    São Cristóvão e São Lourenço
    São Cristóvão e São Lourenço is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.08 km² and total population of 1,612 inhabitants ; density: 20,935.1 hab/km².-Main sites:*São Cristovão Church...

  • São Domingos de Benfica
    São Domingos de Benfica
    São Domingos de Benfica is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 33,678 inhabitants and a total area of 4.30 km².-External links:*...

  • São Francisco Xavier
    São Francisco Xavier (Lisbon)
    São Francisco Xavier is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959.-Main sites:*Santana Windmills*São Jerónimo Chapel...

  • São João
    São João (Lisbon)
    São João is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959.-Main sites:*Santos-o-Novo Convent*Santa Apolónia Fort...

  • São João de Brito
    São João de Brito
    São João de Brito is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959, and named after the saint John de Brito.-Main sites:*São João de Brito Church*Júlio de Matos Hospital...

  • São João de Deus
    São João de Deus
    São João de Deus is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Campo Pequeno bullring*São João de Deus Church...

  • São Jorge de Arroios
    São Jorge de Arroios
    São Jorge de Arroios is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Sotto Mayor Palace...

  • São José
    São José (Lisbon)
    São José is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on November 20, 1567, by Cardinal D. Henrique.-Main sites:*Capuchos Convent*São José Church*Tivoli Cinema*Odeon Cinema*Capitólio Theater...

  • São Mamede
    São Mamede (Lisbon)
    São Mamede is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Botanic Garden*Real Colégio dos Nobres*Palmela Palace*Daupiás Casa e Jardim*Silk Factory...

  • São Miguel
    São Miguel (Lisbon)
    São Miguel is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.06 km² and total population of 1,777 inhabitants ; density: 30,637.9 hab/km². It was created in 1180 near the Castle of São Jorge site....

  • São Nicolau
    São Nicolau (Lisbon)
    São Nicolau is a Portuguese parish of the municipality of Lisbon. It is 0.25 km² in area with 1,175 inhabitants as of 2001....

  • São Paulo
    São Paulo (Lisbon)
    São Paulo is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Valada-Azambuja Palace*Almada – Carvalhais Palace*Alvito Palace*Sandomil Palace*Chagas Palace*Corpo Santo Church*Igreja de São Paulo*Cais do Sodré Station...

  • São Sebastião da Pedreira
    São Sebastião da Pedreira
    São Sebastião da Pedreira is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Alfredo da Costa Hospital*Malhoa Museum*São Sebastião da Pedreira Church...

  • São Vicente de Fora
    São Vicente de Fora
    São Vicente de Fora is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.31 km² and total population of 4,267 inhabitants ; density: 13,853.9 hab/km².-Main sites:*Monastery of São Vicente de Fora...

  • Sé (Lisbon)
    Sé is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.12 km² and total population of 1,160 inhabitants ; density: 9,586.8 hab/km². It was created as a parish in 1150.-Main sites:*Lisbon Cathedral...

  • Socorro
    Socorro (Lisbon)
    Socorro is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. The local area is also designated as Martim Moniz.-Main sites:*Menino de Deus Church...



But, locally, their inhabitants may more commonly refer the spaces of Lisbon in terms of historic bairro
Bairro
Bairro is a Portuguese word and refers to a community or region within a city or municipality. Bairros exist in the majority of large cities in the world. Related words in English include neighborhood, district, borough or subdivision...

s
. These communities have no clearly defined boundaries and represent special quarters with a common historical culture, identifiable architectural landmarks, livings standards and/or local personality, such as Amoreiras, Bairro Alto,Bica, Alfama, Mouraria, Avenidas Novas, Intendente, Chelas and Lapa.
Twin towns – Sister cities

Lisbon is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

, Palestinian Authority Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

, Hungary Fairfield, California
Fairfield, California
Fairfield is a city located in Solano County in Northern California, USA. It is generally considered the midpoint between the cities of San Francisco and Sacramento, approximately from the city center of both cities, approximately from the city center of Oakland, less than from Napa Valley, 18...

, United States Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Spain Bissau
Bissau
Bissau is the capital city of Guinea-Bissau. The city's borders are conterminous with the Bissau Autonomous Sector. In 2007, the city had an estimated population of 407,424 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística e Censos...

, Guinea-Bissau Cacheu
Cacheu
Cacheu is a town in north western Guinea-Bissau, lying on the Cacheu River. Population 9,849 .-History and landmarks:The town of Cacheu is situated in territory of the Papel people....

, Guinea-Bissau Malacca
Malacca
Malacca , dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south...

, Malaysia Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, Mexico Pontelandolfo
Pontelandolfo
Pontelandolfo is an Italian town and comune of 28.91 square kilometers, in the Sannio Hills in the province of Benevento halfway between Naples and Campobasso, with around 3,000 inhabitants.-History:...

, Italy La Paz
La Paz
Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of the La Paz Department, and the second largest city in the country after Santa Cruz de la Sierra...

, Bolivia San Diego
San Diego, California
San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest city in California. The city is located on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California, immediately adjacent to the Mexican border. The birthplace of California, San Diego is known for its mild year-round...

, United States Luanda
Luanda
Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city of Angola. Located on Angola's coast with the Atlantic Ocean, Luanda is both Angola's chief seaport and its administrative center. It has a population of at least 5 million...

, Angola Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, France Maputo
Maputo
Maputo, also known as Lourenço Marques, is the capital and largest city of Mozambique. It is known as the City of Acacias in reference to acacia trees commonly found along its avenues and the Pearl of the Indian Ocean. It was famous for the inscription "This is Portugal" on the walkway of its...

, Mozambique São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

, Brazil Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, Brazil Brasília
Brasília
Brasília is the capital city of Brazil. The name is commonly spelled Brasilia in English. The city and its District are located in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central. It has a population of about 2,557,000 as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the...

, Brazil Salvador, Bahia
Salvador, Bahia
Salvador is the largest city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first...

, Brazil Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, Argentina Praia
Praia
Praia , is the capital and largest city of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of Senegal. It lies on the southern coast of Santiago island in the Sotavento Islands group. It is the island's ferry port and is home to one of the nation’s four international airports...

, Cape Verde Tunis
Tunis
Tunis is the capital of both the Tunisian Republic and the Tunis Governorate. It is Tunisia's largest city, with a population of 728,453 as of 2004; the greater metropolitan area holds some 2,412,500 inhabitants....

, Tunisia Waterbury, Connecticut
Waterbury, Connecticut
Waterbury is a city in New Haven County, Connecticut, on the Naugatuck River, 33 miles southwest of Hartford and 77 miles northeast of New York City...

, United States Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

, Croatia Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, People's Republic of China Ruse, Bulgaria Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

, People's Republic of China Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

, Syria

Culture



The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

, Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

, Manueline
Manueline
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral...

, Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

, Modern
Modernism
Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society...

 and Post-Modern constructions can be found all over Lisbon. The city is also crossed by historical boulevards and monuments along the main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida da Liberdade (Avenue of Liberty), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Avenue of the Republic).

There are several Museums one can enjoy. The most famous ones are the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the Museu do Azulejo (Museum of Portuguese-style Tile Mosaics
Azulejo
Azulejo from the Arabic word Zellige زليج is a form of Portuguese or Spanish painted, tin-glazed, ceramic tilework. They have become a typical aspect of Portuguese culture, having been produced without interruption for five centuries...

), the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian
Museu Calouste Gulbenkian
Museu Calouste Gulbenkian is a museum in Lisbon, Portugal, containing a collection of ancient, and some modern art...

(Calouste Gulbenkian Museum), containing varied collections of ancient and modern art, the Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and Fashion), the Berardo Collection Museum
Berardo Collection Museum
The Berardo Collection Museum is a museum of modern and contemporary art in Belém, a district of Lisbon, Portugal.-History:...

 (Modern Art) at the Belém Cultural Center, the Museu da Electricidade (Electricity Museum
Electricity Museum (Lisbon)
The Electricity Museum is a cultural centre that presents the evolution of Energy with a Museum of Science and Industrial Archaeology concept, where themed and experimental exhibits live side by side with a great variety of cultural events.Located in the Belém area on terrain Lisbon usurped from...

