Chennai

Chennai

Overview
Chennai formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

, located on the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian Subcontinent between Cape Comorin and False Divi Point...

 off the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India.
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Encyclopedia
Chennai formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

, located on the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian Subcontinent between Cape Comorin and False Divi Point...

 off the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
The Bay of Bengal , the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It resembles a triangle in shape, and is bordered mostly by the Eastern Coast of India, southern coast of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to the west and Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to the...

. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India. As of 2011, Chennai had a population of 4.68 million within the area administered by the municipal corporation
Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation , formerly known as Madras Corporation, is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai , India. The Chennai Corporation is the oldest municipal body of the Commonwealth of Nations outside the United Kingdom and the oldest corporation in India...

 and an extended metropolitan population of nine million.

Chennai's economy has a broad industrial base in the automobile, computer, technology, hardware manufacturing and healthcare industries. The city is India's second largest exporter of software, information technology (IT
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

) and information-technology-enabled services (ITES
Business process outsourcing
Business process outsourcing is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of specific business functions to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca Cola that outsourced large segments...

). A major chunk of India's automobile manufacturing industry is based in and around the city, which leads it to be called as 'The Detroit of Asia'.

Chennai is an important centre for Carnatic music
Carnatic music
Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu...

 and hosts a large cultural event, the annual Madras Music Season
Madras Music Season
Madras Music Season is an event hosted every December–January in the present-day south Indian metropol of Chennai. Spanning some six weeks, a number of large and small kutcheris are performed by highly competent musicians...

, which includes performances by hundreds of artists. The city has a vibrant theatre scene and is an important centre for the Bharata Natyam, a classical dance form. The Tamil film industry
Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema is the film industry based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, dedicated to the production of films in the Tamil language. It is based in Chennai's Kodambakkam district, where several South Indian film production companies are headquartered...

, the second largest film industry in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, is based in Chennai.

Names


The name chennai is a shortened form of Chennapattanam (சென்னப்பட்டணம்), the name of the town that grew around Fort St. George, which was built by the English
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was, from 927 to 1707, a sovereign state to the northwest of continental Europe. At its height, the Kingdom of England spanned the southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain and several smaller outlying islands; what today comprises the legal jurisdiction of England...

 in 1640. There are two versions about the origin of the name Chennai: according to one version, Chennapattanam was named after Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu
Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu
Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu was a Telugu Nayaka of Srikalahasti and Vandavasi belonging to the Velama community who served as a general under Sriranga Deva Raya of the Aravidu Dynasty...

, Nayaka of Kalahasthi
Srikalahasti
Srikalahasti , is a holy town and a municipality near Tirupati in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of the river Swarnamukhi. It is also informally and wrongly referred to as Kalahasti...

 and Vandavasi
Vandavasi
Vandavasi or Wandiwash is a city and a municipality in Tiruvanamalai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Vandavasi was the scene of a decisive battle in the 18th-century war between France and the United Kingdom for the control of South Asia. The Battle of Wandiwash was a watershed in...

, father of Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, from whom the English acquired the town in 1639. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day
Francis Day of Madras
Francis Day was an English colonial administrator, associated with the East India Company. He served as a factor of the Company's factory at Masulipatnam from 1632 to 1639. In 1639, he negotiated the purchase of a strip of land south of the Dutch factory at Pulicat from the Raja of Chandragiri,...

 of the English East India Company
East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

. According to the second account, Chennapattanam was named after the Chenna Kesava Perumal Temple; the word chenni in Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 means face, and the temple was regarded as the face of the city.

The city's former name, Madras, is derived from Madraspattinam, a fishing village north of Fort St. George. There is some argument among researchers about the exact origin of the name Madraspattinam. It has been suggested that the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, who arrived in the area in the 16th century, may have named the village Madre de Deus, meaning the Mother of God. Another possibility is that the village's name came from the prominent Madeiros family (variously known as Madera or Madra in succeeding years) of Portuguese origin, which consecrated the Madre de Deus Church in the Santhome
Santhome
-History:The word Santhome or San Thome is derived from Saint Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. The local Christian belief is that the apostle came to India in A.D.52, was martyred in A.D.72 at St.Thomas Mount in the City and was interred in Mylapore. A church was built over his...

 locality of Chennai in 1575. It is uncertain whether the name 'Madraspattinam' was in use before European influence.

Sometime after the English gained possession of the area in the 17th century, the two towns, Madraspattinam and Chennapattinam, were merged, and the English referred to the united town as Madraspattinam. The state government officially changed
Geographical renaming
Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area. This can range from the uncontroversial change of a street name to a highly disputed change to the name of a country. Some names are changed locally but the new names are not recognised by other countries,...

 the name to Chennai in 1996, at a time when many Indian cities were being renamed.

History



The region around Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre since the 1st century. Stone age implements were found in a pit near Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India
Archaeological Survey of India
The Archaeological Survey of India is a department of the Government of India, attached to the Ministry of Culture . The ASI is responsible for archaeological studies and the preservation of archaeological heritage of the country in accordance with the various acts of the Indian Parliament...

, Pallavaram was a megalith
Megalith
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. Megalithic describes structures made of such large stones, utilizing an interlocking system without the use of mortar or cement.The word 'megalith' comes from the Ancient...

ic cultural establishment.
The area was ruled by various South India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

n rulers - the Pallava
Pallava
The Pallava dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which ruled the northern Tamil Nadu region and the southern Andhra Pradesh region with their capital at Kanchipuram...

, the Chera
Chera
-Dynasties:Chera dynasty refers to three related dynasties of Southern India:* Early Chera dynasty, the ancient Sangam Tamil dynasty which ruled from Vanchi Muthur, India...

, the Chola, the Pandya, and the Vijaynagar
Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara is in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. It is the name of the now-ruined capital city "which was regarded as the second Rome" that surrounds modern-day Hampi, of the historic Vijayanagara empire which extended over the southern part of India....

. The Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 arrived in 1522 and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St Thomas, who is believed to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 AD. In 1612, the Dutch
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia...

 established themselves near Pulicat
Pulicat
Pulicat is a historic seashore town in Thiruvallur District, of Tamil Nadu state, South India. It is about 60 km north of Chennai and 3 km from Elavur, on the barrier island of Sriharikota, which separates Pulicat Lake from the Bay of Bengal. Pulicat lake is a shallow salt water lagoon...

, just north of the city.

On 22 August 1639, Francis Day of the British East India Company bought a small strip of land on the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
The Coromandel Coast is the name given to the southeastern coast of the Indian Subcontinent between Cape Comorin and False Divi Point...

. The region was ruled by Chennapa Nayak, the Nayaka
Nayak (title)
Nayak, Nayaka, Nayakar, Nayakkar, Naik, Naiker, Naicker, Naickan, Naiken, Nayakkan, Naidu, Nayudu or Naidoo is a common title used by various caste and ethnic groups across India. They are all derivatives of the original Sanskrit Nayaka, meaning a leader...

 of Vandavasi
Vandavasi
Vandavasi or Wandiwash is a city and a municipality in Tiruvanamalai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Vandavasi was the scene of a decisive battle in the 18th-century war between France and the United Kingdom for the control of South Asia. The Battle of Wandiwash was a watershed in...

. He granted the British permission to build a factory and warehouse for their trading enterprises. A year later, the British built Fort St George
Fort St George
Fort St George is the name of the first English fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai. The construction of the Fort provided the impetus for further settlements and trading activity, in what was originally a no man's land...

, which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city. Fort St. George housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010. In 1746, Fort St. George and Madras were captured
Battle of Madras
The Battle of Madras or Fall of Madras or Battle of Adyar took place in September 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession when a French force attacked and captured the city of Madras from its British garrison....

 by the French under General La Bourdonnais
Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais
Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais was a French naval officer and administrator, in the service of the French East India Company.-Biography:...

, the Governor of Mauritius
Mauritius
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

, who plundered the town and its outlying villages. The British regained control in 1749 through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession following a congress assembled at the Imperial Free City of Aachen—Aix-la-Chapelle in French—in the west of the Holy Roman Empire, on 24 April 1748...

 and fortified the town's fortress wall to withstand further attacks from the French and another looming threat, Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born Hyder Naik, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers...

, the Sultan
Sultan
Sultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...

 of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom of southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire...

. British forces reisted a French siege attempt
Siege of Madras
The Siege of Madras was a siege of Madras, British India, between December 1758 and February 1759 by French forces under the command of Lally during the Seven Year's War. The British garrison was able to hold out until it was relieved. The British fired 26,554 cannon balls and more than 200,000...

 in 1759. In 1769 the city was threatened by Mysore before the Treaty of Madras
Treaty of Madras
The Treaty of Madras was a peace agreement signed in 1769 between Mysore and the British East India Company which brought an end to the First Anglo-Mysore War. Fighting had broken out in 1767 and the forces of Hyder Ali had come close to capturing Madras at one point.The Treaty contained a clause...

 ended the war. By the late 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil Nadu and the northern modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third...

 and Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

, establishing the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
The Madras Presidency , officially the Presidency of Fort St. George and also known as Madras Province, was an administrative subdivision of British India...

 with Madras as the capital. Under British rule, the city grew into a major urban centre and naval base.

With the advent of railways in India
Rail transport in India
Rail transport is a commonly used mode of long-distance transportation in India. Almost all rail operations in India are handled by a state-owned organisation, Indian Railways, Ministry of Railways. The rail network traverses the length and breadth of the country, covering a total length of...

 in the late 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication and trade with the hinterland
Hinterland
The hinterland is the land or district behind a coast or the shoreline of a river. Specifically, by the doctrine of the hinterland, the word is applied to the inland region lying behind a port, claimed by the state that owns the coast. The area from which products are delivered to a port for...

.

Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked
Bombardment of Madras
The Bombardment of Madras was an engagement of World War I, at Madras in British India, now the modern day Chennai. The bombardment was initiated by the German light cruiser Emden at the start of the war in 1914....

 by the Central Powers
Central Powers
The Central Powers were one of the two warring factions in World War I , composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria...

 during World War I, when an oil depot was shelled by the German light cruiser
Light cruiser
A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light armored cruiser", describing a small ship that carried armor in the same way as an armored cruiser: a protective belt and deck...

  on 22 September 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean, causing disruption to shipping.

