Zagreb

Zagreb

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Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica
Medvednica
Medvednica is a mountain in central Croatia, just north of Zagreb and marking the southern border of the historic region of Zagorje. The highest peak, at 1,035 m, is Sljeme. Most of the area of Medvednica is a nature park , a type of preservation lesser than a national park...

 mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately 122 m (400.3 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city population in 2011 was 686,568, while its municipal population was 792,875. According to the same census, the wider Zagreb metropolitan area, which includes the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County (also known as the 'Zagreb ring'), has a population of 1,110,517 people and is the only metropolitan area in Croatia with a population of over one million.

Its favourable geographic position in the southwestern part of the Pannonian Basin, which extends to the Alpine
Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, Dinaric
Dinaric Alps
The Dinaric Alps or Dinarides form a mountain chain in Southern Europe, spanning areas of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro....

, Adriatic
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

 and Pannonic regions, provides an excellent connection for traffic between Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

 and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

. The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government
Central government
A central government also known as a national government, union government and in federal states, the federal government, is the government at the level of the nation-state. The structure of central governments varies from institution to institution...

, administrative bodies
Public administration
Public Administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal.....

 and almost all government ministries
Government of Croatia
The Government of the Republic of Croatia , commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government , is the main element of the executive branch of government in Croatia. It is led by the President of the Government , commonly abbreviated to premier...

.

History



The oldest settlement in the urban area of Zagreb was a Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo
Šcitarjevo
Šćitarjevo is a settlement officially in the Town of Velika Gorica, Croatia, located near the Zagreb bypass and the recently built Homeland Bridge. Its main tourist attraction and cultural site is Andautonia, an archeological site with remains of a Roman city.-External links:* website of the...

, which dates back to the 1st century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centers: the smaller, eastern Kaptol
Kaptol, Zagreb
Kaptol is a part of Zagreb, Croatia in the upper town and it is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Zagreb.-History:The existence of Kaptol, the settlement on the east slope, was confirmed in 1094 when King Ladislaus founded the Zagreb diocese. The bishop, his residence and the Cathedral...

, inhabited mainly by clergy
Clergy
Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. A clergyman, churchman or cleric is a member of the clergy, especially one who is a priest, preacher, pastor, or other religious professional....

 and housing Zagreb Cathedral
Zagreb cathedral
Zagreb Cathedral on Kaptol is the most famous building in Zagreb, and the tallest building in Croatia. It is dedicated to the Holy Virgin's Ascension and to St. Stephen and St. Ladislaus. The cathedral is typically Gothic, as is its sacristy, which is of great architectonic value...

, and the larger, western Gradec
Gradec, Zagreb
Gradec or Grič is a part of the Zagreb, Croatia, and together with Kaptol it is the mediaeval nucleus of the city. It's situated on the hill of Gornji Grad.- History :Gradec was given a royal charter by King Bela IV in 1242...

, inhabited mainly by farmers and merchants. Gradec and Zagreb were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić
Josip Jelacic
Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859...

, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square
Ban Jelacic Square
Ban Jelačić Square is the central square of the city of Zagreb, Croatia, named after ban Josip Jelačić. The official name is Trg bana Jelačića...

 in his honour. During the period of former Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, and was the second largest city. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Zagreb became the capital of Croatia.

Etymology



The name Zagreb appears to have been first recorded in 1134 in a document relating to the establishment of the Zagreb bishopric around 1094, although the origins of the name Zagreb are less clear. The Croatian word "zagrabiti" translates approximately to "to scoop", which forms the basis of some legends. One Croat legend says that a Croat ban (viceroy) was leading his thirsty soldiers across a deserted region. He drove his sabre
Sabre
The sabre or saber is a kind of backsword that usually has a curved, single-edged blade and a rather large hand guard, covering the knuckles of the hand as well as the thumb and forefinger...

 into the ground in frustration and water poured out, so he ordered his soldiers to dig for water. The idea of digging or unearthing is supported by scientists who suggest that the settlement was established beyond a water-filled hole or graba and that the name derives from this. Some sources suggest that the name derives from the term 'za breg' or 'beyond the hill'. The hill may well have been the river bank of the River Sava, which is believed to have previously flowed closer to the city centre. From here, the words may have been fused into one word and, thus, the name Zagreb was born. According to another old legend, a city ruler was thirsty and ordered a girl named Manda to take water from Lake Manduševac (nowadays a fountain in Ban Jelačić Square), using the sentence: "Zagrabi, Mando!" which means, Scoop it up, Manda!.

During Austrian rule, Zagreb was more commonly known by its Austrian German
Austrian German
Austrian German , or Austrian Standard German, is the national standard variety of the German language spoken in Austria and in the autonomous Province of South Tyrol...

 name Agram. In today's German, name Zagreb prevails.

Early Zagreb


The history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 when the Hungarian King Ladislaus founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

, the canonical settlement Kaptol
Kaptol, Zagreb
Kaptol is a part of Zagreb, Croatia in the upper town and it is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Zagreb.-History:The existence of Kaptol, the settlement on the east slope, was confirmed in 1094 when King Ladislaus founded the Zagreb diocese. The bishop, his residence and the Cathedral...

 developed north of Zagreb Cathedral
Zagreb cathedral
Zagreb Cathedral on Kaptol is the most famous building in Zagreb, and the tallest building in Croatia. It is dedicated to the Holy Virgin's Ascension and to St. Stephen and St. Ladislaus. The cathedral is typically Gothic, as is its sacristy, which is of great architectonic value...

, as did the fortified settlement Gradec
Gradec, Zagreb
Gradec or Grič is a part of the Zagreb, Croatia, and together with Kaptol it is the mediaeval nucleus of the city. It's situated on the hill of Gornji Grad.- History :Gradec was given a royal charter by King Bela IV in 1242...

 on the neighbouring hill; the border between the two being the Medveščak stream. Today the latter is Zagreb's Upper Town (Gornji Grad) and is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

. Both settlements came under Tatar
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

 attack in 1242. As a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

 the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV
Béla IV of Hungary
Béla IV , King of Hungary and of Croatia , duke of Styria 1254–58. One of the most famous kings of Hungary, he distinguished himself through his policy of strengthening of the royal power following the example of his grandfather Bela III, and by the rebuilding Hungary after the catastrophe of the...

 bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull
Golden Bull of 1242
The Golden Bull of 1242 was a golden bull or edict, issued by King Béla IV of Hungary to inhabitants of Gradec during Mongol invasion of Europe. By this golden bull King Bela IV proclaimed a royal free city....

, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as well as its own judicial system
Judiciary
The judiciary is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes...

. According to legend, Bela left Gradec a cannon, under the condition that it be fired every day so that it did not rust. Since 1 January 1877, the cannon
Gric cannon
The Grič cannon is one of the Zagreb landmarks. Since 1 January 1877 the cannon is fired from the Lotrščak Tower on Grič to mark midday. The cannon was to give the sign for exact noon for the bell-ringers of the city's churches.-References:*...

 is fired daily from the Lotrščak Tower on Grič to mark midday.

There were numerous connections between the Zagreb diocese and the free sovereign town of Gradec for both economic and political reasons. However, the term Zagreb was used for these two separate boroughs in the 16th century. Zagreb was then seen as the political centre
Centrism
In politics, centrism is the ideal or the practice of promoting policies that lie different from the standard political left and political right. Most commonly, this is visualized as part of the one-dimensional political spectrum of left-right politics, with centrism landing in the middle between...

 and the capital of Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 and Slavonia
Slavonia
Slavonia is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia...

.

17th and 18th century


It was not until the 17th century and Nikola Frankopan
Nikola Frankopan
Nikola IV Frankopan was the Ban of Croatia and Dalmatia from 1426 to 1432. He was one of the first of his clan to make this name famous in Croatian history. Even before he became Banus, he owned the Island of Krk, the districts of Vinodol, Modruš, Senj, Gacka and Lika in Croatia. His properties...

 that Zagreb was chosen as the seat of the Croatian viceroys
History of Croatia
Croatia first appeared as a duchy in the 7th century and then as a kingdom in the 10th century. From the 12th century it remained a distinct state with its ruler and parliament, but it obeyed the kings and emperors of various neighboring powers, primarily Hungary and Austria. The period from the...

 in 1621. At the invitation of the Croatian Parliament
Parliament of Croatia
The Parliament of Croatia or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia and legislature of the country. Under the terms of the Croatian Constitution, represents the people and is vested with the legislative power...

, the Jesuits
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 came to Zagreb and built the first grammar school
Grammar school
A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and some other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching classical languages but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school.The original purpose of mediaeval...

, the St. Catherine's
Catherine of Alexandria
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius...

 Church and monastery. In 1669, they founded an academy
University of Zagreb
The University of Zagreb is the biggest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe...

 where philosophy, theology and law were taught.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, Zagreb was badly devastated by fire and the plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

. In 1776, the royal council (government) moved from Varaždin
Varaždin
Varaždin is a city in north Croatia, north of Zagreb on the highway A4. The total population is 47,055, with 38,746 on of the city settlement itself . The centre of Varaždin county is located near the Drava river, at...

 to Zagreb and during the reign of Joseph II
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I...

 Zagreb became the headquarters of the Varaždin
Varaždin
Varaždin is a city in north Croatia, north of Zagreb on the highway A4. The total population is 47,055, with 38,746 on of the city settlement itself . The centre of Varaždin county is located near the Drava river, at...

 and Karlovac
Karlovac
Karlovac is a city and municipality in central Croatia. The city proper has a population of 49,082, while the municipality has a population of 59,395 inhabitants .Karlovac is the administrative centre of Karlovac County...

 general command.

19th to early 20th century



In the 19th century, Zagreb was the centre of the Croatian National Revival
Illyrian movement
The Illyrian movement , also Croatian national revival , was a cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of 19th century, around the years of 1835–1849...

 and saw the erection of important cultural and historic institutions.
In 1850, the town was united under its first mayor - Janko Kamauf
Janko Kamauf
Janko Kamauf was the last city magistrate of Gradec and the first mayor of Zagreb, Croatia. He saw the unification of Gradec, Kaptol and several surrounding villages into Zagreb by ban Josip Jelačić in 1850 and remained the city mayor until 1857.- References :...

.

The first railway
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 line to connect Zagreb with Zidani Most
Zidani Most
Zidani Most is a settlement in the Municipality of Laško in eastern Slovenia. It lies at the confluence of the Sava and Savinja rivers. The area was traditionally part of the Lower Styria region. It is now included with the rest of the municipality in the Savinja statistical region. It is an...

 and Sisak
Sisak
Sisak is a city in central Croatia. The city's population in 2011 was 33,049, with a total of 49,699 in the administrative region and it is also the administrative centre of the Sisak-Moslavina county...

 was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a gasworks
Gasworks
A gasworks or gas house is a factory for the manufacture of gas. The use of natural gas has made many redundant in the developed world, however they are often still used for storage.- Early gasworks :...

. The Zagreb waterworks
Water supply
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavours or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes...

 was opened in 1878 and the first horse-drawn tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 was used in 1891. The construction of the railway
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad
Donji Grad
Donji grad is one of the 17 city districts of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. It is located in the central part of the city and has 45,108 inhabitants . The official name of the district is rarely used, for it is dubbed centar by most of the Zagreb residents....

, characterised by a regular block pattern that prevails in Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

an cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres and cinemas. An electric power plant
Power station
A power station is an industrial facility for the generation of electric energy....

 was built in 1907 and development flourished 1880–1914 after the earthquake in Zagreb
1880 Zagreb earthquake
The 1880 earthquake which struck Zagreb was a 8.0 magnitude earthquake which occurred on 9 November 1880. Its epicenter was in the Medvednica mountain north of Zagreb...

 when the town received the characteristic layout which it has today.

The first half of the 20th century saw a considerable expansion of Zagreb. Before World War I, the city expanded and neighbourhoods like Stara Peščenica
Stara Pešcenica
Stara Peščenica is a neighborhood located in the northwestern corner of the Peščenica – Žitnjak administrative city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is bordered by Zvonimirova Street and the J. F...

 in the east and Črnomerec
Crnomerec
- References :...

 in the west were created. After the war, working-class
Working class
Working class is a term used in the social sciences and in ordinary conversation to describe those employed in lower tier jobs , often extending to those in unemployment or otherwise possessing below-average incomes...

 districts such as Trnje emerged between the railway and the Sava, whereas the construction of residential districts on the hills of the southern slopes of Medvednica
Medvednica
Medvednica is a mountain in central Croatia, just north of Zagreb and marking the southern border of the historic region of Zagorje. The highest peak, at 1,035 m, is Sljeme. Most of the area of Medvednica is a nature park , a type of preservation lesser than a national park...

 was completed between the two World Wars
Interwar period
Interwar period can refer to any period between two wars. The Interbellum is understood to be the period between the end of the Great War or First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe....

