Smiling Buddha

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The Smiling Buddha, formally designated as Pokhran-I, was the codename given to Republic of India's first nuclear test explosion
Nuclear testing
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield and explosive capability of nuclear weapons. Throughout the twentieth century, most nations that have developed nuclear weapons have tested them...

 that took place at the long-constructed Indian Army
Indian Army
The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

 base, Pokhran Test Range at Pokhran municipality
Pokhran
Pokhran is a city and a municipality located in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is a remote location in the Thar Desert region and served as the test site for India's first underground nuclear weapon detonation.-Geography:Pokhran http://marupradesh.org/ located at...

, Rajasthan state
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

 on 18 May 1974 at 8:05 a.m. (IST
Indian Standard Time
Indian Standard Time is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a time offset of UTC+05:30. India does not observe daylight saving time or other seasonal adjustments, although DST was used briefly during the Sino–Indian War of 1962 and the Indo–Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971...

). It was also the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
The United Nations Security Council is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of...

. The explosive yield of the bomb was reported to be 8 kt.

History


The nuclear weapons efforts were remarkably established in 1944 by Homi J. Bhabha
Homi J. Bhabha
Homi Jehangir Bhabha, FRS was an Indian nuclear physicist and the chief architect of the Indian atomic energy program...

 who founded the nuclear institute Institute of Fundamental Research
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research is a research institution in India dedicated to basic research in mathematics and the sciences. It is a Deemed University and works under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India. It is located at Navy Nagar, Colaba, Mumbai...

 in 1944. Nuclear physicist Piara Singh Gill
Piara Singh Gill
Piara Singh Gill was an Indian nuclear physicist who was a pioneer in cosmic ray nuclear physics and worked on the American Manhattan project. He was the first Director of Central Scientific Instruments Organisation of India. He was research fellow of Chicago University...

 also returned to the country from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 after participating in the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a research and development program, led by the United States with participation from the United Kingdom and Canada, that produced the first atomic bomb during World War II. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the US Army...

 in 1945. Physicists such as Chandrasekhara Raman and Satyendra Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose FRS was an Indian mathematician and physicist noted for his collaboration with Albert Einstein in developing a theory regarding the gaslike qualities of electromagnetic radiation. He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s, providing the foundation...

 later went onto play an integral role in the research of nuclear weapons technology.

After Indian independence
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

, Premier Jawarharalal Nehru authorized the development of a nuclear programme headed by Homi J. Bhabha
Homi J. Bhabha
Homi Jehangir Bhabha, FRS was an Indian nuclear physicist and the chief architect of the Indian atomic energy program...

; the Atomic Energy Act of 1948 focuses on peaceful development. India was heavily involved in the development of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to...

, but ultimately opted not to sign.
In 1954, Bhabha moved the nuclear programme in a direction towards weapons design and production. Bhabha established two important infrastructure projects - the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is India's primary nuclear research facility based in Mumbai. It has a number of nuclear reactors, all of which are used for India's nuclear power and research programme.- History :...

 at Mumbai and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)
Department of Atomic Energy (India)
The Department of Atomic Energy is a department directly under the Prime Minister of India with headquartered in Mumbai. The department is responsible for nuclear technology, including nuclear power and research....

 of which Bhabha was its first secretary. Between the period of 1954 to 1959, the nuclear programme grew swiftly and by 1958 the DAE had 1/3 of the defence budget for research purposes. In 1954, the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, as part of the Atoms for Peace
Atoms for Peace
"Atoms for Peace" was the title of a speech delivered by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953....

 policy, agreed to provide and established the small research reactor
CIRUS reactor
CIRUS is a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in Trombay near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada in 1954, but uses heavy water supplied by the United States. It is the second oldest reactor in India. It is modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research...

, CIRUS
CIRUS reactor
CIRUS is a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in Trombay near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada in 1954, but uses heavy water supplied by the United States. It is the second oldest reactor in India. It is modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research...

, also at Trombay. Acquisition of CIRUS was a watershed event in nuclear proliferation, with understanding between India and the United States that the reactor would use for research purposes only. The CIRUS was an ideal facility to develop the plutonium bomb, therefore Nehru had refused to accept the nuclear fuel from Canada, and started the programme to develop the ingenious nuclear fuel cycle.

In 1962, the nuclear programme continued to develop, but at slow rate. Nehru was distracted by the Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
The Sino-Indian War , also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict , was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war, but other issues played a role. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan...

, but lost territory after China had successfully annexed the territory after launching a successful assault. Nehru turned to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 for help but it was facing the missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States in October 1962, during the Cold War...