), the Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest collection of royal coaches in the world), the Museu da Farmácia (Pharmacy Museum), Museum of the Orient
Museum of the Orient
The Museum of the Orient in Lisbon, Portugal celebrates the history of Portuguese exploration with a collection of Asian artifacts. The museum opened in May, 2008, and is located in a refurbished industrial building on the Alcântara waterfront...

, the Museu do Teatro Romano (The Roman Theatre Museum), and the Museu da Cidade (the City Museum).


Lisbon's Opera House, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos
Teatro Nacional de São Carlos
The Teatro Nacional de São Carlos is an opera house in Lisbon, Portugal. It was opened on July 30, 1793 by Queen Maria I as a replacement for the Tejo Opera House, which was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake...

, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II
Teatro Nacional D. Maria II
The National Theatre D. Maria II is a theatre in Lisbon, Portugal. The historical theatre is one of the most prestigious Portuguese venues and is located in the Rossio square, in the centre of the city....

, the Gulbenkian Foundation, and the Teatro Camões.

The monument to Christ the King stands on the southern bank of the Tagus River, in Almada
Almada
Almada is a municipality in Portugal, covering an area of 70.2 km² located on the southern margin of the Tagus River. Its municipal population in 2008 was 164,844 inhabitants; the urbanized center had a population of 102,357.The seat is the city of Almada....

. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, and was built after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, as work of thanksgiving for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war.

On June 13 is Lisbon´s holiday in honour of the city´s saint Anthony of Lisbon . Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church is a title given by a variety of Christian churches to individuals whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.-Catholic Church:In the Catholic Church, this name is given to a saint from whose...

 after a life preaching to the poor. Ironically, although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent of Saragossa
Vincent of Saragossa
Saint Vincent of Saragossa, also known as Vincent Martyr, Vincent of Huesca or Vincent the Deacon, is the patron saint of Lisbon. His feast day is 22 January in the Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Communion and 11 November in the Eastern Orthodox Churches...

, whose remains are housed in the Sé Cathedral
Lisbon Cathedral
The Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Mary Major is a Roman Catholic parish church located in Lisbon, Portugal. The oldest church in the city is the see of the Archdiocese of Lisbon. Since the beginning of the construction of the cathedral, in the year 1147, the building has been modified several...

, there are no festivities associated with this saint.
Parque Eduardo VII, the second largest park in the city following the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (Monsanto Forest Park
Monsanto Forest Park
Monsanto Forest Park is a protected forest in Lisbon, Portugal, the largest green patch in the city, with almost 1000 ha . It offers a well diversified tree-covered area to the Portuguese capital....

), extends down the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade), with many flowering plants and greenspaces, that includes the permanent collection of subtropical and tropical plants in the winter garden . Originally named Parque da Liberdade, it was renamed in honour of Edward VII of England who visited Lisbon in 1903.

Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival
Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival
The Queer Lisboa - Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival is one of the most important European forums of international LGBT film/video.Having first been held in 1997, it celebrated its 10th annual edition in 2006, showcasing 114 films .It is one of the most important exhibition vehicles in Portugal of...

, the Lisboarte, the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival, the Arte Lisboa – Contemporary Art Fair, the Festival of the Oceans, the International Organ Festival of Lisbon, the MOTELx – Lisbon International Horror Film Festival, the Lisbon Village Festival, the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra – Animated Film Festival, the Lisbon Book Fair, the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours, the Lisbon International Handicraft Exhibition, the Lisbon Photo Marathon, the IndieLisboa – International Independent Film Festival, the Alkantara Festival, the Temps d´Images Festival and the Jazz in August festival.

Lisbon has been home four times (in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010) to Rock in Rio
Rock in Rio
Rock in Rio is a series of music festivals held in three cities: Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, Lisbon in Portugal and Madrid in Spain.Four incarnations of the festival were in Rio de Janeiro, in 1985, 1991, 2001 and 2011, four in Lisbon, in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010, and two in Madrid in 2008 and 2010....

, one of the world's largest pop-rock festivals. Annual popular music events within the metropolitan area include the Optimus Alive!
Optimus Alive!
Optimus Alive!, or simply Alive!, is a music and arts festival which takes place in the Algés riverside, in Oeiras, Portugal. The first edition took place in 2007. Despite its recent creation, the festival has achieved considerable popularity both inside and outside of Portugal, with the UK...

 and Super Bock Super Rock
Super Bock Super Rock
Super Bock Super Rock is a rock festival in Portugal, created in 1994.It has become one of the biggest festivals in the country, luring many rock and metal fans....

 festivals.

Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial, the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon), ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light.

Alcântara



Although today it is quite central, it was once a mere suburb of Lisbon, comprising mostly farms and palaces. In the 16th century, there was a brook there which the nobles used to promenade in their boats. Through the late 19th century, Alcântara became a popular industrial area, with lots of small factories and warehouses. Through the centuries, this area has lost all of its charm and old buildings, as well as its brook (where the women of the village would do their laundry).

In the early 1990s, Alcântara began to attract youth because of the number of pubs and discothèques. This was mainly due its outer area of mostly commercial buildings, which acted as barriers to the noise-generating nightlife (which acted as a buffer to the residential communities surrounding it). In the meantime, some of these areas began to become gentrified, attracting loft developments and new apartments, which have profited from its river views and central location.

Alfama



The oldest district of Lisbon, it spreads down the southern slope from the Castle of São Jorge to the Tagus
Tagus
The Tagus is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is long, in Spain, along the border between Portugal and Spain and in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Lisbon. It drains an area of . The Tagus is highly utilized for most of its course...

 river. Its name, derived from the Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 Al-hamma, means fountains or baths. During the Islamic invasion of Iberia, the Alfama constituted the largest part of the city, extending west to the Baixa neighbourhood. Increasingly, the Alfama became inhabited by fishermen and the poor: its fame as a poor neighbourhood continues to this day. While the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
1755 Lisbon earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, was a megathrust earthquake that took place on Saturday 1 November 1755, at around 9:40 in the morning. The earthquake was followed by fires and a tsunami, which almost totally destroyed Lisbon in the Kingdom of Portugal, and...

 caused considerable damage throughout the capital, the Alfama survived with little damage, due to its compact labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares. It is a historical quarter of mixed-used buildings of homes with small shops, Fado
Fado
Fado is a music genre which can be traced to the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar, Rui Vieira Nery, states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best...

 bars and restaurants. Modernizing trends have invigorated the district: old houses have been re-purposed or remodelled, while new buildings have been constructed. Fado
Fado
Fado is a music genre which can be traced to the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar, Rui Vieira Nery, states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best...

, the typically Portuguese-style of melancholy music, is common (but not obligatory) in the restaurants of the district. Among the many architectural vestiges of the area:
  • Castle of São Jorge - the Moorish castle conquered by Afonso Henriques and Crusader forces, was once a home of the Portuguese royal family, with a complex of buildings within its walls. Since the Portuguese revolution, the abandoned castle decayed into ruin, and many of the buildings were destroyed. In the late 20th century many of the archaeologically significant foundations of the Moorish structure were recuperated;
  • Sé Cathedral of Santa Maria Maior
    Lisbon Cathedral
    The Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Mary Major is a Roman Catholic parish church located in Lisbon, Portugal. The oldest church in the city is the see of the Archdiocese of Lisbon. Since the beginning of the construction of the cathedral, in the year 1147, the building has been modified several...

    ;
  • Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
    Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
    The Church or Monastery of São Vicente de Fora; meaning "Monastery of St. Vincent Outside the Walls" is a 17th century church and monastery in the city of Lisbon, in Portugal...

    ;
  • Santo António Church;
  • Santa Luzia Belvedere;
  • Largo das Portas ao Sol

Bairro Alto


Bairro Alto (literally the upper quarter in Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

) is an area of central Lisbon. It functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district: it is the heart of the Portuguese capital's nightlife, attracting its youth. Lisbon's Punk
Punk subculture
The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, and forms of expression, including fashion, visual art, dance, literature, and film, which grew out of punk rock.-History:...

