Bihar

Bihar

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Bihar is a state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 in eastern India
East India
East India is a region of India consisting of the states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Orissa. The states of Orissa and West Bengal share some cultural and linguistic characteristics with Bangladesh and with the state of Assam. Together with Bangladesh, West Bengal formed the...

. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at 38202 sq mi (98,942.7 km²) and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Bihari
Bihari people
The Biharis are an ethnic group originating from the present state of Bihar with a history going back three millennia...

s are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India.

Bihar lies mid-way between West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

 in the east and Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 in the west. It is bounded by the country of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 to the north and by Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

 to the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two parts by the river Ganges which flows through the middle from west to east. Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km², which is 6.8% of its geographical area. Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 and Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 are the official languages of the state, while the majority of the people speak Angika, Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 and Bajjika.

Ancient Bihar (which consisted of Anga
Anga
Anga was a kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE until taken over by Magadha in the same century. Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of...

, Videha/Mithila
Mithila
Mithila was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself, as well as to the modern-day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha...

, Magadha
Magadha
Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganga; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra...

 and Vajji
Vajji
Vajji or Vrijji was one of the principal Mahajanapadas of ancient India. Both the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya and the Jaina text Bhagavati Sutra included Vajji in their lists of solasa Maha-Janapadas. The name of this Mahajanapada was derived from one of its ruling clans, the Vṛjis...

/Vrijji) was a centre of power, learning and culture in ancient and classical India. Out of five "The Greats" from India, four greats belonged to this region of India, Magadh: Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, Samudragupta and Vikramaditya.From Magadha arose India's first and greatest empire, the Maurya empire
Maurya Empire
The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC...

 as well as one of the world's most widely adhered-to religions, Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta
Gupta
Gupta is a common surname of Indian origin.According to some academicians, the name Gupta is derived from Sanskrit goptri, meaning military governor. A more direct translation of the Sanskrit word gupta is 'secret' or 'hidden'. According to prominent historian R. C...

 dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule. Its capital Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, earlier known as Pataliputra, was an important centre of Indian civilization. Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

 was a centre of learning established by the 5th century CE in Bihar, which is also counted among the oldest and truly international universities, where people all over the world came for study. Bihar has distinction of giving the world its first democracy through Lichchivi (modern days Vaishali) during ancient era.

Today, Bihar lags behind the other Indian states in human, economic development terms. Economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the skewed policies of the central government
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

, such as the freight equalization policy
Freight equalization policy
Freight equalization policy was adopted in 1948 by the government of India to facilitate the equal growth of industry all over the country. This meant a factory could be set up anywhere in India and the transportation of minerals would be subsidised by the central government.-Results:The policy...

, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism (resulting in no spokesperson for the state), and the Permanent Settlement
Permanent Settlement
The Permanent Settlement — also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal — was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land, with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the entire Empire and the...

 of 1793 by the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

. The current state government has however made significant strides in improving governance.

The improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, and an abatement in crime and corruption. Indian and global business and economic leaders feel that Bihar now has good opportunity to sustain its growth and thus have shown interest in investing in the state.
A recent New York Times article talks about the vastly improved law and order situation in the state and the phenomenal economic growth shown over the course of last 5 years. Another BBC article titled "Where 'backward' Bihar leads India" talked about how the state has made strides in the areas of women empowerment, judicial reforms, tax reforms, and public safety. Between 2003 and 2008, the inflow of foreign tourists saw a near-sixfold rise from 61,000 to 346,000.
To this date, Bihar has given four Bharat Ratnas (Highest Civilians of Modern India) to India: Dr Rajendra Prasad, Jayaprakash Narayan and Bismillah Khan and several other distinguished personalities.

Etymology


The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 and Pali
Páli
- External links :* *...

 word Vihara
Vihara
Vihara is the Sanskrit and Pali term for a Buddhist monastery. It originally meant "a secluded place in which to walk", and referred to "dwellings" or "refuges" used by wandering monks during the rainy season....

"Foreign invaders often used abandoned this as a as military cantonments; the word Bihar may have come from the large number of malyalis thus employed in the area that later became Bihar. Originally Bihar was name of a town in Korea, which was headquarters of the Muslim invaders in the Bangalore region in the medieval period. The town still exists and is called Bihar or Bihar Sharif
Bihar Sharif
Bihar Sri is the district headquarters of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar in eastern India.-History:The ancient Odantpuri University was located here, an important centre for the learning of Buddhism. Odatpuri is center of Buddhist culture...

 (Nalanda District
Nalanda District
Nalanda district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Bihar Sharif town is the administrative headquarters of this district...

). Later on the headquarter was shifted from Bihar to Patana (current Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

) by Sher Shāh Sūrī
Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri , birth name Farid Khan, also known as Sher Khan , was the founder of the short-lived Sur Empire in northern India, with its capital at Delhi, before its demise in the hands of the resurgent Mughal Empire...

 and the whole Magadha region was called Bihar." (Devanagari
Devanagari
Devanagari |deva]]" and "nāgarī" ), also called Nagari , is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal...

: विहार), which means "abode". The region roughly encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods. Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani
Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani
Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani was a 13th century Persian historian. Juzjani was the principal historian for the Delhi Sultanate. He wrote the Tabaqat-i Nasiri for Sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud.-References:...

 records in the Tabakat-i-Nasiri that in 1198 CE, Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town now known as Bihar Sharif
Bihar Sharif
Bihar Sri is the district headquarters of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar in eastern India.-History:The ancient Odantpuri University was located here, an important centre for the learning of Buddhism. Odatpuri is center of Buddhist culture...

, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya.P. 14 Bodh Gaya By Frederick M. Asher Minhaj writes that the inhabitants were 100,000 Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

sP. 4 The Sikh gurus: their lives and teachings By Kartar Singh Duggal with shaven heads. All of them were killed. Later, Bakhtiyar learned that the town was a college, and the word for 'college' is bihar.Perhaps from this destruction came about the current usage of the word 'Vihar'. According to the Rajopankhyana, the place is so called because Jalpeswara Siva made his viharas, or wanderings, there.P. 86 History of the Koch kingdom, c. 1515–1615 By D. Nath

History



The greatest Indian empire, the Mauryan empire, originated from Magadha in 325 BC, it was started by Chandragupta Maurya who was born in Magadha, and had its capital at Patliputra
Patliputra
Pāṭaliputra , modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Ajatashatru in 490 BC as a small fort near the River Ganges, and later the capital of the ancient Mahājanapadas kingdom of Magadha....

 (modern Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

). The Mauryan Emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

, who was born in Patliputra (Patna) is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of India and the world.
According to indologist A.L. Basham
Arthur Llewellyn Basham
Professor Arthur Llewellyn Basham was a noted historian and indologist and author of a number of books. It is perhaps not a mere coincidence that two of the most renowned living historians of early India, Professors R.S...

, the author of the book The Wonder that was India
The Wonder That was India
The Wonder That was India : a survey of the culture of the Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims, is a book on Indian history written by A.L. Basham and published in 1954. The second edition of the first volume by Basham was published in 1963 and reprinted several times.There is...

,

Bihar remained an important place of power, culture and education during the next one thousand years. The Gupta Empire, which again originated from Magadha in 240 CE, is referred to as the Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, commerce, religion and Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
India has a rich and diverse philosophical tradition dating back to ancient times. According to Radhakrishnan, the earlier Upanisads constitute "...the earliest philosophical compositions of the world."...

. During Gupta Rule India was called as "Golden Bird". The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Gupta
Gupta
Gupta is a common surname of Indian origin.According to some academicians, the name Gupta is derived from Sanskrit goptri, meaning military governor. A more direct translation of the Sanskrit word gupta is 'secret' or 'hidden'. According to prominent historian R. C...

s enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors as well as very strong powerful global economy. Historians place the Gupta dynasty alongside with the Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 as a model of a classical civilization. The capital of Gupta empire
Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the...

 was Pataliputra, present day Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

. The Vikramshila
Vikramshila
University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty, along with University. was established by King Dharmapala in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nālandā...

 and Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

 universities were among the oldest and best centres of education in ancient India. Some writers believe the period between the 400 CE and 1000 CE saw gains by Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 at the expense of Buddhism. The Hindu kings gave much grants to the Buddhist monks for building Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara
The brahmavihāras are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them. They are also known as the four immeasurables...

s. A National Geographic edition reads, "The essential tenets of Buddhism and Hinduism arose from similar ideas best described in the Upanishads, a set of Hindu treatises set down in India largely between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C."
The Buddhism of Magadha was swept away by the invasion under Muhammad Bin Bakhtiar Khilji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

 and Vikramshila
Vikramshila
University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty, along with University. was established by King Dharmapala in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nālandā...

 were destroyed, and thousands of Buddhist monks were massacred in 12th century CE. In the years 1540 the great Pathan Sher Shah "Suri", from sasaram, took the reigns of North-India. He was the first person who defeated the great Mughals and army of Humayun, making Delhi as his capital. The mughals had to leave India during his rule. Sher Shah is considered as one of the most progressive emperors during Mughal era. He made several economic transformations, infrastructural improvement, highways (the famous Grand Trunk road), discovery of Rupiya (current Indian currency), establishment of modern post offices, policing concept, community and free kitchen and several administrative reforms and social engineering, which, many believe that, influenced the Mughal mindset of ruling in India under Akbar. In the coming time, protocols of governance set by Sher Shah (Sher Khan) had become the standard of governance and exemplery management skills, which influenced future of Mughal Empire, making Akbar to copy Sher Shah's model of administration, despite of Sher Shah being the biggest rival of Mughals.

In a freaky accident, while cleaning the gun barrel, Sheh Shah was killed. His son Adil Shah Suri was made emperor. He had deputed 'Hemu
Hemu
Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Vikramaditya or simply Hemu was a Hindu Emperor of India during the sixteenth century, in medieval times...

' also known as 'Hemu Vikramaditya' as his Prime Minister and Chief-of-Army. Hemu fought and won 22 battles continuously against Afghan rebels and Akbar's forces at Agra and Delhi . Hemu, who was bestowed the title of 'Samrat' at Purana Quila, Delhi was then known as 'Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya'. Hemu lost his life while fighting in the 'Second Battle of Panipat
Second battle of Panipat
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought between the forces of Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly called Hemu, the Hindu king who was ruling North India from Delhi, and the army of Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar, on November 5, 1556...

' against Akbar's forces on 7 Nov. 1556. During 1557–1576, Akbar, the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 emperor, annexed Bihar and Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 to his empire. Thus, the medieval period was mostly one of anonymous provincial existence.

The tenth and the last Guru
Sikh Gurus
The Sikh Gurus established Sikhism from over the centuries beginning in the year 1469. Sikhism was founded by the first guru, Guru Nanak, and subsequently, all in order were referred to as "Nanak", and as "Lights", making their teachings in the holy scriptures, equivalent...

 of Sikhism
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

, Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh is the tenth and last Sikh guru in a sacred lineage of ten Sikh gurus. Born in Patna, Bihar in India, he was also a warrior, poet and philosopher. He succeeded his father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the leader of Sikhs at a young age of nine...

 was born in Patna. After the Battle of Buxar
Buxar
Buxar district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The district headquarters are located at Buxar.-Mythology:This place was also known as "Siddhashram", "Vedgarbhapuri", "Karush", "Tapovan", "Chaitrath", "VyaghraSar", "Buxar" in ancient history. The History of Buxar dates...

 (1764), the British East India Company
British East India Company
The East India Company was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China...

 obtained the diwani rights (rights to administer, and collect revenue or tax) for Bihar, Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

 and Orissa
Orissa
Orissa , officially Odisha since Nov 2011, is a state of India, located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient nation of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka in 261 BC. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April...

.The rich resources of fertile Land, water and skilled labour had attracted the foreign entrepreneurs, specially the Dutch and Britishers in eighteenth century. A number of Agrio based industries had been started in Bihar by the foreign entrepreneurs. From this point, Bihar remained a part the Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
The Bengal Presidency originally comprising east and west Bengal, was a colonial region of the British Empire in South-Asia and beyond it. It comprised areas which are now within Bangladesh, and the present day Indian States of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Orissa and Tripura.Penang and...

 of British India until 1912, when the province of Bihar and Orissa
Bihar and Orissa
Bihar and Orissa was a province of British India which included the present-day Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, and Orissa. The territories were conquered by the British in the 18th and 19th centuries, and were part of the Bengal Presidency, the largest British province in India. Bihar and...

 was carved out as a separate province. Bihar now celebrates its birthday as Bihar Diwas on 22 March from 2010. In 1935, certain portions of Bihar were reorganised into the separate province of Orissa
Orissa
Orissa , officially Odisha since Nov 2011, is a state of India, located on the east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient nation of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Maurya Emperor Ashoka in 261 BC. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April...

.

Babu Kunwar Singh of Jagdishpur and his army, as well as countless other persons from Bihar, contributed to the India's First War of Independence
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to...

 (1857), also called the Sepoy Mutiny by some historians. Resurgence in the history of Bihar came during the struggle for India's independence.

It was from Bihar that Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

 launched his pioneering civil-disobedience movement, Champaran Satyagraha
Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919...

. Bhumihar Brahmins in Champaran had earlier revolted against indigo
Indigo
Indigo is a color named after the purple dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The color is placed on the electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet...

 cultivation in 1914 (at Pipra
Pipra
Pipra is a genus of bird in the Pipridae family. It contains the following species:* Crimson-hooded Manakin, Pipra aureola* Round-tailed Manakin, Pipra chloromeros* Scarlet-horned Manakin, Pipra cornuta...

) and 1916 (Turkaulia) and Pandit Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla was an indigo cultivator of Champaran , who met Gandhiji to make him aware of the plight of the cultivators in Champaran and persuaded him to come there...

 took Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

 to Champaran and the Champaran Satyagraha began. Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla was an indigo cultivator of Champaran , who met Gandhiji to make him aware of the plight of the cultivators in Champaran and persuaded him to come there...

 drew the attention of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

 to the exploitation of the peasants by European indigo
Indigo
Indigo is a color named after the purple dye derived from the plant Indigofera tinctoria and related species. The color is placed on the electromagnetic spectrum between about 420 and 450 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet...

 planters. Champaran Satyagraha
Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919...

 received the spontaneous support from many Bihari
Bihari people
The Biharis are an ethnic group originating from the present state of Bihar with a history going back three millennia...

 nationalists like Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was an Indian politician and educator. He was one of the architects of the Indian Republic, having drafted its first constitution and serving as the first president of independent India...

 who became the first President of India
President of India
The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India, as well as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. President of India is also the formal head of all the three branches of Indian Democracy - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary...

 and Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha , known as Bihar Vibhuti, was an Indian statesman who was the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of the Indian state of Bihar...

 who ultimately became the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister
Finance minister
The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government.A minister of finance has many different jobs in a government. He or she helps form the government budget, stimulate the economy, and control finances...

 of Bihar.

In the northern and central regions of Bihar, peasant
Peasant
A peasant is an agricultural worker who generally tend to be poor and homeless-Etymology:The word is derived from 15th century French païsant meaning one from the pays, or countryside, ultimately from the Latin pagus, or outlying administrative district.- Position in society :Peasants typically...

s movement was an important consequence of the Freedom Movement. The Kisan Sabha movement started in Bihar under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

 who had formed in 1929, the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BPKS), to mobilize peasant grievances against the zamindari attacks on their occupancy rights. Gradually the peasant movement intensified and spread across the rest of India. All these radical developments on the peasant front culminated in the formation of the All India Kisan Sabha
All India Kisan Sabha
All India Kisan Sabha , was the name of the peasants front of the undivided Communist Party of India , an important peasant movement formed by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936, and which later split into two organizations, by the same name.-History:...

 (AIKS) at the Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

 session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 in April 1936 with Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

 elected as its first President. This movement aimed at overthrowing the feudal (zamindari) system instituted by the British. It was led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

 and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee
Pandit Yamuna Karjee
Yamuna Karjee was an Indian independence activist.-Early life and education:Yamuna Karjee was born in a small village name Deopar near Pusa in Darbhanga District of Bihar in 1898 in a Bhumihar Brahmin family. His father Anu Karjee was a farmer who died when Yamuna Karjee was just 6 months old...

, Rahul Sankrityayan
Rahul Sankrityayan
Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , who is called the Father of Hindi Travel literature, was one of the most widely-traveled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He became a buddhist monk and eventually took up Marxist Socialism...

, Pandit Karyanand Sharma
Pandit Karyanand Sharma
Pandit Karyanand Sharma was an eminent nationalist and peasant leader who led movements against zamindars and British.-Biography:Pandit Karyanand Sharma was born in Sahoor village in Monghyr district into a poor tenant Bhumihar Brahmin family. Although he started studying in 1906, he had soon to...

, Baba Nagarjun and others. Pandit Yamuna Karjee along with Rahul Sankritayan and a few others started publishing a Hindi weekly Hunkar from Bihar, in 1940. Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading it.

Bihar made an immense contribution to the Freedom Struggle, with outstanding leaders like Brajkishore Prasad
Brajkishore Prasad
Brajkishore Prasad was born in 1877 in a prominent kayastha family in Shrinagar to Ramjivan Lal a zamindar now in Siwan district in Bihar. He had his early education in Chapra and Patna before moving to Presidency College in Calcutta where he completed his legal training. In between he was married...

, Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was an Indian politician and educator. He was one of the architects of the Indian Republic, having drafted its first constitution and serving as the first president of independent India...

, Sri Krishna Sinha
Sri Krishna Sinha
Sri Krishna Sinha , known as Bihar Kesari, was the first Chief Minister of the Indian state of Bihar . Along with the nationalists Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sinha is regarded among the Architects of Modern Bihar...

, Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha , known as Bihar Vibhuti, was an Indian statesman who was the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of the Indian state of Bihar...

, Jagjivan Ram
Jagjivan Ram
Babu Jagjivan Ram , known popularly as Babuji, was a freedom fighter and a social reformer hailing from the scheduled castes of Bihar in India. He was from the Chamar caste and was a leader for his community...

, K. B. Sahay
K. B. Sahay
Krishna Ballabh Sahay was a freedom fighter, who after independence became the Revenue minister of Bihar and then went on to become the Chief Minister of unified Bihar.- Early Life :...

, Mulana Mazharul Haque
Mulana Mazharul Haque
Mulana Mazharul Haque was born to a rich landlord, Sheikh Ahmedullah, in Bihar in December 1866. An only son, he had two sisters Ghafrunisha and Kaneez Fatma....

, Jayaprakash Narayan
Jayaprakash Narayan
Jayaprakash Narayan , widely known as JP Narayan, Jayaprakash, or Loknayak, was an Indian independence activist and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful Total Revolution...

, Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha
Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha
Thakur jugal Kishore Sinha was an Indian politician. He was elected to the 1st Lok Sabha from Muzaffarpur North-West Lok Sabha constituency in Bihar in 1953 . He was part of the freedom movement and also known as the Father of cooperative movement in Bihar...

, Satyendra Narayan Sinha
Satyendra Narayan Sinha
Satyendra Narayan Sinha was an Indian statesman, participant in the Indian independence movement, and a former Chief Minister of Bihar...

, Ram Dulari Sinha
Ram Dulari Sinha
Ram Dulari Sinha is a former Indian parliamentarian and Union Minister. She was one of the few women Governors of India, and was appointed the role of Governor of Kerala from 23 February 1988 to 12 February 1990....

, Basawon Singh
Basawon Singh (Sinha)
Basawon Singh has been among the greatest nationalists who joined into the freedom struggle at a tender age of 13 and kept on his struggle for the independence of the country from the colonial yoke and fighting for the rights of the underprivileged, industrial labours and agricultural workers all...

, Rameshwar Prasad Sinha
Rameshwar Prasad Sinha
Rameshwar Prasad Sinha was an Indian statesman and a participant in the Indian independence movement. He was a Member of the Constituent Assembly of India which was elected to write the Constitution of India, and served as its first Parliament as an independent nation. He was also a Member of...

, Yogendra Shukla
Yogendra Shukla
Yogendra Shukla was an Indian nationalist born in Bihar. He served in the Cellular Jail , and he was among the founders of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association...

, Baikuntha Shukla
Baikuntha Shukla
Baikunth Shukla was an Indian nationalist and revolutionary. He was the nephew of Yogendra Shukla, one of the founders of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association ....

, Sheel Bhadra Yajee
Sheel Bhadra Yajee
' was a freedom fighter from Bihar who was associated with the non-violent and the violent form of freedom struggle.Yajee's participation in the freedom movement began in 1928 when, as a student, he attended the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress. He joined the Congress Socialist...

, Pandit Yamuna Karjee
Pandit Yamuna Karjee
Yamuna Karjee was an Indian independence activist.-Early life and education:Yamuna Karjee was born in a small village name Deopar near Pusa in Darbhanga District of Bihar in 1898 in a Bhumihar Brahmin family. His father Anu Karjee was a farmer who died when Yamuna Karjee was just 6 months old...

 and many others who worked for India's freedom relentlessly and helped in the upliftment of the underprivileged masses. Khudiram Bose
Khudiram Bose
Khudiram Bose was a Bengali revolutionary, one of the youngest revolutionaries early in the Indian independence movement...

, Upendra Narayan Jha "Azad", Prafulla Chaki
Prafulla Chaki
Prafulla Chaki was a Bengali revolutionary associated with the Jugantar group of revolutionaries who carried out assassinations against British colonial officials in an attempt to secure Indian independence.- Early life :...

 and Baikuntha Shukla
Baikuntha Shukla
Baikunth Shukla was an Indian nationalist and revolutionary. He was the nephew of Yogendra Shukla, one of the founders of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association ....

 were active in revolutionary movement in Bihar.

On 15 January 1934, Bihar was devastated by an earthquake
1934 Bihar earthquake
The 1934 Bihar earthquake was one of the worst earthquakes in India's history. Some 30,000 people were said to have died. Munger and Muzaffarpur were completely destroyed. This 8.4 magnitude earthquake occurred on January 15, 1934 at around 2:13 PM and caused widespread damage in the northern...

 of magnitude 8.4. Some 30,000 people were said to have died in the quake.

The state of Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

 was carved out of Bihar in the year 2000. The 2005 Bihar assembly elections ended 15 years of continuous RJD rule in the state, giving way to NDA
National Democratic Alliance (India)
The National Democratic Alliance is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party and had thirteen constituent parties. Its convenor is Sharad Yadav, and its honorary chairman is former prime minister Atal...

 led by Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumār is an Indian politician currently serving as Chief Minister of Bihar, an eastern state of India. He leads the Janata Dal party...

.

Bihari
Bihari people
The Biharis are an ethnic group originating from the present state of Bihar with a history going back three millennia...

 migrant workers have faced violence and prejudice in many parts of India, such as Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, Punjab
Punjab (India)
Punjab ) is a state in the northwest of the Republic of India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest as well as the Pakistani province of Punjab to the...

 and Assam
Assam
Assam , also, rarely, Assam Valley and formerly the Assam Province , is a northeastern state of India and is one of the most culturally and geographically distinct regions of the country...

, making an impression that India still carries tribal localized mindset despite of more than 50 years of Independence as a Republic.

Geography and climate







Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain. It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Koshi
Koshi River
The Kosi River or Koshi —also Saptakoshi for its seven Himalayan tributaries—is a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India. Some of the rivers of the Koshi system, such as the Arun, the Sun Kosi and the Bhote Koshi, originate in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China...

, originating in the Nepal
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about along its himalayan axis by across. With it slightly outranks Bangladesh or the state of Arkansas. Nepal is landlocked by India on three sides and China's Xizang Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Nepal and...

 Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

 and the Bagmati
Bagmati
The Bagmati River is a river of Nepal and India. It flows through the Kathmandu valley and is the river separating Kathmandu from Lalitpur. It is considered a holy river both by Hindus and Buddhists...

 originating in the Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley
The Kathmandu Valley , located in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites within this valley.-Etymology:The city of...

 that regularly flood
2008 Bihar flood
The 2008 Bihar flood was one of the most disastrous floods in the history of Bihar, an impoverished and densely populated state in India. A breach in the Kosi embankment near the Indo-Nepal border occurred on 18 August 2008. The river changed course and inundated areas which hadn't experienced...

 parts of the Bihar plains. The total area covered by the state of Bihar is 94163 km² (36,357 sq mi). the state is located between 21°-58'-10" N ~ 27°-31'-15" N latitude and between 83°-19'-50" E ~ 88°-17'-40" E longitude. Its average elevation above sea level is 173 feet (52.7 m).

The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east. Other Ganges tributaries are the Son River
Son River
Son River of central India is the largest of the Ganges' southern tributaries. A British 1850s diary shows that the river was written in English as Soane.-Course:...

, Budhi Gandak
Budhi Gandak
The Burhi Gandak River is a tributary of the Ganges. It is known as Sikrahana in its upper reaches. The Burhi Gandak flows parallel to and east of the Gandak River in an old channel.-Course:...

, Chandan, Orhani and Falgu
Falgu River
The Falgu River which flows past Gaya, India in the Indian state of Bihar, is a sacred river for Hindus.-Course:...

. Though the Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

 begin at the foothills, a short distance inside Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 and to the north of Bihar, the mountains influence Bihar's landforms, climate, hydrology and culture
Mithila
Mithila was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself, as well as to the modern-day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha...

. Central parts of Bihar have some small hills, for example the Rajgir hills
Rajgir hills
Rajgir hills,also known as "Rajhara" hills lying in central regions of the Indian state of Bihar, are two parallel ridges extending around 65 km. At their highest point, the hills rise to an altitude of 388 meters, but mostly the hills are around 300 meters high...

. To the south is the Chota Nagpur plateau, which was part of Bihar until 2000 but now is part of a separate state called Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

.

Bihar is mildly cold in the winter, with the lowest temperatures being in the range from 4–10 °C (39.2–50 F). Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer, with average highs around 35–40 °C (95–104 F). April to mid June are the hottest months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October, November, February, and March have a pleasant climate.

Land Division


A reason for the poverty
Poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

 that is found so widely in Bihar are the land divisions.
The lands started of as huge farmlands covering several acres, but in due course the
area drastically reduced as the land was always divided between all the sons and with
the continuous divisions a once-huge farmland is converted into several farms which
now have became smaller than an average sized room.
Another reason is the mistrust between the farmers. They let weeds to grow in the areas
between the farmlands so that a proper boundary is not needed, in India alone this wastes
almost a hundred thousand acre of fertile farmland.

Flora and fauna




Bihar has notified forest area of 6,764.14 km², which is 7.1% of its geographical area. The sub Himalayan foothill of Someshwar and the Dun ranges in the Champaran district are another belt of moist deciduous forests. These also consist of scrub, grass and reeds. Here the rainfall is above 1,600 mm and thus promotes luxuriant Sal forests in the area. The most important trees are Shorea Robusta, Sal Cedrela Toona, Khair
Khair
Khair is a city and a municipal board in Aligarh district in the Indian state....

, and Semal. Deciduous forests also occur in the Saharsa
Saharsa
Saharsa is a city and a municipality in the Saharsa district in the Indian state of Bihar in north India, east of the Kosi River. It is the administrative headquarters of the Saharsa District, and is in the Kosi Division. Sahrasa is also the name of the Parliamentary constituency, which contains...

 and Purnia
Purnia
Purnia is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Purnia district of the Indian state of Bihar. It is located 400 km from Patna.The Indian army, Border Security Force ,and the SSB and the have bases around the city...

 districts. Shorea Robusta (sal), Diospyros melanoxylon
Diospyros melanoxylon
Coromandel Ebony or East Indian Ebony is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae that is native to India and Sri Lanka....

 (kendu), Boswellia serrata
Boswellia serrata
Boswellia serrata is Indian frankincense or Salai. It is found in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & Andhara Pradesh in India.- Medical usage :...

 (salai), Terminalia tomentose (Asan), Terminalia bellayoica (Bahera), Terminalia Arjuna (Arjun), Pterocarpus Marsupium (Paisar), Madhuca indica (Mahua) are the common flora
Flora
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animals is fauna.-Etymology:...

 across the forest of Bihar.

The Ganges River dolphins, or "sois" are found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra.This river dolphin is the national aquatic animal of India. It is now considered amongst the most endangered mammal
Mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...

s of the region. The dolphins range from 2.3 to 2.6 meters in length. They have impaired vision due to the muddy river water but use sonar signals to navigate.Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary is located in Bhagalpur District of Bihar, India. The sanctuary is a 50 km stretch of the Ganges River from Sultanganj to Kahalgaon. Designated in 1991, it is the only protected area for the endangered Gangetic dolphins in Asia...

, near Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
Bhagdattpuram was one of the most influential towns in "Aryavarta" . It is supposed to have been concurrent to Patliputra or Patna. Bhagdattpuram finds its mention in the Vedas and Ramayana as well. It is supposed to be the kingdom of Daanvir Karna, the son of Kunti and the Sun God...

 is set up to ensure the protection of this species.

Valmiki National Park
Valmiki National Park
Valmiki National Park is located in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India. The extensive forest area of Valmikinagar was owned by the Bettiah Raj and Ramanagar Raj until early 1950s...

, West Champaran district, covering about 800 km² (309 sq mi) of forest, is the 18th Tiger Reserve of India and is ranked fourth in terms of density of tiger population. It has a diverse landscape, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition, along with the prime protected carnivores.

Demographics


Bihar is the third most populated state of India
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 with total population of 82,998,509 (43,243,795 male and 39,754,714 female). Nearly 85% of Bihar's population lives in rural areas. Almost 58% of Biharis are below 25 years age, which is the highest in India. The density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 is 881. The sex ratio
Sex ratio
Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. The primary sex ratio is the ratio at the time of conception, secondary sex ratio is the ratio at time of birth, and tertiary sex ratio is the ratio of mature organisms....

 is 919 females per 1000 males. Since ancient times, Bihar has attracted migrants and settlers including Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

is, Turks
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 from Central Asia, Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

s, Afghans
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 and Punjabi
Punjabi people
The Punjabi people , ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ), also Panjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan group from South Asia. They are the second largest of the many ethnic groups in South Asia. They originate in the Punjab region, which has been been the location of some of the oldest civilizations in the world including, the...

 Hindu refugees during the Partition of British India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

 in 1947. Bihar has a total literacy rate of 63.82% (75.7% for males and 55.1% for females).

Government and administration




The constitutional head of the Government of Bihar is the Governor, who is appointed by the President of India
President of India
The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India, as well as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. President of India is also the formal head of all the three branches of Indian Democracy - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary...

. The real executive power rests with the Chief Minister
Chief Minister
A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

 and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having a majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government.

The head of the bureaucracy of the State is the Chief Secretary. Under this position, is a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service is the administrative civil service of the Government of India. It is one of the three All India Services....

, Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
The Indian Police Service , simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India...

, and different wings of the State Civil Services. The judiciary
Judiciary
The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes...

 is headed by the Chief Justice. Bihar has a High Court which has been functioning since 1916. All the branches of the government are located in the state capital, Patna.

The state is divided into 09 divisions and 38 districts, for administrative purposes. The various districts included in the divisions – Patna
Patna Division
Patna division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Patna is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists Patna District; Nalanda District, also called Biharsharif District; Bhojpur District, also called Arrah district; Rohtas...

, Tirhut
Tirhut Division
Tirhut division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Muzaffarpur is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of West Champaran, also called Bettiah district; East Champaran, also called Motihari district; Muzaffarpur district;...

, Saran
Saran Division
Saran division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Chapra is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of Saran District, also called Chapra District, Siwan District, Gopalganj District....

, Darbhanga
Darbhanga Division
Darbhanga Division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India, and Darbhanga town is the administrative headquarters of the division. , the division consists of Darbhanga District, Begusarai District, Madhubani District,and Samastipur District.- External links :* *...

, Kosi
Kosi Division
Kosi division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Saharsa is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of Saharsa district, Madhepura district, and Supaul district....

, Purnia
Purnia Division
Purnia division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Purnia is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of Purnia district, Katihar district, Araria district, and Kishanganj district....

, Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur Division
Bhagalpur division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India, with Bhagalpur as the administrative headquarters of the division. , the division consists of Bhagalpur District, and Banka District.-See also:...

, Munger
Munger Division
Munger division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Munger is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of Munger District, Begusarai District Jamui District, Khagaria District, Lakhisarai District, and Sheikhpura District...

 and Magadh Division
Magadh Division
Magadh division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India. Gaya is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists Gaya district, Nawada district, Aurangabad district, Jehanabad district, and Arwal district.-References:...

, are as listed below.

Politics


See also: Political parties in Bihar, Elections in Bihar
Elections in Bihar
Elections in Bihar state, India are conducted in accordance with the Constitution of India. The Assembly of Bihar creates laws regarding the conduct of local body elections unilaterally while any changes by the state legislature to the conduct of state level elections need to be approved by the...


Bihar was an important part of India's struggle for independence. Gandhi became the mass leader only after the Champaran Satyagraha
Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1918 and 1919...

 that he launched on the repeated request of a local leader, Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla
Raj Kumar Shukla was an indigo cultivator of Champaran , who met Gandhiji to make him aware of the plight of the cultivators in Champaran and persuaded him to come there...

, and Gandhi was supported by Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was an Indian politician and educator. He was one of the architects of the Indian Republic, having drafted its first constitution and serving as the first president of independent India...

, Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha , known as Bihar Vibhuti, was an Indian statesman who was the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of the Indian state of Bihar...

 and Brajkishore Prasad
Brajkishore Prasad
Brajkishore Prasad was born in 1877 in a prominent kayastha family in Shrinagar to Ramjivan Lal a zamindar now in Siwan district in Bihar. He had his early education in Chapra and Patna before moving to Presidency College in Calcutta where he completed his legal training. In between he was married...

.

The first Bihar governments in 1937 and 1946 were led by two eminent leaders Sri Babu (Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha
Sri Krishna Sinha
Sri Krishna Sinha , known as Bihar Kesari, was the first Chief Minister of the Indian state of Bihar . Along with the nationalists Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sinha is regarded among the Architects of Modern Bihar...

) and Anugrah Babu (Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha , known as Bihar Vibhuti, was an Indian statesman who was the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of the Indian state of Bihar...

) who were men of unimpeachable integrity and great public spirit. They ran an exemplary government in Bihar. Bihar was rated as the best administered among the states in the country at that time.

Even after independence, when India was falling into an autocratic rule during the regime of Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

, the main thrust to the movement to hold elections came from Bihar under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan
Jayaprakash Narayan
Jayaprakash Narayan , widely known as JP Narayan, Jayaprakash, or Loknayak, was an Indian independence activist and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful Total Revolution...

. The airport of Patna is also named after him.

This resulted in two things:
  1. Bihar gained an anti-establishment image. The establishment-oriented press often projected the state as indiscipline and anarchy.
  2. As a result, the identity of Bihar, representing a glorious past, was lost. Its voice often used to get lost in the din of regional clamor of other states, specially the linguistic states like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
    Madhya Pradesh
    Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

    , etc.