. The Russian Politburo turned down Nehru's request for weapon supply and was shocked after Nehru found that Soviet Union was indeed backing the Chinese. The legacy of this war left an impression on India that the Soviet Union was an unreliable ally, therefore a nuclear deterrence was felt necessary at that time. Design work began in 1965 under Bhabha but later proceeded by Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna , D.Phil., was an Indian nuclear scientist and a prominent physicist, is best known for his leadership directing the research integral for the development of Indian nuclear programme in its early stages. Having started and joined the nuclear programme in 1964, Ramanna worked under...

 who took over the programme after latter's death. However, the nuclear programme came to a halt after Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Srivastava Shastri was the second Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a significant figure in the Indian independence movement.-Early life:...

 became the premier after Nehru's death. Shastri faced a another war
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. This conflict became known as the Second Kashmir War fought by India and Pakistan over the disputed region of Kashmir, the first having been fought in 1947...

, this time with West-Pakistan
West Pakistan
West Pakistan , common name West-Pakistan , in the period between its establishment on 22 November 1955 to disintegration on December 16, 1971. This period, during which, Pakistan was divided, ended when East-Pakistan was disintegrated and succeeded to become which is now what is known as Bangladesh...

 (now Pakistan). Shastri appointed Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai was an Indian physicist. He is considered to be the father of the Indian space program; legendary Homi Bhabha’s successor as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission; and was as at home in the world of the arts as in his favourite laboratory. His interests were vast and...

 as the head of nuclear programme, but because of his Gandhian nature, Sarabhai focused the programme to be developed into more peaceful purposes rather than the military applications.

In 1967, after Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

 became the premier, the work on nuclear programme was re-started with new a attitude and goals. Homi Sethna
Homi Sethna
Homi Nusserwanji Sethna , PhD, was an Indian nuclear scientist and a chemical engineer, who remained the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India during Indian first nuclear test, codename Smiling Buddha in Pokhran Test Range in 1974...

, a chemical engineer, played a significant role in the development of weapon-grade plutonium while Ramanna designed and manufactured the whole nuclear device. Because of the sensitivity, the first nuclear bomb project did not employed more than 75 scientists.

On 7 September 1972 Prime Minister Indira Gandhi authorized the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is India's primary nuclear research facility based in Mumbai. It has a number of nuclear reactors, all of which are used for India's nuclear power and research programme.- History :...

 (BARC) to manufacture a nuclear device and prepare it for a test. Throughout its development, the device was formally called the "Peaceful Nuclear Explosive"
Peaceful nuclear explosions
Peaceful nuclear explosions are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals...

, but it was usually referred to as the Smiling Buddha.

Development team


The head of the development team was Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna , D.Phil., was an Indian nuclear scientist and a prominent physicist, is best known for his leadership directing the research integral for the development of Indian nuclear programme in its early stages. Having started and joined the nuclear programme in 1964, Ramanna worked under...

. Other key personnel included P. K. Iyengar
P. K. Iyengar
Dr. P. K. Iyengar is an eminent Indian nuclear scientist and a noted nuclear physicist who has known to be played a central role in India's cold fission tests. He was former head of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and former chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India...

, Rajagopala Chidambaram
Rajagopala Chidambaram
Rajagopala Chidambaram is an Indian nuclear scientist and metallurgist. He is the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government of India and former Director of India's primary nuclear research facility, BARC. Dr...

, Nagapattinam Sambasiva Venkatesan, and Waman Dattatreya Patwardhan
Waman Dattatreya Patwardhan
Waman Dattatreya Patwardhan was an Indian nuclear chemist, defence scientist and an expert in the science of Explosives engineering. He was the founder director of the Explosives Research and Development Laboratory of India...

 under the supervision of Homi N. Sethna. Chidambaram, who would later coordinate work on the Pokhran-II
Pokhran-II
Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. These nuclear tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states....

 tests, began work on the equation of state
Equation of state
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a relation between state variables. More specifically, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation describing the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions...

 of plutonium in late 1967 or early 1968. To preserve secrecy, the project employed no more than 75 scientists and engineers from 1967–1974. Dr. Abdul Kalam
Abdul Kalam
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred to as A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is a renowned aerospace engineer, professor , and first Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology Thiruvananthapuram , who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007...

 also arrived at the test site as the representative of the TBRL although he had no role whatsoever in the development of the nuclear bomb or even in the nuclear programme.

Role of Indian Nuclear Research Institutes


The device used a implosion system developed at the DRDO
Defence Research and Development Organisation
The Defence Research and Development Organisation is a agency of the Republic of India, responsible for the development of technology for use by the military, headquartered in New Delhi, India...

 Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory
Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory
Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory is a laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation . Located in Chandigarh, the laboratory has become one of the major DRDO labs in the field of armament studies. TBRL is organized under the Armaments Directorate of DRDO. The present...