, Gay, Metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

, Goth
Goth subculture
The goth subculture is a contemporary subculture found in many countries. It began in England during the early 1980s in the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. The goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, and has continued to diversify...

, Hip Hop
Hip hop music
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music or hip-hop music, is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted...

 and Reggae
Reggae
Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. While sometimes used in a broader sense to refer to most types of Jamaican music, the term reggae more properly denotes a particular music style that originated following on the development of ska and rocksteady.Reggae is based...

 scenes, all count the Bairro as their home, due to the specialization of its clubs and bars. Although fado
Fado
Fado is a music genre which can be traced to the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. Fado historian and scholar, Rui Vieira Nery, states that "the only reliable information on the history of Fado was orally transmitted and goes back to the 1820s and 1830s at best...

, Portugal's national music still survives in the new nightlife, the crowds in the Bairro Alto area is a multicultural mix of cultures and entertainment.

Baixa


The heart of the city is the Baixa (Downtown) or city centre; the Pombaline Baixa is an elegant district, primarily constructed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake
1755 Lisbon earthquake
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, was a megathrust earthquake that took place on Saturday 1 November 1755, at around 9:40 in the morning. The earthquake was followed by fires and a tsunami, which almost totally destroyed Lisbon in the Kingdom of Portugal, and...

, taking its name from its benefactor, 1st Marquess of Pombal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (Joseph I's Prime Minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 (1750–1777) and key figure during the Portuguese Enlightenment. Following the 1755 disaster, Pombal took the lead in rebuilding Lisbon, imposing strict conditions and guidelines on the construction of the city, and transforming the organic street plan, that characterised the district before the earthquake, into its current grid pattern. As a result, the Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the Pombaline cage, a symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake force, and inter-terrace walls that were built higher than roof timbers to reduce fire contagion.

It was placed on Portugal's tentative list of potential World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

s on 7 December 2004. Other important monuments in this area include:
  • Praça do Comércio
    Praça do Comércio
    The Praça do Comércio is located in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Situated near the Tagus river, the square is still commonly known as Terreiro do Paço , because it was the location of the Paços da Ribeira until it was destroyed by the great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake...

    (Commerce Square)
  • Rossio
    Rossio
    The Rossio is the popular name of the Pedro IV Square in the city of Lisbon, in Portugal. It is located in the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon and has been one of its main squares since the Middle Ages...

    - the oldest and historically most important squares in Lisbon
  • Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha
    Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha
    The Igreja of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha is a church in the centre of Lisbon, in Portugal. It is notable as one of the last remnants of the Manueline style in the city....

     which has a beautiful manueline façade
  • Church of São Domingos
  • Restauradores Square
    Restauradores Square
    Restauradores Square is a public square in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. It is located at the southeast end of Avenida da Liberdade, near Rossio square....

  • Elevador de Santa Justa, an elevator
    Elevator
    An elevator is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel or other structures...

     (lift) in Gothic revival style, built around 1900 to connect the Baixa and Chiado.

Belém


Santa Maria de Belém, or just Belém (ˈsɐ̃tɐ mɐˈɾiɐ dɨ bɨˈlɐ̃ȷ̃) is a parish
Parish
A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by a curate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less central parish church with its associated organization...

 of Lisbon, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, located 6 km (4 mi) west of the present city centre and 2 km (1 mi) west of Ponte 25 de Abril (25 April Bridge). Its name is derived from the Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 for Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

.

Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 explorers set off on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India...

 departed for India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 in 1497. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th–18th century Belém Palace
Belém Palace
The Belém National Palace, or alternately National Palace of Belém, has, overtime, been the official residence of Portuguese monarchs and, after the installation of the First Republic, the Presidents of the Portuguese Republic...

, former royal residence and now occupied by the President of Portugal
President of Portugal
Portugal has been a republic since 1910, and since that time the head of state has been the president, whose official title is President of the Portuguese Republic ....

, and the Ajuda Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed.

Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, Torre de Belém
Belém Tower
Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

, whose image is much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in the reign of Dom Manuel
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I , the Fortunate , 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal...

 (1515–1520) to guard the entrance to the port at Belém. It stood on a little island in right side of the Tagus
Tagus
The Tagus is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is long, in Spain, along the border between Portugal and Spain and in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Lisbon. It drains an area of . The Tagus is highly utilized for most of its course...

, surrounded by water.

Belém's other major historical building is the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos Monastery), which the Torre de Belém
Belém Tower
Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

 was built partly to defend. The building of the monastery, an example of Manueline
Manueline
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral...

 architecture, was begun in 1502 on the instructions of Manuel I
Manuel I of Portugal
Manuel I , the Fortunate , 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, , by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal...

 and took 50 years to complete. It was built as a monument to Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India...

's successful voyage to India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and was funded by a tax on eastern spices. The monastery contains the tomb of Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India...

. Located in the wings of the monastery are the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia (National Archaeological Museum) and the Museu da Marinha
Maritime Museum (Lisbon)
The Navy Museum of Lisbon is dedicated to all aspects of the History of navigation in Portugal. The museum is administered by the Portuguese Navy and is located in the touristic district of Belém...

(Maritime Museum).

Belém's most notable modern feature is the Padrão dos Descobrimentos
Padrão dos Descobrimentos
Padrão dos Descobrimentos is a monument on the northern margin of the Tagus River estuary, in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém, Lisbon...

 (Monument to the Discoveries). This is a 52 m (170.6 ft) high slab of concrete, erected in 1960 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the death of Henry the Navigator. The monument is carved into the shape of the prow of a ship in which stand statues of various explorers, as well as a statue of Henry himself. Adjacent to the monument is a square into whose surface is set a map showing the routes of various Portuguese explorers.

In the heart of Belém is the Praça do Império: gardens centred upon a large fountain, laid out during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. To the west of the gardens lies the Centro Cultural de Belém. This was built for Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

's 1992 presidency of the EU. It is now an arts complex, containing Belém's Museu do Design (Design Museum). To the southeast of the gardens is the Belém Palace
Belém Palace
The Belém National Palace, or alternately National Palace of Belém, has, overtime, been the official residence of Portuguese monarchs and, after the installation of the First Republic, the Presidents of the Portuguese Republic...

(1770), the official residence of the Portuguese President. Five hundred metres to the east of Praça do Império lies Belém's other major squarePraça Afonso de Albuquerque.

Belém is home to a number of other museums, many of which were established by Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He also served as acting President of the Republic briefly in 1951. He founded and led the Estado Novo , the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal...

 for the 1940 Belém Expo: Museu da Electricidade
Electricity Museum (Lisbon)
The Electricity Museum is a cultural centre that presents the evolution of Energy with a Museum of Science and Industrial Archaeology concept, where themed and experimental exhibits live side by side with a great variety of cultural events.Located in the Belém area on terrain Lisbon usurped from...

(Electricity Museum), Museu do Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau (Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

 Cultural Museum), Museu de Arte Popular (Folk Art Museum) and Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum
National Coach Museum
The National Coach Museum is located in the Belém district of Lisbon, in Portugal. The museum has one of the finest collections of historical carriages in the world, being one of the most visited museums of the city....

).

Belenenses, a renowned sports club
Sports club
A sports club or sport club, sometimes athletics club or sports association is a club for the purpose of playing one or more sports...

 from Lisbon is based in Belém.

Belém's main street is Rua de Belém, in which there is a 160-year-old pastry shop, at which can be purchased one of the famous pastel de Belém (plural: pastéis de Belém) – custard
Custard
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk. Depending on how much egg or thickener is used, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce , to a thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs. The most common custards are used as...

 tarts made with flaky pastry.
Other attractions within the area are:
  • Padrão dos Descobrimentos
    Padrão dos Descobrimentos
    Padrão dos Descobrimentos is a monument on the northern margin of the Tagus River estuary, in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém, Lisbon...

     (Monument of the Discoveries), built in mid-20th century, during Estado Novo dictatorial regime
  • Belem Cultural Centre, example of Portuguese contemporary architecture, finished in 1994
  • Belem Tower
    Belém Tower
    Belém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...