.

In the 1920s, the population of Zagreb increased by 70 percent — the largest demographic boom in the history of the town. In 1926, the first radio station in the region began broadcasting out of Zagreb, and in 1947 the Zagreb Fair was opened.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Zagreb became the capital of the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
The Independent State of Croatia was a World War II puppet state of Nazi Germany, established on a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia. The NDH was founded on 10 April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. All of Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed to NDH, together with some parts...

, which was backed by the Germans and Italians. The city capitulated to the Partisans
Partisans (Yugoslavia)
The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans were a Communist-led World War II anti-fascist resistance movement in Yugoslavia...

 at war's end.

Modern Zagreb


The area between the railway and the Sava river witnessed a new construction boom after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. After the mid-1950s, construction of new residential areas south of the Sava river began, resulting in Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb is the part of the city of Zagreb located south of the Sava river, on the way from the Pleso airport to the city center...

 (Croatian for New Zagreb), originally called "Južni Zagreb" (Southern Zagreb). The city also expanded westward and eastward, incorporating Dubrava
Dubrava, Zagreb
Dubrava is one of the largest parts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the northeastern part of the city and divided by the Dubrava Avenue into two administrative areas:* Gornja Dubrava * Donja Dubrava...

, Podsused, Jarun
Jarun
Jarun is a neighborhood in the southwestern part of Zagreb, Croatia. It was named after Lake Jarun, formed by the Sava River, now located on the southern edge of the neighborhood.-Lake:...

, Blato
Blato, Zagreb
Blato is a neighborhood located in the Novi Zagreb - zapad city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is spread along the Karlovačka Road, south of Jadranska Avenue. The population is around 2,600....

 and other settlements.
The cargo railway hub and the international airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

 Pleso
Zagreb Airport
Zagreb Airport , also known as Pleso Airport after the nearby suburb of Pleso, is the main international airport of Croatia and also a Croatian Air Force and Defense major fighter jet base. Located 10 km from the central railway station in Zagreb, it served 2,071,561 passengers in 2010 and is the...

 were built south of the Sava river. The largest industrial zone
Industrial district
Industrial district was initially introduced as a term to describe an area where workers of a monolithic heavy industry live within walking-distance of their places of work...

 (Žitnjak) in the south-eastern part of the city represents an extension of the industrial zones on the eastern outskirts of the city, between the Sava and the Prigorje region. Zagreb also hosted the Summer Universiade
1987 Summer Universiade
The 1987 Summer Universiade, also known as the XIV Summer Universiade, took place in Zagreb, Croatia . It involved participants from 111 countries and over 6,000 individual sportspersons and members of teams.-Medal table:...

 in 1987.

In 1991, it became the capital of the country following secession from Second Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

. During the 1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia —and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat...

, it was a scene of some sporadic fighting surrounding its JNA
Yugoslav People's Army
The Yugoslav People's Army , also referred to as the Yugoslav National Army , was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.-Origins:The origins of the JNA can...

 army barracks
Barracks
Barracks are specialised buildings for permanent military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes. Their main object is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline, training and esprit de corps. They were sometimes called...

, but escaped major damage. In May 1995, it was targeted by Serb rocket artillery
Rocket artillery
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.Types of rocket artillery pieces include multiple rocket launchers.-History:...

 in two Zagreb rocket attacks which killed seven civilians.

An urbanised area connects Zagreb with the surrounding districts of Sesvete
Sesvete
Sesvete is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the eastern part of the city and has 59,212 inhabitants .-Administrative division:...

, Zaprešić
Zaprešic
Zaprešić is a city in Zagreb County in Croatia. Its population is 25.875 inhabitants for the city proper, and over 51,000 for its seven-municipality metropolitan area. Zaprešić is the third-largest, and most densely populated division of the county. It is located northwest of the Croatian capital...

, Samobor
Samobor
Samobor is a town in the Zagreb County, Croatia. It is part of the Zagreb metropolitan area.-Geography:Samobor is located west of Zagreb, between the eastern slopes of the Samoborsko gorje , in the Sava River valley.-Population:...

, Dugo Selo
Dugo Selo
-Geography:Dugo Selo is a 20 km drive from Zagreb city centre.The town covers an area of 51 km² and it consists of numerous settlements. The summit of the hill Martin Breg is situated in the northern part of the town. Most neighborhoods of Dugo Selo are located on the Martin Breg...

 and Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica is the largest and most populous city in Zagreb County, Croatia. The city itself has a population of 31,341, while the municipality has a population of 63,511 inhabitants .Velika Gorica is the centre of the historical Turopolje region....

; Sesvete was the first and the closest one to become a part of the agglomeration
Agglomeration
In the study of human settlements, an urban agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place and any suburbs linked by continuous urban area. In France, INSEE the French Statistical Institute, translate it as "Unité urbaine" which means continuous...

 and is already included in the City of Zagreb for administrative purposes.

Area and population development


Cells left-aligned, table centered>
Year Area
(km²)
Population
(inside city limits at that time)
Population
(inside today's city limits)
1368 2,810from the household census
1742 5,600
1805 7,706population census without clergy and nobility
1850 16,036
1857 16,657 48,266
1869 19,857 54,761
1880 30,830 67,188
1890 3.33 40,268 82,848
1900 64.37 61,002 111,565
1910 64.37 79,038 136,351
1921 64.37 108,674 167,765
1931 64.37 185,581 258,024
1948 74.99 279,623 356,529
1953 235.74 350,829 393,919
1961 495.60 430,802 478,076
1971 497.95 602,205 629,896
1981 1,261.54 768,700 723,065
1991 1,715.55 933,914 777,826
2001 641.36 779,145 779,145
The data in column 3 refers to the population in the city borders as of the census in question. Column 4 is calculated for the territory now defined as the City of Zagreb (Narodne Novine
Narodne novine
Narodne novine is the official gazette of the Republic of Croatia which publishes laws, regulations, appointments and official decisions and releases them in the public domain...

 97/10).

Climate



The climate of Zagreb is classified as an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Cfb in Köppen climate classification system), near the boundary of the humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

. Zagreb has four separate season
Season
A season is a division of the year, marked by changes in weather, ecology, and hours of daylight.Seasons result from the yearly revolution of the Earth around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of revolution...

s. Summers are warm, and winters are cold, without a discernible dry season
Dry season
The dry season is a term commonly used when describing the weather in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year...

. The average temperature in winter is -0.5 C and the average temperature in summer is 22 °C (71.6 °F). Particularly, the end of May gets very warm with temperatures rising above 30 °C (86 °F), doing so on an average of 17 days each summer.

Snowfall is common in the winter months, from December to March, and rain and fog are common in fall (October to December). Highest recorded temperature ever was 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) in July 1950, and lowest was -27.3 °C in February 1956.

Demographics


Zagreb is the largest city in Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

. Most people live in the city proper, which has a population of 686,568 residents according to the official 2011 census, the city's municipality including some surrounding rural parts has 792,875 residents according to the same census. The 2001 census counted 779,145 residents in the municipality, by 2006 that number had grown to 804,900 and by 2009 had dropped to 791,100, according to the city goverment estimates.

Zagreb metropolitan area population is slightly above 1.2 million inhabitants, as it includes the Zagreb County
Zagreb County
Zagreb County is a county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, it is often nicknamed "Zagreb ring"...

.
In 1997, the City of Zagreb (the current city's municipality) itself was given special County status, separating it from Zagreb County, although it remains the administrative center of both.

The majority of its citizens are Croats
Croats
Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

 making up 92% of the city's population (2001 census). The same census records 60,066 residents belonging to ethnic minorities
Minority group
A minority is a sociological group within a demographic. The demographic could be based on many factors from ethnicity, gender, wealth, power, etc. The term extends to numerous situations, and civilizations within history, despite the misnomer of minorities associated with a numerical statistic...

. Such ethnic minorities comprise: 18,811 Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 (2.41%), 6,204 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
The Bosniaks or Bosniacs are a South Slavic ethnic group, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a smaller minority also present in other lands of the Balkan Peninsula especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia...

 (0.80%), 8,030 Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality
Muslims by nationality was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as an official designation of nationality of Slavic Muslims. They were one of the constitutive groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 (1.02%), 6,389 Albanians
Albanians
Albanians are a nation and ethnic group native to Albania and neighbouring countries. They speak the Albanian language. More than half of all Albanians live in Albania and Kosovo...

 (0.83%), 3,225 Slovenes (0.41%), 3,946 Roma (0.55%), 2,131 Montenegrins (0.27%), 2,315 Macedonians
Macedonians (ethnic group)
The Macedonians also referred to as Macedonian Slavs: "... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness...

 (0.27%), together with other smaller minor ethnic communities, especially the historically present Germans.

City districts


The city districts are:
No. District Area (km²) Population (2011) Population (2001) Population density (2001)
1. Donji Grad
Donji Grad
Donji grad is one of the 17 city districts of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. It is located in the central part of the city and has 45,108 inhabitants . The official name of the district is rarely used, for it is dubbed centar by most of the Zagreb residents....

 
3.01 37,123 45,108 14,956.2
2. Gornji Grad - Medveščak  10.12 31,279 36,384 3,593.5
3. Trnje  7.37 42,126 45,267 6,146.2
4. Maksimir
Maksimir
Maksimir is one of the neighborhoods of Zagreb, Croatia. Maksimir stadium and Maksimir Park are located in it. It was named after the bishop Maksimilijan Vrhovac....

 
14.35 49,448 49,750 3,467.1
5. Peščenica - Žitnjak  35.30 56,446 58,283 1,651.3
6. Novi Zagreb - istok  16.54 59,227 65,301 3,947.1
7. Novi Zagreb - zapad  62.59 58,025 48,981 782.5
8. Trešnjevka - sjever  5.83 55,342 55,358 9,498.6
9. Trešnjevka - jug  9.84 66,595 67,162 6,828.1
10. CČrnomerec
Crnomerec
- References :...

 
24.33 39,040 38,762 1,593.4
11. Gornja Dubrava
Gornja Dubrava
Gornja Dubrava is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the northeastern part of the city and has 61,388 inhabitants .-List of neighborhoods in Gornja Dubrava:* Branovec-Jalševec* Čučerje* Dankovec* Dubec* Dubrava-Središte...

 
40.28 62,221 61,388 1,524.1
12. Donja Dubrava
Donja Dubrava, Zagreb
Donja Dubrava is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the northeastern part of the city and has 35,944 inhabitants .-List of neighborhoods in Donja Dubrava:* Čulinec* Donja Dubrava* "Ivan Mažuranić"* Novi Retkovec...

 
10.82 36,461 35,944 3,321.1
13. Stenjevec
Stenjevec
Stenjevec is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the western part of the city and has 41,257 inhabitants .-List of neighborhoods in Stenjevec:* Jankomir* Malešnica* "Matija Gubec"* Stenjevec* Špansko* Vrapče-jug...

 
12.18 51,849 41,257 3,387.3
14. Podsused - Vrapče  36.05 45,771 42,360 1,175.1
15. Podsljeme
Podsljeme
Podsljeme is in the foothills of Zagreb's mountain Medvednica and its name means "under Sljeme" . It has the status of četvrt and as such has an elected council. The historic Medvedgrad castle is located in the district of Črnomerec, west of Podsljeme.Podsljeme had 17,744 residents in 2001...

 
60.11 19,249 17,744 295.2
16. Sesvete
Sesvete
Sesvete is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the eastern part of the city and has 59,212 inhabitants .-Administrative division:...

 
165.26 70,633 59,212 358.3
17. Brezovica
Brezovica, Zagreb
Brezovica is a city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the southwestern part of the city and has 12,040 inhabitants . It is one of the more rural districts in Zagreb...