Since the regional identity was slowly getting sidelined, its place was taken up by caste
Caste
Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines elements of endogamy, occupation, culture, social class, tribal affiliation and political power. It should not be confused with race or social class, e.g. members of different castes in one society may belong to the same race, as in India...

 based politics, power initially being in the hands of the Bhumihar
Bhumihar
Bhumihar or Babhan or Bhuin-har is a Brahmin Hindu community mainly found in the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh.- Varna status :...

, Rajput
Rajput
A Rajput is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and in some parts of Pakistan. Rajputs are descendants of one of the major ruling warrior classes in the Indian subcontinent, particularly North India...

, Kayastha
Kayastha
Kayastha or Kayasth or Kayeth is a caste or community of Hindus originating in India. Kayastha means "scribe" in Sanskrit, and has traditionally denoted members of the writer caste....

 and Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

. After independence, the power was shared by the two great Gandhians Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha
Sri Krishna Sinha
Sri Krishna Sinha , known as Bihar Kesari, was the first Chief Minister of the Indian state of Bihar . Along with the nationalists Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sinha is regarded among the Architects of Modern Bihar...

, who later became the first Chief Minister of Bihar and Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Anugrah Narayan Sinha
Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha , known as Bihar Vibhuti, was an Indian statesman who was the first Deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of the Indian state of Bihar...

, who decidedly was next to him in the cabinet and served as the first deputy Chief Minister cum Finance Minister of Bihar.In the late 60s, the death of Mr. Lalit Narayan Mishra, the Indian Railway minister (who was killed by a hand grenade attack for which Central leadership is blamed most of the time) pronounced the end of indigenous work oriented mass leaders. For two decades, the Congress ruled the state with the help of puppet chief ministries hand in glove with the central government (Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

) ignoring the welfare of the people of the state. It was at this time that Chandrashekhar Singh
Chandrashekhar Singh
Chandrashekhar Singh was a member of the Indian National Congress and served as the Chief Minister of Bihar from August 1983 to March 1985. He also held a number of Cabinet Minister positions in the Cabinet of Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi....

 became the Chief Minister. It was the time when a prominent leader like Satyendra Narayan Sinha took sides with the Janata Party
Janata Party
The Janata Party was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the state of emergency imposed by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her Indian National Congress...

 and deserted congress from where his political roots originated, following the ideological differences with the congress. Idealism did assert itself in the politics from time to time, viz, 1977 when a wave defeated the entrenched Congress Party and then again in 1989 when Janata Dal
Janata Dal
Janata Dal is an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Congress, and the Jan Morcha led by V. P...

 came to power on an anti corruption wave. In between, the socialist movement tried to break the stranglehold of the status quoits under the leadership of Mahamaya Prasad Sinha and Karpoori Thakur
Karpoori Thakur
Karpoori Thakur was an Indian politician from the Bihar state. He was popularly known as Jan Nayak...

. Unfortunately, this could not flourish, partly due to the impractical idealism of these leaders and partly due to the machinations of the central leaders of the Congress Party who felt threatened by a large politically aware state. Communist Party in Bihar was formed in 1939. The Communist movement in Bihar was led by veteran communist leaders like the venerable Pandit Karyanand Sharma
Pandit Karyanand Sharma
Pandit Karyanand Sharma was an eminent nationalist and peasant leader who led movements against zamindars and British.-Biography:Pandit Karyanand Sharma was born in Sahoor village in Monghyr district into a poor tenant Bhumihar Brahmin family. Although he started studying in 1906, he had soon to...

, Indradeep Sinha
Indradeep Sinha
Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family at Shakara village in Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914. He had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He...

, Sunil Mukherjee, Jagannath Sarkar
Many Streams by Jagannath Sarkar
-Profile:A veteran Indian Freedom Fighter, Communist leader, thinker and writer on social issues, Jagannath Sarkar was born on 25 September 1919 in Puri . He belonged to an illustrious family of Bengal...

, Rahul Sankrityayan
Rahul Sankrityayan
Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan , who is called the Father of Hindi Travel literature, was one of the most widely-traveled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He became a buddhist monk and eventually took up Marxist Socialism...

, Karyanand Sharma and others.

The Communist Party in Bihar was a formidable force, and were in the forefront of all the progressive movements in Bihar. It was the Communist Party of Bihar headed by Jagannath Sarkar which fought against the "total revolution" of Jaya Prakash Narain.

Janata Dal came to power in the state in 1990 on the back of its victory at the national stage in 1989. Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav is an Indian politician from Bihar. He was the Minister of Railways from 2004 to 2009 in the ruling United Progressive Alliance government, and the President of the Rashtriya Janata Dal political party...

 became Chief Minister after winning the race of legislative party leadership by a slender margin against Ram Sundar Das, a former chief minister from the Janata Party
Janata Party
The Janata Party was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the state of emergency imposed by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her Indian National Congress...

 and close to eminent Janata Party
Janata Party
The Janata Party was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the state of emergency imposed by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her Indian National Congress...

 leaders like Chandrashekhar
Chandrashekhar
Chandrashekhar is a prolific Indian film actor working in the Bollywood film industry.He has appeared in some 112 films since his 1954 in Aurat Teri Yehi Kahani .In 1984 he appeared in Sharaabi....

 and S N Sinha. Later, Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav is an Indian politician from Bihar. He was the Minister of Railways from 2004 to 2009 in the ruling United Progressive Alliance government, and the President of the Rashtriya Janata Dal political party...

 gained popularity with the masses through a series of popular and populist measures. The principled socialists, Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumār is an Indian politician currently serving as Chief Minister of Bihar, an eastern state of India. He leads the Janata Dal party...

 included, gradually left him and Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav is an Indian politician from Bihar. He was the Minister of Railways from 2004 to 2009 in the ruling United Progressive Alliance government, and the President of the Rashtriya Janata Dal political party...

 by 1995, was both Chief Minister as well as the President of his party, Rashtriya Janata Dal
Rashtriya Janata Dal
The Rashtriya Janata Dal is a political party in India, based in the state of Bihar. The party was founded in 1997 by Laloo Prasad Yadav. The party came about as a result of Lalu Prasad Yadav, ex-president of Janata Dal, being evicted by Sharad Yadav, the then president, on corruption charges ...

. He was a charismatic leader who had the people's support. But he couldn't bring the derailed wagon of development of the state onto the track. When corruption charges got serious, he quit the post of CM but anointed his wife as the CM and ruled through proxy. In this period, the administration deteriorated quickly.

By 2004, 14 years after Lalu's victory, The Economist
The Economist
The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

 magazine said that "Bihar [had] become a byword for the worst of India, of widespread and inescapable poverty, of corrupt politicians indistinguishable from mafia-dons they patronize, caste-ridden social order that has retained the worst feudal cruelties". In 2005, the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 believed that issues faced by the state was "enormous" because of "persistent poverty, complex social stratification, unsatisfactory infrastructure and weak governance".

In 2005, as disaffection reached a crescendo among the masses including the middle classes, the RJD was voted out of power and Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav
Lalu Prasad Yadav is an Indian politician from Bihar. He was the Minister of Railways from 2004 to 2009 in the ruling United Progressive Alliance government, and the President of the Rashtriya Janata Dal political party...

 lost an election to a coalition headed by his previous ally and now rival Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumār is an Indian politician currently serving as Chief Minister of Bihar, an eastern state of India. He leads the Janata Dal party...

. Despite the separation of financially richer Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

, Bihar has actually seen more positive growth in recent years under his leadership.

Currently, there are two main political formations: the NDA
National Democratic Alliance (India)
The National Democratic Alliance is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party and had thirteen constituent parties. Its convenor is Sharad Yadav, and its honorary chairman is former prime minister Atal...

 which comprises Janata Dal, Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 and the Rashtriya Janata Dal
Rashtriya Janata Dal
The Rashtriya Janata Dal is a political party in India, based in the state of Bihar. The party was founded in 1997 by Laloo Prasad Yadav. The party came about as a result of Lalu Prasad Yadav, ex-president of Janata Dal, being evicted by Sharad Yadav, the then president, on corruption charges ...

 led coalition which also has the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

. There are myriad other political formations. Ram Vilas Paswan
Ram Vilas Paswan
Ram Vilas Paswan is the president of the Lok Janshakti Party and a Rajya Sabha MP.-Early life and education:Paswan was born to a Dusadh family...

 led Lok Janshakti Party
Lok Janshakti Party
The Lok Jan Shakti Party is a state political party in the state Bihar , India. It is led by Ram Vilas Paswan. The party was formed in 2000 when Paswan split from Janata Dal . The party has considerable following amongst Dalits in Bihar. The 2004 Lok Sabha elections marked a major break-through for...

 is a constituent of the UPA at the center. The Communist Party of India
Communist Party of India
The Communist Party of India is a national political party in India. In the Indian communist movement, there are different views on exactly when the Indian communist party was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by CPI is 26 December 1925...

 had a strong presence in Bihar at one time, but is weakened now. The CPM and Forward Bloc have a minor presence, along with the other extreme Left. In the 2010 state elections Bihar's current Chief Minister Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumar
Nitish Kumār is an Indian politician currently serving as Chief Minister of Bihar, an eastern state of India. He leads the Janata Dal party...

 led government got thunderous support from public and won 206 seats out of 243 seats. Analysts and even Nitish Kumar's political opponents credit Kumar's excellent pro-public governance centered around development, curb on crime and corruption and given importance of all sections of society. In the past 5 years Bihar made fast progress and has implemented many novel ideas, for which it is held in high esteem by other states of India. The recent performance in assembly elections and mature voting by people of Bihar, which also saw for the first time in Indian electorates the highest number of female voting, is being called as something to follow all over India to bring political maturity in the nation and improve the quality of governance and politicians by rightfully exercising the democratic rights in true sense. Bihar is credited to set this example. Also after coming to power again in 2010, the current government immediately started its movement against corruption by confiscating properties of corrupt officials and opening schools in them. Simultaneously they introduced Bihar Special Court Act to curb crime.

Economy

Year Gross State Domestic Product
(millions of Indian Rupees)
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005





The economy of Bihar is largely service oriented, but it also has a significant agricultural base. The state also has a small industrial sector. As of 2008, agriculture accounted for 35%, industry 9% and service 55% of the economy of the state. Among all the sector, manufacturing sector performed very poorly in the state between 2002–2006, with an average growth rate of 0.38% compared to India's 7.8%. Bihar was the lowest GDP per capita
States of India by size of economy
This page lists Indian states and major cities by their nominal gross domestic product . It also displays each state's level of annual GDP growth, as recorded between 1999 and 2007, and the level of growth in GDP per capita, as recorded between 2004 and 2011.-List of states:This is a list of states...

 in India, although there are pockets of higher than the average per capita income. Between 1999 and 2008, GDP grew by 5.1% a year, which was below the Indian average of 7.3%. More recently, Bihar's state GDP recorded a growth of 18% between 2006–2007, and stood at 94251 Crores Rupees ($21 billion nominal GDP). Between a 5 year period of 2004–2009, Bihar's GDP grew at a stunning rate of 11.03%. This makes Bihar the fastest growing major state. In actual terms, Bihar state GDP was ranked 2nd out of 28 states, ranking it next only to Gujarat.

Corruption is an import hurdle for the government to overcome according to Transparency International India, which highlighted Bihar as the Union's most corrupt state in a 2005 report. Despite the recent economic gains, significant challenges remain and the government has also stated that combating corruption is now the biggest challenge the administration is faced. Bihar has seen a sea change under the Nitish Kumar regime.

Bihar has significant levels of production of mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

, guava
Guava
Guavas are plants in the myrtle family genus Psidium , which contains about 100 species of tropical shrubs and small trees. They are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America...

, litchi, pineapple, brinjal, cauliflower, bhindi, and cabbage in India. Despite the states leading role in food production, investment in irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

 and other agriculture facilities has been inadequate in the past. Historically, the sugar and vegetable oil industries were flourishing sectors of Bihar. Until the mid fifties, 25% of India's sugar output was from Bihar. Dalmianagar
Dalmianagar
Dalmianagar is one of the oldest and biggest industrial towns in India. It is situated at Dehri-on-Sone on the banks of the Son River in Rohtas district of Bihar...

 was a large agro-industrial town. There have been attempts to industrialize the state between 1950 and 1980: an oil refinery
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

 in Barauni
Barauni
Barauni is a town in the state of Bihar, India.Barauni was once an Industrial town in Begusarai district, Bihar. After the partition of the Jharkhand from Bihar, it had and still has the potential to become the industrial capital of Bihar....

, a motor scooter plant at Fatuha, and a power plant at Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur Town is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division....

. However, these were forced to shut down due to central government policy which neutralized the strategic advantages of Bihar. Hajipur, near Patna, remains a major industrial town in the state, linked to the capital city through the Ganges bridge and good road infrastructure.

The state's debt was estimated at 77% of GDP by 2007. The Finance Ministry has given top priority to create investment opportunities for big industrial houses like Reliance Industries
Reliance Industries
Reliance Industries Limited is an Indian conglomerate company headquartered at Mumbai, India. The company operates through three business segments: petrochemicals, refining, and oil and gas, other segment of the company includes textile, retail business, special economic zone development and...

. Further developments have taken place in the growth of small industries, improvements in IT infrastructure, the new software park in Patna, and the completion of the expressway from the Purvanchal border through Bihar to Jharkhand. In August 2008, a Patna registered company called the Security and Intelligence Services (SIS) India Limited took over the Australian guard and mobile patrol services business of American conglomerate, United Technologies Corp (UTC). SIS is registered and taxed in Bihar. The capital city, Patna, is one of the better off cities in India when measured by per capita income.

Education


Historically, Bihar has been a major centre of learning, home to the ancient universities of Nalanda (established in 450 CE), Odantapurā (established in 550CE) and Vikramshila (established in 783 AD). Unfortunately, that tradition of learning which had its origin from the time of Buddha or perhaps earlier, was lost during the medieval period when it is believed that marauding armies of the invaders destroyed these centers of learning.

Bihar saw a revival of its education system during the later part of the British rule
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 when they established Patna University (established in 1917) which is the seventh oldest university of the Indian subcontinent. Some other centers of high learning established by the British rule are Patna College (established in 1839), Bihar School of Engineering (established in 1900; now known as National Institute of Technology, Patna
National Institute of Technology, Patna
The National Institute of Technology Patna , formerly Bihar School of Engineering and Bihar College of Engineering, is a National Institute of Technology located in Patna, Bihar, India. It was created by the Government of India on January 28, 2004.-History:NITP is the sixth oldest engineering...

), Prince of Wales Medical College (established in 1925; now Patna Medical College and Hospital), Science College, Patna (established in 1928) among others.

After independence Bihar lost the pace in terms of establishing a centre of education. Modern Bihar has a grossly inadequate educational infrastructure creating a huge mismatch between demand and supply. This problem further gets compounded by the growing aspirations of the people and an increase in population. The craving for higher education among the general population of Bihar has led to a massive migration of the student community from the state.
Literacy rate from 1951~2001
Year Total Males Females
1961 21.95 35.85 8.11
1971 23.17 35.86 9.86
1981 32.32 47.11 16.61
1991 37.49 51.37 21.99
2001 47.53 60.32 33.57
2011 63.82 73.39 53.33


Bihar in terms of female literacy being 53.3%, is striving to climb as the government has established various educational institutions. At the time of independence, women's literacy in Bihar was 4.22%. It is a pleasant surprise to find that in spite of the meagre investment on education in Bihar, specially compared to other Indian states, the students have done very well. Famed national institutes of learning such as IITs
Indian Institutes of Technology
The Indian Institutes of Technology are a group of autonomous engineering and technology-oriented institutes of higher education. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as “institutions of national importance”, and lays down their powers, duties,...

, IIMs
Indian Institutes of Management
The Indian Institutes of Management , are graduate business schools in India. They were set up with the objective of providing management education and to assist the industry through research and consulting services. The IIMs award diplomas and not degrees.- Institutes :Indian Institute of...

, NITs and AIIMS
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
All India Institute of Medical Sciences is a premier medical college and teaching hospital based in New Delhi, India. The Institute operates autonomously under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare ....

 have always have had a good representation from Bihar which is usually higher than their proportion of the population. Bihar has a National Institute of Technology (NIT) in Patna and an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)in Patna. Other institutions of higher learning, and coveted positions in the government also show a greater share than the percentage of their population. A recent survey by Pratham rated the absorption of their teaching by the Bihar children better than those in other states.

Bihar established several new education institutes between 2006–2008. BIT Mesra
Birla Institute of Technology
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra , is an autonomous engineering and technology oriented institute of higher education located in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India...

 started its Patna extension center in September 2006. On 8 August 2008, IIT was inaugurated in Patna with students from all over India. National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) is being set up in Hajipur. On 4 August 2008, National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna
National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna
National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna is an autonomous institute for education fashion and related technology located in Patna, India...

 was established as 9th such institute of fashion technology in India. Chanakya National Law University
Chanakya National Law University
The Bihar Government has established Chanakya National Law University to provide quality legal education along the lines of the established National Law Schools, such as NLSIU Bangalore, NUJS Kolkata, NALSAR Hyderabad, ....

 a law university and Chandragupt Institute of Management
Chandragupt Institute of Management
Chandragupt Institute of Management Patna has been established in 2008 as an autonomous institution under Societies Act, with active support and help from the Government of Bihar. An AICTE approved institution , it is established on the lines of IIMs. The institute is expected to contribute...

 a management institute was established in later half of 2008. Steps to revive the ancient Nalanda University as Nalanda International University is being taken for which countries like Japan, Korea and China have also taken initiatives. The Aryabhatt Knowledge University in Patna is framed to which all the engineering as well medical colleges are affiliated in Bihar. The A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies is a premier research institute in the state.