    , an ex-libris of the city, built in the 16th century
  • Belem Palace
    Belém Palace
    The Belém National Palace, or alternately National Palace of Belém, has, overtime, been the official residence of Portuguese monarchs and, after the installation of the First Republic, the Presidents of the Portuguese Republic...

    , 18th century palace, which is now the official residence of the President of the Republic
  • Coach Museum, displaying most relevant and spectacular carriages from 17th to 19th century.

Chiado



The Chiado is a traditional shopping area that mixes old and modern commercial establishments, concentrated specially in the Carmo's and Garrett's streets. Locals as well as tourists visit the Chiado to buy books, garments, pottery as well as to have a cup of coffee. The most famous café of Chiado is A Brasileira
A Brasileira
The Café A Brasileira is one of the oldest and most famous cafés in the old quarter of Lisbon, in the civil parish of Sacramento. Located at 120 Rua Garrett, at one end of the Largo do Chiado , in the district of the same name, near the Baixa-Chiado metro stop and close to the University, ensuring...

, famous for having had poet Fernando Pessoa
Fernando Pessoa
Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa , was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic and translator described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language.-Early years in Durban:On 13 July...

 among its customers. The Chiado is also an important cultural area, with several museums and theatres. Several buildings of the Chiado were destroyed in a fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect Siza Vieira, the affected area is now recovered.

Attractions include:
  • Basilica dos Mártires
  • Brasileira Cafe
  • Carmo Convent
    Carmo Convent (Lisbon)
    The Carmo Convent is a historical building in Lisbon, Portugal. The mediaeval convent was ruined in the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, and the ruins of its Gothic church are the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the city.The Carmo Convent is located in the Chiado neighbourhood, on a...

  • Church of Corpo Santo
  • Church of Nossa Senhora do Loreto
  • Museu do Chiado, which houses most important works of Portuguese contemporary art
  • The richly decorated Church of São Roque
    Igreja de São Roque (Lisbon)
    The Igreja de São Roque in Lisbon was the earliest Jesuit church in the Portuguese world, and one of the first Jesuit churches anywhere. It served as the Society’s home church in Portugal for over 200 years, before the Jesuits were expelled from that country...

     is located nearby.

Estrela


The Baroque-Neoclassical Estrela Basilica
Estrela Basilica
The Estrela Basilica is a basilica in Lisbon, Portugal, built by order of Queen Mary I of Portugal, as a fulfilled promise for giving birth to a son...

 is the main attraction of this district. The huge church has a giant dome, and is located in a hill in what was at the time the western part of Lisbon and can be viewed from far away. The style is similar to the Mafra National Palace
Mafra National Palace
The Mafra National Palace is a monumental Baroque and Italianized Neoclassical palace-monastery located in Mafra, Portugal, some 28 kilometres from Lisbon. Its dimensions are so huge that it dwarfs the city...

, in late baroque and neoclassical. The front has two twin bell towers and includes statues of saints and some allegoric figures. The Parliament
Parliament
A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modeled after that of the United Kingdom. The name is derived from the French , the action of parler : a parlement is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which...

, housed in Sao Bento Palace
São Bento Palace
The Palácio de São Bento , "Saint Benedict's Palace", is the home of the Assembly of the Republic, the Portuguese parliament. It is located in Lisbon. Close to Bairro Alto, the Palace of São Bento was formerly known as the seat of the National Assembly during the Estado Novo regime...

, is in this district. Nearby is the official residence of Portugal’s Prime Minister. and the Prazeres Cemetery is nearby as well.

Parque das Nações


Parque das Nações is the newest district in Lisbon, having emerged from an urban regeneration programmed that led to the World Exhibition of Lisbon 1998. A long lasting legacy of the same, the area has become another commercial and higher end residential area for the city.
Central to this is the Gare do Oriente (Orient Station), one of the main transportation hubs of Lisbon, for trains, metro, buses and taxis. Its glass and steel columns are inspired in Gothic Architecture, making the whole structure fascinating to look at (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, sculptor and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zürich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zürich, Paris, Valencia, and New York City....

 from Valencia (Spain). Across the street, through Vasco da Gama Mall, is Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations), site of the 1998 World Expo.

Walking around to see the new buildings, restaurants, gardens, the Lisbon Casino, the FIL building (International Exhibition and Fair), the Camões Theatre, as well as a must see the Oceanário de Lisboa (Lisbon Oceanarium
Lisbon Oceanarium
The Oceanarium is an oceanarium in Lisbon, Portugal. It is located in the Parque das Nações, which was the exhibition grounds for the Expo '98.- Architecture :...

), the second largest in the world.

Economy



The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 and it is well above the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

's GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa Subregion, specially in the Oeiras municipality. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area is a territorial zone that includes 18 municipalities in Portugal. The smaller Grande Lisboa area is a subregion of the NUTS II Lisbon Region by its own right....

 is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the Tagus
Tagus
The Tagus is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is long, in Spain, along the border between Portugal and Spain and in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Lisbon. It drains an area of . The Tagus is highly utilized for most of its course...

 river (Rio Tejo).

The Lisbon region is rapidly growing, each year are higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) PPP per capita: € 22,745 (2004) – € 23,816 (2005) – € 25,200 (2006) – € 26,100 (2007).

The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial centre and a dynamic technological hub.

Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media
Mass media
Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies which are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media transmit their information electronically and comprise of television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles...

 sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 networks and radio station
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

s to major newspapers
Newspaper of record
Newspaper of record is a term that may refer either to any publicly available newspaper that has been authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices , or any major newspaper that has a large circulation and whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered professional and...

.

The Euronext Lisbon
Euronext Lisbon
Euronext Lisbon is a stock exchange in Lisbon, Portugal. It belongs to the NYSE Euronext group, the first global stock exchange.Euronext Lisbon trades equities, public and private bonds, participation bonds, warrants, corporate warrants, investment trust units, and exchange traded funds...

 stock exchange
Stock exchange
A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and...

, part of the pan-European Euronext
Euronext
Euronext N.V. is a pan-European stock exchange based in Amsterdam and with subsidiaries in Belgium, France, Netherlands, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to equities and derivatives markets, the Euronext group provides clearing and information services...

 system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Brussels
Brussels
Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

 and Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, USA. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at 13.39 trillion as of Dec 2010...

 since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges.

The main industries consist of oil refineries, textile mills, shipyards, steel and fishing.

For the decade of 2010, Lisbon is preparing to receive many investments, including building a new airport, a new bridge, an expansion of 30 km (18.64 mi) underground, the construction of a mega-hospital (or central hospital), the creation two lines of the TGV will join Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

, Vigo
Vigo
Vigo is a city and municipality in north-west Spain, in Galicia, situated on the ria of the same name on the Atlantic Ocean.-Population:...

 and the rest of Europe, the restoration of the main part of town (between the Marquês de Pombal roundabout and Terreiro do Paço), the creation of a large number of bike lanes, as well as modernization and renovation of various facilities.

Transport


Lisbon's public transport network is extremely far-reaching and reliable and has its metro
Lisbon Metro
The Lisbon Metro is the metro system of Lisbon, Portugal. Opened in December 1959, it was the first subway system in Portugal.As of 2011, the four Lisbon subway lines total about in length and comprise 52 stations.- History :- Idea :...

 as its main artery, connecting the city centre with the upper and eastern districts, and now reaching the suburbs. Ambitious expansion projects will increase the network by almost one third, connecting the airport, and the northern and western districts. Bus, funicular and tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (Carris
Carris
Carris is a public transportation company in Lisbon, Portugal. Carris operates Lisbon's buses, trams, and funiculars. It does not operate the Lisbon Metro. Carris was founded September 18, 1872. A total of 234.4 million passenger boardings were recorded in 2008.As of Dec...

), for over a century.

A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

. Introduced in the 19th century, the trams were originally imported from the USA
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and called americanos. The earliest trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum) (Carris). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Lisbon tramway system
Trams in Lisbon
The Lisbon tramway network serves the municipality of Lisbon, capital city of Portugal. In operation since 1873, it presently comprises five urban lines, and is primarily a tourist attraction.-History:...

 still employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early part of the twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.