 
127.45 12,040 10,884 85.4
TOTAL 641.43 792,875 779,145 1,214.9

Settlements


The city itself is not the only standalone settlement
Naselje
Naselje is a settlement in Croatia, usually translated as settlement. It is the smallest unit of Croatian territory. Individual settlements are by and large referred to as selo , while naselje is a statistical and administrative category. The units of local government in Croatia, cities and...

 in the City of Zagreb administrative area - there are a number of smaller villages attached to it whose population is tracked separately:
  • Adamovec
    Adamovec
    Adamovec is a village in central Croatia, north of Sesvete and southwest of Sveti Ivan Zelina. It is formally a settlement of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. According to the 2001 census, Adamovec counts 984 inhabitants....

    , population 980
  • Belovar
    Belovar
    Belovar is a settlement located within the Sesvete city district of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. According to the 2001 census, the settlement has 330 inhabitants.- References :...

    , population 381
  • Blaguša, population 593
  • Botinec
    Botinec
    Botinec is a neighborhood located in Novi Zagreb - zapad city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is famous for having its streets named after famous character from Croatian theater plays and novels. It was founded in 1965 as a refugee camp after the 1964 flood, owing its rectangular street grid to the...

    , population 9
  • Brebernica, population 49
  • Brezovica
    Brezovica, Zagreb
    Brezovica is a city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the southwestern part of the city and has 12,040 inhabitants . It is one of the more rural districts in Zagreb...

    , population 604
  • Budenec, population 323
  • Buzin
    Buzin
    Buzin is a village in Croatia. It is located just south of the Zagreb bypass and the adjacent D3/A3 interchange is named after it....

    , population 1,042
  • Cerje, population 409
  • Demerje
    Demerje
    Demerje is a settlement within the City of Zagreb, Croatia. The settlement is administered as a part of the City of Zagreb.According to national census of 2001, population of the settlement is 634....

    , population 723
  • Desprim, population 378
  • Dobrodol
    Dobrodol
    Dobrodol is a village in Serbia. It is located in the Irig municipality, in the Srem District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Hungarian ethnic majority and its population numbering 127 people .-External links:*...

    , population 1,206
  • Donji Čehi, population 227
  • Donji Dragonožec, population 574
  • Donji Trpuci, population 427
  • Drenčec, population 131
  • Drežnik Brezovički, population 637
  • Dumovec, population 910
  • Đurđekovec, population 772
  • Gajec
    Gajec, Croatia
    Gajec is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D29 highway....

    , population 321
  • Glavnica Donja, population 552
  • Glavnica Gornja, population 225
  • Glavničica, population 229
  • Goli Breg, population 409
  • Goranec, population 446
  • Gornji Čehi, population 368
  • Gornji Dragonožec, population 295
  • Gornji Trpuci, population 87
  • Grančari, population 216
  • Havidić Selo, population 57
  • Horvati
    Horvati
    Horvati is a settlement within the City of Zagreb, Croatia. The settlement is administered as a part of the City of Zagreb.According to national census of 2001, population of the settlement is 1,470....

    , population 1,502
  • Hrašće Turopoljsko, population 1,202
  • Hrvatski Leskovac
    Hrvatski Leskovac
    Hrvatski Leskovac is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D1 highway.-References:...

    , population 2,659
  • Hudi Bitek
    Hudi Bitek
    Hudi Bitek is a village on the outskirts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is administratively located in the Brezovica city district. The population is 331. Hudi Bitek has been an inhabited settlement since the medieval times.- References :...

    , population 441
  • Ivanja Reka
    Ivanja Reka
    Ivanja Reka is a neighborhood located in the eastern part of the Peščenica - Žitnjak city district of Zagreb, Croatia. The population is 2,034....

    , population 1,799
  • Jesenovec, population 462
  • Ježdovec, population 1,699
  • Kašina
    Kašina
    Kašina is a settlement in the City of Zagreb, Croatia, population 1487 . It is located around 22 km north-east of the city centre of Zagreb and north of the district Sesvete....

    , population 1,535
  • Kašinska Sopnica, population 243
  • Kučilovina, population 216
  • Kućanec, population 229
  • Kupinečki Kraljevec, population 1,948
  • Lipnica
    Lipnica
    Lipnica may refer to:* Lipnica, Środa Śląska County in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-west Poland* Lipnica, Wołów County in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, south-west Poland* Lipnica, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, north-central Poland...

    , population 207
  • Lučko
    Lucko
    Lučko is a neighborhood in Novi Zagreb - zapad district of Zagreb, Croatia, located south of the Sava and southwest of the city center, near the Lučko interchange that connects the Zagreb-Karlovac motorway, the Zagreb bypass and the old road to Karlovac. The population is 2,841...

    , population 3,024
  • Lužan, population 723
  • Mala Mlaka, population 622
  • Markovo Polje, population 425
  • Moravče, population 664
  • Odra, population 1,851
  • Odranski Obrež, population 1,585
  • Paruževina, population 634
  • Planina Donja
    Planina Donja
    Planina Donja is a village-like part of a Zagreb borough in Croatia....

    , population 553
  • Planina Gornja, population 249
  • Popovec
    Popovec
    Popovec is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D3 highway....

    , population 943
  • Prekvršje, population 817
  • Prepuštovec
    Prepuštovec
    Prepuštovec is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D29 highway....

    , population 321
  • Sesvete
    Sesvete
    Sesvete is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the eastern part of the city and has 59,212 inhabitants .-Administrative division:...

    , population 54,494
  • Soblinec
    Soblinec
    Soblinec is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D3 highway....

    , population 969
  • Starjak, population 221
  • Strmec, population 644
  • Šašinovec
    Šašinovec
    Šašinovec is a village in Croatia....

    , population 678
  • Šimunčevec, population 275
  • Veliko Polje, population 1,655
  • Vuger Selo, population 278
  • Vugrovec Donji, population 440
  • Vugrovec Gornji, population 356
  • Vurnovec
    Vurnovec
    Vurnovec is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D29 highway....

    , population 201
  • Zadvorsko, population 1,302
  • Zagreb, population 686,568
  • Žerjavinec
    Žerjavinec
    Žerjavinec is a village in Croatia. It is connected by the D3 highway....

    , population 556

Economy



Most important branches of industry are: production of electric machines and devices, chemical
Chemical industry
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products.-Products:...

, pharmaceutical, textile
Textile industry
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the production of yarn, and cloth and the subsequent design or manufacture of clothing and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry....

, food and drink
Food industry
The food production is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population...

 processing. Zagreb is international trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

 and business centre, and the transport crossroad of Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

.

The city of Zagreb has the highest nominal gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 per capita in Croatia ($
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

 19,132 in 2005, compared to the Croatian average of $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

 10,431). In 2004, the GDP in purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity
In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

 was $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

 28,261 (
Euro sign
The euro sign is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union . The design was presented to the public by the European Commission on 12 December 1996. The international three-letter code for the euro is EUR...

 19,067).

As of July 2008, the average monthly net salary in Zagreb was 6,228 kuna
Croatian kuna
The kuna is the currency of Croatia since 1994 . It is subdivided into 100 lipa. The kuna is issued by the Croatian National Bank and the coins are minted by the Croatian Monetary Institute....

, about $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

1,356 (Croatian average is 5,234 kuna, about $1,140). In 2006, the average unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment , as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks...

 rate in Zagreb was around 8.6%.

34% of companies in Croatia have headquarters in Zagreb, and 38.4% of Croatian workforce works in Zagreb, including almost all banks, utility and public transport companies.

Companies in Zagreb create 52% of total turnover and 60% of total profit of Croatia in 2006 as well as 35% of Croatian export and 57% of Croatian Import.

Cityscape


The most important historical high-rise constructions are Neboder
Neboder
1 Ilica Street is a skyscraper located in Ilica Street overlooking Ban Jelačić Square in the Lower Town area of Zagreb, Croatia. In Croatian, the building was known under the generic title Neboder 1 Ilica Street is a skyscraper located in Ilica Street overlooking Ban Jelačić Square in the Lower...

 on Ban Jelačić Square
Ban Jelacic Square
Ban Jelačić Square is the central square of the city of Zagreb, Croatia, named after ban Josip Jelačić. The official name is Trg bana Jelačića...

, Cibona Tower
Cibona Tower
The Cibona Tower in Zagreb, Croatia is a business tower. The address is Trg Dražena Petrovića 3, near the Savska and Kranjčevićeva intersection.-Technical information:...

 (1987) and Zagrepčanka
Zagrepcanka
Zagrepčanka is a business tower located in Zagreb, Croatia. The address is Savska 41, on the Savska Road and Vukovar Avenue intersection.-Technical information:Zagrepčanka is ranked 1st by height in Croatia...

 (1976) on Savska Street, Mamutica in Travno (Novi Zagreb - istok district, built in 1974) and Zagreb TV Tower
Zagreb TV Tower
Zagreb TV Tower is a 169 metre tall TV tower built of reinforced concrete on the summit of the 1035 metre tall mountain Medvednica near Zagreb, Croatia.Zagreb TV Tower was built in 1973...

 on Sljeme
Šljeme
Šljeme is a village in the municipality of Ilijaš, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-References:...

 (built in 1973).

In the 2000s, the city council approved a new plan that allowed for the many recent high-rise buildings in Zagreb, such as the Almeria Tower, Eurotower, HOTO Tower
HOTO Tower
HOTO Business Tower is a skyscraper in Zagreb, Croatia. It was built in 2004 as the first skyscraper after the Croatian War of Independence. It is located to the west of the Savska street, between the Cibona Tower and Zagrepčanka...

 and Zagrebtower
Zagrebtower
Zagrebtower is a skyscraper in Zagreb, Croatia, located in the neighborhood of Kanal, on the Radnička Road. It was completed in late 2006.It is an elliptical, 22-story, office tower with adjacent 8-story office building which includes an underground parking garage. The complex includes a total of ...

. Other new skyscrapers are also in construction or planned, notably the Sky Office Tower
Sky Office Tower
Sky Office Tower is a future dual business tower, elliptically shaped, located in Zagreb, Croatia, north of the Zagrebačka Avenue, near the intersection with Zagrebačka cesta. The office tower is currently under construction,...

.
In Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb is the part of the city of Zagreb located south of the Sava river, on the way from the Pleso airport to the city center...

, the neighbourhoods of Blato
Blato, Zagreb
Blato is a neighborhood located in the Novi Zagreb - zapad city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is spread along the Karlovačka Road, south of Jadranska Avenue. The population is around 2,600....

 and Lanište expanded significantly, including the Zagreb Arena and the adjoining business centre.

Due to a long-standing restriction that forbade the construction of 10-story or higher buildings, most of Zagreb's high-rise buildings date from the 1970s and 1980s and new apartment building
Apartment
An apartment or flat is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building...

s on the outskirts of the city are usually 4-8 floors tall. Exceptions to the restriction have been made in recent years, such as permitting the construction of high-rise buildings in Lanište or Kajzerica.

Metropolitan administration


According to the Constitution
Constitution of Croatia
The current Constitution of the Republic of Croatia was adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia on December 22, 1990. It replaced the Constitution of 1974 ratified in socialist Yugoslavia...

, the city of Zagreb, as the capital of Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, has special status. As such, Zagreb performs self-governing
Self-governance
Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization.It may refer to personal conduct or family units but more commonly refers to larger scale activities, i.e., professions, industry bodies, religions and political units , up to and including autonomous regions and...

 public affairs of both city and county
Zagreb County
Zagreb County is a county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, it is often nicknamed "Zagreb ring"...

. The city administration bodies are the city assembly
Deliberative assembly
A deliberative assembly is an organization comprising members who use parliamentary procedure to make decisions. In a speech to the electorate at Bristol in 1774, Edmund Burke described the English Parliament as a "deliberative assembly," and the expression became the basic term for a body of...

 as the representative body and mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 and the city government
Local government
Local government refers collectively to administrative authorities over areas that are smaller than a state.The term is used to contrast with offices at nation-state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government...

 as the executive body. The members of the city assembly are elected at direct elections. Prior to 2009, the mayor was elected by the city assembly. It was changed to direct election in 2009. They elect the mayor and members of the city government by majority vote
Majoritarianism
Majoritarianism is a traditional political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society...

. The city government has 11 members elected on mayor’s proposal by the city assembly by majority vote. The mayor is the head of city government and has two deputies. The city administrative bodies are composed of 12 city offices, 3 city bureaus and 3 city services
Municipal services
Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents of a city expect the city government to provide in exchange for the taxes which citizens pay. Basic city services may include sanitation , water, streets, schools, food inspection fire department, police, ambulance, and...