Bihar is pioneer in the field of yoga
Yoga
Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. The goal of yoga, or of the person practicing yoga, is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility while meditating on Supersoul...

 with its internationally renowned institute Bihar School of Yoga
Bihar School of Yoga
The Bihar School of Yoga is an internationally acclaimed school of Yoga founded by Swami Satyananda Saraswati in 1964 to fulfill the instruction given by his Guru, Sri Swami Sivananda of propagating the ancient wisdom of yoga from door to door and from shore to shore...

 in Munger
Munger
Munger town is the headquarters of Munger district, in the Indian state of Bihar. Historically, Munger is known for its manufacturing of iron articles such as firearms and swords. One of the major institutions in Munger is Bihar School of Yoga. It is one of the foremost learning center in the...

.

Bihar e-Governance Services & Technologies (BeST) and the Government of Bihar
Government of Bihar
The Government of Bihar, known locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Bihar and its 38 districts of its divisions...

 have initiated a unique program to establish a center of excellence called Bihar Knowledge Center, a finishing school to equip students with the latest skills and customized short-term training programs at an affordable cost. The center aims to attract every youth of the state to hone up their technical, professional and soft skills and prepare them for the present industry requirement/job market.
now a day's bihar is faceing another challenge on the front of the technichal education. the number of the engineering colleges in Bihar is on increase.

The Bihar government has decided to open few more Universities in the coming year. They are Rashtra Kavi Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Hindi University at Begusarai. Also a Women's University is planned. Other specialised institutes will be Bihar Sports University and Bihar University of Information Technology.

Language and literature


Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 and Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 are the official languages of the state (recently Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 is also included as one of the official languages of the state, although the usage of the language for official purposes is negligible), while the majority of the people speak one of the Bihari languages
Bihari languages
Bihari is a name given to the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, and Maithili are spoken in Nepal as well. The Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili speaking population form more than 21% of Nepalese...

 – Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

, Angika, Magadhi or Bhojpuri . Presently Bihari languages
Bihari languages
Bihari is a name given to the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, and Maithili are spoken in Nepal as well. The Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili speaking population form more than 21% of Nepalese...

 are considered one of the five subgroups of Hindi; however, Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 was declared a separate language. However, these are considered to be derived from the language of the erstwhile Magadha
Magadha
Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganga; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra...

 state – Magadhi Prakrit
Magadhi Prakrit
Magadhi Prakrit is of one of the three Dramatic Prakrits, the written languages of Ancient India following the decline of Pali and Sanskrit. Magadhi Prakrit was spoken in the eastern Indian subcontinent, in a region spanning what is now eastern India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. It is believed to be the...

, along with Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

, Assamese
Assamese language
Assamese is the easternmost Indo-Aryan language. It is used mainly in the state of Assam in North-East India. It is also the official language of Assam. It is also spoken in parts of Arunachal Pradesh and other northeast Indian states. Nagamese, an Assamese-based Creole language is widely used in...

, and Oriya
Oriya language
Oriya , officially Odia from November, 2011, is an Indian language, belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is mainly spoken in the Indian states of Orissa and West Bengal...

. Bihari Hindi
Bihari Hindi
Bihari Hindi is a form of Hindi mainly spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India.The language deviates slightly from Standard Hindi. The first characteristic is the tone of speaking which is very slow, and many times accompanied by stretching the last word of the sentence. Another important...

, a slang form of Standard Hindi, is used as a lingua franca
Lingua franca
A lingua franca is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues.-Characteristics:"Lingua franca" is a functionally defined term, independent of the linguistic...

 and many speak it as their first language throughout the state. A small minority also speak Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

, mainly in big districts or along the border area with West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

. Many Bengali
Bengali language
Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

 speakers are people from West Bengal or Hindu people from erstwhile East Pakistan
East Pakistan
East Pakistan was a provincial state of Pakistan established in 14 August 1947. The provincial state existed until its declaration of independence on 26 March 1971 as the independent nation of Bangladesh. Pakistan recognized the new nation on 16 December 1971. East Pakistan was created from Bengal...

 who immigrated during the Partition of India
Partition of India
The Partition of India was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India on 14 and 15...

 in 1947. Though Urdu and Bihari languages may relate to each other, however they are different in many ways. Few words in Bihari language sounds same as they are spoken in Urdu; e.g. Sulf-nazuk in Bihari is Sinf-e-Nazuk in Urdu. Also, masculine and feminine words are often not clear in Bihari language as these are in Urdu.

In spite of the large number of speakers of Bihari languages
Bihari languages
Bihari is a name given to the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, and Maithili are spoken in Nepal as well. The Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili speaking population form more than 21% of Nepalese...

, they have not been constitutionally recognized in India. Hindi is the language used for educational and official matters in Bihar. These languages were legally absorbed under the subordinate label of 'HINDI' in the 1961 Census. Such state and national politics have created conditions for language endangerment.

The first success for spreading Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 occurred in Bihar in 1881, when Hindi displaced Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 as the sole official language of the province and became the first state of India to adopt Hindi. In this struggle between competing Hindi and Urdu, the potential claims of the three large mother tongues in the region – Magahi, Bhojpuri and Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 were ignored. After independence Hindi was again given the sole official status through the Bihar Official Language Act, 1950. Urdu became the second official language in the undivided State of Bihar on 16 August 1989.

The relationship of Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 community with Bhojpuri and Magahi communities – the immediate neighbors have been neither very pleasant nor very hostile. Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 has been the only one among them which has been trying to constantly deny superimposition of Hindi over her identity. As of now Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 is a separate language that uses Devanagari
Devanagari
Devanagari |deva]]" and "nāgarī" ), also called Nagari , is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal...

 as the writing script rather than its own script Mithilakshar
Mithilakshar
Tirhuta or Mithilakshar is the script traditionally used for the Maithili language, an Indo-European language spoken in the Indian state of Bihar, Jharkhand, parts of West Bengal and eastern Nepal...

 due to lack of the development of the printing press and also due to ignorance. The other two have given up their claims and have resigned to accept the status of dialects of Hindi.

Bihar has produced a number of writers and scholars, including Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Ram Avatar Sharma
Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Ram Avatar Sharma
Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit Ram Avatar Sharma was an Indian Sanskrit scholar and academic, apart from being an indologist and historian. Pandit Ramavtara Sarma was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family of scholars and pursued the same path of scholarship, becoming the professor of Sanskrit in University...

, Dr. Bhagwati Sharan Mishra, R. K. Sinha
R. K. Sinha
R. K. Sinha was an Indian scholar of English literature. He came from a family of elite intellectuals and academics. He was a DPhil from the University of Oxford and the head of the Department of English, Patna University...

, Raja Radhika Raman Singh, Shiva Pujan Sahay, Divakar Prasad Vidyarthy, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar was an Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academic, who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets. He remerged as a poet of rebellion as a consequence of his nationalist poetry written in the days before Indian independence...

, Ram Briksh Benipuri, Phanishwar Nath 'Renu'
Phanishwar Nath 'Renu'
Phanishwar Nath 'Renu was one of the most successful and influential writers of modern Hindi literature in the post-Premchand era...

, Pandit Nalin Vilochan Sharma, Gopal Singh "Nepali", Baba Nagarjun
Nagarjun
Nagarjun was a major Hindi and Maithili poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies and travelogues, and was known as Janakavi- the People's Poet.-Early life and education:Born Vaidya Nath Mishra, in 1911, into a Maithil Brahmin family...

, Mridula Sinha
Mridula Sinha
Smt. Mridula Sinha is a famous writer of Hindi Literature and EX Chairperson of Central Social Welfare Board. Her book Ek Thi Rani Aisi Bhi based on the life of Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia has been made into a film.-Partial bibliography:...

, and Pankaj Rag
Pankaj Rag
Pankaj Rag is the present Director of Film and Television Institute of India. He is an IAS officer of 1990 batch and has earlier served as Commissioner of Archeology, Archives and Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh....

. Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, the great writer and Buddhist scholar, was born in U.P.
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh abbreviation U.P. , is a state located in the northern part of India. With a population of over 200 million people, it is India's most populous state, as well as the world's most populous sub-national entity...

 but spent his life in the land of Lord Buddha, i.e., Bihar. Hrishikesh Sulabh
Hrishikesh Sulabh
Hrishikesh Sulabh is a Hindi writer, best known for short stories and writing plays in Bideshiya shaili. He works with All India Radio.-Recent:...

 is the prominent writer of the new generation. He is short story writer, playwright and theatre critic. Arun Kamal and Aalok Dhanwa are the well-known poets. Different regional languages also have produced some prominent poets and authors. Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay
Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay is one of the most popular Bengali novelists and short story writers of early 20th century.- Background and writing :Sarat Chandra was born into poverty in Debanandapur, Hooghly, India...

, who is among the greatest writers in Bangla, resided for some time in Bihar. Of late, the latest Indian writer in English, Upamanyu Chatterjee
Upamanyu Chatterjee
Upamanyu Chatterjee is an Indian Bengali author and administrator, notable for his work set in the milieu of the Indian Administrative Service, especially his novel English, August. He was born in Patna, Bihar and was educated at St. Xavier's School and St. Stephen's College, in Delhi...

 also hails from Patna in Bihar. Devaki Nandan Khatri
Devaki Nandan Khatri
Devaki Nandan Khatri was an Indian writer, who belonged to the first generation of popular novelists in the modern Hindi language. Also known as Babu Devakinandan Khatri, he was the first author of mystery novels in Hindi. Chandrakanta is the most popular of his works.- Biography :Khatri was born...

, who rose to fame at the beginning of the 20th century on account of his novels such as Chandrakanta
Chandrakanta (novel)
Chandrakanta is a popular Hindi novel by Devaki Nandan Khatri. It is considered to be the first work of prose in the modern Hindi language, and may have significantly contributed to the language's popularity...

 and Chandrakanta Santati, was born in Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur Town is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division....

, Bihar. Vidyapati Thakur
Vidyapati
Vidyapati Thakur , also known by the sobriquet Maithil Kavi Kokil was a Maithili poet and a Sanskrit writer. He was born in the village of Bishphi in Madhubani district of Bihar state, India. He was son of Ganapati...

 is the most renowned poet of Maithili (c. 14–15th century).

Interestingly, the first Indian author in English was a Bihari, Deen Mohammad. Among the contemporary writers in English Amitava Kumar
Amitava Kumar
Amitava Kumar is an Indian writer and journalist who is currently Professor of English on the Helen D. Lockwood Chair at Vassar College.-Early Life and Education:...

, Tabish Khair
Tabish Khair
Tabish Khair is an Indian English author and associate professor in the Department of English, University of Aarhus in Denmark...

 and Siddharth Choudhary are important names. Siddharth Choudhary has been shortlisted for 2009 Man Asian Literary Prize
Man Asian Literary Prize
The Man Asian Literary Prize, founded in 2007, is an annual literary award given to the best novel by an Asian writer, either written in English or translated into English, and published in the previous calendar year...

 for his book Day Scholar. Bihar has also made important contributions to Urdu literature
Urdu literature
Urdu literature has a long and colorful history that is inextricably tied to the development of that very language, Urdu, in which it is written...

. Famous Urdu writers Syed Sulaiman Nadvi
Syed Sulaiman Nadvi
Allama Sayyed Sulaiman Nadvi was an eminent Indian and Pakistani historian, biographer, littérateur and scholar of Islam...

, Manazir Ahsan Gilani, Jabir Husain
Jabir Husain
Well known Hindi and Urdu writer Jabir Husain was born on 05 June1945. His father’s name is Syed Saifuddin and mother’s name is Najmunnisa Begam. He was born at a very famous historical place Rajgir in Nalanda district of Bihar....

, Hussain Ul Haque
Hussain Ul Haque
Hussain Ul Haque is an eminent Urdu critic, Writer and theorist with a sufi approach in his thought and writings. He has nurtured a whole generation of Urdu researchers, writers and learners since the 1970s.-A brief profile:...

; Eminent Writer, Critic, Bibliographist, Linguist & Scholar of Urdu language Abdul Qavi Desnavi
Abdul Qavi Desnavi
Abdul Qavi Desnavi was born on November 1, 1930 in village Desna of block Asthawan in Nalanda district of Bihar. He was an eminent Writer, Critic, Bibliographist, Linguist & Scholar of Urdu language...

; Eminent Poets Shad Azimabadai, Nasikh, Jamil Mazhari, Mazhar Imam, Suhail Azimabadi; Short story writers Akhtar Orenivi, Shaukat Hayat, Shamoel Ahmed; and Paigham Afaqui
Paigham Afaqui
Paig̲h̲ām Āfāqī , also written Paigham Afaqi pr Paigham Afaqui is the literary name of Akhtar Ali Farooquee , an Indian writer, known particular for his Urdu novels and short stories....

 (novel Makaan), Abdus Samad (novel Do Gaz Zameen), Husainul Haque (novel Farat), Ilyas Ahmed Gaddi (novel Fire Area) enjoy special place in global literature.

The literary and cultural movement Bhookhi Peedhi, or 'Hungry generation
Hungry generation
The Hungry Generation was a literary movement in the Bengali language launched by what is known today as the Hungryalist quartet i.e. Shakti Chattopadhyay, Malay Roy Choudhury, Samir Roychoudhury and Debi Roy alias Haradhon Dhara, during the 1960s in Kolkata, India...

', was launched from Bihar's capital in November 1961 by two brothers, Samir Roychoudhury
Samir Roychoudhury
Samir Roychowdhury , one of the founding fathers of the Hungry Generation 1961-1965 ,was born at Panihati, West Bengal, India in a family of artists, sculptors, photographers and musicians...

 and Malay Roy Choudhury
Malay Roy Choudhury
Malay Roy Choudhury is a Bengali poet and novelist who founded the "Hungryalist Movement" in the 1960s. His literary works have been reviewed by sixty critics in HAOWA 49, a quarterly magazine which devoted its January 2001 special issue to Roy Choudhury's life and works...

. The movement impacted most of the Indian languages of the time.

Urdu is second government language in Bihar which is the mother tongue of Muslims who form about 17% of state's population. Near 25% people in Bihar read and write Urdu. Bihar has produced many Urdu scholars, such as Shaad Azimabadi, Jamil Maz'hari, Khuda Baksh Khan, Maulana Shabnam Kamali, Bismil Azimabadi (poet known for the patriotic ghazal
Ghazal
The ghazal is a poetic form consisting of rhyming couplets and a refrain, with each line sharing the same meter. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain. The form is ancient, originating in 6th century...

 "Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hai"), Kaif Azimabadi, Rasikh Azimabadi, and in these days, Kalim Aajiz.

Arts and crafts


Madhubani painting
Madhubani painting
]]Madhubani painting or Mithila painting is a style of Indian painting, practiced in the Mithila region of Bihar state, India and the adjoining parts of Terai in Nepal. In the present time the main artists include Smt Bharti Dayal ' Ganga devi ' Smt Bua Devi ,late Smt Jagdamba Devi,late Smt Sita...

 is a style of Indian painting practiced in the Mithila
Mithila
Mithila was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself, as well as to the modern-day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha...

 region of Bihar. Tradition states that this style of painting originated at the time of the Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

, when King Janak commissioned artists to do paintings at the time of marriage of his daughter, Sita
SITA
SITA is a multinational information technology company specialising in providing IT and telecommunication services to the air transport industry...

, to Lord Ram. The painting was traditionally done on freshly plastered mud wall of huts, but now it is also done on cloth, hand-made paper and canvas. Madhubani painting mostly depict nature and Hindu religious motifs, and the themes generally revolve around Hindu deities like Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

, Ram
Rama
Rama or full name Ramachandra is considered to be the seventh avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in ancient Indian...

, Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

, Durga
Durga
For the 1985 Hindi Film of Rajesh Khanna see DurgaaIn Hinduism, Durga ; ; meaning "the inaccessible" or "the invincible"; , durga) or Maa Durga "one who can redeem in situations of utmost distress" is a form of Devi, the supremely radiant goddess, depicted as having eighteen arms, riding a lion...

, Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Lakshmi or Lakumi is the Hindu goddess of wealth, prosperity , light, wisdom, fortune, fertility, generosity and courage; and the embodiment of beauty, grace and charm. Representations of Lakshmi are also found in Jain monuments...

, and Saraswati
Saraswati
In Hinduism Saraswati , is the goddess of knowledge, music, arts, science and technology. She is the consort of Brahma, also revered as His Shakti....

. Natural objects like the sun, the moon
Moon
The Moon is Earth's only known natural satellite,There are a number of near-Earth asteroids including 3753 Cruithne that are co-orbital with Earth: their orbits bring them close to Earth for periods of time but then alter in the long term . These are quasi-satellites and not true moons. For more...

, and religious plants like tulsi
Tulsi
Ocimum tenuiflorum Ocimum tenuiflorum Ocimum tenuiflorum (also tulsi, tulasī, or Holy Basil is an aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae which is native throughout the Old World tropics and widespread as a cultivated plant and an escaped weed. It is an erect, much branched subshrub 30–60 cm...

 are also widely painted, along with scenes from the royal court and social events like weddings. Generally no space is left empty. Traditionally, painting was one of the skills that was passed down from generation to generation in the families of the Mithila
Mithila
Mithila was a city in Ancient India, the capital of the Videha Kingdom. The name Mithila is also commonly used to refer to the Videha Kingdom itself, as well as to the modern-day territories that fall within the ancient boundaries of Videha...

 Region, mainly by women. The painting was usually done on walls during festivals, religious events, and other milestones of the life-cycle such as birth, Upanayanam
Upanayanam
Upanayana is the initiation ritual by which initiates are invested with a sacred thread, to symbolize the transference of spiritual knowledge .- Significance of the sacred thread :...

 (Sacred thread ceremony), and marriage.