After India gained its independence
Indian independence movement
The term Indian independence movement encompasses a wide area of political organisations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first British East India Company rule, and then British imperial authority, in parts of South Asia...

 in 1947, the city became the capital of Madras State
Madras State
Madras State was the name by which the Indian districts in Tamil Nadu, Andhra, Northern Kerala, Bellary and Dakshina Kannada were collectively known as from 1950 to 1953....

, renamed the state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

 in 1969. The violent agitations of 1965
Anti-Hindi agitations
The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu are a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu during both pre- and post-Independence periods...

 against the imposition of Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 as the national language, marked a major shift in the political dynamics
Politics of Tamil Nadu
Dravidian parties have dominated state politics since 1967. One of the earliest regional parties was the South Indian Welfare Association, which was founded in 1916. It came to be known as the Justice Party after the name of its English-language daily, Justice. E.V. Ramasami, popularly known as...

 of the city and the whole state.

On 26 December 2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea megathrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on Sunday, December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The quake itself is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake...

 lashed the shores of Chennai, killing many and permanently altering the coastline.

Geography




Chennai is located on the south-eastern coast of India in the north-eastern part of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

 on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains
Eastern Coastal Plains
The Eastern Coastal Plains refer to a wide stretch of landmass of India, lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. It stretches from Tamil Nadu in the south to West Bengal in the north....

. Its average elevation is around 6.7 metres (22 ft), and its highest point is 60 m (196.9 ft). The Marina Beach
Marina Beach
Marina Beach is a beach in the city of Chennai , India, along the Bay of Bengal, part of the Indian Ocean. The beach runs from near Fort St. George in the north to Besant Nagar in the south, a distance of , making it the longest urban beach in the country and the world's second longest...

 runs for 6 km along the shoreline of the city and is the second largest beach in the world. Two rivers meander through Chennai, the Cooum River
Cooum River
The Cooum River , is an urban river which ends in the city of Chennai draining into the Bay of Bengal. Along with the Adyar River running parallel to the south, the river trifurcates the city and separates Northern Chennai from Central Chennai.The name of Cooum appears to be derived from Tamil...

 (or Koovam) through the centre and the Adyar River
Adyar River
Adyar or Adayar, originating near the Chembarambakkam Lake in Chengalpattu district, is one of the two rivers which winds through Chennai , South India, and joins the Bay of Bengal at the Adyar Estuary. The 42.5 km-long river contributes to the estuarine ecosystem of Chennai. Despite the high...

 to the south. A third river, the Kortalaiyar, flows through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the sea at Ennore. Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluent
Effluent
Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas from a natural body of water, or from a human-made structure.Effluent is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as “wastewater - treated or untreated - that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall. Generally refers...

s and waste
Waste
Waste is unwanted or useless materials. In biology, waste is any of the many unwanted substances or toxins that are expelled from living organisms, metabolic waste; such as urea, sweat or feces. Litter is waste which has been disposed of improperly...

 from domestic and commercial sources. The state government periodically removes silt
Silt
Silt is granular material of a size somewhere between sand and clay whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar. Silt may occur as a soil or as suspended sediment in a surface water body...

 and pollution from the Adyar river, which is much less polluted than the Cooum. A protected estuary
Estuary
An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea....

 on the Adyar forms a natural habitat
Habitat
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

 for several species of birds and animals. According to an A.C. Nielsen survey, Chennai is regarded as the second cleanest city in India. The Buckingham Canal
Buckingham Canal
The Buckingham Canal is a long fresh water navigation canal, running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh to Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu. The canal connects most of the natural backwaters along the coast to the port of Chennai...

, 4 km (2.5 mi) inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers. The Otteri Nullah
Otteri Nullah
The Otteri Nullah is an east-west waterway which runs through north Chennai, starting at the village of Mullam proceeding through Purasawalkam and then passing througn Buckingham and Carnatic Mills before meeting the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge....

, an east-west stream, runs through north Chennai and meets the Buckingham Canal
Buckingham Canal
The Buckingham Canal is a long fresh water navigation canal, running parallel to the Coromandel Coast of South India from Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh to Villupuram District in Tamil Nadu. The canal connects most of the natural backwaters along the coast to the port of Chennai...

 at Basin Bridge
Basin Bridge
Basin Bridge is the confluence of the Otteri Nullah and Buckingham Canal in Chennai, India. The Madras Boating Club operates rowing events in this place....

. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western fringes of the city. Red Hills
Red Hills Lake
The Red Hills Lake,also called Puzhal Lake is located in Ponneri Taluk of Thiruvallur district, Tamilnadu, South India . It is one of the two rain-fed reservoirs from where water is drawn for supply to Chennai City, the other one being the Chembarambakkam Lake.*The full capacity of the lake is...

, Sholavaram
Sholavaram Lake
Sholavaram Lake, located in Ponneri taluka of Thiruvallur district, Tamilnadu, South India, is one of the rain-fed reservoirs from where water is drawn for supply to Chennai. On account of scanty rainfall for last three years , the lake looks like a small pond now....

 and Chembarambakkam Lake
Chembarambakkam Lake
Chembarambakkam lake is a lake located in the Kanchipuram district of India, about 40 km from Chennai, South India. It is one of the two rain-fed reservoirs from where water is drawn for supply to Chennai City, the other one being the Puzhal Lake. The Adyar River originates from this lake...

 supply Chennai with potable water
Drinking water
Drinking water or potable water is water pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually...

. Groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 sources are becoming brackish
Brackish water
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater. It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries, or it may occur in brackish fossil aquifers. The word comes from the Middle Dutch root "brak," meaning "salty"...

.

Chennai's soil
Soil
Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics...

 is mostly clay
Clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

, shale
Shale
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite. The ratio of clay to other minerals is variable. Shale is characterized by breaks along thin laminae or parallel layering...

 and sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

. Sandy areas are found along the river banks and coasts, such as Thiruvanmiyur
Thiruvanmiyur
-Transport:The area is easily accessible by Metropolitan Transport Corporation buses and has a sprawling bus terminus. Bus Routes connecting Thiruvanmiyur with other places in Chennai are: 1, 1A, 1C, 1D, 6D, 22A, 23C Extn., 29M,29C Extn., 41C, A47, 47A, 47D, M1, M49, M7, C51, T51, M23, M19, M70,...

, Adyar, Kottivakkam
Kottivakkam
Kottivakkam is a census town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Even though it comes under the administration of kancheepuram it enjoys a close proximity to the Chennai city.- Demographics :...

, Santhome
Santhome
-History:The word Santhome or San Thome is derived from Saint Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ. The local Christian belief is that the apostle came to India in A.D.52, was martyred in A.D.72 at St.Thomas Mount in the City and was interred in Mylapore. A church was built over his...

, George Town
George Town, Chennai
George Town is a historical neighbourhood of Fort St. George in Chennai , India. Also known as Black Town during the colonial period, the settlement was formed after the English constructed the fort and was the first settlement of the city of Madras, begun soon after the completion of the...

, Tondiarpet
Tondiarpet
Tondiarpet constitutes an important suburban region of Chennai city. The place is located in the northern outskirts and close to the nearby sea that is Bay of Bengal. Tondiarpet is one important commercial centre in the north of the city. The place shares its boundaries with other important...

 and the rest of coastal Chennai. Here rainwater runoff
Surface runoff
Surface runoff is the water flow that occurs when soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the land. This is a major component of the water cycle. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called a nonpoint source...

 percolates
Percolation
In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation concerns the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials...

 quickly through the soil. Clay underlies most of the city including T. Nagar
T. Nagar
Theagaraya Nagar , popularly known by its abbreviated form T. Nagar, is a neighbourhood in the city of Chennai, India. Though originally conceived as a residential locality, it is presently one of the principal shopping districts of the city....

, West Mambalam, Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar
Anna Nagar , formely known as Naduvakkarai, is a neighbourhood in the metropolitan city of Chennai, India. Named after the Tamil leader C. N. Annadurai, it is located in the north-western part of Chennai and forms a part of Egmore-Nungambakkam taluk...

, Villivakkam
Villivakkam
- History :According to legend, two demons, 'Ilvalan' and 'Vatapi', who were born to Sage Dhurva and Aswamukhi, tortured the entire world and killed many innocent people. One of the demons used to take the shape of a fruit and the other used to offer it to some innocent passer-by and after he...

, Perambur
Perambur
Perambur , is a locality in Northern part of the metropolitan city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu state, India.It is one of expensive area in chennai with all facilities of needs....

 and Virugambakkam
Virugambakkam
Virugambakkam is a residential neighbourhood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is an important residential area and is famous for its schools, market, residential colonies and residences of film artists...

. Areas of hard rock
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

 include Guindy
Guindy
Guindy is one of the important neighbourhoods of Chennai , Tamil Nadu, India. It is located in the South-Western part of the city. It is the entry point or the gateway to Chennai city from the Southern parts of Tamil Nadu and the South Western suburbs of Chennai...

, Perungudi
Perungudi
-Geography:Perungudi is located at . It has an average elevation of 9 metres .- Economy :What was a sleeping small village has become a vibrant and thriving commercial/residential hub after the boom in the Indian IT industry. Perungudi had developed an industrial estate in the 90's...

, Velachery
Velachery
-Geography:Velachery has mostly areas of hard rock, and a big marshland in the southern region of the area. It is said that this marshland was once a natural bird sanctuary. But nowadays, due to encroachment and rapid real estate development, the sanctuary has disappeared. Even today there is a big...

, Adambakkam
Adambakkam
Adambakkam is a suburb of Chennai, a city located on the east coast of South India. It is a thickly populated suburb close to the St. Thomas Mount Railway Station. Adambakkam is surrounded by suburbs such as Alandur, Palavanthangal, Nanganallur, Vanuvampet, Puzhuthivakkam, Velachery and Guindy....

 and a part of Saidapet
Saidapet
Saidapet is an important neighbourhood in Chennai , India. The Saidapet Court, the only other court of judicature in Chennai city apart from the Madras High Court and the Saidapet bus depot are located here...

.
Chennai is divided into four broad regions: North, Central, South and West. North Chennai is primarily an industrial area. Central Chennai is the commercial heart of the city and includes an important business district, Parry's Corner
Parry's Corner
Parry's Corner is one of the central business districts in Chennai, India. Often referred to as Parry's, it is situated near the Chennai Port, at the intersection of North Beach Road and NSC Bose Road. It is named after Thomas Parry, a Welsh merchant who set up the EID Parry Company in 1787. The...