. They are responsible to the mayor and the city government. Local government is organized in 17 city district
City district
City district is a type of administrative division of Pakistan and Croatia.It is also the English translation of German Stadtbezirk and Swedish Stadsdel.-See also:*City Districts of Pakistan...

s represented by City District Councils. Residents of districts elect members of councils.

City government


The current mayor
Mayor
In many countries, a Mayor is the highest ranking officer in the municipal government of a town or a large urban city....

 of Zagreb is Milan Bandić
Milan Bandic
Milan Bandić is an influential Croatian politician currently serving his fourth term as mayor of Croatia's capital, Zagreb. Between 2000 and 2009, he was a prominent member of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia . In 2007, he unsuccessfully ran for party president. However, he remained one of...

 (elected with the support of SDP
Social Democratic Party of Croatia
Social Democratic Party of Croatia , commonly referred to in Croatia as simply Social Democratic Party , is the largest centre-left political party in Croatia...

, but has since become an independent, losing membership in his party).

The city assembly
Deliberative assembly
A deliberative assembly is an organization comprising members who use parliamentary procedure to make decisions. In a speech to the electorate at Bristol in 1774, Edmund Burke described the English Parliament as a "deliberative assembly," and the expression became the basic term for a body of...

 is composed of 51 representatives. , the member parties/lists are:
  • Social Democratic Party of Croatia
    Social Democratic Party of Croatia
    Social Democratic Party of Croatia , commonly referred to in Croatia as simply Social Democratic Party , is the largest centre-left political party in Croatia...

     (21)
  • Croatian Democratic Union
    Croatian Democratic Union
    The Croatian Democratic Union is the main center-right political party in Croatia. It is the biggest and strongest individual Croatian party since independence of Croatia. The Christian democratic HDZ governed Croatia from 1990 to 2000 and, in partial coalition, from 2003...

     (7)
  • Croatian People's Party (5)
  • Independent list Velimir Srića (5)
  • Independent list Tatjana Holjevac (4)
  • Croatian Peasant Party
    Croatian Peasant Party
    The Croatian Peasant Party is a center and socially conservative political party in Croatia.-Austria-Hungary:The Croatian People's Peasant Party was formed on December 22, 1904 by Antun Radić along with his brother Stjepan Radić. The party contested elections for the first time in the Kingdom of...

     (4)
  • Croatian Party of Pensioners
    Croatian Party of Pensioners
    The Croatian Party of Pensioners is a Croatian political party. It is currently led by Silvano Hrelja.When the Party was founded, few people took it seriously and many commentators speculated that the ultimate purpose of HSU was take away pensioners' votes from rejuvenated SDP and thus help ruling...

     (3)
  • Croatian Social Liberal Party
    Croatian Social Liberal Party
    Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS is a conservative liberal political party in Croatia. The party is a member of Liberal International and the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. Its current president is Darinko Kosor, elected to that post in November 2009.-Chronology:The HSLS was...

     (2)

Highways


Zagreb is the hub of four major Croatian highways. Until a few years ago, all Croatian highways either started or ended in Zagreb.

The highway A6
A6 (Croatia)
The A6 motorway is a motorway in Croatia spanning . It connects the nation's capital, Zagreb, via the A1, to the seaport of Rijeka. The motorway forms a major north–south transportation corridor in Croatia and is a part of European route E65...

 was upgraded in October 2008 and leads from Zagreb to Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third largest city in Croatia . It is located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,735 inhabitants...

, crossing 146.5 kilometres (91 mi) and forming a part of the Pan-European Corridor Vb. The upgrade coincided with the opening of the bridge over the Mura river
Zrinski Bridge
The Zrinski Bridge or Zrínyi Bridge connects the Croatian A4 and the Hungarian M7 motorways, spanning the Mura River. As it also spans Hungarian–Croatian border, a joint border checkpoint is located north of the bridge. The bridge is located between Goričan interchange of the A4 motorway and...

 on the A4
A4 (Croatia)
The A4 motorway is a motorway in Croatia spanning . It connects the nation's capital, Zagreb, to the city of Varaždin and to Budapest, Hungary via the Goričan border crossing. The motorway represents a major north–south transportation corridor in Croatia and is a part of European routes E65...

 and the completion of the Hungarian
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 M7
M7 motorway (Hungary)
The M7 motorway is a Hungarian motorway which runs from Budapest towards the Croatian border at Letenye, reaching Székesfehérvár, then Siófok, a town on Lake Balaton, and the city of Nagykanizsa in the southwest of the country....

, which marked the opening of the first freeway corridor between Rijeka
Rijeka
Rijeka is the principal seaport and the third largest city in Croatia . It is located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea and has a population of 128,735 inhabitants...

 and Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

. The A1
A1 (Croatia)
The A1 motorway is the longest motorway in Croatia spanning . As it connects Zagreb, the nation's capital, to Split, the second largest city in the country and the largest city in Dalmatia, the motorway represents a major north–south transportation corridor in Croatia and a significant part of the...

 starts at the Lučko interchange
Lučko interchange
The Lučko interchange is a stack interchange in Zagreb, Croatia. It is named after nearby Zagreb neighborhood of Lučko. The interchange represents the northern terminus of the A1 motorway and it connects the A1 route to the A3 motorway between Jankomir interchange and Buzin exit, also representing...

 and concurs
Concurrency (road)
A concurrency, overlap, or coincidence in a road network is an instance of one physical road bearing two or more different highway, motorway, or other route numbers...

 with the A6 up to the Bosiljevo 2 interchange
Bosiljevo 2 interchange
The Bosiljevo 2 interchange |A6 motorway]] and it connects the A6 route to the A1 motorway between Bosiljevo 1 and Ogulin exits. The interchange is a part of Pan-European corridor Vb. It also represents a part of European route E65.- See also :...

, connecting Zagreb and Split
Split (city)
Split is a Mediterranean city on the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea, centered around the ancient Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian and its wide port bay. With a population of 178,192 citizens, and a metropolitan area numbering up to 467,899, Split is by far the largest Dalmatian city and...

 ( Vrgorac
Vrgorac
Vrgorac is a town in Croatia in the Split-Dalmatia County.The total population of Vrgorac is 6,501 , in the following settlements:* Banja, population 214* Dragljane, population 47* Draževitići, population 204* Duge Njive, population 106...

). A further extension of the A1 up to Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea coast, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641...

 is under construction. Both highways are tolled by the Croatian highway authorities Hrvatske autoceste and Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb.

Highway A3
A3 (Croatia)
The A3 motorway is a major motorway in Croatia spanning . The motorway connects Zagreb, the nation's capital, to the Slavonia region and a number of cities along the Sava River. It represents a major east–west transportation corridor in Croatia and a significant part of the Pan-European Corridor...

 (formerly named Bratstvo i jedinstvo
Brotherhood and unity
Brotherhood and Unity was a popular slogan of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia that was coined during the Yugoslav People's Liberation War , and which evolved into a guiding principle of Yugoslavia's post-war inter-ethnic policy....

) was the showpiece of Croatia in the SFRY
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

. It is the oldest Croatian highway. A3 forms a part of the Pan-European Corridor X. The highway starts at the Bregana
Bregana
Bregana is a settlement in the Town of Samobor, Zagreb County, Croatia. According to the 2001 census, the town has 2,518 residents living in an area of . Together with the nearby settlements of Podvrh and Klokočevec Samoborski, the town's micropolitan area has 3,450 inhabitants.Together with...

 border crossing
Border checkpoint
A border checkpoint is a place, generally between two countries, where travellers and/or goods are inspected. Authorization often is required to enter a country through its borders. Access-controlled borders often have a limited number of checkpoints where they can be crossed without legal...

, bypasses Zagreb forming the southern arch of the Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass , is an U-shaped motorway partially encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, has been built between 1977 and 1979, while Ivanja Reka - Sveta Helena section has been built between 1996 and 1999. The bypass is long, tracing...

 and ends at Lipovac near the Bajakovo border crossing. It continues in Southeast Europe
Balkans
The Balkans is a geopolitical and cultural region of southeastern Europe...

 in the direction of Near East
Near East
The Near East is a geographical term that covers different countries for geographers, archeologists, and historians, on the one hand, and for political scientists, economists, and journalists, on the other...

. This highway is tolled except for the stretch between Bobovica and Ivanja Reka
Ivanja Reka interchange
The Ivanja Reka interchange is a cloverleaf interchange east of Zagreb, Croatia. The interchange represents the southern terminus of the A4 motorway and it connects the A4 route to the A3 motorway representing major a link in the Croatian motorway system. The interchange is a part of Pan-European...

 interchanges.

Highway A2
A2 (Croatia)
The A2 motorway is a motorway in the Hrvatsko Zagorje region of northern Croatia, connecting Zagreb to the Macelj border crossing and Slovenia. The A2 motorway is part of the European route E59 and the Pan-European Corridor Xa...

 is a part of the Corridor Xa. It connects Zagreb and the frequently congested Macelj
Macelj
Macelj is the name of a village and a forest in northern Croatia bordering on Slovenia. There is an official border crossing in Macelj, and the end of the A2 highway.-Macelj in 1945:...

 border crossing, forming a near-continuous motorway-level link between Zagreb and Western Europe
Western Europe
Western Europe is a loose term for the collection of countries in the western most region of the European continents, though this definition is context-dependent and carries cultural and political connotations. One definition describes Western Europe as a geographic entity—the region lying in the...

. Forming a part of the Corridor Vb, highway A4
A4 (Croatia)
The A4 motorway is a motorway in Croatia spanning . It connects the nation's capital, Zagreb, to the city of Varaždin and to Budapest, Hungary via the Goričan border crossing. The motorway represents a major north–south transportation corridor in Croatia and is a part of European routes E65...

 starts in Zagreb forming the northeastern wing of the Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass , is an U-shaped motorway partially encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, has been built between 1977 and 1979, while Ivanja Reka - Sveta Helena section has been built between 1996 and 1999. The bypass is long, tracing...

 and leads to Hungary until the Goričan
Gorican
Goričan is a municipality in Međimurje County, Croatia.Goričan is the only village belonging to the municipality. Its population in the 2001 census was 3,148. Of the entire population, 3,088 people identified themselves as Croats....

 border crossing. It is the least used highway around Zagreb.
The railway and the highway A3
A3 (Croatia)
The A3 motorway is a major motorway in Croatia spanning . The motorway connects Zagreb, the nation's capital, to the Slavonia region and a number of cities along the Sava River. It represents a major east–west transportation corridor in Croatia and a significant part of the Pan-European Corridor...

 along the Sava river that extend to Slavonia
Slavonia
Slavonia is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia...

 (towards Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod is a city in Croatia, with a population of 59,507 in 2011. The city was known as Marsonia in the Roman Empire, and as Brod na Savi 1244–1934. It is the sixth largest city in Croatia, after Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek and Zadar. Located in the region of Slavonia, it is the...

, Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Vinkovci is a city in Croatia, in the Vukovar-Syrmia County. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,375, making it the largest town of the county...

, Osijek
Osijek
Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 83,496 in 2011. It is the largest city and the economic and cultural centre of the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia, as well as the administrative centre of Osijek-Baranja county...

 and Vukovar
Vukovar
Vukovar is a city in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river and the Danube. Vukovar is the center of the Vukovar-Syrmia County...

) are some of the busiest traffic corridors in the country. The railway running along the Sutla river and the A2
A2 (Croatia)
The A2 motorway is a motorway in the Hrvatsko Zagorje region of northern Croatia, connecting Zagreb to the Macelj border crossing and Slovenia. The A2 motorway is part of the European route E59 and the Pan-European Corridor Xa...

 highway (Zagreb-Macelj
Macelj
Macelj is the name of a village and a forest in northern Croatia bordering on Slovenia. There is an official border crossing in Macelj, and the end of the A2 highway.-Macelj in 1945:...

) running through Zagorje
Zagora (Croatia)
Zagora , sometimes also called Dalmatian Zagora , is the southern inland region of Croatia. The name Zagora means "behind hills", which is a reference to the fact that it is the part of Dalmatia that is not coastal....

, as well as traffic connections with the Pannonian region and Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 (the Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje is a region north of Zagreb, Croatia. It comprises the whole area north of Medvednica mountain up to Slovenia in the north and west, and up to the regions of Međimurje and Podravina in the north and east...

 railroad, the roads and railway to Varaždin
Varaždin
Varaždin is a city in north Croatia, north of Zagreb on the highway A4. The total population is 47,055, with 38,746 on of the city settlement itself . The centre of Varaždin county is located near the Drava river, at...