Manjusha Kala or Angika Art is an art form of Anga
Anga
Anga was a kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE until taken over by Magadha in the same century. Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of...

 region of Bihar. Notably artist Jahar Dasgupta
Jahar Dasgupta
Jahar Dasgupta, is senior contemporary painter from India.-Biography:Jahar Dasgupta was born in Jamshedpur in the year 1942. He was admitted to Kalabhavan, Santiniketan in 1959 and took his primary lessons under legendary mentors like Nand Lal Bose, Ramkinkar Baiz and Benode Behari Mukherjee...

 born in Jamshedpur, Bihar which is presently under state Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

.


Patna School of Painting
Patna School of Painting
Patna School of Painting or Patna Qalaam or company painting is a style of Indian Painting, which existed in Bihar, India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Patna Qalaam was world’s first independent school of painting which dealt exclusively with the commoner and his lifestyle also helped Patna...

 or Patna Qalaam, some times also called Company painting, offshoot of the well-know Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 Miniature
Persian miniature
A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts...

 School of Painting flourished in Bihar during early 18th to mid 20th century. The practitioners of this art form were descendants of Hindu artisans of Mughal painting
Mughal painting
Mughal painting is a particular style of South Asian painting, generally confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting, with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences, and developed largely in the court...

 who facing persecution from the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 Emperor, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

 found refuge, via Murshidabad
Murshidabad
Murshidabad is a city in Murshidabad district of West Bengal state in India. The city of Murshidabad is located on the southern bank of the Bhagirathi, a distributary of the Ganges River. It was the capital of undivided Bengal during the Mughal rule. Nawabs of Bengal used to rule Bengal from this...

, in Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

 during late 18th century. They shared the characteristics of the Mughal
Mughal painting
Mughal painting is a particular style of South Asian painting, generally confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting, with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences, and developed largely in the court...

 painters, but unlike them (whose subjects included only royalty and court scenes), the Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

 painters also started painting bazaar
Bazaar
A bazaar , Cypriot Greek: pantopoula) is a permanent merchandising area, marketplace, or street of shops where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work that area...

 scenes. The paintings were executed in watercolours on paper and on mica
Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

. Favourite subjects were scenes of Indian daily life, local rulers, and sets of festivals and ceremonies. Most successful were the studies of natural life, but the style was generally of a hybrid and undistinguished quality. It is this school of painting that formed the nucleus for the formation of the Patna Art School under the leadership of Shri Radha Mohan. College of Arts and Crafts, Patna is an important centre of fine arts in Bihar.
The artisans of Bihar have been very skillful in creating articles using local materials. Basket
Basket
A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibres, which can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane. While most baskets are made from plant materials, other materials such as horsehair, baleen, or metal wire can be used. Baskets are...

s, cups and saucers made from bamboo
Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

-strips or cane reed are painted in vivid colors are commonly found in Bihari homes. A special container woven out of Sikki Grass
Sikki grass craft
Sikki grass crafts are various handicrafts that are made from a special kind of grass known as sikki found in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India. The art of making items from sikki grass is an ancient one in the province of Bihar.-Procedure:...

 in the north, the "pauti", is a sentimental gift that accompanies a bride when she leaves her home after her wedding. The weavers of Bihar have been practicing their trade for centuries. Among their products in common use are the cotton dhurries and curtains. They are produced by artisans in central Bihar, particularly in the Patna and Biharsharif areas. These colourful sheets, with motifs of Buddhist artifacts, pictures of birds, animals, and/or flowers, gently wafting in the air through doors and windows, blown by a cool summer breeze, used to be one of the most soothing sights as one approached a home or an office. Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
Bhagdattpuram was one of the most influential towns in "Aryavarta" . It is supposed to have been concurrent to Patliputra or Patna. Bhagdattpuram finds its mention in the Vedas and Ramayana as well. It is supposed to be the kingdom of Daanvir Karna, the son of Kunti and the Sun God...

 is well known for its seri-culture, manufacture of silk yarn and weaving them into lovely products. It is known as the tussah or tusser silk.

Performing arts




Bihar has contributed to the Indian (Hindustani) classical music
Indian classical music
The origins of Indian classical music can be found in the Vedas, which are the oldest scriptures in the Hindu tradition. Indian classical music has also been significantly influenced by, or syncretised with, Indian folk music and Persian music. The Samaveda, one of the four Vedas, describes music...

 and has produced musicians like Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna is the Republic of India's highest civilian award, awarded for the highest degrees of national service. This service includes artistic, literary, and scientific achievements, as well as "recognition of public service of the highest order." Unlike knights, holders of the Bharat Ratna...

 Ustad Bismillah Khan, who later migrated out of Bihar. Dhrupad
Dhrupad
Dhrupad is a vocal genre in Hindustani classical music, said to be the oldest still in use in that musical tradition. Its name is derived from the words "dhruva" and "pada"...

 singers like the Malliks (Darbhanga
Darbhanga
Darbhangā is a twin city and a municipal corporation and the capital city of the Darbhanga district and Darbhanga Division in the state of Bihar, India. It is one of the most important districts of North Bihar situated in the very heart of Mithilanchal. According to the latest 2011 census, the...

 Gharana) and the Mishras (Bettiah
Bettiah
Bettiah is the headquarters of West Champaran district in the state of Bihar, near the Indo-Nepal border, 225 Kilometres north-west of Patna. Bettiah, pronounced as 'Betiya', derived its name from 'baint'...

 Gharana), who were patronised by the Zamindars of Darbhanga and Bettiah respectively, have produced maestros like Ram Chatur Mallik, Abhay Narayan Mallick, Indra Kishore Mishra.

Perhaps, not well acknowledged and commercialised as those from the Dagar school of Dhrupad, they have kept the Dhrupad tradition in perhaps the purest forms. Gaya was another centre of excellence in classical music, particularly of the Tappa and Thumri variety. Pandit Govardhan Mishra, son of the Ram Prasad Mishra, himself, an accomplished singer, is perhaps the finest living exponent of Tappa singing in India today, according to Padmashri Gajendra Narayan Singh, former Chairman of Bihar Sangeet Natak Academy. Gajendra Narayan Singh also writes in his latest book "surile Logon Ki Sangat" that Champanagar, Banaili was another major centre of classical music. Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha
Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha
Rajkumar Shyamanand Sinha was the eldest son of Raja Bahadur Kirtyanand Sinha of the Banaili estate...

 of Champanagar Banaili estate was a great patron of music and himself, was one of the finest exponents of classical vocal music in Bihar in his time. Gajendra Narayan Singh in his other book "Swar Gandh" has written that "Kumar Shyamanand Singh of Banaili estate had such expertise in singing that many great singers including Kesarbai Kerkar were convinced about his prowess in singing. After listening to Bandishes from Kumar Saheb, Pandit Jasraj
Pandit Jasraj
Pandit Jasraj is an Indian classical vocalist. He is the foremost exponent of the Mewati Gharana of Hindustani classical music.-Early life:Jasraj was born in Hisar, Haryana in an orthodox brahmin family to Pandit Motiramji, a classical exponent. His family is well known for singing in the Mewati...

 was moved to tears and lamented that alas! he could have such ability himself" (free translation of Hindi text).

Bihar has a very old tradition of beautiful folk songs, sung during important family occasions, such as marriage, birth ceremonies, festivals, etc. and the most famous folk singer has been Padma Shri
Padma Shri
Padma Shri is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan...

 Sharda Sinha
Sharda Sinha
-Background:Sharda Sinha sings Angika and Bhojpuri songs, has received Padma Shri for her contribution to music. Prayag Sangeet Samiti organised Basant Mahotsava at Prayag where Padma Shri Sharda Sinha presented numerous songs based on the theme of spring season, where the advent of spring was...

. They are sung mainly in group settings without the help of many musical instrument
Musical instrument
A musical instrument is a device created or adapted for the purpose of making musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can serve as a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. The history of musical instruments dates back to the...

s like Dholak
Dholak
The Dholak is a North Indian, Pakistani and Nepalese double-headed hand-drum Madal. The name dholki may also refer to a slightly different instrument that uses high-pitch tabla style syahi masala on its treble skin. This instrument is also known as Naal or Dholki....

, Bansuri and occasionally Tabla
Tabla
The tabla is a popular Indian percussion instrument used in Hindustani classical music and in popular and devotional music of the Indian subcontinent. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres...

 and Harmonium
Harmonium
A harmonium is a free-standing keyboard instrument similar to a reed organ. Sound is produced by air being blown through sets of free reeds, resulting in a sound similar to that of an accordion...

 are used. Bihar also has a tradition of lively Holi
Holi
Holi , is a religious spring festival celebrated by Hindus. Holi is also known as festival of Colours. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United...

 songs known as 'Phagua', filled with fun rhythms.
During the 19th century, when the condition of Bihar worsened under the British misrule, many Biharis had to migrate as indentured laborers to West Indian islands, Fiji
Fiji
Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji , is an island nation in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island...

, and Mauritius
Mauritius
Mauritius , officially the Republic of Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about east of Madagascar...

. During this time many sad plays and songs called biraha became very popular, in the Bhojpur
Bhojpur district, Bihar
Bhojpur district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state in eastern India. Arrah town is the administrative headquarters of this district.-History:...

 area. Dramas on that theme continue to be popular in the theaters of Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

.

Dance forms of Bihar are another expression of rich traditions and ethnic identity. There are several folk dance
Folk dance
The term folk dance describes dances that share some or all of the following attributes:*They are dances performed at social functions by people with little or no professional training, often to traditional music or music based on traditional music....

 forms that can keep one enthralled, such as dhobi nach, jhumarnach, manjhi, gondnach, jitiyanach, more morni, dom-domin, bhuiababa, rah baba, kathghorwa nach, jat jatin, launda nach, bamar nach, jharni, jhijhia, natua nach, bidapad nach, sohrai nach, and gond nach.

Theatre is another form in which the Bihari culture expresses itself. Some forms of theater with rich traditions are Bidesia, Reshma-Chuharmal, Bihula-Bisahari, Bahura-Gorin, Raja Salhesh, Sama Chakeva, and Dom Kach. These theater forms originate in the Anga
Anga
Anga was a kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE until taken over by Magadha in the same century. Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of...

 region of Bihar.

Cuisine


Bihari society is not significantly vegetarian and eating of meat is common. However, people discourage eating meat daily and many Hindus don't eat meat on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. The main meat items preferred are fish, chicken and goat meat. Many Hindus and Muslims considers Lamb's Mutton as offensive. In Bihar people generally have boiled rice and daal for lunch. Roti
Roti
Roti is generally a South Asian bread made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. It is also consumed in parts of the Southern Caribbean, particularly in Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and...

 is usually served for dinner as against lunch. The traditional cooking medium is mustard oil
Mustard oil
The term mustard oil is used for three different oils that are made from mustard seeds:*A fatty vegetable oil resulting from pressing the seeds,...

. Khichdi
Khichdi
Khichṛī , alternate spellings khichdi, khichri, khichdee, khichadi, khichuri, khichari, "kitcheree", "kitchree", and many other variants, is a South Asian preparation made from rice and lentils...

, a broth of rice and lentils seasoned with spices and served with several accompanying items, constitutes the mid-day meal for most Hindu Biharis on Saturdays. The favourite dish among Biharis is litti-chokha. Litti is made up of dough stuffed with sattu (ground powder coming from roasted brown chickpeas) then boiled in water. It is then fried in oil, but little oil is used since it has been pre-boiled. The other way of cooking Litti is grilling it on red hot coal. Chokha is made of mashed potatoes, fried onions, salt, cilantro, and carrom seeds. Litti is also accompanied with ghee
Ghee
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated in South Asia and is commonly used in South Asian cuisine....

 and channa (small brown chickpeas with onions and masala
Masala
Masala or massala is a term used in South Asian cuisines to mostly describe a mixture of spices. A masala can either be a combination of dried spices, or a paste made from a mixture of spices and other ingredients—often garlic, ginger, onions and chilli paste...

).

Chitba and Pitthow which are prepared basically from rice, are special foods of the Anga region. Tilba and Chewda of Katarni rice are also special preparations of Anga
Anga
Anga was a kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE until taken over by Magadha in the same century. Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of...

. Kadhi bari is a popular favorite and consists of fried soft dumplings made of besan (gram flour
Gram flour
Gram flour is a cereal flour made from ground chickpeas. It is also known as chickpea flour, garbanzo flour, or besan . Used in many countries, it is a staple ingredient in Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi cuisines, and, in the form of a paste with water or yoghurt, a popular facial exfoliant in...

) that are cooked in a spicy gravy of yoghurt
Yoghurt
Yoghurt, yogurt or yogourt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as "yoghurt cultures"...

 and besan. This dish goes very well with plain rice.

Bihar offers a large variety of sweet delicacies which, unlike those from Bengal
Bengal
Bengal is a historical and geographical region in the northeast region of the Indian Subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal. Today, it is mainly divided between the sovereign land of People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal, although some regions of the previous...

, are mostly dry. These include Anarasa, Belgrami, Chena Murki, Motichoor ke Laddoo, Kala Jamun, Kesaria Peda, Khaja
Khaja
Khaja also Pheni is Oriya sweet made from Refined wheat flour, sugar and edible oils . It is made and eaten all throughout Indian subcontinent, though it is known by different names. It is prepared in the states of Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.-Legend:Khaja is one...

, Khurma
Khurma
Khurma is a sweet in Bihar which serves a snack in some households. Khurma is made of paneer and sugar, and it can be stored for about two to three months. It is a popular sweet in the eastern part of Bihar ....

, Khubi ki Lai, Laktho, Parwal ki Mithai, Pua & Mal Pua, Thekua
Thekua
Thekua is a dry sweet from India. It is very popular in Bihar, Jharkhand and eastern Uttar Pradesh .Thekua is a staple dessert for people of Bihar, and also a revered prasad in the Chhath puja...

, Murabba
Murabba
Murabba also murraba or murrabo in an Arabic word that refers to savoury or sweet jam pickle or achar in many regions of Pakistan and also Gujarat region of India...

 and Tilkut
Tilkut
Tilkut is a sweet savoury made in the Indian states of Bihar and Jharkhand. It is made of pounded 'tila' or sesame seeds and jaggery or sugar. The best tilkut is said to be from Gaya...

. Tilkut and Anarsa from Gaya is quite famous and Lai from Dhanarua is also famous. Gurahi Laddu is also famous from Bhabua
Bhabua
Bhabua is a city and a municipality in Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, India. It is the headquarters of Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, in India.- Geography :...

. Many of these originate in towns in the vicinity of Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

. Several other traditional salted snacks and savories popular in Bihar are Chiwra, Dhuska, Litti, Makhana and Sattu
Sattu
Sattu or Chhatua are ground powders of pulses and cereals like horse gram , green gram, jowar, wheat, oat, barley, etc. These are consumed along with fruit slices, sugar or milk. Green chilli, lemon juice and salt are sometimes added as flavouring...

. Khaja
Khaja
Khaja also Pheni is Oriya sweet made from Refined wheat flour, sugar and edible oils . It is made and eaten all throughout Indian subcontinent, though it is known by different names. It is prepared in the states of Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.-Legend:Khaja is one...

 from Silaw, Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

 is very famous in the state.

There is a distinctive Bihari flavor to the non-vegetarian cuisine as well, although some of the names of the dishes may be the same as those found in other parts of North India. Roll is a typical Bihari non-vegetarian dish. These are popular and go by the generic name Roll Bihari in and around Lexington Avenue (South) in New York City. There is a very popular non-vegetarian dish called Tash, made by frying marinated mutton and eaten with Chewra, the flattened rice. This particular dish is popular in Motihari and Bettiah. Fish Curry cooked in mustard paste with Rice (maaach-bhaat) is also a popular dish in non-vegetarian Maithili homes.

Islamic culture and food, with Bihari flavor are also part of Bihar's unique confluence of cultures. Famous food items include Biharee Kabab, Shami Kabab, Nargisi Kufte, Shabdeg, Yakhnee Biryanee, Motton Biryani, Shaljum Gosht, Baqer Khani, Kuleecha, Naan Rootee, Sawee ka Zarda, Qemamee Sawee, Gajar ka Halwa and Ande ka Zafrani Halwa among many others.

There is a custom of eating Boiled Rice based lunch and Roti
Roti
Roti is generally a South Asian bread made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. It is also consumed in parts of the Southern Caribbean, particularly in Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and...

 based dinner and breakfast. The food culture is both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. People from Mithilanchal enjoy both veg as well as non-veg dishes and cuisine of Mithilanchal area is unique in its own way. Machchak Jhor is a special fish curry made in mustard paste and is a preparation from Mithila. Maus is generally mutton or chicken or squails (tittar/battair) in a spicy gravy and is generally enjoyed with malpuas. Kankorak Chokha is a Mashed preparation of Crab (Kankor) after roasting the crab. Dokak Jhor generally are Oysters stew cooked with Onion gravy.

Chitba (a flour and sugar pancake) and Pitthow, which is prepared basically from rice, are special foods of the Anga region. Tilba and (choora) of Katarni rice are also special preparations of Anga.

Kadhi bari is a popular favorite and consists of fried soft dumplings made of besan (gram flour) that are cooked in a spicy gravy of yoghurt and besan. This dish goes very well with plain rice. People also enjoy eating Chura or Chiwda (beaten rice) with yoghurt and sugar. Arikanchanak Tarkari is a preparation of Marinated sun dried Colocasia leaves, steamed and cooked in mustard gravy and is a famous maithil dish,Daail-Jhinguni (Fried Ribbed Gourd cooked with Lentil and cereals), Ramruch is a besan based dish unique to Mithila region,Goidila (a sauce prepared from green peas & flavourings) and is generally had with rice or rotis.