There are other commuter bus services from the city: Vimeca, Rodoviaria de Lisboa, Transportes Sul do Tejo, Boa Viagem, Barraqueiro are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city.

There are four commuter train
CP Urban Services
The CP Urban Services network is the commuter train network of Metropolitan Lisbon and Metropolitan Oporto, Portugal. It connects the city centers with the suburbs.-Metropolitan Lisbon Network:...

 lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and Azambuja lines (operated by CP - Comboios de Portugal
Comboios de Portugal
thumb|250px|right|CP suburban trains at São Bento Station in Oporto.CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE is a state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains in Portugal...

), as well as a fourth line to Setúbal
Setúbal
Setúbal is the main city in Setúbal Municipality in Portugal with a total area of 172.0 km² and a total population of 118,696 inhabitants in the municipality. The city proper has 89,303 inhabitants....

 (operated by Fertagus
Fertagus
Fertagus is a commuter rail operator connecting Lisbon, Portugal's capital, to suburbs on the Setúbal Peninsula, located to the south across the Tagus River. Fertagus crosses the river over the Ponte 25 de Abril....

) crossing the Tagus
Tagus
The Tagus is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is long, in Spain, along the border between Portugal and Spain and in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Lisbon. It drains an area of . The Tagus is highly utilized for most of its course...

 river, over the 25 de Abril Bridge
25 de Abril Bridge
The 25 de Abril Bridge is a suspension bridge connecting the city of Lisbon, capital of Portugal, to the municipality of Almada on the left bank of the Tejo river. It was inaugurated on August 6, 1966 and a train platform was added in 1999...

. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio
Rossio Train Station
The Rossio Railway Station is a train station in Lisbon, Portugal, located in the Rossio square. The station was formerly known as Estação Central and that designation still appears in its façade....

, Gare do Oriente, Entrecampos
Entrecampos
Praça de Entrecampos is a plaza in Lisbon, Portugal. "Entrecampos" means "between the fields" in Portuguese. Entrecampos is located between Campo Grande and Campo Pequeno ....

, and Cais do Sodré
Cais do Sodré
Cais do Sodré is the railway station in Lisbon, Portugal, serving westbound suburban route to Cascais resort. It is adjacent to the Lisbon Metro station of the same name which is the terminus for subway's Green Line...

. The city does not offer a light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 service (tram line 15, although running with new and faster trams does not fall onto this category), but there are plans to build light rail lines to provide service along the city's periphery.

Lisbon is connected to its suburbs as well as throughout Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the CRIL, and the CREL. The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:
  • The 25 de Abril Bridge
    25 de Abril Bridge
    The 25 de Abril Bridge is a suspension bridge connecting the city of Lisbon, capital of Portugal, to the municipality of Almada on the left bank of the Tejo river. It was inaugurated on August 6, 1966 and a train platform was added in 1999...

    , inaugurated (as Ponte Salazar
    António de Oliveira Salazar
    António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He also served as acting President of the Republic briefly in 1951. He founded and led the Estado Novo , the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal...

    ) on August 6, 1966, and later renamed after the date of the Carnation Revolution
    Carnation Revolution
    The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

    , was the longest suspension bridge
    Suspension bridge
    A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. Outside Tibet and Bhutan, where the first examples of this type of bridge were built in the 15th century, this type of bridge dates from the early 19th century...

     in Europe. Because of its similar coloring, it is often compared to the Golden Gate Bridge
    Golden Gate Bridge
    The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to...

     in San Francisco, USA. In fact, it was built by the same company (American Bridge Company
    American Bridge Company
    The American Bridge Company is a privately held civil engineering firm specializing in the construction and renovation of bridges and other large civil engineering projects, founded in 1900, and headquartered in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh.-Products and industry positioning:The...

    ) that constructed the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge
    San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge
    The San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge is a pair of bridges spanning San Francisco Bay of California, in the United States. Forming part of Interstate 80 and of the direct road route between San Francisco and Oakland, it carries approximately 270,000 vehicles per day on its two decks...

     and not the Golden Gate, also explaining its similarity in design to the former.
  • The Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated on May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi), the longest bridge in Europe.


Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The company is Transtejo-Soflusa, which operates from different points in the city to Cacilhas
Cacilhas
Cacilhas is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality and city of Almada. It has a population of 6,970. all cacilhas inhabitants and a total area of 0.97 km²....

, Seixal, Montijo, Porto Brandão
Porto Brandão
Porto Brandão is a locality in the freguesia of Caparica, the municipality of Almada and the district of Setúbal, Portugal. With an excellent strategic location, it is situated by the Tejo river and serves several industrial routes with a part of Trafaria....

 and Trafaria
Trafaria
Trafaria is a Portuguese town and a parish, located in the municipality of Almada. It has a population of 5,946 inhabitants and a total area of 5.83 km²....

 under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.

The Portela Airport
Portela Airport
Lisbon Portela Airport, also known as Lisbon Airport , is an international airport located north of Castle of São Jorge in the city of Lisbon, the capital of Portugal...

 is located within the city limits, with the national (TAP
TAP Portugal
TAP Portugal, commonly known as TAP, is the national airline of Portugal. It has its head office in Building 25 on the grounds of Portela Airport in Lisbon, and has been a member of the Star Alliance since 14 March 2005, the same day on which the company celebrated its 60th anniversary...

), regional or low-cost services that connects Lisbon to major cities in Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

Panoramic Views


Education



The city has several private and public secondary schools, primary schools as well as Kindergärten. In Greater Lisbon area there are also international schools such as Saint Julian's School
Saint Julian's School
St. Julian's is a private school in Carcavelos, Portugal. It was opened on November 25, 1932, on the site of an 18th century palace, built by José Francisco da Cruz, Treasurer to King D. José I. Several national and international famous figures have their children studying at St. Julian's...

, the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon
Carlucci American International School of Lisbon
The Carlucci American International School of Lisbon is a non-profit, non-denominational, co-educational day school in Portugal, American. It is providing study to approximately 550 students from Early Childhood through Grade 12 .- Facilities :CAISL's expanding campus offers a number of quality...

, Saint Dominic's International School
Saint Dominic's International School
Saint Dominics International School is an IB World School in Outeiro de Polima, near Lisbon, in Portugal. It was founded by Irish Dominican Sisters, beginning as the Bom Sucesso Girls Day School in 1954...

, Deutsche Schule Lissabon
Deutsche Schule Lissabon
Deutsche Schule Lissabon is a German school situated in the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. It was founded in 1848 and is now located on the 2ª Circular, near Lisbon's Portela airport. The school consists of a primary school with kindergarten and a secondary school...

, Instituto Español de Lisboa (Lisbon Spanish Institute), and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre.

There are three major public universities in Lisbon: the University of Lisbon (Lisbon's oldest university in operation, founded in 1911, also called the Classic University of Lisbon), the Technical University of Lisbon
Technical University of Lisbon
The Technical University of Lisbon is a Portuguese public university. It was created in 1930 in Lisbon, as a confederation of older schools, and comprises, nowadays, the faculties and institutes of veterinary medicine; agricultural sciences; economics and business administration; engineering,...

 (founded in 1930) and the New University of Lisbon
New University of Lisbon
Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, , also known as NOVA ) was established in 1973 and is the youngest of the three public universities of Lisbon, in Portugal....

 (founded in 1973), providing degrees in all academic disciplines. There is also one state-run university institute – the ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute, and a polytechnic
Polytechnic (Portugal)
A polytechnic is a higher education educational institution in Portugal created in the 1980s. After 1998 they were upgraded to institutions which are allowed to confer licenciatura degrees. Before then, they only awarded short-cycle degrees which were known as bacharelatos and didn't provide...

 institute – the Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon
Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon
The Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon ' is one of the biggest state-run polytechnic institutes in Portugal. It was founded in Lisbon during the 1980s, being composed by several higher education institutes and schools, some of them with a longer history...

.

Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic University, as well as the Lusíada University
Lusíada University
The Lusíada University is a Portuguese private university headquartered in Lisbon. The university's motto is sol lucet omnibus .-History:...