 - Čakovec
Cakovec
Čakovec is a city in northern Croatia, located around 90 kilometres north of Zagreb, the Croatian capital. Čakovec is both the county seat and largest city of Međimurje County, the northernmost, smallest and most densely populated Croatian county.-Population:...

 and Koprivnica
Koprivnica
Koprivnica is a city in northern Croatia. It is the capital of the Koprivnica-Križevci county. In 2011 the city administrative area had a total population of 30,872, with 23,896 in the city itself.-Population:...

) are linked with truck routes. The southern railway connection to Split
Split (city)
Split is a Mediterranean city on the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea, centered around the ancient Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian and its wide port bay. With a population of 178,192 citizens, and a metropolitan area numbering up to 467,899, Split is by far the largest Dalmatian city and...

 operates on a high-speed tilting train
Tilting train
A tilting train is a train that has a mechanism enabling increased speed on regular rail tracks. As a train rounds a curve at speed, objects inside the train experience centrifugal force. This can cause packages to slide about or seated passengers to feel squashed by the outboard armrest due to...

s line via the Lika
Lika
Lika is a mountainous region in central Croatia, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast. On the north-west end Lika is bounded by Ogulin-Plaški basin, and on the south-east by the Malovan pass...

 region (renovated in 2004 to allow for a five-hour journey); a faster line along the Una river valley is currently in use only up to the border between Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

.

Roads



The city has an avenue network with several main arteries up to ten lanes wide and Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass , is an U-shaped motorway partially encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, has been built between 1977 and 1979, while Ivanja Reka - Sveta Helena section has been built between 1996 and 1999. The bypass is long, tracing...

, a congested four-lane highway
Highway
A highway is any public road. In American English, the term is common and almost always designates major roads. In British English, the term designates any road open to the public. Any interconnected set of highways can be variously referred to as a "highway system", a "highway network", or a...

 encircling most of the city. There is much congestion
Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. The most common example is the physical use of roads by vehicles. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction...

 in the city centre during the rush hour
Rush hour
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice a day—once in the morning and once in the evening, the times during when the most people commute...

 and a daytime parking problem. Finding a parking space
Parking space
A parking space is a location that is designated for parking, either paved or unpaved.Parking spaces can be in a parking garage, in a parking lot or on a city street. It is usually designated by a white-paint-on-tar rectangle indicated by three lines at the top, left and right of the designated area...

 is supposed to be made somewhat easier by the construction of new underground multi-story parking lot
Parking lot
A parking lot , also known as car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface....

s (Importanne Center, Importanne Gallery, Lang Square, Tuškanac, Kvaternik Square, Klaić Street, etc.). The busiest roads are the main east-west artery, former Highway "Brotherhood and Unity", consisting of Ljubljanska Avenue
Ljubljanska Avenue
Ljubljanska Avenue is one of most travelled thoroughfares in Zagreb, Croatia. It is a four-lane divided avenue that runs from the Savska Opatovina rotary in the east to the Jankomir interchange with the Zagreb bypass in the west...

, Zagrebačka Avenue
Zagrebacka Avenue
Zagrebačka Avenue is an important east-west avenue in western Zagreb, Croatia. It is a dual carriageway with three lanes in each direction that starts as a continuation of the Slavonska Avenue under the intersection with the Savska Road, ending at the Savska Opatovina roundabout.It was previously...

 and Slavonska Avenue
Slavonska Avenue
Slavonska Avenue is a controlled-access avenue in Zagreb, Croatia. It is the longest street in Zagreb, being long. It mostly has a speed limit, although the speed is limited to on a short section near the Ivanja Reka interchange with the Zagreb bypass and to on the section between the Ivanja...

; and the Vukovarska Avenue, the closest bypass of the city centre. The avenues were supposed to alleviate traffic problem, but most of them are today gridlocked at rush hour and others, like Branimirova Avenue are gridlocked for the whole day.

Bridges


, Zagreb has seven road traffic bridges across the river Sava, and they all span both the river and the levee
Levee
A levee, levée, dike , embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels...

s, making them all by and large longer than 200 m (656.2 ft). In downstream order, these are:
Name (English) Name (Croatian) Year Finished Type of bridge Road that goes over Other Information
Podsused Bridge Podsusedski most 1982 Two-lane road bridge with a commuter train line (not yet completed) Samobor
Samobor
Samobor is a town in the Zagreb County, Croatia. It is part of the Zagreb metropolitan area.-Geography:Samobor is located west of Zagreb, between the eastern slopes of the Samoborsko gorje , in the Sava River valley.-Population:...

ska Road
Connects Zagreb to its close exurb
Commuter town
A commuter town is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commutes out to earn their livelihood. Many commuter towns act as suburbs of a nearby metropolis that workers travel to daily, and many suburbs are commuter towns...

s by old road to Samobor
Samobor
Samobor is a town in the Zagreb County, Croatia. It is part of the Zagreb metropolitan area.-Geography:Samobor is located west of Zagreb, between the eastern slopes of the Samoborsko gorje , in the Sava River valley.-Population:...

, the fastest route to Bestovje and Strmec.
Jankomir Bridge Jankomirski most 1958, 2006 (upgrade) Four lane road bridge Ljubljanska Avenue
Ljubljanska Avenue
Ljubljanska Avenue is one of most travelled thoroughfares in Zagreb, Croatia. It is a four-lane divided avenue that runs from the Savska Opatovina rotary in the east to the Jankomir interchange with the Zagreb bypass in the west...

Connects Ljubljanska Avenue to the Jankomir interchange
Jankomir interchange
The Jankomir interchange is a cloverleaf interchange west of Zagreb, Croatia. It is named after nearby Zagreb neighborhood of Jankomir. The interchange represents the southern terminus of the A2 motorway and it connects the A2 route to the A3 motorway representing major a link in the Croatian...

 and Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass , is an U-shaped motorway partially encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, has been built between 1977 and 1979, while Ivanja Reka - Sveta Helena section has been built between 1996 and 1999. The bypass is long, tracing...

.
Adriatic Bridge
Adriatic Bridge
Adriatic Bridge is a six-lane road and tram bridge over Sava River in Zagreb,Croatia....

Jadranski most 1981 Six lane road bridge (also carries tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 tracks)
Adriatic Avenue The most famous bridge in Zagreb. The bridge spans from Savska Street in the north to the Remetinec Roundabout in the south.
Sava Bridge Savski most 1938 Pedestrian since the construction of the Adriatic Bridge Savska Road The official name at the time of building was New Sava bridge, but it is the oldest still standing bridge over Sava. The bridge is known among experts due to some construction details.
Liberty Bridge
Liberty Bridge, Zagreb
Liberty Bridge is a four-lane road bridge over Sava River in Zagreb, Croatia. The Većeslav Holjevac Avenue crosses over it, connecting Trnje with Novi Zagreb in the central part of the city....

Most slobode 1959 Four lane road bridge Većeslav Holjevac
Veceslav Holjevac
Većeslav Holjevac was a Croatian and Yugoslav soldier and communist politician.Holjevac was born in Karlovac, at the time in Austria-Hungary. He joined the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in 1939...

 Avenue
It used to hold a pair of bus lane
Bus lane
A bus lane or bus only lane is a lane restricted to buses, and generally used to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion...

s, but due to the increasing individual traffic and better tram connections across the river, those were converted to normal lanes.
Youth Bridge Most mladosti 1974 Six lane road bridge (also carries tram tracks) Marin Držić Avenue
Marin Držic Avenue
Marin Držić Avenue is an important north-south avenue in the central-eastern part of Zagreb, Croatia. It is named after Marin Držić, a famous Croatian poet from the 16th century....

Connects eastern Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb is the part of the city of Zagreb located south of the Sava river, on the way from the Pleso airport to the city center...

 to the districts of Trnje, Peščenica, Donja Dubrava
Donja Dubrava, Zagreb
Donja Dubrava is one of the districts of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located in the northeastern part of the city and has 35,944 inhabitants .-List of neighborhoods in Donja Dubrava:* Čulinec* Donja Dubrava* "Ivan Mažuranić"* Novi Retkovec...

 and Maksimir
Maksimir
Maksimir is one of the neighborhoods of Zagreb, Croatia. Maksimir stadium and Maksimir Park are located in it. It was named after the bishop Maksimilijan Vrhovac....

.
Homeland Bridge
Homeland Bridge
Homeland Bridge is a long bridge over Sava River located in southeastern Zagreb, Croatia. Its administrative location is the city district Peščenica - Žitnjak...

Domovinski most 2007 Four-lane road bridge (also carries two bicycle and two pedestrian lanes; has space reserved for light railroad tracks) Radnička (Workers') Road This bridge is the last bridge built on Sava to date; it links Peščenica via Radnička street to the Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass , is an U-shaped motorway partially encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, has been built between 1977 and 1979, while Ivanja Reka - Sveta Helena section has been built between 1996 and 1999. The bypass is long, tracing...

 at Kosnica. It is planned to continue towards Zagreb Airport
Zagreb Airport
Zagreb Airport , also known as Pleso Airport after the nearby suburb of Pleso, is the main international airport of Croatia and also a Croatian Air Force and Defense major fighter jet base. Located 10 km from the central railway station in Zagreb, it served 2,071,561 passengers in 2010 and is the...

 at Pleso
Pleso
Pleso is a settlement located to the southeast of the city of Zagreb. Nowadays, Pleso is the northernmost section of the city of Velika Gorica....

 and Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica is the largest and most populous city in Zagreb County, Croatia. The city itself has a population of 31,341, while the municipality has a population of 63,511 inhabitants .Velika Gorica is the centre of the historical Turopolje region....

, and on to state road D31 going to the south.


There are also two rail traffic bridges across the Sava, one near the Sava bridge and one near Mičevec, as well as two bridges that are part of the Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass
Zagreb bypass , is an U-shaped motorway partially encircling Zagreb, Croatia. The largest part by far, between Jankomir and Ivanja Reka interchanges, has been built between 1977 and 1979, while Ivanja Reka - Sveta Helena section has been built between 1996 and 1999. The bypass is long, tracing...

, one near Zaprešić
Zaprešic
Zaprešić is a city in Zagreb County in Croatia. Its population is 25.875 inhabitants for the city proper, and over 51,000 for its seven-municipality metropolitan area. Zaprešić is the third-largest, and most densely populated division of the county. It is located northwest of the Croatian capital...

 (west), and the other near Ivanja Reka
Ivanja Reka
Ivanja Reka is a neighborhood located in the eastern part of the Peščenica - Žitnjak city district of Zagreb, Croatia. The population is 2,034....

 (east).

Two additional bridges across the river Sava are proposed: Jarun Bridge and Bundek Bridge.

Public transportation



Public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

ation in the city is organized in several layers: the inner parts of the city are mostly covered by tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

s, the outer suburbs are linked with bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

es, while some suburban areas are accessible by commuter rail.

The public transportation company ZET (Zagrebački električni tramvaj, Zagreb Electric Tram) operates trams, all inner bus lines, and the most of the suburban bus lines, and it is subsidized by the city council.

The national rail operator Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways is the national railway company of Croatia. It was formed after the dissolution of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav Railways.Croatia is a member of the International Union of Railways . The UIC Country Code for Croatia is 78.-Railway network:...

 (Hrvatske željeznice, HŽ) runs a network of suburban trains in the metropolitan Zagreb area, and it is a government-owned corporation
Government-owned corporation
A government-owned corporation, state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, or parastatal is a legal entity created by a government to undertake commercial activities on behalf of an owner government...

.

The funicular
Funicular
A funicular, also known as an inclined plane or cliff railway, is a cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a steep slope; the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalance each other.-Operation:The basic principle of funicular...

 (uspinjača) in the historic part of the city is a tourist attraction
Tourist attraction
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, or amusement opportunities....

.

Taxis
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

 are readily available through a network of around a thousand vehicles, but is not particularly popular among the residents because the prices are significantly higher than in other Croatian cities.

Tram network



Zagreb has an extensive tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 network with 15 day and 4 night lines covering much of the inner- and middle-suburbs of the city. The first tram line was opened on September 5, 1891 and trams have been serving as a vital component of Zagreb mass transit ever since. Trams usually travel at speeds of 30–70 km/h (19-44 mph), but slow considerably during rush hour
Rush hour
A rush hour or peak hour is a part of the day during which traffic congestion on roads and crowding on public transport is at its highest. Normally, this happens twice a day—once in the morning and once in the evening, the times during when the most people commute...