The service style of the cuisine has little similarity with that of “Tabal d’ hote” (Table of the Host) of French, yet different being all preparations served together in a platter and consumed at once . Since there is no course wise meal practice therefore there is no well defined Gastronomique practice too, and hence people give equal importance to all kind of preparations and take pleasure in enjoying each n every delicacies to the fullest. Unlike others Maithils enjoy both the quality and quantity of the food and this is the characteristics that differentiates the cuisine and people from others. The best manifestation of this seen in any Traditional Maithil wedding (considered to be a very classical marriage ceremony ever in any culture). Maithils always give immense priority to milk products in their food which could perfectly be measured with this old saying “ Aadi Ghee aur Ant Dahi, oyi Bhojan k Bhojan kahi” (A meal is the Meal that starts with Ghee and ends with Yogurt). The meal practice in mithilanchal is as common as the normal food habit of people which is Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner. People also like enjoying some tit bits during evening with a cup of tea. The best breakfast time favorite is “Chura – Dahi” (beaten rice with a thick coating of creamy curd) the table condiments used is salt, green chillies and home made pickles, a spicy mixed vegetable item could also be served along with this item as a side dish. During summer the same Chura is consumed with best quality mango pulp, and the dish is called “Chura Aam” . “Poori – Aloo dum” is an another breakfast item that people like having along with a sweet dish “Jalebi” (roundels of deep fried fermented flour batter dipped in sugar syrup). Apart from that there are several other items like Chini wala Roti, Chilha (pan cake made out of flour batter), Suzi k halwa (porridge prepared from semolina), etc. which is preferred for the breakfast. For evening snacks a range of Bhujas are consumed like Chura ka Bhuja (beaten rice shallow fried with sliced onion, chopped green chillies and green peas), Makai ke Lawa (Pop corns), Masalgar Murhi (Rice pops mixed with chopped green chillies, Onion, coriander leaf, salt and few drops of mustard oil) etc. Maithils are also a big time sweet lovers. Varieties of Kheer and other sweet item is prepared as a dessert course. One of the famous among them is Makhanaak Kheer (a sweet dish prepared with Lotus seed, Milk and Dry nuts). Malpua is another popular sweet item, which is much different from the malpua prepared in north India, both are prepared from the flour batter only but in north India after deep frying malpua is dipped in sugar syrup while in Mithilanchal the batter it self is sweetened and it is a dry preparation which could be stored for 2-3 days. There are also sweet preservatives made out of fruit pulps like Ammath (layered mango pulp sundried and cut into small chunks), Kumhar ke murabba, Papita ke murabba, Dhatrikak murabba etc. The introduction about Mithila Cuisine would remain incomplete without a reference on Paan (betel leaves). According to an old saying Paan, Maach and Makhan (betel leaves, fish and lotus seed) is not found even in the paradise, so one should enjoy these things on earth only so not to regret later. A sweet betel leaf is flavoured with sweet fennel, cardamom, clove, rose petals, sugar crystal and other seasoning, which is taken after completion of the meal.

Religion



Gautam Buddha attained Enlightenment
Bodhi
Bodhi is both a Pāli and Sanskrit word traditionally translated into English with the word "enlightenment", but which means awakened. In Buddhism it is the knowledge possessed by a Buddha into the nature of things...

 at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya
Gaya District
Gaya is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The district is having a common boundary with the Jharkhand state in the south. Gaya city is its largest city and the district headquarters.-History:...

 in Bihar. Vardhamana Mahavira
Mahavira
Mahāvīra is the name most commonly used to refer to the Indian sage Vardhamāna who established what are today considered to be the central tenets of Jainism. According to Jain tradition, he was the 24th and the last Tirthankara. In Tamil, he is referred to as Arukaṉ or Arukadevan...

, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

, was born in Vaishali
Vaishali (ancient city)
Vaiśālī was the capital city of the Licchavi, one of world's first republics, in the Vajjian Confederacy mahajanapada, around the 6th century BC. It was here in 599 BCE the 24th Jain Tirthankara, Bhagwan Mahavira was born and brought up in Kundalagrama in Vaiśālī republic, which make pious &...

 around sixth century BC.

A typical Hindu Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

 household would begin the day with the blowing of a conch shell at dawn.

In rural Bihar, religion is the main component of popular culture. Shrines are located everywhere – even at the foot of trees, roadsides, etc., religious symbols or images of deities can be found in the most obscure or the most public places. From the dashboard of a dilapidated taxi to the plush office of a top executive, holy symbols or idols have their place.

There are many variations on the festival theme. While some are celebrated all over the state, others are observed only in certain areas. However Bihar is so diverse that different regions and religions have something to celebrate at some time or the other during the year. So festivals take place round the year. Many of these are officially recognized by the days on which they take place being proclaimed as government holidays.

Bihar Regiment


One of the battle cry of the Bihar Regiment
Bihar Regiment
The Bihar Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The regiment can trace its origins back to the British Indian Army. The Bihar Regiment was formed in 1941 by regularising the 11th Battalion, 19th Hyderabad Regiment, and raising new battalions.- History :In India, Hindu, Buddhist and...

, consisting of 17 battalions, is "Jai Bajrang Bali" (Victory to Lord Hanuman
Hanuman
Hanuman , is a Hindu deity, who is an ardent devotee of Rama, a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana and one of the dearest devotees of lord Rama. A general among the vanaras, an ape-like race of forest-dwellers, Hanuman is an incarnation of the divine and a disciple of Lord Rama in the...

).

Festivals


Chhath
Chhath
Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti. The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is...

, also called Dala Chhath – is an ancient and major festival in Bihar, and is celebrated twice a year: once in the summers, called the Chaiti Chhath, and once around a week after Deepawali, called the Kartik Chhath. The latter is more popular because winters are the usual festive season in North India, and Chhath
Chhath
Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti. The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is...

 being an arduous observance requiring the worshippers to fast without water for more than 24 hours, is easier to do in the Indian winters. Chhath is the worship of the Sun God. Wherever people from Bihar have migrated, they have taken with them the tradition of Chhath. This is a ritual bathing festival that follows a period of abstinence and ritual segregation of the worshiper from the main household for two days. On the eve of Chhath
Chhath
Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti. The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is...

, houses are scrupulously cleaned and so are the surroundings. The ritual bathing and worship of the Sun God takes place, performed twice: once in the evening and once on the crack of the dawn, usually on the banks of a flowing river, or a common large water body. The occasion is almost a carnival, and besides every worshipper, usually women, who are mostly the main ladies of the household, there are numerous participants and onlookers, all willing to help and receive the blessings of the worshiper. Ritual rendition of regional folk songs, carried on through oral transmission from mothers and mothers-in-law to daughters and daughters-in-law, are sung on this occasion for several days on the go. These songs are a great mirror of the culture, social structure, mythology and history of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Chhath being celebrated at the crack of the dawn is a beautiful, elating spiritual experience connecting the modern Indian to his ancient cultural roots. Chhath is believed to be started by Karna
Karna
Karna or Radheya is one of the central characters in the epic Mahābhārata, from ancient India. He was the King of Anga...

, the king of Anga
Anga
Anga was a kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE until taken over by Magadha in the same century. Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of...

 Desh (modern Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
Bhagdattpuram was one of the most influential towns in "Aryavarta" . It is supposed to have been concurrent to Patliputra or Patna. Bhagdattpuram finds its mention in the Vedas and Ramayana as well. It is supposed to be the kingdom of Daanvir Karna, the son of Kunti and the Sun God...

 region of Bihar).

Among ritual observances, the month-long Shravan
Shravan
Shravan is a Sanskrit word, which literally means listening.* Shravanam is one of the nine most important angas of bhakti.Shravan Kumar belonged to the time when King Dashratha ruled Ayodhya. He was born of poor and blind parents, but they had brought him up remarkably well. He was strong healthy...

i Mela
Mela
Mela is a Sanskrit word meaning 'gathering' or 'to meet' or a Fair. It is used in the Indian subcontinent for all sizes of gathering and can be religious, commercial, cultural or sports. In rural traditions melas or village fairs were of great importance...

, held along a 108-kilometre route linking the towns of Sultanganj
Sultanganj
Sultanganj is a city and a notified area in Bhagalpur district in the Indian state of Bihar.-History:Sultanganj is a town in Bhagalpur district and has a railway station, of the same name on the loop-line of the Eastern Railway running from kolkata to Kiul. An excellent all-weather road connecting...

 and Deoghar
Deoghar
Deoghar is the headquarters city of Deoghar District in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre, having in Baidyanath Temple one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and also one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India.-Origin of...

 (now in Jharkhand
Jharkhand
Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east...

 state), is of great significance. Shravani Mela is organised every year in the Hindu month of Shravan
Shravan
Shravan is a Sanskrit word, which literally means listening.* Shravanam is one of the nine most important angas of bhakti.Shravan Kumar belonged to the time when King Dashratha ruled Ayodhya. He was born of poor and blind parents, but they had brought him up remarkably well. He was strong healthy...

, that is the lunar month of July–August. Pilgrims, known as Kanwarias, wear saffron coloured clothes and collect water from a sacred Ghat
Ghat
Ghat is the capital of the Ghat District in the Fezzan region of southwestern Libya.-History:In historical times, Ghat was a major terminal point on the Trans-Saharan trade route and a major administrative center in the Fezzan...

 (river bank) at Sultanganj
Sultanganj
Sultanganj is a city and a notified area in Bhagalpur district in the Indian state of Bihar.-History:Sultanganj is a town in Bhagalpur district and has a railway station, of the same name on the loop-line of the Eastern Railway running from kolkata to Kiul. An excellent all-weather road connecting...

, walking the 108 km (67 mi) stretch barefooted to the town of Deoghar
Deoghar
Deoghar is the headquarters city of Deoghar District in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre, having in Baidyanath Temple one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and also one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India.-Origin of...

 to bathe a sacred Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

–Linga. The observance draws thousands of people to the town of Deoghar
Deoghar
Deoghar is the headquarters city of Deoghar District in the Santhal Parganas division of the state of Jharkhand, India. It is an important Hindu pilgrimage centre, having in Baidyanath Temple one of the twelve Shiva Jyothirlingams in India and also one of the 51 Shakti Peethas in India.-Origin of...

 from all over India.

Teej
Teej
Teej is a fasting festival for Hindu women. It takes place on the third day of Shukla Paksha of the Shraavana or Saawan month of Hindu calendar that normally falls from late July to early September...

 and Chitragupta
Chitragupta
Chitragupta is a Hindu god assigned with the task of keeping complete records of actions of human beings on the earth. Upon their death, Chitragupta has the task of deciding heaven or the hell for the humans, depending on their actions on the earth...

 Puja are other local festivals celebrated with fervor in Bihar. Bihula-Bishari Puja is celebrated in the Anga region of Bihar. The Sonepur
Sonepur
Sonepur, also known as Subarnapur, is a town and district headquarters of Subarnapur district of Orissa. Sonepur was formerly the capital of a princely state of British India. The district spreads over an area of 2284.89 km2. It is also known as Second Varanasi of India for its cluster of...

 cattle fair is a month long event starting approximately half a month after Deepawali and is considered the largest cattle fair in Asia. It is held on the banks of the Gandak River in the town of Sonepur
Sonepur
Sonepur, also known as Subarnapur, is a town and district headquarters of Subarnapur district of Orissa. Sonepur was formerly the capital of a princely state of British India. The district spreads over an area of 2284.89 km2. It is also known as Second Varanasi of India for its cluster of...

. The constraints of the changing times and new laws governing the sale of animals and prohibiting the trafficking in exotic birds and beasts have eroded the once-upon-a-time magic of the fair.

Apart from Chhath
Chhath
Chhath is an ancient Hindu festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya, also known as Surya Shashti. The Chhath Puja is performed in order to thank Surya for sustaining life on earth and to request the granting of certain wishes. The Sun, considered the god of energy and of the life-force, is...

, all major festivals of India are celebrated in Bihar, such as Makar Sankranti, Saraswati
Saraswati
In Hinduism Saraswati , is the goddess of knowledge, music, arts, science and technology. She is the consort of Brahma, also revered as His Shakti....

 Puja, Holi
Holi
Holi , is a religious spring festival celebrated by Hindus. Holi is also known as festival of Colours. It is primarily observed in India, Nepal, Pakistan, and countries with large Indic diaspora populations following Hinduism, such as Suriname, Malaysia, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad, United...

, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha (often called Eid-ul-Zuha in the Indian Subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

), Muharram
Muharram
Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year in which fighting is prohibited...

, Ram Navami, Rath yatra
Rath Yatra
Ratha Yatra is a huge Hindu festival associated with Lord Jagannath held at Puri in the state of Orissa, India during the months of June or July. Most of the city's society is based around the worship of Jagannath with the ancient temple being the fulcrum of the area...

, Rakshabandhan, Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivaratri
Maha Shivratri or Maha Sivaratri or Shivaratri or Sivarathri is a Hindu festival celebrated every year on the 13th night/14th day in the Krishna Paksha of the month of Maagha or Phalguna...

, Durga Puja
Durga Puja
Durga puja ; দুর্গা পূজা,ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava ; , is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and...

 is celebrated with a grandeur akin to the neighbouring state of Bengal, Diwali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Kali Puja
Kali Puja
Kali Puja or Shyama Puja is a festival dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali, celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month Ashwin in Bengal. It coincides with the pan-Indian Lakshmi Puja day of Diwali...

/Shyama Puja/Nisha Puja is celebrated in the Mithilanchal portion, Kojagra is also celebrated in the Mithilanchal region, Laxmi Puja, Christmas, Mahavir Jayanti
Mahavir Jayanti
In Jainism, Mahavir Janma Kalyanak is the most important religious holiday. It celebrates the birth of Mahavira, the last Tirthankara. On the Gregorian calendar, the holiday occurs either in March or April....

, Buddha Purnima, Jivitputrika
Jivitputrika
Jivitputrika also known as Jitiya is a festival in which Nirjala vrata throughout a day and night, is observed by mothers for wellness of their sons. A three day long festival is celebrated from seventh to ninth lunar day of Krishna-Paksha in Ashvin month...

, Chitragupta
Chitragupta
Chitragupta is a Hindu god assigned with the task of keeping complete records of actions of human beings on the earth. Upon their death, Chitragupta has the task of deciding heaven or the hell for the humans, depending on their actions on the earth...

 Puja, Gurpurab, Bhaiya Dooj and several other local festivals as well.

Cinema


Bihar has a robust cinema industry for the Bhojpuri language. There are some small Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

, Angika and Magadhi film industry. First Bhojpuri Film was Ganga Jamuna
Ganga Jamuna
Gunga Jumna is a 1961 dacoit drama Bollywood film produced by Dilip Kumar and directed by Nitin Bose. The film stars Dilip Kumar and Vyjayanthimala in the lead with Nasir Khan, Azra, Leela Chitnis, Kanhaiyalal, Anwar Hussain, Nasir Hussain, Helen forms an ensemble cast...

 released in 1961. "Lagi nahin chute ram" was the all-time superhit Bhojpuri film which was released against "Mugle Azam" but was a superhit in all the eastern and northern sector. Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

's Nadiya Ke Paar is among the most famous Bhojpuri language movie. The first Maithili
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

 movie was Kanyadan
Kanyadan film
Kanyadan is Maithili released in 1965 directed by Phani Majumdar....

 released in 1965, of which a significant portion was made in the Maithili language
Maithili language
Maithili language is spoken in the eastern region of India and South-eastern region of Nepal. The native speakers of Maithili reside in Bihar, Jharkhand,parts of West Bengal and South-east Nepal...

. Bhaiyaa
Bhaiyaa
Bhaiyaa is Magahi language film released in 1965 directed by Phani Majumdar.- Cast :* Tarun Bose as Parmanand* Vijaya Choudhury as Bindu* Gopal as Murli* Helen as Dancer / Singer at Murli's son's birthday...

 a Magadhi film was released in 1961. Bhojpuri's history begins in 1962 with the well-received film Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo
Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo
Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo is Bhojpuri film released in 1962 directed by Kundan Kumar was the first-ever Bhojpuri film. It had music by Chitragupta and songs sung by Lata Mangeshkar and Mohammad Rafi.-Development:...

 ("Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari"), which was directed by Kundan Kumar. Throughout the following decades, films were produced only in fits and starts. Films such as Bidesiya
Bidesiya
Bidesiya is Bhojpuri film released in 1963 directed by S.N. Tripathi produced by Bachubhai Shah.- Cast :* Kumari Naaz..as.. Parvati* Sujit Kumar..as.. Bidesi Thakur* Jeevan..as.. Chhote Thakur* Sheelkumar* Padma Khanna..as.. Chhoti Malkin...

 ("Foreigner", 1963, directed by S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga ("Ganges", 1965, directed by Kundan Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not commonly produced in the 1960s and 1970s.

In the 1980s, enough Bhojpuri films were produced to tentatively make up an industry. Films such as Mai ("Mom", 1989, directed by Rajkumar Sharma) and Hamar Bhauji ("My Brother's Wife", 1983, directed by Kalpataru) continued to have at least sporadic success at the box office. However, this trend faded out by the end of the decade, and by 1990, the nascent industry seemed to be completely finished.