. South Chennai and West Chennai, previously mostly residential, are fast becoming commercial, home to a growing number of information technology firms, financial companies and call centre
Call centre
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls for telemarketing,...

s. The city is expanding quickly along the Old Mahabalipuram Road and the Grand Southern Trunk Road (GST Road) in the south and towards Ambattur
Ambattur
-Administration:Ambattur comes under the new Sriperumbudur parliamentary constituency. It was previously under the North Chennai parliamentary constituency and along with Villivakkam, it was the largest assembly constituency in India. The delimitation process of assembly constituencies has given...

, Koyambedu
Koyambedu
Koyambedu is a locality in the South Indian city of Chennai. The Koyambedu area has become a major hub of activity in Chennai City after the inauguration of the market and the bus terminus...

 and Sriperumbdur
Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur is an industrial city in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in proximity to Chennai. It is famous for being the birth place of Sri Ramanuja, one of the most prominent Hindu Vaishnava saints as well as the town where former Indian Prime Minister...

 in the west. Chennai is one of the few cities in the world that accommodates a national park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

, the Guindy National Park
Guindy National Park
Guindy National Park is a Protected area of Tamil Nadu, located in Chennai, South India, is the 8th smallest National Park of India and one of the very few national parks situated inside a city. The park is an extension of the grounds surrounding Raj Bhavan, formerly known as the 'Guindy Lodge',...

, within its limits. The city has an estimated 4.5% of its area under green cover. This enables Chennai residents to go Birding in Chennai
Birding in Chennai
Housing more than 200 resident and wintering bird species, Chennai has long been a haven for bird watchers. It is the only urban area in India where Greater Flamingo, Black Baza, Osprey, Eurasian Eagle-owl and Pied Avocet can be seen right in the city...

.

Climate


Chennai has a tropical climate
Tropical climate
A tropical climate is a climate of the tropics. In the Köppen climate classification it is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above...

, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate
Tropical savanna climate
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and '"As."...

. The city lies on the thermal equator
Thermal equator
The thermal equator is a belt encircling the Earth, defined by the set of locations having the highest mean annual temperature at each longitude around the globe...

 and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The weather is hot and humid for most of the year. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known locally as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or as Kathiri Veyyil, with maximum temperatures around 38 –. The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 18 –. The lowest temperature recorded is 15.8 °C (60.4 °F) and highest 45 °C (113 °F) The average annual rainfall is about 140 cm (55.1 in). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north-east monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 winds, from mid-October to mid-December. Cyclone
Cyclone
In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Most large-scale...

s in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. The highest annual rainfall recorded is 257 cm (101.2 in) in 2005. Prevailing winds in Chennai are usually southwesterly between April and October and northeasterly during the rest of the year.

Water


Historically, Chennai has relied on annual monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 rains to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area. With a steadily increasing population, the city has faced water supply
Water supply
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavours or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes...

 shortages
Water crisis
Water crisis is a general term used to describe a situation where the available water within a region is less than the region's demand. The term has been used to describe the availability of potable water in a variety of regions by the United Nations and other world organizations...

, and its ground water levels have been depleted. An earlier Veeranam Lake project failed to solve the city's water problems, but the New Veeranam project, which became operational in September 2004, has greatly reduced dependency on distant sources. In recent years, heavy and consistent monsoon rains and rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can...

 (RWH) by Chennai Metrowater at its Anna Nagar Rain Centre have significantly reduced water shortages. Moreover, newer projects like the Telugu Ganga project
Telugu Ganga project
The Telugu Ganga project is a water supply scheme implemented in South India, to provide drinking water to Chennai city in Tamil Nadu. It is also known as the Krishna Water Supply Project, since the source of the water is the Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh...

 that bring water from water-surplus rivers like the Krishna River
Krishna River
The Krishna River , is one of the longest rivers in central-southern India, about . It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature...

 in Andhra Pradesh have eased water shortages. The city houses India's largest constructed sea water desalination
Desalination
Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water...

 plant to further increase the water supply. However, Chennai is expected to face a huge deficit of 713 million litres per day (MLD) as the demand is projected at 2,248 MLD and supply estimated at only 1,535 MLD in 2026.

Administration



City officials, as of July 2011
Mayor Saidai Duraisamy
Deputy Mayor
Deputy Mayor
Deputy mayor is an elective or appointive office of the second-ranking official in many local governments. Many elected deputy mayors are members of the city council who are given the title and serve as acting mayor in the mayor's absence...

R Sathya Bama
Corporation Commissioner Karthikeyan
Commissioner of Police J K Tripathy

Chennai city is governed by the Corporation of Chennai
Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation , formerly known as Madras Corporation, is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai , India. The Chennai Corporation is the oldest municipal body of the Commonwealth of Nations outside the United Kingdom and the oldest corporation in India...

 erstwhile, Corporation of Madras. Established in 1688, it is the oldest municipal corporation not only in India, but also in any Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 nation outside the United Kingdom. It consists of 155 councillors who represent 155 wards and are directly elected by the city's residents. From among themselves, the councillors elect a mayor and a deputy mayor who preside over about six standing committees.

The area of jurisdiction of the Corporation of Chennai is set to expand manifold from its present extent of 174 km² to 426 km². On doing this the population of Chennai is also set to increase from the present 4.5 million to over 5.6 million (2001 census). The expanded Chennai Corporation is divided into three regions—North, South and Central, with each of the three regions being headed by an IAS
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative civil service of the Government of India. It is one of the three All India Services....

 officer.


Chennai, the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the state executive and legislative
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 headquarters primarily in the Secretariat Buildings on the Fort St George
Fort St George
Fort St George is the name of the first English fortress in India, founded in 1639 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai. The construction of the Fort provided the impetus for further settlements and trading activity, in what was originally a no man's land...

 campus but also in many other buildings scattered around the city. The Madras High Court
Madras High Court
The Madras High Court is a senior court located at Chennai , in India. The court buildings, which are believed to be the second largest judicial complex in the world, are located near the beach, in one of the city's major business districts....

, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

 and Pondicherry, is the highest judicial authority in the state and is also in the city. Chennai has three parliamentary
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India. Founded in 1919, the Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all political bodies in India. The Parliament of India comprises the President and the two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha...

 constituencies – Chennai North
Chennai North (Lok Sabha constituency)
Chennai North is one of the three Lok Sabha constituencies in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Formerly it was known as Madras North.-Assembly segments:-1971 Delimitation :...

, Chennai Central
Chennai Central (Lok Sabha constituency)
The Lok Sabha constituency Chennai Central is one of three constituencies in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Formerly it was known as Madras Central.-Assembly segments:-Before 2009:...

 and Chennai South
Chennai South (Lok Sabha constituency)
The Lok Sabha constituency Chennai South is one of three constituencies in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. It was formerly known as Madras South.It was created in 1957 through bifurcation of Madras Lok Sabha constituency....

 – and elects 16 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.

The metropolitan region of Chennai covers 5 parliamentary
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India. Founded in 1919, the Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all political bodies in India. The Parliament of India comprises the President and the two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha...

 constituencies and 28 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) and many suburbs that are part of Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram, or Kanchi, is a temple city and a municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district...

 and Thiruvallur districts. The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities, and the smaller ones are governed by town councils called panchayats
Panchayati Raj
The panchayat raj is a South Asian political system mainly in India, Pakistan, and Nepal. "Panchayat" literally means assembly of five wise and respected elders chosen and accepted by the local community. Traditionally, these assemblies settled disputes between individuals and villages...

. While the city covers an area of 174 km² (67.2 sq mi), the metropolitan area is spread over 1189 km² (459.1 sq mi). The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority
Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority
The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority , formerly known as Madras Metropolitan Development Authority is the nodal planning agency within the Chennai Metropolitan Area.- History :...

 (CMDA
Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority
The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority , formerly known as Madras Metropolitan Development Authority is the nodal planning agency within the Chennai Metropolitan Area.- History :...

) has drafted a second Master Plan that aims to develop satellite townships around the city. Contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram to the south, Chengalpattu
Chingleput
Chingleput or Chengalpattu or Chengalpet is a city and a municipality in Kanchipuram district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The name of the city is derived from the old nomenclature 'chenkazhuneer patru'...

 and Maraimalai Nagar
Maraimalai Nagar
Maraimalai Nagar is a suburb of the southern Indian city of Chennai. Maraimalai Nagar and its surrounding areas are referred to as "New Chennai" by the media, due to recent industrial development around this area. It is a Satellite town developed by CMDA in the Year 1980. Before that it was a...

 to the southwest, and Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram, or Kanchi, is a temple city and a municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district...

 town, Sriperumpudur
Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur is an industrial city in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in proximity to Chennai. It is famous for being the birth place of Sri Ramanuja, one of the most prominent Hindu Vaishnava saints as well as the town where former Indian Prime Minister...

, Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur is a temple town and Grade I municipality in Tiruvallur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on the Cooum river about northwest of the city of Chennai , the capital city of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Tiruvallur district...

 and Arakkonam
Arakkonam
Arakkonam is a mid-sized City in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, with a population of about 101,626 as per the census 2011...

 to the west.

Law and order



The Greater Chennai Police
Greater Chennai Police
The Chennai Police, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, is the law enforcement agency for the city of Chennai in India and the surrounding area. The city police force is headed by a Commissioner of Police and the administrative control vests with the Tamil Nadu Home ministry. There are thirty...

 department, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police
Tamil Nadu Police
The Tamil Nadu Police Force is the law enforcing agency / department of the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is over 150 years old and is the fifth largest state police force in India. Tamil Nadu has a Police population ratio of 1 : 632.-Administration:...

, is the law enforcement agency in the city. The city police force is headed by a commissioner of police
Police commissioner
Commissioner is a senior rank used in many police forces and may be rendered Police Commissioner or Commissioner of Police. In some organizations, the commissioner is a political appointee, and may or may not actually be a professional police officer. In these circumstances, there is often a...