. The network is unique as it operates mostly at the curb
Curb (road)
A curb, or kerb , is the edge where a raised pavement/sidewalk/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets an unraised street or other roadway.-Function:...

.
An ambitious program is currently underway to replace old trams with the new and modern ones built mostly in Zagreb by companies Končar elektroindustrija and, to a lesser extent, by TŽV Gredelj
TŽV Gredelj
TŽV Gredelj is a Croatian rolling stock factory. It was founded in 1894 as main workshop of the Hungarian state railways for repair and general overhaul of steam locomotives....

. Dubbed "TMK 2200
CROTRAM
Crotram is a Croatian consortium of two companies, which produces the first Croatian low-floor tram . It consists of Končar Elektroindustrija d.d. and TŽV Gredelj d.o.o., both from Zagreb...

", 70 trams have been delivered in 2005–2007 period, and delivery of additional 70 trams is contracted and already started.

Suburban rail network




The commuter rail network in Zagreb has existed since 1992. In 2005, suburban rail services were increased to a 15-minute frequency serving the middle and outer suburbs of Zagreb, primarily in the east-west direction and to the southern districts. This has enhanced commuting opportunity.

A new link to the nearby town of Samobor
Samobor
Samobor is a town in the Zagreb County, Croatia. It is part of the Zagreb metropolitan area.-Geography:Samobor is located west of Zagreb, between the eastern slopes of the Samoborsko gorje , in the Sava River valley.-Population:...

 has been announced and is due to start construction in 2009. This link will be standard-gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

 and tie in with normal Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways
Croatian Railways is the national railway company of Croatia. It was formed after the dissolution of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav Railways.Croatia is a member of the International Union of Railways . The UIC Country Code for Croatia is 78.-Railway network:...

 operations. The previous narrow-gauge line to Samobor called Samoborček
Samoborcek
Samoborček is name of historic Croatian narrow gauge railway operating from 1901 until 1979, linking Zagreb and Samobor with extension to Bregana.- History :...

was closed in the 1970s.

Air traffic



Zagreb Airport , known as 'Pleso Airport' is the main Croatian international airport, a 17 km (10.6 mi) drive southeast of Zagreb in the suburb of Pleso
Pleso
Pleso is a settlement located to the southeast of the city of Zagreb. Nowadays, Pleso is the northernmost section of the city of Velika Gorica....

. The airport is also the main Croatian airbase featuring a fighter squadron, helicopters, as well as military and freight transport aircraft
Cargo aircraft
A cargo aircraft is a fixed-wing aircraft designed or converted for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. They are usually devoid of passenger amenities, and generally feature one or more large doors for the loading and unloading of cargo...

.

Zagreb also has a second, smaller airport, Lučko
Lucko
Lučko is a neighborhood in Novi Zagreb - zapad district of Zagreb, Croatia, located south of the Sava and southwest of the city center, near the Lučko interchange that connects the Zagreb-Karlovac motorway, the Zagreb bypass and the old road to Karlovac. The population is 2,841...

 . It is home to sports airplanes and a Croatian special police unit, as well as being a military helicopter airbase. Lučko used to be the main airport of Zagreb from 1947 to 1959.

A third, small grass airfield, Buševec, is located just outside Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica
Velika Gorica is the largest and most populous city in Zagreb County, Croatia. The city itself has a population of 31,341, while the municipality has a population of 63,511 inhabitants .Velika Gorica is the centre of the historical Turopolje region....

. It is primarily used for sports purposes.

Museums



Zagreb's numerous museum
Museum
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, or historical importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Most large museums are located in major cities...

s reflect the history, art and culture not only of Zagreb and Croatia, but also of Europe and the world. Around thirty collections in museums and galleries comprise more than 3.6 million various exhibits, excluding church and private collections.

The Archaeological Museum
Archaeological Museum, Zagreb
The Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia is an archaeological museum with over 450,000 varied artifacts and monuments, gathered from various sources.Some of the famous artifacts include:...

(19 Nikola Šubić Zrinski
Nikola Šubic Zrinski
Nikola Šubić Zrinski , was a Croatian nobleman and general in service of Habsburg Monarchy, ban of Croatia from 1542 to 1556, and member of the Zrinski noble family...

 Square) collections, today consisting of nearly 450,000 varied archaeological
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 artifacts and monuments, have been gathered over the years from many different sources. These holdings include evidence of Croatian presence in the area. The most famous are the Egyptian collection, the Zagreb mummy
Liber Linteus
The Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis is the longest Etruscan text and the only extant linen book...

 and bandages with the oldest Etruscan
Old Italic alphabet
Old Italic refers to several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages and non-Indo-European languages...

 inscription in the world (Liber Linteus
Liber Linteus
The Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis is the longest Etruscan text and the only extant linen book...

 Zagrabiensis
), as well as the numismatic
Coin collecting
Coin collecting is the collecting or trading of coins or other forms of minted legal tender.Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, coins with mint errors and especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin collecting can be...

 collection.
Modern Gallery
Modern Gallery, Zagreb
Modern Gallery is a museum in Zagreb, Croatia that holds the most important and comprehensive collection of paintings, sculptures and drawings by 19th and 20th century Croatian artists. The collection numbers around 10,000 works of art, housed since 1934 in the historic Vranyczany Palace in the...

holds the most important and comprehensive collection of painting
Painting
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

s, sculpture
Sculpture
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

s and drawing
Drawing
Drawing is a form of visual art that makes use of any number of drawing instruments to mark a two-dimensional medium. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, markers, styluses, and various metals .An artist who...

s by 19th and 20th century Croatian artists. The collection numbers more than 10,000 works of art, housed since 1934 in the historic Vranyczany Palace in the centre of Zageb, overlooking the Zrinjevac Park. A secondary gallery is the Josip Račić Studio at Margaretska 3.

Croatian Natural History Museum (1 Demetrova Street) holds one of the world's most important collection of Neanderthal
Neanderthal
The Neanderthal is an extinct member of the Homo genus known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia...

 remains found at one site. These are the remains, stone weapons and tools of prehistoric Krapina
Krapina
Krapina is a town in northern Croatia and the administrative centre of Krapina-Zagorje County with a population of 4,482 and a total municipality population of 12,479...

 man
. The holdings of the Croatian Natural History Museum comprise more than 250,000 specimens distributed among various collections.

Technical Museum
Technical Museum, Zagreb
Technical Museum is located at 18 Savska Street in Zagreb and it exhibits numerous historic aircraft, cars, machinery and equipment.-The Museum features:...

(18 Savska Street) was founded in 1954 and it maintains the oldest preserved machine in the area, dating from 1830, which is still operational. The museum exhibits numerous historic aircraft, cars, machinery and equipment. There are some distinct sections in the museum: the Planetarium, the Apisarium, the Mine (model of mines for coal, iron and non-ferrous metals
Ferrous
Ferrous , in chemistry, indicates a divalent iron compound , as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound ....

, about 300 m (984.3 ft) long), and the Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer...

 study.

Museum of the City of Zagreb
Zagreb City Museum
Zagreb City Museum or Museum of the City of Zagreb located in 20 Opatička Street, was established in 1907 by the Association of the Brethren of the Croatian Dragon . It is located in a restored monumental complex of the former Convent of the Poor Clares, of 1650...

(20 Opatička Street) was established in 1907 by the Association of the Braća Hrvatskog Zmaja. It is located in a restored monumental complex (Popov toranj, the Observatory, Zakmardi Granary) of the former Convent of the Poor Clares, of 1650. The Museum deals with topics from the cultural, artistic, economic and political history
Political history
Political history is the narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. It is distinct from, but related to, other fields of history such as Diplomatic history, social history, economic history, and military history, as well as constitutional history and public...

 of the city spanning from Roman finds to the modern period
Modern history
Modern history, or the modern era, describes the historical timeline after the Middle Ages. Modern history can be further broken down into the early modern period and the late modern period after the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution...

. The holdings comprise over 80,000 items arranged systematically into collections of artistic and mundane objects characteristic of the city and its history.

Arts and Crafts Museum (10 Marshal Tito Square
Marshal Tito Square
Marshal Tito Square is one of the biggest squares in Zagreb, Croatia. The square is located in Lower Town, with the Croatian National Theatre building at its centre...

) was founded in 1880 with the intention of preserving the works of art and craft against the new predominance of industrial products. With its 160,000 exhibits, the Arts and Crafts Museum is a national-level museum for artistic production and the history of material culture
Archaeological culture
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place, which are thought to constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society. The connection between the artifacts is based on archaeologists' understanding and interpretation and...

 in Croatia.

Ethnographic Museum (14 Ivan Mažuranić
Ivan Mažuranic
Ivan Mažuranić was a Croatian poet, linguist and politician—probably the most important figure in Croatia's cultural life in the mid-19th century...

 Square) was founded in 1919. It lies in the fine Secession building of the one-time Trades Hall of 1903. The ample holdings of about 80,000 items cover the ethnographic heritage of Croatia, classified in the three cultural zones: the Pannonian, Dinaric and Adriatic.

Mimara Museum
Mimara Museum
The Mimara Museum is an art museum in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. It is situated at the Roosevelt Square, housing the collection by Wiltrud and Ante Topić Mimara...

(5 Roosevelt Square) was founded with a donation from Ante "Mimara" Topić and opened to the public in 1987. It is located in a late 19th century neo-Renaissance palace.
The holdings comprise 3,750 works of art of various techniques and materials, and different cultures and civilizations.
Croatian Museum of Naïve Art
Croatian Museum of Naïve Art
The Croatian Museum of Naïve Art is a fine art museum in Zagreb, Croatia dedicated to the work of naïve artists of the 20th century. The museum holdings consist of over 1,850 works of art - paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints, mainly by Croatians but also by other well-known international...

(works by Croatian primitivists at 3 Ćirilometodska Street) is one of the first museums of naïve art
Naïve art
Naïve art is a classification of art that is often characterized by a childlike simplicity in its subject matter and technique. While many naïve artists appear, from their works, to have little or no formal art training, this is often not true...

 in the world. The museum holds works of Croatian naïve expression of the 20th century. It is located in the 18th century Raffay Palace in the Gornji Grad.
The museum holdings consist of almost 2000 works of art - paintings, sculptures, drawings and prints, mainly by Croatians but also by other well-known world artists. From time to time, the museum organizes topics and retrospective exhibitions by naïve artists, expert meetings and educational workshops and playrooms.

The Museum of Contemporary Art
Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb
The Museum of Contemporary Art is a contemporary art museum located on Dubrovnik Avenue in Zagreb, Croatia. It is the biggest and most modern museum in the country....

was founded in 1954 and a rich collection of Croatian and foreign contemporary visual art has been collected throughout the decades. The Museum building is located in the center of Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb is the part of the city of Zagreb located south of the Sava river, on the way from the Pleso airport to the city center...

, opened in 2009. The old location, 2 St. Catherine's Square, is part of the Kulmer Palace in the Gornji Grad.

Other museums and galleries

Valuable historical collections are also found in the Croatian School
School
A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools...

 Museum, the Croatian Hunting
Hunting
Hunting is the practice of pursuing any living thing, usually wildlife, for food, recreation, or trade. In present-day use, the term refers to lawful hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species contrary to applicable law...

 Museum, the Croatian Sport
Sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

s Museum, the Croatian Post and Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

s Museum, the HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts is the national academy of Croatia. It was founded in 1866 as the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts , and was known by that name for most of its existence.- History :...

) Glyptotheque (collection of monuments), and the HAZU Graphics Cabinet.

The The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters
The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters
The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters is a fine art museum in Zagreb, Croatia exhibiting the collection donated to the city by Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer in 1884...

 (11 Zrinski Square) offers permanent holdings presenting European paintings from the 14th to 19th centuries, and the Ivan Meštrović
Ivan Meštrovic
Ivan Meštrović was a Croatian and Yugoslav sculptor and architect born in Vrpolje, Croatia...

 Studio, (8 Mletačka Street) with sculptures, drawings, lithography portfolios and other items, was a donation of this great artist to his homeland The Museum and Gallery Center (4 Jesuit Square) introduces on various occasions the Croatian and foreign cultural and artistic heritage. The Art Pavilion
Art Pavilion
The Art Pavilion in Zagreb is an art gallery in Zagreb, Croatia. The Pavilion is located in the Lower Town area of the city, south of Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square and just north of the King Tomislav Square with the Main Train Station...