 (TBRL) in Chandigarh
Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Haryana and Punjab. The name Chandigarh translates as "The Fort of Chandi". The name is from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the city...

 based on the Fat Man
Fat Man
"Fat Man" is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. It was the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare to date , and its detonation caused the third man-made nuclear explosion. The name also refers more...

 design. The detonation system was developed at the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory
High Energy Materials Research Laboratory
High Energy Materials Research Laboratory is a laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation . Located in Pune, its main function is the research and development of technologies and products in the area of High Energy Materials and Explosive materials. HEMRL is organized under...

 (HEMRL) of DRDO at Pune. The 6 kg of plutonium
Plutonium
Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol Pu and atomic number 94. It is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, forming a dull coating when oxidized. The element normally exhibits six allotropes and four oxidation...

 came from the CIRUS reactor
CIRUS reactor
CIRUS is a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in Trombay near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada in 1954, but uses heavy water supplied by the United States. It is the second oldest reactor in India. It is modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research...

 at BARC. The neutron initiator was a polonium
Polonium
Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive element, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. Polonium has been studied for...

-beryllium
Beryllium
Beryllium is the chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals. Notable gemstones which contain beryllium include beryl and chrysoberyl...

 type code-named "Flower." The complete core was assembled in Trombay
Trombay
Trombay is a northeastern suburb in Mumbai, India, with Mankhurd as the closest railway station on the Harbour Line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway.-History:...

 before transportation to the test site.

Cross-section of the device


The fully assembled device had a hexagonal cross section, 1.25 meter in diameter and weighed 1400 kg. The device was detonated at 8.05 a.m. in a shaft 107 m under the army Pokhran
Pokhran
Pokhran is a city and a municipality located in Jaisalmer district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is a remote location in the Thar Desert region and served as the test site for India's first underground nuclear weapon detonation.-Geography:Pokhran http://marupradesh.org/ located at...

 test range in the Thar Desert
Thar Desert
The Thar Desert |Punjab]] province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.-Location and description:...

 (or Great Indian Desert), Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Rājasthān the land of Rajasthanis, , is the largest state of the Republic of India by area. It is located in the northwest of India. It encompasses most of the area of the large, inhospitable Great Indian Desert , which has an edge paralleling the Sutlej-Indus river valley along its border with...

. Coordinates of the crater are 27.095°N 71.753°E.

Controversial Yield


The yield
Nuclear weapon yield
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when a nuclear weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene , either in kilotons or megatons , but sometimes also in terajoules...

 of this test has remained controversial with unclear data provided by Indian sources. Although occasional press reports have given ranges from 20 kt to as low as 2 kt, the official yield was initially reported at 12 kt (post Operation Shakti claims have raised it to 13 kt). Outside seismic data and analysis of the crater features indicates a lower figure. Analysts usually estimate the yield at 4 to 6 kt using conventional seismic magnitude-to-yield conversion formulas. In recent years, both Homi Sethna
Homi Sethna
Homi Nusserwanji Sethna , PhD, was an Indian nuclear scientist and a chemical engineer, who remained the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India during Indian first nuclear test, codename Smiling Buddha in Pokhran Test Range in 1974...

 and P.K. Iyengar have conceded that the official yield is an exaggeration. Iyengar has variously stated that the yield was actually 8–10 kt, that the device was designed to yield 10 kt, and that the yield was 8 kt 'exactly as predicted'. Careful analysis of hard rock cratering effects establishes a tight bound around 8 kt for the yield.

Code name


The project's code name was Smiling Buddha and the detonation was scheduled to occur on 18 May 1974 (the official test date), Buddha Jayanti, a festival day in India marking the birth of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

.

Aftermath


In 1975, Homi Sethna
Homi Sethna
Homi Nusserwanji Sethna , PhD, was an Indian nuclear scientist and a chemical engineer, who remained the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India during Indian first nuclear test, codename Smiling Buddha in Pokhran Test Range in 1974...

 (chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission), Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna , D.Phil., was an Indian nuclear scientist and a prominent physicist, is best known for his leadership directing the research integral for the development of Indian nuclear programme in its early stages. Having started and joined the nuclear programme in 1964, Ramanna worked under...

 and Nag Chaudhuri (head of the DRDO) received the Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
The Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award in the Republic of India. It consists of a medal and a citation and is awarded by the President of India. It was established on 2 January 1954. It ranks behind the Bharat Ratna and comes before the Padma Bhushan...

- India's second highest civilian award. Five other project members received the Padma Shri
Padma Shri
Padma Shri is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan...

- India's fourth highest civilian award.

International Reaction


While India continued to state that the test was for peaceful purposes, it was shown opposition from many corners. The Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials.- History :It was founded in...

 (NSG) was formed in reaction to the Indian tests to check international nuclear proliferation.