, and administrative control rests with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry. The department consists of 121 police stations. The city's traffic is managed by the Chennai City Traffic Police
Chennai City Traffic Police
Chennai City Traffic Police or CCTP is a division of the Greater Chennai Police, which regulates traffic in the city of Chennai, India.-Public awareness campaigns:...

 (CCTP). The Metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai Metropolitan Police
Greater Chennai Police
The Chennai Police, a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, is the law enforcement agency for the city of Chennai in India and the surrounding area. The city police force is headed by a Commissioner of Police and the administrative control vests with the Tamil Nadu Home ministry. There are thirty...

, and outer district areas are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments.

Chennai city, one of the most most densely populated Indian cities, has a sanctioned strength of 14,000 police personnel compared with Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

's 83,000, Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

's 45,000 and Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

's 23,000. With a population density of 26,903 persons per square kilometre, the city has 1 policeman for every 413 people. Chennai suburban police has about 4,093 police personnel and has a ratio of 1:1,222 compared to Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 and Mumbai suburban with 1:267, Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

 with 1:200 and Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

 with 1:222.

In 2005, the crime rate in the city was 313.3 per 100,000 people, accounting for 6.2% of all crimes reported in major cities in India. The number of crimes in the city showed a significant increase of 61.8% from 2004.

Utility services



The Corporation of Chennai and municipalities of the suburbs provide civic services. Garbage in most zones is handled by Neel Metal Fanalica Environment Management, a private company, and by the Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation , formerly known as Madras Corporation, is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai , India. The Chennai Corporation is the oldest municipal body of the Commonwealth of Nations outside the United Kingdom and the oldest corporation in India...

 in the other zones. Water supply and sewage treatment are handled by the Chennai MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board
Chennai MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board
Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewage Board known as CMWSSB to provide Water supply and sewage treatment to the city of Chennai and around areas of Chennai....

, popularly referred to as CMWSSB. Electricity is distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board
Tamil Nadu Electricity Board
The Tamil Nadu Electricity Board TNEB is a statutory body formed on 01.07.1957 under the Electricity Supply Act, 1948 as a successor to the erstwhile Electricity Department of the Government of Madras. India, that generates, distributes and regulates the electricity supply in the state...

.

Historically, Chennai has relied on annual monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 rains to replenish water reservoirs, as no major rivers flow through the area. With a steadily increasing population, the city has faced water supply
Water supply
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavours or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes...

 shortages
Water crisis
Water crisis is a general term used to describe a situation where the available water within a region is less than the region's demand. The term has been used to describe the availability of potable water in a variety of regions by the United Nations and other world organizations...

, and its ground water levels have been depleted. An earlier Veeranam Lake project failed to solve the city's water problems, but the New Veeranam project, which became operational in September 2004, has greatly reduced dependency on distant sources. In recent years, heavy and consistent monsoon rains and rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting
Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can...

 (RWH) by Chennai Metro water at its Anna Nagar Rain Centre have significantly reduced water shortages. Moreover, newer projects like the Telugu Ganga project
Telugu Ganga project
The Telugu Ganga project is a water supply scheme implemented in South India, to provide drinking water to Chennai city in Tamil Nadu. It is also known as the Krishna Water Supply Project, since the source of the water is the Krishna river in Andhra Pradesh...

 that bring water from water-surplus rivers like the Krishna River
Krishna River
The Krishna River , is one of the longest rivers in central-southern India, about . It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature...

 in Andhra Pradesh have eased water shortages. The city has constructed water desalination
Desalination
Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation refers to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water...

 plants to further increase the water supply.

Telephone services in the city are provided by nine mobile phone service companies that include nine GSM networks and two CDMA networks along with four land line companies. Commercial and domestic broadband Internet services are provided by all the four land line service providers and a majority of the mobile network service providers. Chennai was the first Indian city to have the Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi or Wifi, is a mechanism for wirelessly connecting electronic devices. A device enabled with Wi-Fi, such as a personal computer, video game console, smartphone, or digital audio player, can connect to the Internet via a wireless network access point. An access point has a range of about 20...

 facility in a widespread manner.

Economy



According to Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

magazine, Chennai is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. It has a diversified economic base anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, health care and financial services industries. According to the CII
Confederation of Indian Industry
The Confederation of Indian Industry is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organisation, seeking to play a proactive role in India’s development process. The organisation works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industry in India,...

, Chennai is estimated to grow to a $100-billion economy, 2.5 times its present size, by the year 2025.

The city is base to around 30% of India's automobile industry and 40% of its auto components industry. A large number of automotive companies including Hyundai
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company is a Korean multinational automaker based in Seoul, South Korea which, along with Kia, comprises the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, the world's fourth largest automaker as of 2009. As of 2011, it is the world's fastest growing automaker for two years running...

, Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

, BMW
BMW
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands...

 and Mitsubishi
Mitsubishi Motors
is a multinational automaker headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. In 2009 it was the fifth-largest Japan-based automaker and the 17th-largest in the world measured by production...

 have or are in the process of setting up manufacturing plants in and around Chennai. The Heavy Vehicles Factory
Heavy Vehicles Factory
The Heavy Vehicles Factory , Avadi, is located in proximity to Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. HVF was set up in the year 1965 when the Government of India decided to manufacture heavy battlefield equipments, including Vijayanta Tank and T-72s...

 at Avadi
Avadi
Avadi is a suburb of chennai and a municipality in Thiruvallur district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. Avadi is an acronym for "Armoured Vehicles and Ammunition Depot of India". Situated about 23 km north west of Chennai, it is surrounded by major defence establishments.-Geography:Avadi...

 produces military vehicles, including India's main battle tank: Arjun MBT
Arjun MBT
The Arjun is a third generation main battle tank developed by India's Defence Research and Development Organization , for the Indian Army...

. The Integral Coach Factory
Integral Coach Factory
Started in 1952, the Integral Coach Factory is located in Chennai, India. Its primary products are rail coaches. Most of the coaches manufactured are supplied to the Indian Railways, but it has also manufactured coaches for railway companies in other countries, including Thailand, Burma, Taiwan,...

 manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways. The Ambattur-Padi industrial zone houses many textile manufacturers, and an SEZ for apparel and footwear manufacture has been set up in the southern suburbs of the city. Chennai contributes more than 50% of India's leather exports.

Many software and software services companies have development centres in Chennai, which contributed 14% of India's total software exports of 144,214 crores during 2006–07, making it the second-largest exporter, by city, of software in the country, behind Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

. The Tidel Park
Tidel Park
TIDEL Park is an information technology park situated in the city of Chennai, India. The name TIDEL is a portmanteau of TIDCO and ELCOT. An ISO 9001/14001 company, it is the largest IT park in Asia...

 in Chennai is Asia's largest IT park. Major software companies have their offices set up here, with some of them making Chennai their largest base. Prominent financial institutions, including the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

, Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered Bank
Standard Chartered PLC is a multinational financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom with operations in more than seventy countries...

 and Citibank
Citibank
Citibank, a major international bank, is the consumer banking arm of financial services giant Citigroup. Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York, later First National City Bank of New York...

 have back office
Back office
A back office is a part of most corporations where tasks dedicated to running the company itself takes place. The term "Back office" comes from the building layout of early companies where the front office would contain the sales and other customer-facing staff and the back office would be those...

 operations in the city. Chennai is home to two large national level commercial banks and many state level co-operative banks, finance and insurance companies. Telecom and Electronics manufacturers based in and around Chennai include Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

, Nokia Siemens, Motorola
Motorola
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

, Dell
Dell
Dell, Inc. is an American multinational information technology corporation based in 1 Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related products and services. Bearing the name of its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest...

, Zebronics, Foxconn
Foxconn
The Foxconn Technology Group is a multinational business group anchored by the Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. , a Taiwan-registered corporation headquartered in Tucheng, Taiwan...

 and Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

 among others.
Telecom giants Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

 and Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent is a global telecommunications corporation, headquartered in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. It provides telecommunications solutions to service providers, enterprises, and governments around the world, enabling these customers to deliver voice, data, and video services...

, pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer
Pfizer
Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. The company is based in New York City, New York with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut, United States...

 and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals
Dow Chemical Company
The Dow Chemical Company is a multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States. As of 2007, it is the second largest chemical manufacturer in the world by revenue and as of February 2009, the third-largest chemical company in the world by market capitalization .Dow...

 have research and development facilities in Chennai. The TICEL bio-tech park at Siruseri
Siruseri
Siruseri is a suburb of Chennai, India in Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu, located a 30 km south of the city, along Old Mahabalipuram Road...

 houses biotechnology companies and laboratories. and Golden Jubilee bio-tech park Chennai has a fully computerised stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange
Madras Stock Exchange
The Madras Stock Exchange is a stock exchange in Madras, , India. The Madras Stock Exchange is the fourth Stock Exchange to be established in the country, and the first in South India...

. Medical tourism is another important part of Chennai's economy with health care providers like Apollo Hospitals
Apollo Hospitals
Apollo Hospitals is a major hospital chain based in Chennai, India. It was founded by Dr. Prathap C. Reddy in 1983. Apollo is private healthcare provider in Asia with hospitals in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Ghana, Nigeria, Republic of Mauritius, Qatar,Oman and Kuwait.Several of the group's...

 and Fortis Healthcare based in the city. The Tamil film
Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema is the film industry based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, dedicated to the production of films in the Tamil language. It is based in Chennai's Kodambakkam district, where several South Indian film production companies are headquartered...

 industry and the related Tamil music industry and the Tamil television industry are also significant parts of Chennai's economy.

In the Inventory of World cities from the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank based in the Geography department at Loughborough University in England, that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization....

, Chennai's level of network integration with other world cities is ranked as a "Beta".