 (22 King Tomislav Square) by Viennese architects Hellmer and Fellmer who were the most famous designers of theaters in Central Europe is a neo-classical
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

 exhibition complex and one of the landmarks of the downtown. The exhibitions are also held in the impressive Meštrović
Ivan Meštrovic
Ivan Meštrović was a Croatian and Yugoslav sculptor and architect born in Vrpolje, Croatia...

 building on Žrtava Fašizma Square — the Home of Croatian Fine Art
Fine art
Fine art or the fine arts encompass art forms developed primarily for aesthetics and/or concept rather than practical application. Art is often a synonym for fine art, as employed in the term "art gallery"....

ists. The World Center "Wonder of Croatian Naïve Art" (12 Ban Jelačić Square
Ban Jelacic Square
Ban Jelačić Square is the central square of the city of Zagreb, Croatia, named after ban Josip Jelačić. The official name is Trg bana Jelačića...

) exhibits masterpieces of Croatian naïve art as well as the works of a new generation of artists. The Modern Gallery (1 Hebrangova Street) comprises all relevant fine artists of the 19th and 20th centuries.

The Museum of Broken Relationships at 2 Ćirilometodska holds people's mementos of past relationships. It is the first private museum in the country.

Lauba House
Lauba House
Lauba House is an arts organisation and venue in the Črnomerec district of Zagreb, Croatia. It permanently houses the Filip Trade Collection of Contemporary Croatian Art whilst simultaneously hosting a wide array of national and international arts events.-Name and concept:The word Lauba comes for...

 (23a Baruna Filipovića) presents works from Filip Trade Collection
Filip Trade Collection
The Filip Trade Collection is a large private collection of contemporary Croatian art. The collection is a subsidiary of Filip Trade, a distribution company with its offices located in the capital city of Croatia, Zagreb...

, a large private collection of modern and contemporary Croatian art and current artistic production.

Events



Zagreb has been, and is, hosting some of the most popular mainstream artists, such as Rolling Stones, U2
U2
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin. Formed in 1976, the group consists of Bono , The Edge , Adam Clayton , and Larry Mullen, Jr. . U2's early sound was rooted in post-punk but eventually grew to incorporate influences from many genres of popular music...

, Eric Clapton
Eric Clapton
Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE, is an English guitarist and singer-songwriter. Clapton is the only three-time inductee to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: once as a solo artist, and separately as a member of The Yardbirds and Cream. Clapton has been referred to as one of the most important and...

, Deep Purple
Deep Purple
Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertford in 1968. Along with Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath, they are considered to be among the pioneers of heavy metal and modern hard rock, although some band members believe that their music cannot be categorised as belonging to any one genre...

, Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter, musician, poet, film director and painter. He has been a major and profoundly influential figure in popular music and culture for five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when he was an informal chronicler and a seemingly...

, David Bowie
David Bowie
David Bowie is an English musician, actor, record producer and arranger. A major figure for over four decades in the world of popular music, Bowie is widely regarded as an innovator, particularly for his work in the 1970s...

, Roger Waters
Roger Waters
George Roger Waters is an English musician, singer-songwriter and composer. He was a founding member of the progressive rock band Pink Floyd, serving as bassist and co-lead vocalist. Following the departure of bandmate Syd Barrett in 1968, Waters became the band's lyricist, principal songwriter...

, Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode
Depeche Mode are an English electronic music band formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex. The group's original line-up consisted of Dave Gahan , Martin Gore , Andy Fletcher and Vince Clarke...

, Prodigy
The Prodigy
The Prodigy are an English electronic dance music group formed by Liam Howlett in 1990 in Braintree, Essex. Along with Fatboy Slim, The Chemical Brothers, and other acts, The Prodigy have been credited as pioneers of the big beat genre, which achieved mainstream popularity in the 1990s and 2000s...

, Beyoncé
Beyoncé Knowles
Beyoncé Giselle Knowles , often known simply as Beyoncé, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, she enrolled in various performing arts schools and was first exposed to singing and dancing competitions as a child...

, Nick Cave
Nick Cave
Nicholas Edward "Nick" Cave is an Australian musician, songwriter, author, screenwriter, and occasional film actor.He is best known for his work as a frontman of the critically acclaimed rock band Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, established in 1984, a group known for its eclectic influences and...

, Jamiroquai
Jamiroquai
Jamiroquai is a British jazz funk and acid jazz band formed in 1992. Jamiroquai were initially the most prominent component in the early-1990s London-based acid jazz movement, alongside groups such as Incognito, the James Taylor Quartet, and the Brand New Heavies. Other Acid Jazz artists such as...

, Manu Chao
Manu Chao
Manu Chao , is a French singer of Spanish roots . He sings in French, Spanish, English, Italian, Galician, Arabic and Portuguese and occasionally in other languages...

, Massive Attack
Massive Attack
Massive Attack are an English DJ and trip hop duo from Bristol, England consisting of Robert "3D" Del Naja and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. Working with co-producers, as well as various session musicians and guest vocalists, they make records and tour live. The duo are considered to be of the trip...

, Metallica
Metallica
Metallica is an American heavy metal band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1981 when James Hetfield responded to an advertisement that drummer Lars Ulrich had posted in a local newspaper. The current line-up features long-time lead guitarist Kirk Hammett and bassist Robert Trujillo ...

, Snoop Dogg
Snoop Dogg
Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. , better known by his stage name Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper, record producer, and actor. Snoop is best known as a rapper in the West Coast hip hop scene, and for being one of Dr. Dre's most notable protégés. Snoop Dogg was a Crip gang member while in high school...

, Lady Gaga
Lady GaGa
Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta , better known by her stage name Lady Gaga, is an American singer and songwriter. Born and raised in New York City, she primarily studied at the Convent of the Sacred Heart and briefly attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts before withdrawing to...

 as well as some of world most recognized underground artists such as Dimmu Borgir
Dimmu Borgir
Dimmu Borgir is a Norwegian black metal band from Oslo, Norway, formed in 1993. Dimmu borgir means "dark cities" or "dark castles/fortresses" in Icelandic, Faroese and Old Norse. The name is derived from a volcanic formation in Iceland, Dimmuborgir...

, Sepultura
Sepultura
Sepultura is a Brazilian heavy metal band from Belo Horizonte, formed in 1984. The band was a major force in the death metal, thrash metal and ultimately groove metal realms during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with their later experiments melding nu metal, hardcore punk and industrial.Sepultura...

, Melvins, Mastodon
Mastodon
Mastodons were large tusked mammal species of the extinct genus Mammut which inhabited Asia, Africa, Europe, North America and Central America from the Oligocene through Pleistocene, 33.9 mya to 11,000 years ago. The American mastodon is the most recent and best known species of the group...

 and many more. This is mostly recognized because of the city's location, and its good traffic relations with other neighbouring capital cities in that part of Europe. This is the effort of Zagreb community to increase the percentage of tourist visits during the summer time, as Croatia, in generally, is a popular destination for many people around the globe during the vacation period.

Performing arts




There are about 20 permanent or seasonal theaters and stages. The Croatian National Theater in Zagreb was built in 1895 and opened by emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Galicia and Lodomeria and Grand Duke of Cracow from 1848 until his death in 1916.In the December of 1848, Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria abdicated the throne as part of...

. The most renowned concert hall is named "Vatroslav Lisinski
Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall
Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall is a large concert hall and convention center in Zagreb, Croatia. It is named after Vatroslav Lisinski, a 19th-century Croatian composer. The building has a big hall with 1841 seats and a small hall with 305 seats. A large lobby doubles as an exhibition...

", after the composer of the first Croatian opera was built in 1973.

Animafest, the World Festival of Animated Film
Animation
Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement. The effect is an optical illusion of motion due to the phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in several ways...

s, takes place every even-numbered year, and the Music Bienniale, the international festival of avant-garde music
Avant-garde music
Avant-garde music is a term used to characterize music which is thought to be ahead of its time, i.e. containing innovative elements or fusing different genres....

, every odd-numbered year. It also hosts the annual ZagrebDox
ZagrebDox
ZagrebDox is an international documentary film festival established in 2005 and held annually in Zagreb, Croatia.It is the biggest festival of its kind in South East Europe and its goals are to showcase documentary films from the region as well as to provide a meeting place for authors from all...

documentary film
Documentary film
Documentary films constitute a broad category of nonfictional motion pictures intended to document some aspect of reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction or maintaining a historical record...

 festival. The Festival of the Zagreb Philharmonic
Orchestra
An orchestra is a sizable instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ορχήστρα, the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus...

and the flowers exhibition Floraart (end of May or beginning of June), the Old-timer Rally annual events. In the summer, theater performances and concerts, mostly in the Upper Town, are organized either indoors or outdoors. The stage on Opatovina hosts the Zagreb Histrionic Summer theater events.

Zagreb is also the host of Zagrebfest, the oldest Croatian pop-music
Pop music
Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

 festival
Music festival
A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday. They are commonly held outdoors, and are often inclusive of other attractions such as food and merchandise vending machines,...

, as well as of several traditional international sports events and tournaments. The Day of the City of Zagreb on November 16 is celebrated every year with special festivities, especially on the Jarun
Jarun
Jarun is a neighborhood in the southwestern part of Zagreb, Croatia. It was named after Lake Jarun, formed by the Sava River, now located on the southern edge of the neighborhood.-Lake:...

 lake near the southwestern part of the city.

Education




There are 136 primary
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

 schools and 100 secondary
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

 schools including 30 gymnasiums
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

. There are 5 public higher education
Higher education
Higher, post-secondary, tertiary, or third level education refers to the stage of learning that occurs at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institutes of technology...

 institution and 9 private professional higher education schools.

University


Founded in 1669, the University of Zagreb is the oldest in Croatia and one of the largest and oldest universities in the Southeastern Europe. Ever since its foundation, the university has been continually growing and developing and now consists of 28 faculties, three art academies, the Teacher Academy and the Croatian Studies Center. More than 200,000 students have attained the Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 at the university, which has also assigned 18,000 Master's
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 and 8,000 Doctor's degree
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

s.
As of 2011, University of Zagreb is ranked among 500 Best Universities of the world by the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities.

Religious organizations


The Archdiocese of Zagreb is a metropolitan see
Metropolitan bishop
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.Before the establishment of...

 of the Catholic Church in Croatia, serving as its religious centre. The current Archbishop is Josip Cardinal Bozanić
Josip Bozanic
Josip Bozanić is a Croatian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He is the eighth and current Archbishop of Zagreb, having previously served as Bishop of Krk from 1989 to 1997. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 2003....

. Zagreb is also the Episcopal see
Episcopal See
An episcopal see is, in the original sense, the official seat of a bishop. This seat, which is also referred to as the bishop's cathedra, is placed in the bishop's principal church, which is therefore called the bishop's cathedral...

 of the Metropolitan of Zagreb, Ljubljana and all of Italy of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Orthodox Christian churches, ranking sixth in order of seniority after Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Russia...

.
Islamic religious organisation of Croatia
Islam in Croatia
Islam in Croatia was introduced by the Ottoman Empire. Muslims constitute about 1.3% of the population of Croatia. The Islamic Community of Croatia is officially recognized by the state....

 has the see in Zagreb. Current president is Mufti Ševko Omerbašić. A mosque used to be located at the Žrtava Fašizma Square, but it was relocated to the neighborhood of Borovje in Peščenica.
Mainstream Protestant churches have also been present in Zagreb - Evangelical (Lutheran) Church and Reformed Christian (Calvinist) Church.

Surroundings



The wider Zagreb area has been continuously inhabited since the prehistoric period, as witnessed by archaeological findings in the Veternica cave from the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
The Paleolithic Age, Era or Period, is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered , and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory...

 and excavation of the remains of the Roman Andautonia near the present village of Ščitarjevo
Šcitarjevo
Šćitarjevo is a settlement officially in the Town of Velika Gorica, Croatia, located near the Zagreb bypass and the recently built Homeland Bridge. Its main tourist attraction and cultural site is Andautonia, an archeological site with remains of a Roman city.-External links:* website of the...

.