, the Universidade Lusófona
Universidade Lusófona
Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias is the largest Portuguese private university, and the main institution of Grupo Lusófona, which administers other universities and colleges in Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique...

, and the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa is a private university located in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. UAL was founded on December 13, 1985 .-References:...

, among others.

The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007–2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public institutions.

Sports




Lisbon has a long sporting tradition. It was one of the Portuguese cities that hosted the UEFA Euro 2004 Championship. The city also played host to the final of the 2001 IAAF World Indoor Championships
2001 IAAF World Indoor Championships
The 8th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics were held at the Pavilhão Atlântico in Lisbon, Portugal from March 9 to March 11 2001. It was the first time the Championships had been held in Portugal...

 and 1983, 1992 European Fencing Championships
European Fencing Championships
The European Fencing Championships is an annual competition organized by the Confédération européenne d'escrime.- Host cities :*1981 : Foggia *1982 : Mödling *1983 : Lisbon *1991 : Vienna *1992 : Lisbon *1993 : Linz *1994 : Krakow *1995 : Keszthely...

, 2003 World Men's Handball Championship
2003 World Men's Handball Championship
The 2003 World Men's Handball Championship took place in Portugal from January 20 to February 2, 2003.-Qualified teams:24 teams were qualified for the first round and dispatched into 4 groups.Group A : , , , , , .Group B : , , , , , ....

, 2008 European Judo Championships
2008 European Judo Championships
The 2008 European Judo Championships were the nineteenth edition of the European Judo Championships, held in the Pavilhão Atlântico, in Lisbon, Portugal, from April 11 to April 13, 2008.- Men :- Women :- Medal table :- −60 kg :- −66 kg :...

. In 2006 and 2007, the city provided the starting point for the Dakar Rally.

Sport Lisboa e Benfica (commonly known as "Benfica") is a sports club best known worldwide for its football team, one of the major clubs in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, one of the Big Three, two-times winner and five-times runners-up of the European Cup, one-time runners-up of the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 and one-time runners-up of the Intercontinental Cup
Intercontinental Cup (football)
The European/South American Cup, commonly referred to as the World Club Championship, Intercontinental Cup or Toyota Cup, was a football competition endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, contested between the winners of the European Cup and the South American Copa Libertadores...

. Sporting Clube de Portugal (commonly known as "Sporting") is one of the major clubs in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, one of the Big Three, having won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions. The cup is one of the many inter-European club competitions that have been organised by UEFA. The first competition was held in the 1960–61 season—but...

 (1964) and was runners-up of the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 (2005).
The third most important club is C.F. Os Belenenses (commonly "Belenenses" also "Belenenses Lisbon"). Other sports, such as indoor football, handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

, basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 and roller hockey
Roller hockey
Roller Hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels. The term "Roller Hockey" is often used interchangeably to refer to two variant forms chiefly differentiated by the type of skate used. There is traditional "Roller Hockey," played with quad roller skates, and...

 are also popular. There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics to sailing
Sailing
Sailing is the propulsion of a vehicle and the control of its movement with large foils called sails. By changing the rigging, rudder, and sometimes the keel or centre board, a sailor manages the force of the wind on the sails in order to move the boat relative to its surrounding medium and...

 to golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

 to mountain-biking. Every March the city hosts the Lisbon Half Marathon
Lisbon Half Marathon
First held in 1991, the race has consistently delivered fast winning times. However, many of these times have been unratifiable for record purposes due to factors including: the course being too short , excessive tailwinds, as well as there being an excessive drop in altitude, which boosted...

, while in September - Portugal Half Marathon
Portugal Half Marathon
Portugal Half Marathon is an annual half marathon contested every September in Lisbon, Portugal.A new, faster course was established for the race in 2010 and 25 km record holder Mary Keitany duly responded by setting a women's course record of 1:08:46...

.

Lisbon has two UEFA elite stadiums (): Estádio da Luz (Stadium of Light), with a capacity of over 65,000 and the Estádio José Alvalade
Estádio José Alvalade
Estádio José Alvalade is a football stadium in Lisbon, Portugal, home of Sporting Clube de Portugal, one of the country's biggest clubs. It is the center of a complex called Alvalade XXI , designed by Portuguese architect...

, with a capacity of over 50,000. There is also – Estádio do Restelo
Estádio do Restelo
The Estádio do Restelo is a multi-purpose stadium in Lisbon, Portugal. The stadium has a capacity of 25,000 people and was built in 1956.It is situated behind the world-renowned Jerónimos Monastery in the Lisbon district of Santa Maria de Belém....

, with a capacity of over 30,000. In the neighborhood exist Estádio Nacional
Estádio Nacional
The Estádio Nacional , also known as Estádio do Jamor, is the Portuguese national football ground. It is located in the Jamor sports complex, in Oeiras, near Lisbon. It was designed by Jacobetty Rosa and the building works started in 1939, with its inauguration happening on 10 June 1944 by the...

, with a capacity of over 37,000 (in Oeiras) and Estádio do Bonfim
Estádio do Bonfim
Estádio do Bonfim is a multi-purpose stadium in Setúbal, Portugal. It is currently used primarily for football matches for Vitória F.C.. The stadium is able to hold 18,694 spectators and was built in 1962.-Portugal national football team:...

, with a capacity of nearly 20,000 (in Setúbal
Setúbal
Setúbal is the main city in Setúbal Municipality in Portugal with a total area of 172.0 km² and a total population of 118,696 inhabitants in the municipality. The city proper has 89,303 inhabitants....

).

Notable citizens


  • Verissimo, Maxima and Julia according to tradition were the first three martyrs of Olisipo, considered native and later also as Romans in the city (3th and 4th centuries A.D.);
  • São Gens was a legendary bishop-martyr who, according to tradition, has been one of the first bishops of Lisbon, even during the Roman domination of Lusitania
    Lusitania
    Lusitania or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain . It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people...

    ;
  • Fernando Martins de Bulhões, later Saint Anthony of Lisbon (c.1195 – 13 June 1231) is a Catholic
    Roman Catholic Church
    The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

     saint;
  • Pedro Julião, ordained Pope John XXI
    Pope John XXI
    Pope John XXI, , born Pedro Julião Pope John XXI, , born Pedro Julião Pope John XXI, , born Pedro Julião (Latin, Petrus Iulianus (c. 1215 – May 20, 1277), a Portuguese also called Pedro Hispano (Latin, Petrus Hispanus; English, Peter of Spain), was Pope from 1276 until his death about eight...

    , (c. 1215 – May 20, 1277), was the only Portuguese
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

    -born Pope;
  • Fernão Lopes
    Fernão Lopes
    Fernão Lopes was a Portuguese chronicler appointed by King Edward of Portugal. Fernão Lopes wrote the history of Portugal, but only a part of his work remained....

     (c. 1385 – after 1459) was a chronicler appointed by King Edward of Portugal. Fernão Lopes wrote the history of Portugal
    History of Portugal
    The history of Portugal, a European and an Atlantic nation, dates back to the Early Middle Ages. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire including possessions in South America, Africa, Asia and...

    , but only a part of his work remained. His way of writing was based on oral discourse, and, on every page, it revealed his roots among the common people. He is one of the fathers of the European historiography
    Historiography
    Historiography refers either to the study of the history and methodology of history as a discipline, or to a body of historical work on a specialized topic...

    , or a precursor of the scientific historiography, basing his works always on the documental proof, and, has he said, on his pages "one cannot find the beauty of words but the nudity of the truth." He was an autodidact;
  • Duarte Pacheco Pereira
    Duarte Pacheco Pereira
    Duarte Pacheco Pereira, called the Great, was a 15th century Portuguese sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, along the coast of West Africa and to India...

    , called "the Great", was a 15th century sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer
    Cartography
    Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:*Set the map's...

    . He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean
    Atlantic Ocean
    The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

      west of the Cape Verde
    Cape Verde
    The Republic of Cape Verde is an island country, spanning an archipelago of 10 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa...

     islands, near Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

    , in 1498 and before; also along the coast of West Africa
    Africa
    Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

     and to India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    . His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, he was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arc
    Meridian arc
    In geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is a highly accurate determination of the distance between two points with the same longitude. Two or more such determinations at different locations then specify the shape of the reference ellipsoid which best approximates the shape of the geoid. This...

     with a margin of error of only 4%;
  • Francisco de Almeida
    Francisco de Almeida
    Dom Francisco de Almeida , also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" , was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer. He distinguished himself as a counsellor to King John II of Portugal and later in the wars against the Moors and in the conquest of Granada in 1492...