Demographics


A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaite. According to the provisional population results of 2011, the city had a population of 4,681,087, with a density of 26,903. The city registered a growth rate of 8% during the period 1991–2001. The population of the metropolitan area is estimated to be more than 9.24 million. The estimated metropolitan population in 2006 is 4.5 million. With the area of the Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation
Chennai Corporation , formerly known as Madras Corporation, is the civic body that governs the city of Chennai , India. The Chennai Corporation is the oldest municipal body of the Commonwealth of Nations outside the United Kingdom and the oldest corporation in India...

 being extended to 426 km² the population with in the area administered by the corporation was 5.6 million in 2001 which makes it the third largest city in India. In 2001, the population density in the city was 24,682 per km² (63,926 per mi²), while the population density of the metropolitan area was 5,922 per km² (15,337 per mi²), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the world. The sex ratio
Human sex ratio
In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the sex ratio for Homo sapiens . Like most sexual species, the sex ratio is approximately 1:1. In humans the secondary sex ratio is commonly assumed to be 105 boys to 100 girls, an assumption that is a subject of debate in the scientific...

 is 951 females for every 1,000 males, slightly higher than the national average of 944. The average literacy rate rose from 85.33% in 2001 to 90.33% in 2011, much higher than the national average of 64.5%. However, the city has the fourth highest population of slum
Slum
A slum, as defined by United Nations agency UN-HABITAT, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the...

 dwellers among major cities in India, with about 820,000 people (18.6% of its population) living in slum conditions.

The majority of the population in Chennai are Tamils
Tamil people
Tamil people , also called Tamils or Tamilians, are an ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, India and the north-eastern region of Sri Lanka. Historic and post 15th century emigrant communities are also found across the world, notably Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Canada,...

. Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 is the primary language spoken in Chennai. English
Indian English
Indian English is an umbrella term used to describe dialects of the English language spoken primarily in the Republic of India.As a result of British colonial rule until Indian independence in 1947 English is an official language of India and is widely used in both spoken and literary contexts...

 comes next. Telugus
Telugu people
The Telugu people or Telugu Prajalu are an ethnic group of India. They are the native speakers of the Telugu language, the most commonly spoken language in India after Hindi and Bengali...

 form the majority among the non-Tamil community. Chennai also has a large migrant population, who come from other parts of Tamil Nadu and from the rest of the country apart from few Marwaris
Marwaris
Marwari or Marwadi or Rajasthani people are Indian ethnic group, that inhabit the Rajasthan region of India. Their language Rajasthani is a part of the western group of Indo-Aryan languages....

, Oriyans
Oriya people
The Oriya, known classically by various names , are an ethnic group of eastern India and of eastern Indo-Aryan stock...

, Malayalis, Anglo-Indians, Bengalis and Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 and Kannadigas
Kannadigas
Kannadiga , or Kannadati is a reference to the people who natively speak the Kannada language. Kannadigas are mainly located in the state of Karnataka in India and in the neighboring states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa and Maharashtra...

. Chennai also has a small expatriate
Expatriate
An expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing...

 population who work in IT firms. As of 2001, out of the 937,000 migrants (21.6% of its population) in the city, 74.5% were from other parts of the state, 23.8% were from rest of India and 1.7% were from outside the country.

According to the 2001 census, Hindus constitute about 81.3% of the city's population, and Muslims (9.4%), Christians (7.6%) and Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 (1.1%) are other major religious groups.

Culture


Chennai is a major centre for music, art and culture in India. The city is known for its classical dance shows and Hindu temples. Every December, Chennai holds a five-week long Music Season
Madras Music Season
Madras Music Season is an event hosted every December–January in the present-day south Indian metropol of Chennai. Spanning some six weeks, a number of large and small kutcheris are performed by highly competent musicians...

celebrating the 1927 opening of the Madras Music Academy
Madras Music Academy
Madras Music Academy, or simply Music Academy, is one of the premier and early Music Academies in the South Indian city of Madras, now Chennai. It plays an important role in encouraging and promoting primarily the Carnatic Music south Indian art form. It also played an important role in revival of...

. It features performances (kutcheries) of traditional Carnatic music
Carnatic music
Carnatic music is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu...

 by hundreds of artists in and around the city. An arts festival called the Chennai Sangamam
Chennai Sangamam
Chennai Sangamam is a large annual open Tamil cultural festival held in the city of Chennai. The festival is organized by the Tamil Maiyam and Department of Tourism and Culture of the Government of Tamil Nadu with the intention of rejuvenating the old village festivals, art and artists...

, which showcases various arts of Tamil Nadu is held in January every year. Chennai is also known for Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
Bharata Natyam or Chadhir Attam, is a classical dance form from the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, practiced predominantly in modern times by women. The dance is usually accompanied by classical Carnatic music...

, a classical dance form that originated in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

. An important cultural centre for Bharatanatyam is Kalakshetra
Kalakshetra
Kalakshetra is a cultural academy dedicated to the preservation of traditional values in Indian art, especially in the field of Bharatanatyam dance and Gandharvaveda music. The academy was founded in January 1936 by Rukmini Devi Arundale. Under Arundale's guidance the institution achieved national...

, on the beach in the south of the city. Chennai is also home to some choirs, who during the Christmas season stage various carol performances across the city in Tamil and English.

Chennai is the base for the Tamil movie industry, known as Kollywood
Kollywood
Kollywood is a word referring two different movie industries in India and Nepal, derived from the word Hollywood and their local movie centers.* Tamil cinema, the Tamil language film industry based on Kodambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu,...

. Chennai's theatres stage many Tamil plays; political satire, slapstick comedy, history, mythology and drama are among the popular genres. English plays are also becoming popular in the city.

Among Chennai's festivals, Pongal
Pongal
Thai Ponggal is a harvest festival celebrated by Tamils in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, Indian Union Territory of Pondicherry and in Sri Lanka. Pongal coincides with the festival Makara Sankranthi celebrated throughout India. Pongal in Tamil means "boiling over" or "spill over". The boiling...

 is celebrated over five days in January. Many major religious festivals such as Deepavali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Eid
Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Fitr, Id-ul-Fitr, or Id al-Fitr , often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . Eid is an Arabic word meaning "festivity," while Fiṭr means "breaking the fast"...

 and Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

 are celebrated in Chennai. Tamil cuisine in Chennai includes vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Many of the city's restaurants offer light meals or tiffin
Tiffin
Tiffin is lunch, or any light meal. It originated in British India, and is today found primarily in Indian English. The word originated when Indian custom superseded the British practice of an afternoon tea, leading to a new word for the afternoon meal. It is derived from the obsolete English slang...

, which usually include rice-based dishes like pongal
Pongal (dish)
Pongal is a popular rice porridge dish based in South India. Pongal is unique to Tamil cuisine, but many other widely consumed Indian dish Khichdi....

, thosai
Dosa
Dosa or Dhosai is a fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is indigenous to and is a staple dish in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as being popular in Sri Lanka...

, idli and vada
Vada
Vada ; also known as wada or vade or vadai , is a savoury fritter-type snack from South India.-Description:Vada can vary in shape and size, but are usually either doughnut- or disc-shaped and are about between 5 and 8 cm across. They are made from dal, lentil, gram flour or potato.Vada is a...

i, served with filter coffee
Indian filter coffee
South Indian Coffee, also known as Filter Coffee is a sweet milky coffee made from dark roasted coffee beans and chicory , especially popular in the southern states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu...

.

Transport


Air


Chennai serves as a major gateway to southern India, and the Chennai International Airport
Chennai International Airport
Chennai International Airport , formerly known as Madras International Airport is located in Tirusulam, south of Chennai , India...

, comprising the Anna international terminal and the Kamaraj domestic terminal with a total passenger movements of 10.53 million and aircraft movements of 110,000 in 2009–2010, is the third busiest airport in India, and has the second busiest cargo terminus in the country. The city is connected to major hubs across Asia, Europe, and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers.

The existing airport is undergoing further modernisation and expansion with an addition of 1069.99 acres, and a new greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of 20,000 million in Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur is an industrial city in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in proximity to Chennai. It is famous for being the birth place of Sri Ramanuja, one of the most prominent Hindu Vaishnava saints as well as the town where former Indian Prime Minister...

 on 4200 acre (17 km²) of land.

Sea


The city is served by two major ports, Chennai Port
Chennai Port
Chennai Port , formerly known as Madras Port, is the second largest port of India, behind the Mumbai Port, and the largest port in the Bay of Bengal. Being the third oldest port among the 12 major ports of India, it is over 125 years old, although maritime trade started way back in 1639 on the sea...

, one of the largest artificial ports, and Ennore Port
Ennore Port
Ennore Port, located on the Coromandel Coast about 24 km north of Chennai Port, Chennai, it is the 12th major port of India, and the first port in India which is a public company. The Ennore Port is the only corporatised major port and is registered as a company...

. The Chennai port is the largest in Bay of Bengal with an annual cargo tonnage of 61.46 million (2010–2011) and is India's second busiest container hub with an annual container volume of 1.523 million TEUs (2010–2011), handling automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo. The Ennore Port
Ennore Port
Ennore Port, located on the Coromandel Coast about 24 km north of Chennai Port, Chennai, it is the 12th major port of India, and the first port in India which is a public company. The Ennore Port is the only corporatised major port and is registered as a company...

 with an annual cargo tonnage of 11.01 million (2010–2011) handles cargo such as coal, ore
Ore
An ore is a type of rock that contains minerals with important elements including metals. The ores are extracted through mining; these are then refined to extract the valuable element....

 and other bulk and rock mineral products.

A smaller harbour at Royapuram
Royapuram
Royapuram , a locality of Chennai, South India, is the place where the first railway station of south India was constructed, and from where the laying down of the second railway line of the South Asia commenced in the 1850s. This railway line extended from Royapuram to Arcot, then capital of the...

 is used by fishing boats and trawlers. A mega shipyard project called the Kattupalli Shipyard
Kattupalli Shipyard
The Kattupalli Shipyard cum Captive Port Complex is a large shipyard project at Kattupalli village near Ennore of Chennai being built by L&T Shipbuilding Ltd. It is being set up jointly by TIDCO and Larsen & Toubro in two phases...

 cum Captive Port Complex is being built by L&T Shipbuilding at Kattupalli village near Ennore and is expected to be operational in 2012.

Rail


Chennai is the headquarters of the Southern Railway
Southern Railway (India)
The Southern Railway is the earliest of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways created in independent India. It was created on April 14, 1951 by merging three state railways namely Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway, and the Mysore State Railway. The South Indian Railway...