Pakistan


Pakistan did not view the test as a "peaceful nuclear explosion", and canceled talks scheduled for June 10 on normalization of relations. Pakistan's Prime minister
Prime Minister of Pakistan
The Prime Minister of Pakistan , is the Head of Government of Pakistan who is designated to exercise as the country's Chief Executive. By the Constitution of Pakistan, Pakistan has the parliamentary democratic system of government...

 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party — the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his...

 vowed in June 1974 that he would never succumb to "nuclear blackmail" or accept "Indian hegemony or domination over the subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

". The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, , is an administrative governmental and autonomous science and technology governmental department of Pakistan, responsible for development of nuclear energy and development of nuclear power sector in Pakistan...

 Chairman Munir Ahmed Khan said that the test would force Pakistan to test its own nuclear bomb. Pakistan's leading nuclear physicist, Pervez Hoodbhoy
Pervez Hoodbhoy
Dr. Prof. Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy , is a Pakistani nuclear physicist, essayist and political-defence analyst. He is the professor of nuclear and high-energy physics, and the head of the Physics Department at the Quaid-e-Azam University . He graduated and also received PhD from MIT and continues to...

, stated in 2011 that he believes the test "pushed [Pakistan] further into the nuclear arena".

United States and Canada


The plutonium used in the test was created at the CIRUS reactor
CIRUS reactor
CIRUS is a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in Trombay near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada in 1954, but uses heavy water supplied by the United States. It is the second oldest reactor in India. It is modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research...

 supplied by Canada and using heavy water
Heavy water
Heavy water is water highly enriched in the hydrogen isotope deuterium; e.g., heavy water used in CANDU reactors is 99.75% enriched by hydrogen atom-fraction...

 supplied by the United States. Both countries reacted negatively, especially in light of then ongoing negotiations on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to...

 and the economic aid both countries provided to India. Canada concluded that the test violated a 1971 understanding between the two states, and froze nuclear energy assistance for the two heavy water reactors then under construction. The United States concluded that the test did not violate any agreement and proceeded with a June 1974 shipment of enriched uranium for the Tarapur reactor
Tarapur Atomic Power Station
Tarapur Atomic Power Station is located in Tarapur, Maharashtra . It was initially constructed with two boiling water reactor units of 160 MW each by Bechtel and GE under the 1963 123 Agreement between India, the United States, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Units 1 and 2 were...

.

Soviet Union


The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 did not issue any statement, remaining silent in support of India.

China


China, itself a member of the nuclear club since 1964, issued no comment on the test.

Effects


The CIRUS reactor
CIRUS reactor
CIRUS is a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in Trombay near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada in 1954, but uses heavy water supplied by the United States. It is the second oldest reactor in India. It is modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research...

 used to produce the plutonium was a research reactor based on the NRX
NRX
NRX was a heavy water moderated, light water cooled, nuclear research reactor at the Canadian Chalk River Laboratories, which came into operation in 1947 at a design power rating of 10 MW , increasing to 42 MW by 1954...

 design and donated by Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 in 1960, with heavy water supplied by the US; ("CIRUS
CIRUS reactor
CIRUS is a research reactor at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in Trombay near Mumbai, India. CIRUS was supplied by Canada in 1954, but uses heavy water supplied by the United States. It is the second oldest reactor in India. It is modeled on the Canadian Chalk River National Research...

" = Canada-India Research U.S.). The Smiling Buddha test caused a public outcry in Canada, and in May 1976 the Canadian government cut off exchange of nuclear materials and technology with India in the wake of the test.

Pokhran-II


After the test, India continued expanding its nuclear power capacity and developing its nuclear physics programme, but made no further nuclear tests until 1998. Operation Shakti
Pokhran-II
Pokharan-II refers to test explosions of five nuclear devices, three on 11 May and two on 13 May 1998, conducted by India at the Pokhran test range. These nuclear tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states....

 was carried out two months after the 1998 elections at the Pokhran test site, and used devices designed and built over the preceding two decades.

Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement


A further effect of India's nuclear test was the formation of the Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Suppliers Group is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials.- History :It was founded in...

 (NSG), also known as the London Club, resulting in some restrictions on trade in nuclear materials and technology with India. The NSG waived restrictions on nuclear trade with India in 2008 as part of the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. However, the bans and restrictions were lifted once India assured the world that its nuclear development was for peaceful purposes.

See also

  • India and weapons of mass destruction
    India and weapons of mass destruction
    India possesses nuclear weapons and maintains short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, nuclear-capable aircraft, surface ships, and submarines under development as possible delivery systems and platforms...

  • History of nuclear weapons
    History of nuclear weapons
    The history of nuclear weapons chronicles the development of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive potential derived from nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reactions...

  • List of countries with nuclear weapons