    , (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a nobleman, soldier and explorer, counsellor to King John II of Portugal
    John II of Portugal
    John II , the Perfect Prince , was the thirteenth king of Portugal and the Algarves...

     and the first Viceroy of Portuguese India. Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean, with his decisive victory at the naval Battle of Diu
    Battle of Diu
    The Battle of Diu sometimes referred as the Second Battle of Chaul was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, near the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Kozhikode...

     in 1509;
  • João de Castro
    João de Castro
    Dom João de Castro was a Portuguese naval officer and fourth viceroy of Portuguese India. He was called Castro Forte by poet Luís de Camões. Castro was the son of Álvaro de Castro, civil governor of Lisbon...

     (February 7, 1500 – June 6, 1548), was a naval officer, notable scientist, writer and cartographer. He was also the fourth viceroy of Portuguese India. He was called Castro Forte ("Strong Castro") by poet Luís de Camões
    Luís de Camões
    Luís Vaz de Camões is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, Vondel, Homer, Virgil and Dante. He wrote a considerable amount of lyrical poetry and drama but is best remembered for his epic work Os Lusíadas...

    . He undertook many observations and can in a way be considered as one of the discoverers of crustal magnetism. He also discovered spatial variations of Declination in some points of the globe (as in Baçaim, India), which he attributed to the disturbing effects of underwater rock masses. Castro was one of the most important representative of scientific maritime investigations of the time;
  • Francisco de Holanda
    Francisco de Holanda
    Francisco de Holanda , was a Portuguese humanist and painter. Considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance, he was also an essayist, architect, and historian...

     (originally Francisco d'Olanda), (c. 1517 – 1585) was a humanist and painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

    . Considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance
    Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

    , he was also an essayist, architect
    Architect
    An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

    , and historian
    Historian
    A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is...

    . He was a maternal nephew of Pope Adrian VI
    Pope Adrian VI
    Pope Adrian VI , born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, served as Pope from 9 January 1522 until his death some 18 months later...

     and a remote uncle of Deodoro da Fonseca
    Deodoro da Fonseca
    Marshal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca became the first president of the Republic of Brazil after heading a military coup that deposed Emperor Pedro II and proclaimed the Republic in 1889, disestablishing the Empire of Brazil.- Biography :...

    , Sérgio Buarque de Holanda and his namesake Chico Buarque
    Chico Buarque
    Francisco Buarque de Hollanda , popularly known as Chico Buarque , is a singer, guitarist, composer, dramatist, writer and poet...

    ;
  • António Ferreira
    António Ferreira
    António Ferreira was a Portuguese poet and the foremost representative of the classical school, founded by Francisco de Sá de Miranda. His most considerable work, Castro, is the first tragedy in Portuguese, and the second in modern European literature.-His life:Ferreira was a native of Lisbon...

     (1528 – November 29, 1569), was a poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

     and the foremost representative of the classical school, founded by Francisco de Sá de Miranda
    Francisco de Sá de Miranda
    Francisco de Sá de Miranda was a Portuguese poet of the Renaissance.-Life:Sá de Miranda was the son of a canon of Coimbra belonging to the ancient and noble family of Sa...

    . His most considerable work, Castro, is the first tragedy
    Tragedy
    Tragedy is a form of art based on human suffering that offers its audience pleasure. While most cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of...

     in Portuguese
    Portugal
    Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

    , and the second in modern Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

    an literature. known as the Portuguese Horace
    Horace
    Quintus Horatius Flaccus , known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus.-Life:...

    , he was an ardent defender of the Portuguese language.
  • António Vieira
    António Vieira
    Father António Vieira was a Portuguese Jesuit and writer, the "prince" of Catholic pulpit-orators of his time.-Life:Vieira was born in Lisbon to Cristóvão Vieira Ravasco, the son of a mulatto woman, and Maria de Azevedo. Accompanying his parents to Brazil in 1614, he received his education at the...

     (6 February 1608 – 18 July 1697), Jesuit
    Society of Jesus
    The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

     and writer, considered the "prince" of pulpit-orators in his time. The honorable and great poet Fernando Pessoa crowned Vieira with the magnificent title of "Emperor of the Portuguese Language";
  • João Pinto Ribeiro was a celebrated conjurado and one of the conspirators and planners of the revolution of December 1, 1640.
  • Catherine of Braganza
    Catherine of Braganza
    Catherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...

     (25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705), Queen Consort
    Queen consort
    A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

     of King Charles II of England
    Charles II of England
    Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

    ;
  • José da Silva Pais
    José da Silva Pais
    José da Silva Pais was a Portuguese soldier and colony administrator.He was involved in diverse situations in the disputed territories between the Portuguese and Spanish in the territory that today is the South region in Brazil...

     (October 25, 1679 — November 14, 1760) was a soldier and colony administrator. He organized the support for the Sacramento Colony during the Spanish–Portuguese War, 1735–1737. For the purpose of maintaining the South
    Southern Region, Brazil
    The South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 km ², being the smallest portion of the country...

     of Brazil in the hands of Portugal, Pais was charged with the colonization and construction of many villages and Fortresses like the Jesus Maria e José and others in Rio Grande do Sul
    Rio Grande do Sul
    Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...

     and Santa Catarina
    Santa Catarina
    Santa Catarina is the name of several places :-Places:Brazil*Santa Catarina , one of that country's federal states...

    ;
  • Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquess of Pombal (Marquês de Pombal,; 13 May 1699–8 May 1782) was an 18th century statesman in the Age of Enlightenment
    Age of Enlightenment
    The Age of Enlightenment was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in church and state...

    . He was Minister of the Kingdom in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake;
  • Leonor de Almeida Portugal (1750–1839) - Marchioness of Alorna
    Marquis of Alorna
    Marquis of Alorna was a Portuguese title of nobility granted, in 9 November 1748, by King John V of Portugal, to D. Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal e Vasconcelos, 3rd Count of Assumar and 44th viceroy of India....

    , 8th Countess of Assumar, one of the greatest figures of Portuguese literature, known as Alcippe, and the most famous holder of the title;
  • António José de Souza Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha (March 18, 1792, - April 26, 1860), 7th Count of Vila Flor, 1st Marquis of Vila Flor and 1st Duke of Terceira
    Duke of Terceira
    The title duke of Terceira, de juro e herdade was created by decree of King Pedro IV of Portugal, on 8 November 1832...

    , was a military officer, statesman and a leader of the Constitutionalist side in the Liberal Wars
    Liberal Wars
    The Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers, or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834...

    , as well as a Prime Minister of Portugal;
  • Alexandre Herculano
    Alexandre Herculano
    Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo , was a Portuguese novelist and historian.-Early life:...

     (Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo; born March 28, 1810; died September 13, 1877 in Santarém
    Santarém, Portugal
    Santarém is a city in the Santarém Municipality in Portugal. The city itself has a population of 28,760 and the entire municipality has 64,124 inhabitants.It is the capital of Santarém District....

    ), was a novel
    Novel
    A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....

    ist and historian;
  • Camilo Castelo Branco
    Camilo Castelo Branco
    Camilo Ferreira Botelho Castelo-Branco,1st Viscount de Correia Botelho , was a prolific Portuguese writer of the 19th century, having authored over 260 books . His writing is, overall, considered original in that it combines the dramatic and sentimental spirit of Romanticism with a highly personal...

     (Camilo Ferreira Botelho Castelo-Branco,1st Viscount de Correia Botelho; March 16, 1825 – June 1, 1890), was a prolific and notable writer, having authored over 260 books (mainly novels, plays and essays). His writing is, overall, considered original in that it combines the dramatic and sentimental spirit of Romanticism with a highly personal combination of bitterness, dark humour of sarcasm;
  • Cesário Verde
    Cesário Verde
    Cesário Verde was a 19th-century Portuguese poet. His work, while mostly ignored during his lifetime and not well known outside of the country’s borders even today, is generally considered to be amongst the most important in Portuguese poetry and is widely taught in schools...