. The city has two main railway terminals. Chennai Central
Chennai Central
Chennai Central , erstwhile Madras Central, is the main railway terminus in the city of Chennai . It is the home of the Southern Railway and the most important rail hub in South India. The other major railway hub stations in the city are Chennai Egmore and Tambaram...

 station, the city's largest, provides access to other major cities as well as many other smaller towns across India. Chennai Egmore
Chennai Egmore
Chennai Egmore , formerly known as Madras Egmore, is a railway station in Egmore, Chennai , South India. The station acts as the arrival and departure point for trains connecting Chennai and southern, central Tamil Nadu and Kerala.This is one of the two main railway terminals in the city along with...

 is a terminus for trains to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; it also handles a few inter-state trains.
The Chennai suburban railway
Chennai suburban railway
Chennai suburban railway is a commuter rail system in the Indian city of Chennai operated by the Southern Railway. Chennai has a complex railway network. The system uses electrical multiple units operating on alternating current drawn from over-head cables through the catenary system...

 network, one of the oldest in the country, consists of four broad gauge
Broad gauge
Broad-gauge railways use a track gauge greater than the standard gauge of .- List :For list see: List of broad gauges, by gauge and country- History :...

 sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely Chennai Central
Chennai Central
Chennai Central , erstwhile Madras Central, is the main railway terminus in the city of Chennai . It is the home of the Southern Railway and the most important rail hub in South India. The other major railway hub stations in the city are Chennai Egmore and Tambaram...

 and Chennai Beach
Chennai Beach
Chennai Beach , formerly known as Madras Beach, is a railway terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai , India. This station handles mainly suburban trains in Chennai suburban railway and a few passenger trains...

. The fourth sector is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit System which links Chennai Beach
Chennai Beach
Chennai Beach , formerly known as Madras Beach, is a railway terminus of the Southern Railway Network in Chennai , India. This station handles mainly suburban trains in Chennai suburban railway and a few passenger trains...

 to Velachery
Velachery
-Geography:Velachery has mostly areas of hard rock, and a big marshland in the southern region of the area. It is said that this marshland was once a natural bird sanctuary. But nowadays, due to encroachment and rapid real estate development, the sanctuary has disappeared. Even today there is a big...

 and is interlinked with the remaining rail network.
Construction is underway for an underground and elevated Chennai Metro
Chennai Metro
The Chennai Metro is a rapid transit system in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The Phase I of the project consisting of two corridors is under construction. The elevated section of the project is scheduled to be operational by 2013 and the entire project is scheduled to be completed by the financial...

 rail.

Road


Chennai is well connected to other parts of India by road. Five major national highways link Chennai to Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 (via Bangalore
Bangalore
Bengaluru , formerly called Bengaluru is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city and...

), Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Kochi
Kochi
-Places:* Kochi, a city in the state of Kerala, India, formerly known as Cochin* Kingdom of Cochin, a former feudal city-state on Malabar Coast, India** Fort Kochi, one of the three main urban components which constitute the present day city of Kochi, Kerala, India...

, Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirapalli
Tiruchirappalli ) , also called Tiruchi or Trichy , is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District. It is the fourth largest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu and also the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state...

 (Trichy) and Tirupati and onwards to the rest of the national highway system. Numerous state highways link the city to Pondicherry and other towns and cities in Tamil Nadu and neighbouring states. The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus
Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus
The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus or CMBT is a modern, state-of-the-art bus terminus located in Chennai, India catering to outstation buses. Spread over an area of in Koyambedu, it is the largest bus terminus in Asia and is accredited with the ISO 9001:2000 quality certification for its quality...

 (CMBT
Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus
The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus or CMBT is a modern, state-of-the-art bus terminus located in Chennai, India catering to outstation buses. Spread over an area of in Koyambedu, it is the largest bus terminus in Asia and is accredited with the ISO 9001:2000 quality certification for its quality...

), the terminus for all intercity buses from Chennai, is the largest bus station in Asia. Seven government-owned transport corporations operate inter-city and inter-state bus services. Many private inter-city and inter-state bus companies also operate services to and from Chennai.
The Metropolitan Transport Corporation
Metropolitan Transport Corporation (Chennai)
- External links :* * * *...

 (MTC) runs an extensive city bus system consisting of 3,421 buses on 690 routes, and moves an estimated 5.52 million passengers each day.

Vans, popularly known as Maxi Cabs and 'share' auto rickshaws ply many routes in the city and provide an alternative to buses. Metered call taxis, tourist taxis and auto rickshaws are also available on hire. Chennai's transportation infrastructure provides coverage and connectivity, but growing use has caused traffic congestion and pollution. The government has tried to address these problems by constructing grade separators and flyovers
Overpass
An overpass is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway...

 at major intersections, starting with the Gemini flyover
Anna Flyover
Anna Flyover , lies in the heart of Chennai, India. Built by East Coast Construction and Industries in 1973, it was the first flyover in the country and in Chennai...

, built in 1973 over the most important arterial road, Anna Salai
Anna Salai
Anna Salai , formerly known as Mount Road, an abbreviated form of St. Thomas Mount Road, is an arterial road in Chennai, India. It starts at the Cooum Creek, south of Fort St George and ends at the Kathipara Junction in Guindy...

 to the recently completed Kathipara Flyover
Kathipara junction
Kathipara Junction is an important road junction in Chennai, India. It is located at Alandur, , south of Guindy, at the intersection of the Grand Southern Trunk Road , Inner Ring Road, Anna Salai and the Mount-Poonamallee Road...

.

According to the Transport Department's official report, the two-wheeler population shot up to 2.58 million in 2011 from 0.93 million in 2001 while the number of four-wheelers jumped to 0.56 million in 2011 from 0.21 million in 2001. On the other hand, on 1 April 2011, the Metropolitan Transport Corporation fleet strength was just 3,421, or 0.1% of the total vehicular population. The MTC fleet strength was 2,773 in 2006.

Media


Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier, in 1785. It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazzette and The Government Gazzette in 1795. The Spectator, founded in 1836, was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city's first daily newspaper in 1853. The first Tamil newspaper, Swadesamitran, was launched in 1899.
The major English dailies published in Chennai are The Hindu
The Hindu
The Hindu is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Chennai since 1878. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, it has a circulation of 1.46 million copies as of December 2009. The enterprise employed over 1,600 workers and gross income reached $40...

, The New Indian Express
The New Indian Express
The New Indian Express is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper published by the Express Publications. It was founded in 1932 as the Indian Express, under the ownership of Chennai-based P. Varadarajulu Naidu. In 1991, following the death of the then owner Ramnath Goenka, the Goenka...

, The Deccan Chronicle
The Deccan Chronicle
Deccan Chronicle is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. It is published in Hyderabad, India by Deccan Chronicle Holdings Limited. The newspaper's name derives from the originating place, the Deccan regions of India. Supplements are "TV Guide", "Sunday Chronicle", "Chennai Chronicle", and...

and The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

recently joined the list. The evening dailies are, The Trinity Mirror and The News Today
The News Today
The News Today is an English evening daily newspaper in Chennai, India. It is published from Chennai every evening since 1982.-External links:*...

. As of 2004, The Hindu was the city's most read English newspaper, with a daily circulation of 267,349. The major business dailies published from the city are The Economic Times
The Economic Times
The Economic Times is an English-language Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.. The Economic Times was started in 1961. It is the most popular and widely read financial daily in India, read by more than 8 lakh people...

, The Hindu Business Line, Business Standard
Business Standard
Business Standard is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd in two languages, English and Hindi...

, Mint
Mint (newspaper)
Mint is a business newspaper from HT Media Ltd, launched in collaboration with The Wall Street Journal on 1 February 2007. It is a premium business news publication aimed at decision makers and policy makers of the country and it is the first newspaper in India to be published in the Berliner...

and The Financial Express
Financial Express
The Financial Express is an Indian English-language business newspaper. It is published by the Indian Express group since 1961. The FE specialises in India and international business and financial news....

. The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi
Dina Thanthi
Dina Thanthi a.K.a "Daily Thanthi" is a reputed daily Tamil newspaper in Tirunelveli, Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Erode, Dindigul, Trichy, Salem, Nagercoil, Cuddalore, Vellore, Pondicherry and Thanjavur. It is owned by Mr.B. Sivanthi Aditanar. It was founded by S. P...

, Dinakaran
Dinakaran
Dinakaran is a Tamil daily newspaper distributed in India. , Dinakaran is the largest Tamil daily newspaper in terms of net paid circulation, which was 1,235,220...

, Dina Mani
Dina Mani
Dina Mani is daily Tamil newspaper printed and published from Chennai, Coimbatore, Vellore, Trichy, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Dharmapuri, Bangalore, and New Delhi in India. The newspaper was established in 1933 and owned by The New Indian Express Group.The first edition came in 1934 september 11...

, Dina Malar
Dina Malar
Dinamalar or "Daily Malar" is a daily newspaper in Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Pondicherry, Tirunelveli, Nagercoil, Trichy, Erode, Vellore and Tamil Nadu, India. Dinamalar was founded by T. V. Ramasubbaiyer. T. V...

, Tamil Murasu
Tamil Murasu
Tamil Murasu is a Singapore based Tamil language newspaper. Launched in 1935 by Thamizhavel G. Sarangapani, Tamil Murasu is Singapore's only Tamil language newspaper...

, Makkal Kural
Makkal Kural
Makkal Kural is a Tamil daily newspaper, started in 1973 by M. Shanmugavel.This evening paper was famous for its explosive stand against Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam rule in Tamil Nadu at that time. The firebrand editorials of Shanmugavel and TRR were historic at that time. On seeing the popularity...

and Malai Malar
Malai Malar
Malai Malar is daily evening Tamil newspaper in Chennai, Salem and Coimbatore, India. It is owned by Daily Thanti group. It was founded by S. P. Adithanar in 1977 at Coimbatore and the current director is Sivandhi Adithanar....

. Major Telugu dailies include Eenadu
Eenadu
Eenadu , headquartered in Hyderabad, India, is the largest circulated Telugu news daily in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the world. According to NRS 2011 it has a readership of 17,00,000 and is the third most circulated regional language daily and 10th most circulated daily in India...

, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi
Andhra Jyothi
Andhra Jyothy is a Telugu daily newspaper in Andhra Pradesh, India edited by K. Srinivas. Vemuri Radhakrishna is its Managing Director. It has a circulation of over 5,00,000 across Andhra Pradesh and neighbouring states.- External links :* *...

and Sakshi. The one and only Hindi Newspaper published from Chennai is the Rajasthan Patrika
Rajasthan Patrika
Rajasthan Patrika is a Hindi language daily newspaper published from Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Udaipur, Kota and other cities of Rajasthan and from major Indian cities such as Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur , Raipur, Ahmedabad, Gwalior, Kolkata, Chennai, New Delhi and Bangalore.-History:Rajasthan...