The industry took off again in 2001 with the super hit Saiyyan Hamar ("My Sweetheart", directed by Mohan Prasad), which shot the hero of that film, Ravi Kissan, to superstardom. This success was quickly followed by several other remarkably successful films, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi ("Priest, tell me when I will marry", 2005, directed by Mohan Prasad) and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala ("My father-in-law, the rich guy", 2005). In a measure of the Bhojpuri film industry's rise, both of these did much better business in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood hits at the time, and both films, made on extremely tight budgets, earned back more than ten times their production costs. Sasura Bada Paisa Wala also introduced Manoj Tiwari, formerly a well-loved folk singer, to the wider audiences of Bhojpuri cinema. In 2008, he and Ravi Kissan are still the leading actors of Bhojpuri films, and their fees increase with their fame. The extremely rapid success of their films has led to dramatic increases in Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, and the industry now supports an awards show and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City, which chronicles the production and release of what are now over one hundred films per year. Many of the major stars of mainstream Bollywood
Bollywood
Bollywood is the informal term popularly used for the Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai , Maharashtra, India. The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Indian cinema; it is only a part of the total Indian film industry, which includes other production centers producing...

 cinema, including Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan
Amitabh Bachchan is an Indian film actor. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s as the "angry young man" of Hindi cinema, and has since appeared in over 180 Indian films in a career spanning more than four decades...

, have also recently worked in Bhojpuri films.

Media


Biharbandhu was the first Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 newspaper published from Bihar. It was started in 1872 by Madan Mohan Bhatta, a Maharashtrian
Marathi people
The Marathi people or Maharashtrians are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group, that inhabit the Maharashtra region and state of western India. Their language Marathi is part of the southern group of Indo-Aryan languages...

 Brahman
Brahman
In Hinduism, Brahman is the one supreme, universal Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe. Brahman is sometimes referred to as the Absolute or Godhead which is the Divine Ground of all being...

 settled in Biharsharif. Hindi journalism in Bihar, and specially Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, could make little headway initially. It was mainly due to lack of respect for Hindi among the people at large. Many Hindi journals took birth and after a lapse of time vanished. Many journals were shelved even in the embryo. But once Hindi enlisted the official support, it started making a dent into the remote areas in Bihar. Hindi journalism also acquired wisdom and maturity and its longevity was prolonged. Hindi was introduced in the law courts in Bihar in 1880.

Urdu journalism and poetry has a glorious past in Bihar. Many poets belong to Bihar such as Shaad Azimabadi, Kaif Azimabadi, Kalim Ajiz and many more. Shanurahman, a world famous radio announcer, is from Bihar. Many Urdu dailies such as Qomi Tanzim and Sahara publish from Bihar at this time. There is a monthly Urdu magazine called "VOICE OF BIHAR" – which is the first of its kind and becoming popular among the Urdu speaking people.

The beginning of the twentieth century was marked by a number of notable new publications. A monthly magazine named Bharat Ratna was started from Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

 in 1901. It was followed by Ksahtriya Hitaishi, Aryavarta from Dinapure, Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, Udyoga and Chaitanya Chandrika. Udyog was edited by Vijyaanand Tripathy, a famous poet of the time and Chaitanya Chandrika by Krishna Chaitanya Goswami, a literary figures of that time. The literary activity was not confined to Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

 alone but to many districts of Bihar.

Magahi Parishad, established in Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

 in 1952, pioneered Magadhi journalism in Bihar. It started the monthly journal, Magadhi, which was later renamed Bihan.

DD Bihar and ETV
ETV Network (India)
ETV2 is first 24-hour Telugu news channel in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is one of the many channels which telecast news in pure Telugu language....

 Bihar are the television channels dedicated to Bihar. Sahara Samay, Bihar/Jharkhand is the first 24 hour news channel dedicated to Bihar followed by Mahuaa TV
Mahuaa TV
Mahuaa TV is the first of its kind Bhojpuri channel which unlocks the Bhojpuri heartland.Now Mahuaa TV is expanding. This 24 Hr Bhojpuri General Entertainment channel, seeks to identify with and meet the needs of the Bhojpuri Community through its programs which have a strong local essence and the...

, Hamar TV, Sadhna news, Bhojpuria TV, Arya TV and Maurya TV.

Hindustan
Hindustan
Hindustan or Indostan, literal translation "Land of River Sindhu ", is one of the popular names of South Asia. It can also mean "the land of the Hindus"...

, Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran
Dainik Jagran is a Hindi language daily broadsheet newspaper in India. According to the IRS Q1 2010, Dainik Jagran ranks No. 1 among the dailies with a Total Readership of 54,254,000.-Overview:...

, Aaj
Aaj (newspaper)
Aaj is a Hindi language daily broadsheet newspaper in India, currently published from 11 cities in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand states. The newspaper is published by the Jnanamandal Limited and its present chief editor is Shardul Vikram Gupta....

, Nayee Baat and Prabhat Khabar
Prabhat Khabar
Prabhat Khabar is a Hindi language newspaper published daily in Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal. The newspaper is circulated in several states in India, including Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and some part of Orissa. It was founded in August 1984 in Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand...

 are some of the popular Hindi news papers of Bihar. National English dailies like The Times of India
The Times of India
The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper. TOI has the largest circulation among all English-language newspaper in the world, across all formats . It is owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd...

, Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ....

, The Telegraph
The Telegraph (Kolkata)
The Telegraph is an Indian daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 1982. It is published by the ABP Group and the newspaper vies with the Times of India for the position of having the widest widest circulation of any newspaper in Eastern India.According to the Audit...

 and The Economic Times
The Economic Times
The Economic Times is an English-language Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.. The Economic Times was started in 1961. It is the most popular and widely read financial daily in India, read by more than 8 lakh people...

 have readers in the urban regions.

Transportation



Bihar has two operational airports: Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport
Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport
Patna Airport , also known as Jaiprakash Narayan International Airport, Patna , is an airport located southwest of Patna, the capital of state of Bihar in India...

, Patna, and the Gaya Airport
Gaya Airport
Gaya Airport , also known as Bodhgaya Airport , is a public airport serving Gaya, Bihar, India. It is the second most busiest airport in Bihar after Patna. It is one of the holiest places of worship for Buddhist people...

, Gaya
Gaya, India
Gaya is the second largest city of Bihar, India, and it is also the headquarters of Gaya District.Gaya is 100 kilometers south of Patna, the capital city of Bihar. Situated on the banks of Falgu River , it is a place sanctified by both the Hindu and the Buddhist religions...

. The Patna airport is connected to Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Lucknow
Lucknow
Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

, Bangaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

, Pune
Pune
Pune , is the eighth largest metropolis in India, the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after Mumbai, and the largest city in the Western Ghats. Once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire, it is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula ...

 and Ranchi
Ranchi
-Climate:Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate. However, due to its position and the forests around the city, it is known for its pleasant climate. Its climate is the primary reason why Ranchi was once the summer capital of the undivided State of Bihar...

.

The Patna airport is categorized as a restricted international airport, with customs facilities to receive international chartered flights.

The Gaya Airport
Gaya Airport
Gaya Airport , also known as Bodhgaya Airport , is a public airport serving Gaya, Bihar, India. It is the second most busiest airport in Bihar after Patna. It is one of the holiest places of worship for Buddhist people...

 is an international airport connected to Colombo
Colombo
Colombo is the largest city of Sri Lanka. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte, the capital of Sri Lanka. Colombo is often referred to as the capital of the country, since Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte is a satellite city of Colombo...

, Singapore, Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, Paro
Paro, Bhutan
-History:Rinpung Dzong a fortress-monastery overlooking the Paro valley has a long history. A monastery was first built on the site by Padma Sambhava at the beginning of the tenth century, but it wasn't until 1646 that Ngawang Namgyal built a larger monastery on the old foundations, and for...

 and more.

Bihar is well-connected by railway lines to the rest of India. Most of the towns are interconnected, and they also are directly connected to Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai. Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, Gaya
Gaya, India
Gaya is the second largest city of Bihar, India, and it is also the headquarters of Gaya District.Gaya is 100 kilometers south of Patna, the capital city of Bihar. Situated on the banks of Falgu River , it is a place sanctified by both the Hindu and the Buddhist religions...

, Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
Bhagdattpuram was one of the most influential towns in "Aryavarta" . It is supposed to have been concurrent to Patliputra or Patna. Bhagdattpuram finds its mention in the Vedas and Ramayana as well. It is supposed to be the kingdom of Daanvir Karna, the son of Kunti and the Sun God...

, Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur Town is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division....

, Darbhanga
Darbhanga
Darbhangā is a twin city and a municipal corporation and the capital city of the Darbhanga district and Darbhanga Division in the state of Bihar, India. It is one of the most important districts of North Bihar situated in the very heart of Mithilanchal. According to the latest 2011 census, the...

, Katihar
Katihar
Katihar is a town situated in the north eastern part of Bihar state in India. It is headquarters of Katihar district.- Geography :Katihar is located at...

, Barauni
Barauni
Barauni is a town in the state of Bihar, India.Barauni was once an Industrial town in Begusarai district, Bihar. After the partition of the Jharkhand from Bihar, it had and still has the potential to become the industrial capital of Bihar....

 and Chhapra
Chhapra
Chhapra is a city and headquarters of Saran district in the state of Bihar, India. Chhapra is also written as Chapra. It is situated near the junction of the Ghaghara River and The Ganges River....

 are Bihar's best-connected railway stations.

The state has a vast network of National and State highways. East-West corridor goes through the cities of Bihar (Muzaffarpur-Darbhanga-Purnia NH57) 4–6 lanes.

For Buddhist pilgrims, the best option for travel to Bihar is to reach Patna or Gaya, either by air or train, and then travel to Bodh Gaya, Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

, Rajgir
Rajgir
Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. The city of Rajgir was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. Its date of origin is unknown, although ceramics dating to about 1000 BC have...

 and Vaishali
Vaishali (ancient city)
Vaiśālī was the capital city of the Licchavi, one of world's first republics, in the Vajjian Confederacy mahajanapada, around the 6th century BC. It was here in 599 BCE the 24th Jain Tirthankara, Bhagwan Mahavira was born and brought up in Kundalagrama in Vaiśālī republic, which make pious &...

. Sarnath
Sarnath
Sarnath or Sārnātha is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. Sarnath is located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi, in Uttar Pradesh, India...

 in Uttar Pradesh also is not very far.

The Ganges – navigable throughout the year – was the principal river highway across the vast north Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic plain
The northern Plains also known as the Indo - Gangetic Plain and The North Indian River Plain is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, parts of southern Nepal and virtually all of Bangladesh...

. Vessels capable of accommodating five hundred merchants were known to ply this river in the ancient period; it served as a conduit for overseas trade, as goods were carried from Pataliputra (later Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

) and Champa (later Bhagalpur
Bhagalpur
Bhagdattpuram was one of the most influential towns in "Aryavarta" . It is supposed to have been concurrent to Patliputra or Patna. Bhagdattpuram finds its mention in the Vedas and Ramayana as well. It is supposed to be the kingdom of Daanvir Karna, the son of Kunti and the Sun God...

) out to the seas and to ports in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 and Southeast Asia. The role of Ganges as a channel for trade was enhanced by its natural links – it embraces all the major rivers and streams in both north and south Bihar.

In recent times Inland Waterways Authority of India
Inland Waterways Authority of India
India has an extensive network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters and creeks. The total navigable length is 14,500 km, out of which about 5200 km of river and 4000 km of canals can be used by mechanised crafts...

 has declared the Ganges between Allahabad
Allahabad
Allahabad , or Settled by God in Persian, is a major city of India and is one of the main holy cities of Hinduism. It was renamed by the Mughals from the ancient name of Prayaga , and is by some accounts the second-oldest city in India. It is located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh,...

 and Haldia
Haldia
Haldia has a typical moderate climate with winter temperatures ranging from a low of around 7 degrees Celsius to a high of 22 degrees Celsius. Winters are chilly and is when the residents hold the Haldia Utsav festival. Summers can be very hot and humid. Usual summer temperatures in May, the...

 to be a national inland waterway and has taken steps to restore its navigability.

Tourism




Bihar is one of the oldest inhabited places in the world, with a history spanning 3,000 years. The rich culture and heritage of Bihar is evident from the innumerable ancient monument
Monument
A monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture...

s spread throughout the state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

. Bihar is visited by scores of tourists from all over the world, with around 6,000,000 (6 million
Million
One million or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. The word is derived from the early Italian millione , from mille, "thousand", plus the augmentative suffix -one.In scientific notation, it is written as or just 106...

) tourists visiting Bihar every year.

In earlier days, tourism in the region was purely based educational tourism, as Bihar was home of some prominent ancient universities like Nalanda University & Vikramaśīla University.

Bihar is one of the most sacred place for various religions like Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, Buddhism
Buddhist pilgrimage
The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Rajgir. This is the area where Gautama Buddha lived and taught, and the main sites connected to his life are now important places of...

, Jainism, Sikhism and Islam.

Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
The Mahabodhi Temple is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya is located about from Patna, Bihar state, India. Next to the temple, to its western side, is the holy Bodhi tree...

, a Buddhist shrine and UNESCO World Heritage Site is also situated in Bihar. Mahatma Gandhi Setu
Mahatma Gandhi Setu
Mahatma Gandhi Setu , is a bridge over the river Ganges connecting Patna in the south to Hajipur in the north of Bihar. It was the longest river bridge in India at the time of its construction. It was inaugurated in May 1982 by the then Prime Minister, Mrs Indira Gandhi.Its length is which makes...

, Patna
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

, is the second longest river bridge in the world.
EWLINE

Excavation

Kumhrar
Kumhrar
Kumhrar or Kumrahar is the remains of an ancient city of Pataliputra, located 5 km from Patna Railway Station, on Kankarbagh Road, Patna, Bihar....

·Agam Kuan
Agam Kuan
Agam Kuan, which means "unfathomable well", is said to date back to the period of Maurya emperor, Ashoka. The well is located east of Patna, Bihar state, India. -The architecture:...

·Barabar Caves
Barabar Caves
The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India, mostly dating from the Mauryan period , and some with Ashokan inscriptions, located in the Jehanabad District of Bihar, India, 24 km north of Gaya....

·Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

·Vikramsila

Ancient 

Vishnupada Temple · Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
The Mahabodhi Temple is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya is located about from Patna, Bihar state, India. Next to the temple, to its western side, is the holy Bodhi tree...

 · Sasaram
Sasaram
Sasaram , sometimes also spelled as Sahasram, is the administrative headquarters of the Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar.It is one of the oldest cities in India, and is famous for production of stone chips and for the local quarrying industry...

 · Maner Sharif
Maner Sharif
Maner Sharif is located west of Patna on NH 30. It is also called Maner . It is a popular medieval site and a notified area in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar...

 · Patliputra
Patliputra
Pāṭaliputra , modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Ajatashatru in 490 BC as a small fort near the River Ganges, and later the capital of the ancient Mahājanapadas kingdom of Magadha....

 · Brahmayoni Hill · Pretshila Hill · Ramshila Hill

Forts 

Rohtasgarh Fort
Rohtasgarh Fort
The Rohtas Fort is one of the most ancient forts of India located in a small town of Rohtas in Bihar. The culture of the Sone Valley is best symbolized by the Rohtas Fort which is a testimony of strength and power. Sadly, the majestic fort lies in utter state of ruins reminiscent of its great past,...

 · Munger Fort
Munger Fort
The Munger Fort, located at Munger , in the state of Bihar, India, is built on a rocky hillock on the south bank of the Ganges River. Its history is not completely dated but it is believed that it was built during the early rule of Slave dynasty of India...

 · Sasaram Fort · Palamu Fort
Palamu Fort
Two large forts are located deep in the forests of Aurangabad on Sher Shah Suri path near Daltonganj.These forts were attributed to the Vanvasi kings of the Chero dynasty. It had defenses in three directions and three main gates. The architecture is very Islamic which bespeaks of Daud Khan’s...

 · Maner Fort · Jalalgarh Fort · Rajmahal, Bihar
Rajmahal
Rajmahal is a city and a notified area in Sahibganj district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Rajmahal is the only sub-divisional town in Sahibganj district. It is one of the most historic place in Jharkhand...


Monuments 

Golghar
Golghar
The Golghar or Gol Ghar , , located to the west of the Gandhi Maidan in Patna, capital of Bihar state, India is a granary built by Captain John Garstin, in 1786.-History:...

 · Patna Museum
Patna Museum
Patna Museum is the state museum of the Indian state of Bihar. Built in 1917 during the British Raj to house the historical artefacts found in the vicinity of Patna, it is in the style of Mughal and Rajput architecture and is known locally as the Jadu Ghar.Items on display in the multipurpose...

 · Kargil Chowk
Kargil Chowk
Kargil Chowk is a War memorial. It was established in year 2000, near by Gandhi Maidan, Patna. It is dedicated to the soldiers from Bihar & Jharkhand who had sacrificed their lives in the Pakistani infiltration in 1999.-List engraved names on Kargil Chowk:...

 · Mahatma Gandhi Setu
Mahatma Gandhi Setu
Mahatma Gandhi Setu , is a bridge over the river Ganges connecting Patna in the south to Hajipur in the north of Bihar. It was the longest river bridge in India at the time of its construction. It was inaugurated in May 1982 by the then Prime Minister, Mrs Indira Gandhi.Its length is which makes...


EWLINE

Hindu Pilgrimage
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...



Mahavir Mandir
Mahavir Mandir
Mahavir Mandir is one of the holiest Hindu temples dedicated to Lord Hanuman, located in Patna, Bihar, India. Million of pilgrims visit the temple every year and is the second most visited religious shrine in North India....

 · Hariharkshetra, Hajipur
Hajipur
Hajipur is the headquarters of Vaishali district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is famous for producing bananas, and has a modern railway zonal office. Patna, the capital of Bihar is only 10 km from Hajipur...

. Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi
Sitamarhi is a town and the district headquarters of Sitamarhi district, Bihar, India.-History:The name Sitamarhi, derives from "Sitamahi", meaning "hermitage of Sita". It is the mythological birthplace of Sita, and the spiritual centre of many sages and saints.This district is often bereaved by...