     (February 25, 1855 – July 19, 1886) Poet. His work, while mostly ignored during his lifetime, is generally considered to be amongst the most important in Portuguese poetry and is widely taught in schools. This is partly due to his being championed by many other authors after his death, notably Fernando Pessoa;
  • Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro ( December 30, 1861 - February 11, 1944), son of a Portuguese father and an Irish mother, was a soldier, colonial governor, monarchist politician and counter-revolutionary; he was notable for his role during the colonial occupation of Angola
    Angola
    Angola, officially the Republic of Angola , is a country in south-central Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city...

     and Mozambique
    Mozambique
    Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique , is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest...

     and for his dedication to the monarchist cause during the period of the First Portuguese Republic;
  • Gago Coutinho
    Gago Coutinho
    Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho, GCTE, GCC, generally known simply as Gago Coutinho was a Portuguese aviation pioneer who, together with Sacadura Cabral , was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by air, from March to June 1922 , from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro.The Fairey IIIB seaplane used by...

     or Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho (17 February 1869 – 18 February 1959) was a aviation
    Aviation
    Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

     pioneer who, together with Sacadura Cabral
    Sacadura Cabral
    Artur de Sacadura Freire Cabral, GCTE , known simply as Sacadura Cabral , was a Portuguese aviation pioneer who in 1922, together with Gago Coutinho , conducted the first flight across the South Atlantic Ocean, and also the first using astronomical navigation only, from Lisbon, Portugal, to Rio de...

     (1881–1924), was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by air
    First aerial crossing of the South Atlantic
    The first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic was made by the Portuguese naval aviators Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral in 1922, to mark the centennial of Brazil's independence...

    , from March to June 1922 (some sources wrongly claim 1919), from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro
    Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

    . Gago Coutinho invented a type of sextant
    Sextant
    A sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the altitude. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight...

     incorporating two spirit levels to provide an artificial horizon. This adaptation of the traditional marine sextant allowed navigation without visual reference to the real horizon.
  • Fernando Pessoa
    Fernando Pessoa
    Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa , was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic and translator described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language.-Early years in Durban:On 13 July...

     (13 June 1888 – 30 November 1935 ), poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

    , writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    , literary critic and translator, considered one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century;
  • Mário de Sá-Carneiro
    Mário de Sá-Carneiro
    Mário de Sá-Carneiro was a Portuguese poet and writer. He is one of the most well known of the "Geração D'Orpheu".-Life:...

     (May 19, 1890 — April 26, 1916) was a poet and writer. He is one of the most well known of the "Geração D'Orpheu" and friend of Fernando Pessoa and Almada Negreiros
    Almada Negreiros
    José Sobral de Almada Negreiros was a Portuguese artist. He was born in the then colony of São Tomé e Príncipe, the son of a Portuguese father, António Lobo de Almada Negreiros, and a Santomean mother, Elvira Freire Sobral...

    ;
  • Amália Rodrigues
    Amália Rodrigues
    Amália da Piedade Rodrigues, GCSE, GCIH, , also known as Amália Rodrigues was a Portuguese singer and actress.She was known as the "Rainha do Fado" and was most influential in popularizing the fado worldwide. She was one of the most important figures in the genre's development, and enjoyed a...

     (23 July 1920 – 6 October 1999), the Rainha do Fado , influential in popularizing the fado worldwide;
  • Jorge Ferreira Chaves
    Jorge Ferreira Chaves
    Jorge Ferreira Chaves, was a Portuguese architect.Some authors may refer to him as "Jorge Chaves" or simply "Chaves"....

     (22 February 1920 – 22 August 1982), architect
    Architect
    An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

    ;
  • Mário Cesariny (9 August 1923 – 26 November 2006), surrealist
    Surrealism
    Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members....

     poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

    , a minor painter;
  • Alexandre O'Neill
    Alexandre O'Neill
    Alexandre Manuel Vahia de Castro O'Neill de Bulhões, GOSE was a Portuguese writer and poet of Irish descent.-Family:...

     (19 December 1924 – 21 August 1986), poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

    /writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    ;
  • Mário Soares
    Mário Soares
    Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE , Portuguese politician, served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.-Family:...

     (born 7 December 1924), politician
    Politician
    A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...

    , 17th President and 53rd/60th Prime-Ministers of Portugal;
  • Jaime Montestrela
    Jaime Montestrela
    Jaime Montestrela was a Portuguese poet and writer.-Biography:Jaime Monstestrela was born in 1925. His mother was from Madrid, his father a Portuguese surgeon. He belongs to this generation of Portuguese writers of the Salazar dictatorship years, which counts among its ranks Augusto Abaleira or...

     (12 June 1925 - 8 November 1975), writer
    Writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

    , poet
    Poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

     and psychiatrist
    Psychiatrist
    A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. All psychiatrists are trained in diagnostic evaluation and in psychotherapy...

    ;
  • Paula Rego
    Paula Rego
    Paula Rego is a painter born in Portugal although she is a naturalised British citizen.-Biography:Rego was born in the Portuguese capital Lisbon, the daughter of an electrical engineer who worked for the Marconi Company. Although this gave her a comfortable middle class home, the family was...

     (born c.1935), painter
    Painting
    Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

    , illustrator
    Illustrator
    An Illustrator is a narrative artist who specializes in enhancing writing by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text...

     and printmaker;
  • Jorge Sampaio (born 18 September 1939), politician
    Politician
    A politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...

    , United Nations
    United Nations
    The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

     High Commissioner for the Alliance of Civilizations
    Alliance of Civilizations
    The Alliance of Civilizations is an initiative proposed by the Prime Minister of the Government of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, at the 59th General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005. It was co-sponsored by the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan...

    , former Mayor of Lisbon and 18th President of Portugal
    President of Portugal
    Portugal has been a republic since 1910, and since that time the head of state has been the president, whose official title is President of the Portuguese Republic ....

    ;
  • Gonçalo Byrne
    Gonçalo Byrne
    Gonçalo Byrne, GCIH is a Portuguese architect.Byrne is responsible for a vast accomplishment of architectural work, and has been awarded with many national and international prizes....

     (born c.1941), architect
    Architect
    An architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...

    ;
  • António Damásio
    Antonio Damasio
    Antonio Damasio is David Dornsife Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Southern California, where he heads USC's Brain and Creativity Institute and Adjunct Professor at the Salk Institute. Prior to taking up his posts at USC, in 2005, Damasio was M.W...

    , (born c.1944), neuroscientist
    Neuroscience
    Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics,...

    ;
  • António Guterres
    António Guterres
    António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres, GCC is a Portuguese politician, a former prime minister and President of the Socialist International. Currently he is the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.-Early life:...

     (born 30 April 1949), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees , also known as The UN Refugee Agency is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to...

    , 62nd Prime-Minister of Portugal;
  • José Manuel Durão Barroso
    José Manuel Durão Barroso
    José Manuel Durão Barroso is a Portuguese politician. He is President of the European Commission, since 23 November 2004. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.-Academic career:...

     (born 23 March 1956), President of the European Commission
    President of the European Commission
    The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission ― the executive branch of the :European Union ― the most powerful officeholder in the EU. The President is responsible for allocating portfolios to members of the Commission and can reshuffle or dismiss them if needed...

    , 63rd Prime-Minister of Portugal;
  • Joaquim de Almeida
    Joaquim de Almeida
    Joaquim António Portugal Baptista de Almeida is a Portuguese-born American actor. He began his acting doing some theater. During the 1980s, he started his film career appearing on the 1982 action film The Soldier, and later achieved recognition for playing Andrea Bonanno in the 1987 Italian film...

     (born 15 March 1957), actor.
  • Panda Bear (musician)
    Panda Bear (musician)
    Noah Benjamin Lennox also known as Panda Bear, is an experimental musician and a founding member of Animal Collective.-Early life:...

    (born July 17, 1978), musician.

External links