. Neighbourhood newspapers such as The Anna Nagar Times and The Adyar Times cater to particular localities. Magazines published from Chennai include Ananda Vikatan
Ananda Vikatan
Ananda Vikatan ஆனந்த விகடன் is the leading Tamil language weekly magazine published from Chennai, India. It is part of the Vikatan group which also publishes Junior Vikatan , Chutti Vikatan , Aval Vikatan , Naanayam Vikatan , Sakthi Vikatan , Motor Vikatan and Pasumai Vikatan Ananda Vikatan ஆனந்த...

, Kumudam
Kumudam
Kumudam is a Tamil language weekly magazines published in Chennai, India. The group also publishes other Tamil magazines including Kumudam Reporter, Kumudam Snehidi, Kumudam Bhakti, Kumudam Jothidam, Kumudam Theeranadhi. At the sametime kumudam group started a telugu spiritual magazine called...

, Kalki, Kungumam
Kungumam
Kungumam is a Tamil weekly magazine published in Chennai, India. It is owned by Kalanidhi Maran's Sun Network. According to the Kungumam emerged as the top-selling Tamil weekly magazine overtaking historical market leaders like Kumudam and Ananda Vikatan. Also, is the second best selling...

, Puthiya Thalaimurai,Thuglak
Thuglak
-History:Cho Ramaswamy founded the magazine and commenced its first publication on the first day of the Tamil harvesting month "Thai" based on the Tamil calendar system; which was January 14, 1970 in the Gregorian calendar. He has been the editor of the magazine ever since and has penned several...

, Frontline and Sportstar
Sportstar
Sportstar is a weekly sports magazine published in India by the publishers of The Hindu. Its headquarters is in Chennai. The magazine covers sports in India. It also has an extended and lengthy coverage of cricket, the unofficial national sport of India...

.

Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

 runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre, which was set up in 1974. Private Tamil satellite television networks such as Sun TV
Sun TV (India)
Sun TV is a regional Indian cable television station. It is the flagship channel of the Chennai-based Sun Network. It was founded and currently owned by Kalanidhi Maran. It was the first fully privately owned television channel in India when it emerged in 1992...

, Raj TV
Raj Network
Raj Network is a South Indian satellite television network and is based in Chennai, India. The Raj Television Network was started in 1994 to provide wholesome entertainment for the entire family. The Network runs a number of serials, chat shows and game shows...

, Zee Tamil, Star Vijay
STAR Vijay
STAR Vijay is a popular Indian entertainment channel broadcasting in Tamil. The channel is also available in several other nations as well. The channel is owned by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation...

, Jaya TV
Jaya TV
Jaya TV is one of the major Tamil language satellite television channels based in Chennai, India. Jaya TV is one of the early Tamil channels to entertain the Tamil audiences spread across Globe....

, Makkal TV
Makkal TV
Makkal TV is a Tamil language TV channel. It was launched on 6 September 2006 and is promoted by Makkal Tholai Thodarpu Kuzhumam. Pattali Makkal Katchi leader Ramadoss is the founder of TV, Venu Sanjeevi is the Managing Director .- External links :...

, Vasanth TV, Kalaignar TV
Kalaignar TV
Kalaignar TV is a Tamil language satellite television channel based in Chennai, India.-History:After disputes between Kalanithi Maran and M. K. Azhagiri, Tamil Nadu's Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi launched this channel on September 15 2007...

 and Captain TV
Captain TV
Captain TV is a 24-hour television channel started on 14 April 2010 by Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam which is a political party in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The managing director of Captain Media is LK Sudish, brother-in-law of Vijayakanth who is the party's president and a Tamil actor....

 broadcast out of Chennai. The Sun Network
Sun Network
Sun TV Network is an Indian media company based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, part of Kal Media Services, Sun Group. It has been named as Asia's most profitable media corporations and the largest TV network. Established on April 14, 1993, it created and owns a variety of television channels and...

 one of India's largest broadcasting companies is based in the city. While SCV is the monopoly cable TV service provider, direct-to-home (DTH
Direct broadcast satellite
Direct broadcast satellite is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception.A designation broader than DBS would be direct-to-home signals, or DTH. This has initially distinguished the transmissions directly intended for home viewers from cable television...

) is available via DD Direct Plus
DD Direct Plus
DD Direct+ is an Indian free-to-air digital satellite television owned by Doordarshan. Which provides digital video and audio programming to households and businesses in India. It offers a satellite alternative to the free-view service on digital terrestrial television, with a broadly similar...

, Dish TV
Dish TV
Dish TV India Limited is an Indian company engaged in the business of providing direct-to-home satellite television service, which includes teleport service, customer support and transponder space leasing. Dishtv is a division of Zee Network Enterprise . It uses MPEG-2 digital compression...

, Tata Sky
Tata Sky
TATA Sky is a direct broadcast satellite television provider in India, using MPEG-2 digital compression technology, transmitting using INSAT 4A at 83.0°E....

, Videocon DTH, Sun direct DTH
Sun Direct DTH
Sun Direct is an Indian direct broadcast satellite service provider. Its satellite service, launched on 2005, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in India. Sun Direct uses MPEG-4 digital compression technology, transmitting on INSAT 4B at 93.5°E. and MEASAT-3 at 91.5°E...

, Reliance Big TV and Digital TV (Airtel-Bharti) Chennai is the first city in India to have implemented the Conditional Access System for cable television. Radio broadcasting started from the radio station at the Rippon Buildings complex, founded in 1930 and was then shifted to All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

 in 1938. The city has 4 AM
Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

 and 11 FM
Frequency modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant...

 radio stations, operated by Anna University
Anna University
Anna University was a premier technical university in Tamil Nadu, India. Anna University was formed on September 4, 1978, as a unitary university that integrated four technical institutions in the city of Chennai , including the College of Engineering, Guindy, Alagappa College of Technology,...

, All India Radio and private broadcasters.

Education


Schools in Chennai are either run publicly by the Tamil Nadu government or privately, some with financial aid from the government. The medium of education is either English or Tamil, with the former being the majority. Most schools are affiliated with the Tamil Nadu State Board
Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education
Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education, established in 1910, is under the purview of the , , India. Up to and ending at the secondary level, the following streams of education are offered: the SSLC stream, the Anglo-Indian stream, the Oriental School Leaving Certificate stream and the...

, the Matriculation Board or the Central Board of Secondary Education
Central Board of Secondary Education
The Central Board of Secondary Education is a Board of Education for public and private schools, under the Union Government of India.-History:...

 (CBSE). A few schools are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education or ICSE examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, a private, non-governmental board of school education in India, for class 10, i.e., grade 10...

 (ICSE) board, the National Institute of Open Schooling
National Institute of Open Schooling
The National Institute of Open Schooling , is the Board of Education for open schools in India. It was established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government of India in 1989 to provide education inexpensively to remote areas...

 (NIOS) board and the Anglo-Indian board or the Montessori system. Schooling begins at the age of three with two years of kindergarten followed by ten years of primary and secondary education. Students then need to complete two years of higher secondary education in either science or commerce before being eligible for college education in a general or professional field of study. There are 1,389 schools in the city, out of which 731 are primary, 232 are secondary and 426 are higher secondary schools.

The Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
The Indian Institute of Technology Madras is an engineering and technology school in Chennai in southern India. It is recognized as an Institute of National Importance by the Government of India...

 (IIT Madras) and the Anna University
Anna University
Anna University was a premier technical university in Tamil Nadu, India. Anna University was formed on September 4, 1978, as a unitary university that integrated four technical institutions in the city of Chennai , including the College of Engineering, Guindy, Alagappa College of Technology,...

 are two well known centers for engineering education in the city. Colleges for science, arts and commerce degrees are typically affiliated with the University of Madras
University of Madras
The University of Madras is a public research university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the three oldest universities in India...

, which has three campuses in the city. Research institutions like the Institute of Mathematical Sciences
Institute of Mathematical Sciences
The Institute of Mathematical Sciences is a research centre located in Chennai, India.IMSc is a national institute for fundamental research in frontier disciplines of the mathematical and physical sciences: theoretical computer science, mathematics, and theoretical physics...

 (IMSc), Chennai Mathematical Institute
Chennai Mathematical Institute
Chennai Mathematical Institute is a research and education institute in Chennai, India. It was founded by the SPIC Science Foundation in 1989, and offers undergraduate as well as postgraduate programmes in physics, mathematics and computer science, besides its key strength in the form of high-end...

 (CMI), Central Leather Research Institute
Central Leather Research Institute
Central Leather Research Institute or CLRI is the world's largest leather research institute. It is located near IIT-M in Adyar, Chennai ....

 (CLRI) and the Institute for Financial Management and Research
Institute for Financial Management and Research
The Institute for Financial Management and Research , Chennai, India, is a business school located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It was established in 1970. IFMR is recognized as an Institution of National Importance by the Ministry of Finance. IFMR is an approved institution by the University of...

 (IFMR) are in the city. The Indian Army's Officers Training Academy
Officers Training Academy
The Officers Training Academy, Chennai is a training establishment of the Indian Army that trains officers for the Short Service Commission. The 10 month course at the OTA prepares graduates for the Technical branches of the Army...

 is also based in the city.
The Connemara Public Library
Connemara Public Library
Connemara Public Library at Chennai is one of the four National Depository Libraries which receive a copy of all books, newspapers and periodicals published in India. Established in 1890 the library is a repository of centuries-old publications, wherein lie some of the most respected works and...

 is one of four National Depository Centre
National Depository Centre
A National Depository Centre is a public library in India which receives a copy of all books, newspapers and periodicals published in the country . There are four centres:*Connemara Public Library in Chennai*Asiatic Society of Bombay in Mumbai...

s in India that receive a copy of all newspapers and books published in the country. It is also a UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 information centre. There is a newly constructed Anna Centenary Library
Anna Centenary Library
The Anna Centenary Library is a newly established state library of Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located at Kotturpuram in Chennai, Tamil Nadu India. Built at a cost of 1,720 million, it is the largest library in South Asia. It is named after the former chief minister of Tamil Nadu, C. N....

, which is the largest library in India.