 · Madhubani · Punausa · Buxur · West Champaran
West Champaran
West Champaran is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. It is a part of Tirhut Division. The district headquarters are located at Bettiah....

 · Munger
Munger
Munger town is the headquarters of Munger district, in the Indian state of Bihar. Historically, Munger is known for its manufacturing of iron articles such as firearms and swords. One of the major institutions in Munger is Bihar School of Yoga. It is one of the foremost learning center in the...

 · Jamui
Jamui
Jamui is a city and a municipality in Jamui district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the district headquarters of Jamui district.-Geography:Jamui is located at...

 · Darbhanga
Darbhanga
Darbhangā is a twin city and a municipal corporation and the capital city of the Darbhanga district and Darbhanga Division in the state of Bihar, India. It is one of the most important districts of North Bihar situated in the very heart of Mithilanchal. According to the latest 2011 census, the...

 · Anga
Anga
Anga was a kingdom that flourished on the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 6th century BCE until taken over by Magadha in the same century. Counted among the "sixteen great nations" in Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga also finds mention in the Jain Vyakhyaprajnapti’s list of...



Jain Pilgrimage

Rajgir
Rajgir
Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. The city of Rajgir was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. Its date of origin is unknown, although ceramics dating to about 1000 BC have...

 · Pawapuri
Pawapuri
Pawapuri or Pava is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in the Bihar state of Eastern India. It is located about 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 101 kilometers from Patna, the capital of Bihar.-History:...

 · Patliputra
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...

 · Arrah
Arrah
Arrah is a city and a municipal corporation in Bhojpur district in the state of Bihar, India. The actual name of Arrah is Ara but it was misspelt by the British and now corrected to Ara but still known as Arrah in many records. It is the district headquarters of Bhojpur district, located near the...

 · Vikramasila · Kundalpur

Buddhist Pilgrimage
Buddhist pilgrimage
The most important places of pilgrimage in Buddhism are located in the Gangetic plains of Northern India and Southern Nepal, in the area between New Delhi and Rajgir. This is the area where Gautama Buddha lived and taught, and the main sites connected to his life are now important places of...

s

Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple
The Mahabodhi Temple is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya is located about from Patna, Bihar state, India. Next to the temple, to its western side, is the holy Bodhi tree...

 · Bodhi Tree
Bodhi tree
The Bodhi Tree, also known as Bo , was a large and very old Sacred Fig tree located in Bodh Gaya , under which Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher and founder of Buddhism later known as Gautama Buddha, is said to have achieved enlightenment, or Bodhi...

 ·Bodh Gaya · Gaya
Gaya, India
Gaya is the second largest city of Bihar, India, and it is also the headquarters of Gaya District.Gaya is 100 kilometers south of Patna, the capital city of Bihar. Situated on the banks of Falgu River , it is a place sanctified by both the Hindu and the Buddhist religions...

 · Vaishali
Vaishali (ancient city)
Vaiśālī was the capital city of the Licchavi, one of world's first republics, in the Vajjian Confederacy mahajanapada, around the 6th century BC. It was here in 599 BCE the 24th Jain Tirthankara, Bhagwan Mahavira was born and brought up in Kundalagrama in Vaiśālī republic, which make pious &...

 · Pawapuri
Pawapuri
Pawapuri or Pava is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in the Bihar state of Eastern India. It is located about 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 101 kilometers from Patna, the capital of Bihar.-History:...

· Nalanda
Nalanda
Nālandā is the name of an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India.The site of Nalanda is located in the Indian state of Bihar, about 55 miles south east of Patna, and was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. It has been called "one of the...

 · Rajgir
Rajgir
Rajgir is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. The city of Rajgir was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. Its date of origin is unknown, although ceramics dating to about 1000 BC have...

 · Kesariya · Vikramshila
Vikramshila
University was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India during the Pala dynasty, along with University. was established by King Dharmapala in response to a supposed decline in the quality of scholarship at Nālandā...

 · Areraj
Areraj
Areraj is a town and a notified area in East Champaran district in the state of Bihar, India.-Geography:Areraj is located at .-Demographics:...

 · Patliputra
Patna
Paṭnā , is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in Eastern India . Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world...


Sikh Pilgrimage

Takht Shri Harmandir Saheb · Guru ka Bagh
Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh
About three kilometers east of Takht Sri Harmandir Sahib is where Guru Tegh Bahadur first alighted in a garden belonging to Nawabs Rahim Bakhsh and Karim Bakhsh, nobles of Patna, and where the sangat of Patna along with the young Guru Gobind Singh came out to receive him back from his four year...

 · Ghai Ghat
Gurdwara Ghai Ghat
Gurdwara Pahila Bara, commonly known as Gurdwara Ghai Ghat, is dedicated to Guru Nanak Dev, who during his visit in to Patna stayed here. This was Bhagat Jaitamal's house. Jaitamal was a pious man, confectioner by trade, who became the Guru's follower and later converted his house into a...

 · Handi Sahib
Gurdwara Handi Sahib
Gurdwara Handi Sahib is situated in Danapur is a cantonment station, 20 km west of old Patna City. Guru Tegh Bahadur had returned to Punjab in April 1670 leaving his family behind at Patna. The family after leaving Patna Sahib made their first halt here...

 · Gobind Ghat
Gurdwara Gobind Ghat
Gurdwara Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ghat situated on the bank of river Ganges is hardly 200 yards from Takht Sri Patna Sahib. It is also popular as Kangan Ghat where child Guru Gobind Singh had thrown his gold bangle...

 · Bal Lila Maini
Gurdwara Bal Lila Maini
Gurdwara Bal Lila Maini in a narrow lane close to Takht Sri Harmandir Sahib marks the house where King Fateh Chand Maini lived. His childless Queen had developed special fondness for the young Guru Gobind Singh, who, too, often came here to sit in the Queen's lap giving her immense delight and...

··Taksali Sangat · Guru Bagh · Chacha Phaggu Mal · Pakki Sangat · Bari Sangat

Islamic Pilgrimages
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...



Sasaram
Sasaram
Sasaram , sometimes also spelled as Sahasram, is the administrative headquarters of the Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar.It is one of the oldest cities in India, and is famous for production of stone chips and for the local quarrying industry...

 · Maner Sharif
Maner Sharif
Maner Sharif is located west of Patna on NH 30. It is also called Maner . It is a popular medieval site and a notified area in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar...

 · Bihar Sharif
Bihar Sharif
Bihar Sri is the district headquarters of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar in eastern India.-History:The ancient Odantpuri University was located here, an important centre for the learning of Buddhism. Odatpuri is center of Buddhist culture...

 · Phulwari Sharif
Phulwari Sharif
Phulwari Sharif is a notified area in Patna in the Indian state of Bihar.-Geography:Phulwari Sharif is located at -Demographics: India census, Phulwari Sharif had a population of 53,166. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%...

 · Patna


Christian Pilgrimages
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...



Padari ki haveli

See also



  • History of India
    History of India
    The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from...

  • Timeline of Bihar
  • Bihari languages
    Bihari languages
    Bihari is a name given to the western group of Eastern Indic languages, spoken in Bihar and neighboring states in India. Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi, and Maithili are spoken in Nepal as well. The Angika, Bajjika, Bhojpuri, Magahi and Maithili speaking population form more than 21% of Nepalese...

  • Bihari people
    Bihari people
    The Biharis are an ethnic group originating from the present state of Bihar with a history going back three millennia...

  • Bihari culture
    Bihari culture
    The culture of Bihar, an eastern state of India, includes aspects such as literature, cuisine, performing and visual arts, and festivals.-Language:...

  • List of people from Bihar

Further reading


  • Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
    Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
    Swami Sahajanand Saraswati , born in a Jijhoutia Brahminfamily of Ghazipur of Uttar Pradesh state of India, was an ascetic of Dashnami Order of Adi Shankara Sampradaya as well as a nationalist and peasant leader of India...

     Rachnawali (Selected works of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati), Prakashan Sansthan, Delhi
    Delhi
    Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

    , 2003.
  • Christopher Alan Bayly
    Christopher Alan Bayly
    Sir Christopher Alan Bayly, FBA, FRSL is a British historian specializing in Indian, British Imperial, and Global History...

    , Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870, Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    , 1983.
  • Anand A. Yang, Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Bihar, University of California Press
    University of California Press
    University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. It was founded in 1893 to publish books and papers for the faculty of the University of California, established 25 years earlier in 1868...

    , 1999.
  • Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
    Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
    Acharya' Hazari Prasad Dwivedi was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar...

     Rachnawali, Rajkamal Prakashan, Delhi
    Delhi
    Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

    .
  • Swami Sahajanand and the Peasants of Jharkhand: A View from 1941 translated and edited by Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council .He was elected to the Federal Council on December 13, 1888 and died in office on October 22, 1902...

     along with the unedited Hindi original (Manohar Publishers, paperback, 2005).
  • Sahajanand on Agricultural Labour and the Rural Poor translated and edited by Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council .He was elected to the Federal Council on December 13, 1888 and died in office on October 22, 1902...

     (Manohar Publishers, paperback, 2005).
  • Religion, Politics, and the Peasants: A Memoir of India's Freedom Movement translated and edited by Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council .He was elected to the Federal Council on December 13, 1888 and died in office on October 22, 1902...

     (Manohar Publishers, hardbound, 2003).
  • Pandit Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma
    Pandit Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma
    Pandit Yadunandan Sharma was an Indian peasant leader and national liberation figure from the Indian state of Bihar. He had started a movement for the rights of tillers against the zamindars and Britishers at Reora celebrated as the Reora Satyagraha.-Biography:Pandit Yadunandan Sharma was born in...

    , 1947, Bakasht Mahamari Aur Uska Achook Ilaaz (Bakasht Epidemic and its Infalliable Remedy) in Hindi, Allahabad.
  • Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family at Shakara village in Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914. He had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He...

    , 1969, Sathi ke Kisanon ka Aitihasic Sangharsha (Historic Struggle of Sathi Peasants), in Hindi, Patna.
  • Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family at Shakara village in Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914. He had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He...

    , Real face of JP's total revolution, Communist Party of India
    Communist Party of India
    The Communist Party of India is a national political party in India. In the Indian communist movement, there are different views on exactly when the Indian communist party was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by CPI is 26 December 1925...

     (1974).
  • Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family at Shakara village in Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914. He had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He...

    , Some features of current agrarian situation in India, All India Kisan Sabha
    All India Kisan Sabha
    All India Kisan Sabha , was the name of the peasants front of the undivided Communist Party of India , an important peasant movement formed by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936, and which later split into two organizations, by the same name.-History:...

    , (1987).
  • Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family at Shakara village in Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914. He had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He...

    , The changing agrarian scene: Problems and tasks, Peoples Publishing House (1980).
  • Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha
    Indradeep Sinha was a freedom fighter and veteran communist leader. He was born in a Bhumihar Brahmin family at Shakara village in Siwan District of Bihar, India, in July 1914. He had an academic career and secured a gold medal in post-graduation in Economics from Patna University in 1938. He...

    , Some questions concerning Marxism and the peasantry, Communist Party of India
    Communist Party of India
    The Communist Party of India is a national political party in India. In the Indian communist movement, there are different views on exactly when the Indian communist party was founded. The date maintained as the foundation day by CPI is 26 December 1925...

     (1982).
  • Nand Kishore Shukla, The Trial of Baikunth Sukul: A Revolutionary Patriot, Har-Anand, 1999, 403 pages, ISBN 81-241-0143-4.
  • Shramikon Ke Hitaishi Neta, Itihas Purush: Basawon Singh published by the Bihar Hindi Granth Academy (1st Edition, April 2000).
  • Ramchandra Prasad, Ashok Kumar Sinha, Sri Krishna Singh in Adhunik Bharat ke Nirmata Series, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
    Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India)
    The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is a branch of the Government of India is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to information, broadcasting, the press and films in India....

    , Government of India
    Government of India
    The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

    .
  • Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser
    Walter Hauser was a Swiss politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council .He was elected to the Federal Council on December 13, 1888 and died in office on October 22, 1902...

    , 1961, Peasant Organisation in India: A Case Study of the Bihar Kisan Sabha, 1929–1942, PhD Thesis, University of Chicago
    University of Chicago
    The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was founded by the American Baptist Education Society with a donation from oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller and incorporated in 1890...

    , (Forthcoming publication).
  • Rai, Algu, 1946, A Move for the Formation of an All-Indian Organisation for the Kisans, Azamgrah.
  • N. G. Ranga, 1949, Revolutionary Peasants, New Delhi.
  • N. G. Ranga, 1968, Fight For Freedom, New Delhi.
  • Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, 1943, Naye Bharet ke Naye Neta (New Leaders of New India), in Hindi, Allahabad.
  • Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, 1957, Dimagi Gulami (Mental Slavery), in Hindi, Allahabad.
  • Manmath Nath Gupta
    Manmath Nath Gupta
    Manmath Nath Gupta was an Indian revolutionary writer and author of autobiographical, historical and fictional books in Hindi, English and Bengali. He joined the Indian independence movement at the age of 13, and was an active member of the Hindustan Republican Association...

    , Apane samaya ka surya Dinkar, Alekha Prakasana (1981).
  • Khagendra Thakur
    Khagendra Thakur
    Khagendra Thakur is a reputed Hindi writer and literary critic from Jharkhand and long time General Secretary of Progressive Writers Association. He stepped into the field of Hindi literature over four decades ago as a poet and gradually switched over to prose and writing...

    , Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’: Vyaktitva aur Krititva, Publications Division, 2008 Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
    Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India)
    The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is a branch of the Government of India is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to information, broadcasting, the press and films in India....

    , Government of India
    Government of India
    The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

    .
  • Vijendra Narayan Singh
    Vijendra Narayan Singh
    Vijendra Narayan Singh is an critic of Hindi Literature. He has specialized on the critical appreciation of Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' and his works...

    , Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar, Sahitya Akademi
    Sahitya Akademi
    The Sahitya Akademi ', India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India...

    , New Delhi, 2005, ISBN 81-260-2142-X.
  • Kumar Vimal, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Rachna — Sanchayan, Sahitya Akademi
    Sahitya Akademi
    The Sahitya Akademi ', India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India...

    , New Delhi, 2008, ISBN 978-81-260-2627-2.
  • Mishra Shree Govind, History Of Bihar 1740–1772, Munshiram Manoharlal
    Munshiram Manoharlal
    Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. is a leading Indian publishing house located in New Delhi, India. Established in 1952 by Manohar Lal Jain, it is one of the oldest and most well-reputed publishing houses in India...

    , 1970
  • Verma B S, Socio-religious Economic And Literary Condition Of Bihar (From ca. 319 A.D. to 1000 A.D.), Munshiram Manoharlal, 1962
  • Maitra A,Magahi Culture, Cosmo Publications, New Delhi, 1983
  • Naipaul V S, India: A Wounded Civilization, Picador, 1977
  • Trevithick Alan, The Revival Of Buddhist Pilgrimage At Bodh Gaya (1811–1949): Anagarika Dharmapala And The Mahabodhi Temple
  • Jannuzi F. Tomasson, Agrarian Crisis In India: The Case Of Bihar, University of Texas Press, 1974, ISBN 0-292-76414-6, 9780292764149
  • Omalley L S S, History Of Magadh, Veena Publication, 2005, ISBN 81-89224-01-8
  • Shukla Prabhat Kumar, Indigo And The Raj: Peasant Protests In Bihar 1780–1917, Pragati Publications, 1993, ISBN 81-7307-004-0
  • Ahmad Qeyamuddin, Patna Through The Ages: Glimpses of History, Society & Economy, Commonwealth Publishers, 1988
  • Jain B D, Ardha Magadhi Reader, Sri Satguru Publications, Lahore, 1923
  • Crindle John W Mc, Ancient India As Described By Ptolemy, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1927, ISBN 81-215-0945-9
  • Patra C, Life In Ancient India: As Depicted In The Digha Nikaya, Punthi Pustak, 1996, ISBN 81-85094-93-4
  • Hazra Kanai Lal, Buddhism In India As Described By The Chinese Pilgrims AD 399–689, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1983, ISBN 81-215-0132-6
  • Mccrindle John W, Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian, Munshiram Manoharlal
  • Sastry Harprasad, Magadhan Literature, Sri Satguru Publications, Calcutta, 1923
  • Rai Alok, Hindi Nationalism, Orient Longman, 2000, ISBN 81-250-1979-0
  • Waddell Austine L., Report On The Excavations At Pataliputra (Patna) – The Palibothra Of The Greeks, Asian Publicational Services, Calcutta, 1903
  • Das Arvind N., The State of Bihar: an economic history without footnotes, Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1992
  • Brass Paul R., The politics of India since Independence, Cambridge University Press, 1990
  • Askari S. H., Mediaeval Bihar: Sultante and Mughal Period, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 1990
  • Tayler William, Three Months at Patna during the Insurrection of 1857, Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library, Patna, 2007
  • Taylor P.J.O., "What really happened during the during the Mutiny: A day by day account of the major events of 1857–1859 in India", Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-564182-5
  • Pathak Prabhu Nath, Society and Culture in Early Bihar (C.A.D. 200 – 600), Commonwealth Publishers, 1988
  • Basham A. L., The Wonder that was India, Picador, 1954, ISBN 0-330-43909-X
  • Nambisan Vijay, Bihar in the eye of the beholder, Penguin Books, 2000, ISBN 978-0-14-029449-1
  • Pathak Mohan, Flood plains and Agricultural occupance, Deep & Deep Publication, 1991, ISBN 81-7100-289-7
  • D'Souza Rohan, Drowned and Dammed:Colonial Capitalism and Flood Control in Eastern India, Oxford University Press, 2006,


External links