Sports


Cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

 is the most popular sport in Chennai. The sport was popularised in the city as a result of the establishment of the Madras Cricket Club in 1846. The M.A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chepauk
Chepauk
Chepauk is a locality in Chennai , in India. The name Chepauk is popularly used to refer to the M. A. Chidambaram International Cricket Stadium also known as Chepauk Stadium. It is also home to the Chepauk palace, built in the Indo-Saracenic style...

 was established in 1916 and is one of the oldest cricket stadiums in India. The Chemplast Cricket Ground
Chemplast Cricket Ground
The Chemplast Cricket Ground in the IIT Madras campus is an important cricket venue and is described by cricketer Sachin Tendulkar as the most scenic in the country. It is set amongst greenery....

 on the IIT Madras
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
The Indian Institute of Technology Madras is an engineering and technology school in Chennai in southern India. It is recognized as an Institute of National Importance by the Government of India...

 campus is another important venue hosting first class matches. Prominent cricketers from the city include former Test-captains S. Venkataraghavan
Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan
Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan ; is a former Indian cricketer. He played for Derbyshire in English county cricket from 1973 to 1975. He played Test cricket for the Indian cricket team, and later became an umpire on the elite International Cricket Council Test panel...

 and Kris Srikkanth. A cricket fast bowling academy, the MRF Pace Foundation
MRF Pace Foundation
MRF Pace Foundation is a coaching clinic for training fast bowlers from all over the world. This was created with the help of former Australian pace spearhead Dennis Lillee. Through this program, young aspiring fast bowlers are trained under Dennis Lillee in a facility located at the campus of...

, whose coaches include Bob Simpson
Bob Simpson (cricketer)
Robert Baddeley Simpson AO is a former cricketer who played for New South Wales, Western Australia and Australia, captaining the national team from 1963–64 until 1967–68, and again in 1977–78. He later had a highly successful term as the coach of the Australian team...

 and Dennis Lillee
Dennis Lillee
Dennis Keith Lillee, AM, MBE is a former Australian cricketer rated as the "outstanding fast bowler of his generation"...

, is based in Chennai. Chennai is home to the Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
The Indian Premier League is a professional league for Twenty20 cricket competition in India. It was initiated by the Board of Control for Cricket in India , headquartered in Mumbai, and is supervised by BCCI Vice President Rajeev Shukla, who serves as the league's Chairman and Commissioner...

 cricket team, the Chennai Super Kings
Chennai Super Kings
Chennai Super Kings is a franchise cricket team based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu that plays in the Indian Premier League. Founded in 2008, the team is currently captained by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and coached by Stephen Fleming, a former New Zealand cricketer. The team's home ground is the M. A...

.

The city also hosted the finals of IPL 4 in M.A. Chidambaram stadium, and will host the final of IPL 5 in 2012.

Chennai is home to a Premier Hockey League (PHL
Premier Hockey League
The now defunct Premier Hockey League was a professional league competition for field Hockey clubs in the top division of the Indian hockey system. There were seven teams in the PHL. The competition was held every year from 2005 till 2008.-History:...

) team, the Chennai Veerans
Chennai Veerans
The Chennai Veerans are a Tier-1 level field hockey team Premier Hockey League in India. In the inaugural cup in 2005, the Chennai Veerans led by Ignace Tirkey finished at the bottom of the group with two wins and six losses....

, and has hosted many hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 tournaments such as the Asia Cup and the Men's Champions Trophy at The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium
Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium
Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium is a field hockey stadium at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It was the venue to the 1996 Men's Champions Trophy, and hosted the tournament again in December 2005...

.
Chennai has produced popular tennis players over the years, including Vijay Amritraj
Vijay Amritraj
Vijay Amritraj is a former Indian tennis player, sports commentator and actor.Amritraj was born in Chennai, India to Maggie Dhairyam and Robert Amritraj. He and his brothers, Anand Amritraj and Ashok Amritraj, were among the first Indians to play in top-flight international tour tennis...

 and Ramesh Krishnan
Ramesh Krishnan
Ramesh Krishnan is a tennis coach and former professional tennis player from India. As a junior player in the late-1970s, he won the boy's singles titles at both Wimbledon and the French Open. He went on to reach three Grand Slam quarter-finals in the 1980s, and was part of the Indian team which...

, and current star Somdev Devvarman
Somdev Devvarman
Somdev Devvarman , is a professional Indian tennis player. Three of Devvarman's college conquests, John Isner, Kevin Anderson, and Jesse Levine have successful pro careers. He hit the headlines for being the only collegiate player to have made three consecutive finals at the NCAA, winning...

 also grew up primarily in the city.

Since 1997 Chennai has been host to the only ATP World Tour event held in India, the Chennai Open
Chennai Open
The Chennai Open is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. It is currently part of the ATP World Tour 250 series of the Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour...

.
Football and athletic competitions are held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Chennai
The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is a Chennai stadium and seats 40,000. It hosts football , and athletic competitions. The complex also houses a multi purpose indoor stadium with a seating capacity of 8000 which hosts volleyball, basket ball, table tennis etc. The stadium is named after Jawaharlal...

, which also houses a multi-purpose indoor complex for competition in volleyball, basketball and table tennis. Water sports are played in the Velachery Aquatic Complex
Velachery Aquatic Complex
The Velachery Aquatic Complex is a swimming pool complex with spectator facilities in Chennai, India. It was purpose built as one of the venues for the 1995 South Asian Games....

. Chennai was the venue of the South Asian Games (SAF Games) in 1995.

Automobile racing in India has been closely connected with Chennai since its beginnings shortly after independence. Motor racing events are held on a special purpose track in Irungattukottai
Irungattukottai Race Track
The Irungattukottai Race Track is a permanent motor racing circuit located in Irungattukottai, Sriperumbudur, Chennai, India. It was built in the late 80s. The Madras Motor Sports Club is owning and operating the racing....

, Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur is an industrial city in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in proximity to Chennai. It is famous for being the birth place of Sri Ramanuja, one of the most prominent Hindu Vaishnava saints as well as the town where former Indian Prime Minister...

, which has also been the venue for several international competitions. Ex-Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 driver and current Team Lotus
Team Lotus
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in many motorsport series including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar and sports car racing...

 reserve driver Karun Chandhok were born in Chennai.

Horse racing is held at the Guindy Race Course
Guindy Race Course
The Guindy Race Course is a horse racing course set up in 1777 in Chennai, India. It hosts events in the winter season....

, while rowing competitions are hosted at the Madras Boat Club
Madras Boat Club
The Madras Boat Club, located in the South of India, in the historic city of Chennai is one of the oldest rowing centres in India.-History:It was a few Englishmen in Madras who founded the club in 1867...

. The city has two 18-hole golf courses, the Cosmopolitan Club and the Gymkhana Club, both established in the late nineteenth century. Viswanathan Anand
Viswanathan Anand
V. Anand or Anand Viswanathan, usually referred as Viswanathan Anand, is an Indian chess Grandmaster, the current World Chess Champion, and currently second highest rated player in the world....

, the chess World champion, grew up in Chennai.

Other athletes of repute from Chennai include table tennis players Sharath Kamal
Sharath Kamal
Achanta Sharath Kamal is a professional table tennis player from Tamil Nadu India. His mother tongue is Telugu. He won the men's singles gold in the 16th Commonwealth table tennis championship held at Kuala Lumpur in 2004. He is a recipient of the Arjuna award for the year 2004. He lives in...

 and two-time world carrom
Carrom
Carrom is a family of tabletop games with gameplay that lies somewhere between billiards and table shuffleboard. Carrom is known by many names around the world, including carrum, couronne, carum, karam, karom, karum, fatta and finger billiards...

 champion, Maria Irudayam. The city has a rugby union
Rugby union
Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

 team called the Chennai Cheetahs.

Sister cities


Chennai has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world.
Country ity tate/Region ince eference
 Russia Russia Volgograd
Volgograd
Volgograd , formerly called Tsaritsyn and Stalingrad is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River...

Volgograd Oblast
Volgograd Oblast
Volgograd Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Volgograd. Population: -Geography:*Area: 113,900 km²;*Borders length: 2221,9 km²....

1966
 United States United States Denver
Colorado
Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

1984
 United States United States San Antonio
Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

2008
 Malaysia Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

Federal Territory
2010

Footnotes


In December 2009, the Tamil Nadu government announced plans to merge 9 municipalities, 8 town panchayats, and 25 village panchayats into the city of Chennai, which would increase its area to 426 square kilometres and population (according to the 2001 census) to 5.6 million. The plans are that boundary of the expanded corporation will be drawn in 2011, after the term of the elected councillors ends. An ordinance was promulgated on 21 December 2010, amending the Madras City Municipal Corporation Act, giving effect to the total number of wards as 200. The corporation council is currently represented by 155 members.
The State government will decide on the expansion of the Chennai Metropolitan Area
Chennai Metropolitan Area
The Chennai Metropolitan Area is the fourth largest metropolitan area in India and the 30th in the world in terms of population . The CMA consists of the metropolitan city of Chennai and its suburbs. The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority is the nodal agency that handles town planning...

 (CMA) before the end of this fiscal, R Vaithilingam, Minister for Housing and Urban Development, told the Assembly on Aug 25, 2011. In view of the fast-paced development taking place in areas beyond the present metropolitan area jurisdiction, like Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur
Sriperumbudur is an industrial city in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located in proximity to Chennai. It is famous for being the birth place of Sri Ramanuja, one of the most prominent Hindu Vaishnava saints as well as the town where former Indian Prime Minister...

, Kelambakkam
Kelambakkam
Kelambakkam is a rapidly growing suburb of Chennai in Tamil Nadu state in India. It is situated on the Old Mamallapuram Road and is about 35 km from Chennai....

, Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur
Tiruvallur is a temple town and Grade I municipality in Tiruvallur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on the Cooum river about northwest of the city of Chennai , the capital city of Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative headquarters of Tiruvallur district...

 and Maraimalai Nagar
Maraimalai Nagar
Maraimalai Nagar is a suburb of the southern Indian city of Chennai. Maraimalai Nagar and its surrounding areas are referred to as "New Chennai" by the media, due to recent industrial development around this area. It is a Satellite town developed by CMDA in the Year 1980. Before that it was a...

, it had become necessary to review the Chennai Metropolitan Planning Area that was notified in 1973-74, he said.

External links