The picturesque former villages on the slopes of Medvednica, Šestine, Gračani and Remete, maintain their rich tradition
Tradition
A tradition is a ritual, belief or object passed down within a society, still maintained in the present, with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes , but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings...

s, including folk costumes, Šestine umbrella
Umbrella
An umbrella or parasol is a canopy designed to protect against rain or sunlight. The term parasol usually refers to an item designed to protect from the sun; umbrella refers to a device more suited to protect from rain...

s, and gingerbread
Gingerbread
Gingerbread is a term used to describe a variety of sweet food products, which can range from a soft, moist loaf cake to something close to a ginger biscuit. What they have in common are the predominant flavors of ginger and a tendency to use honey or molasses rather than just sugar...

 products.

The Medvednica
Medvednica
Medvednica is a mountain in central Croatia, just north of Zagreb and marking the southern border of the historic region of Zagorje. The highest peak, at 1,035 m, is Sljeme. Most of the area of Medvednica is a nature park , a type of preservation lesser than a national park...

 Mountain , with its highest peak Sljeme
Šljeme
Šljeme is a village in the municipality of Ilijaš, Bosnia and Herzegovina.-References:...

 (1,035 m), provides a panoramic view of metropolitan Zagreb, the Sava and the Kupa
Kupa (river)
The Kupa or Kolpa river forms a natural border between north-west Croatia and southeast Slovenia.The Kupa originates in Croatia in the mountainous region of Gorski kotar, northeast of Rijeka, in the area of Risnjak National Park...

 valleys, and the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje is a region north of Zagreb, Croatia. It comprises the whole area north of Medvednica mountain up to Slovenia in the north and west, and up to the regions of Međimurje and Podravina in the north and east...

. In mid-January 2005, Sljeme held its first World Ski Championship tournament.

From the summit, weather permitting, the vista reaches as far as Velebit
Velebit
Velebit is the largest though not the highest mountain range in Croatia. Its highest peak is the Vaganski vrh at 1757 m.The range forms a part of the Dinaric Alps and is located along the Adriatic coast, separating it from Lika in the interior...

 Range along Croatia's rocky northern coast, as well as the snow-capped peaks of the towering Julian Alps
Julian Alps
The Julian Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretches from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav. They are named after Julius Caesar, who founded the municipium of Cividale del Friuli at the foot of the mountains...

 in neighboring Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

. There are several lodging villages, offering accommodation and restaurants for hikers. Skiers visit Sljeme, which has four ski-runs, three ski-lifts and a chairlift.

The old Medvedgrad
Medvedgrad
Medvedgrad is a medieval fortified town located on the south slopes of Medvednica mountain, approximately halfway from the Croatian capital Zagreb to the mountain top Sljeme. For defensive purposes it was built on a hill, Mali Plazur, that is a spur of the main ridge of the mountain that overlooks...

, a recently restored medieval burg built in the 13th century, represents a special attraction of Medvednica hill. It overlooks the western part of the city and also has the Shrine of the Homeland, a memorial with an eternal flame
Eternal flame
An eternal flame is a flame or torch that burns day and night for an indefinite period. The flame that burned constantly at Delphi was an archaic feature, "alien to the ordinary Greek temple"....

, where Croatia pays reverence to all its heroes fallen for homeland
Homeland
A homeland is the concept of the place to which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association with —the country in which a particular national identity began. As a common noun, it simply connotes the country of one's origin...

 in its history, customarily on national holiday
Public holiday
A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year....

s. Travel agencies organize guided excursions to the surroundings as well as sightseeing in Zagreb itself.

Tourism



Zagreb is an important tourist center, not only in terms of passengers travelling from Western and Central Europe to the Adriatic Sea, but also as a travel destination itself. Since the end of the war
History of Croatia
Croatia first appeared as a duchy in the 7th century and then as a kingdom in the 10th century. From the 12th century it remained a distinct state with its ruler and parliament, but it obeyed the kings and emperors of various neighboring powers, primarily Hungary and Austria. The period from the...

, it has attracted close to a million visitors annually, mainly from Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

. However, the city has even greater potential as many tourists that visit Croatia skip Zagreb in order to visit the beaches along the Croatian Adriatic
Adriatic Sea
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges...

 coast and old historic Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 cities such as Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea coast, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641...

, Split
Split (city)
Split is a Mediterranean city on the eastern shores of the Adriatic Sea, centered around the ancient Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian and its wide port bay. With a population of 178,192 citizens, and a metropolitan area numbering up to 467,899, Split is by far the largest Dalmatian city and...

, and Zadar
Zadar
Zadar is a city in Croatia on the Adriatic Sea. It is the centre of Zadar county and the wider northern Dalmatian region. Population of the city is 75,082 citizens...

. There are many interesting things for tourists in Zagreb, for example, the two statues of Saint George, one at the Marshal Tito Square
Marshal Tito Square
Marshal Tito Square is one of the biggest squares in Zagreb, Croatia. The square is located in Lower Town, with the Croatian National Theatre building at its centre...

, the other at Kamenita vrata
Gradec, Zagreb
Gradec or Grič is a part of the Zagreb, Croatia, and together with Kaptol it is the mediaeval nucleus of the city. It's situated on the hill of Gornji Grad.- History :Gradec was given a royal charter by King Bela IV in 1242...

, where the image of Virgin Mary is said to be only thing that hasn't burned in the 17th century fire. Also, there is an art installation starting in Bogovićeva street, called Nine Views
Nine Views
Nine Views is an ambiental installation in Zagreb, Croatia which, together with the sculpture Prizemljeno sunce , makes up a consistent model of solar system....

. Most of the people don't know what the statue Prizemljeno sunce (The Grounded Sun) is for, so they put graffiti or signatures on it, but it's actually the Sun scaled down, with many planets situated all over Zagreb in relative scale with the Sun.

The historical part of the city to the north of Ban Jelačić Square
Ban Jelacic Square
Ban Jelačić Square is the central square of the city of Zagreb, Croatia, named after ban Josip Jelačić. The official name is Trg bana Jelačića...

 is composed of the Gornji Grad
Gradec, Zagreb
Gradec or Grič is a part of the Zagreb, Croatia, and together with Kaptol it is the mediaeval nucleus of the city. It's situated on the hill of Gornji Grad.- History :Gradec was given a royal charter by King Bela IV in 1242...

 and Kaptol
Kaptol, Zagreb
Kaptol is a part of Zagreb, Croatia in the upper town and it is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Zagreb.-History:The existence of Kaptol, the settlement on the east slope, was confirmed in 1094 when King Ladislaus founded the Zagreb diocese. The bishop, his residence and the Cathedral...

, a medieval urban complex of churches, palaces, museums, galleries and government buildings
Government Buildings
Government Buildings is a large Edwardian building enclosing a quadrangle on Merrion Street in Dublin, Ireland, in which several key offices of the government of Ireland are located...

 that are popular with tourists on sightseeing tours. The historic district can be reached on foot, starting from Jelačić Square, the center of Zagreb, or by a funicular
Funicular
A funicular, also known as an inclined plane or cliff railway, is a cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a steep slope; the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalance each other.-Operation:The basic principle of funicular...

 on nearby Tomićeva Street.

Souvenirs and gastronomy


Numerous shops, boutiques, store houses and shopping centers
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

 offer a variety of quality clothing. Zagreb's offerings include crystal
Crystal
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography...

, china and ceramics
Pottery
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery . Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery...

, wicker
Wicker
Wicker is hard woven fiber formed into a rigid material, usually used for baskets or furniture. Wicker is often made of material of plant origin, but plastic fibers are also used....

 or straw
Straw
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed. Straw makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has many uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and...

 baskets, and top-quality Croatian wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

s and gastronomic
Gastronomy
Gastronomy is the art or science of food eating. Also, it can be defined as the study of food and culture, with a particular focus on gourmet cuisine...

 products.

Notable Zagreb souvenirs are the tie
Necktie
A necktie is a long piece of cloth worn for decorative purposes around the neck or shoulders, resting under the shirt collar and knotted at the throat. Variants include the ascot tie, bow tie, bolo tie, and the clip-on tie. The modern necktie, ascot, and bow tie are descended from the cravat. Neck...

 or cravat, an accessory named after Croats who wore characteristic scarves around their necks in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 in the 17th century and the ball-point pen
Ballpoint pen
A ballpoint pen is a writing instrument with an internal ink reservoir and a sphere for a point. The internal chamber is filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at its tip during use by the rolling action of a small sphere...

, a tool developed from the inventions by Slavoljub Eduard Penkala
Slavoljub Eduard Penkala
Slavoljub Eduard Penkala was a naturalized Croatian engineer and inventor of Polish-Jewish ethnicity.Eduard Penkala was born in Liptovský Mikuláš , to Franjo Penkala, who was of Polish Jew heritage, and Maria Penkala , who was of Dutch heritage...

, an inventor and a citizen of Zagreb.

Many Zagreb restaurants offer various specialities of national and international cuisine
Fusion cuisine
Fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one particular cuisine style, and can pertain to innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s.-Categories and types:...

. Domestic products which deserve to be tasted include turkey, duck
Duck
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese. The ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the Anatidae family; they do not represent a monophyletic group but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered...

 or goose
Goose
The word goose is the English name for a group of waterfowl, belonging to the family Anatidae. This family also includes swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, which are smaller....

 with mlinci
Mlinci
Mlinci is a dish in Croatian and Slovenian cuisine. It is a thin dried flatbread that is easy to prepare by simply pouring boiled salted water or soup over the mlinci....

(a kind of pasta
Pasta
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, now of worldwide renown. It takes the form of unleavened dough, made in Italy, mostly of durum wheat , water and sometimes eggs. Pasta comes in a variety of different shapes that serve for both decoration and to act as a carrier for the...

), štrukli (cottage cheese strudel
Strudel
A strudel is a type of layered pastry with a — most often sweet — filling inside, often served with cream. It became well known and gained popularity in the 18th century through the Habsburg Empire....

), sir i vrhnje (cottage cheese
Cottage cheese
Cottage cheese is a cheese curd product with a mild flavor. It is drained, but not pressed, so some whey remains and the individual curds remain loose. The curd is usually washed to remove acidity, giving sweet curd cheese. It is not aged or colored. Different styles of cottage cheese are made from...

 with cream), kremšnite (custard
Custard
Custard is a variety of culinary preparations based on a cooked mixture of milk or cream and egg yolk. Depending on how much egg or thickener is used, custard may vary in consistency from a thin pouring sauce , to a thick pastry cream used to fill éclairs. The most common custards are used as...

 slices in flaky pastry), and orehnjača (traditional walnut roll).

Recreation and sports



There are several sports and recreational centers in Zagreb. Recreational Sports Center
SportsCenter
SportsCenter is a daily sports news television show, and the flagship program of American cable network ESPN since the network launched on September 7, 1979. Originally broadcast only daily, SportsCenter is now shown up to twelve times a day, replaying the day's scores and highlights from major...

 Jarun, situated on Jarun Lake
Jarun
Jarun is a neighborhood in the southwestern part of Zagreb, Croatia. It was named after Lake Jarun, formed by the Sava River, now located on the southern edge of the neighborhood.-Lake:...

 in the southwest of the city, has fine shingle beaches, a world-class regatta
Regatta
A regatta is a series of boat races. The term typically describes racing events of rowed or sailed water craft, although some powerboat race series are also called regattas...

 course, a jogging
Jogging
Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace. The main intention is to increase fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running.-Definition:...

 lane around the lake, several restaurants, many night clubs
Nightclub
A nightclub is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night...

 and a discothèque. Its sports and recreation opportunities include swimming, sunbathing, waterskiing, angling and other water sports, but also beach volleyball
Beach volleyball
Beach volleyball, or sand volleyball, is an Olympic team sport played by two teams of two players on a sand court divided by a net.Like volleyball, the object of the game is to send the ball over the net in order to ground it on the opponent’s court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent....

, football, basketball, handball, table tennis, and minigolf
Miniature golf
Miniature golf, or minigolf, is a miniature version of the sport of golf. While the international sports organization World Minigolf Sport Federation prefers to use the name "minigolf", the general public in different countries has also many other names for the game: miniature golf, mini-golf,...

.

Dom Sportova
Dom Sportova
Dom Sportova is an indoor sporting arena, located in Zagreb, Croatia. The venue was built in 1972, on Trešnjevka, in the western part of the city. It has 32,000 m² of floorspace, and it features six halls...

, a sport center in northern Trešnjevka
Trešnjevka
Trešnjevka is a large neighbourhood in the western part of the city of Zagreb, Croatia.It is administratively divided into two districts:* Trešnjevka - sjever...

 features six halls. The largest two can accommodate 7,358 and 3,900 people, respectively. This center is used for basketball, handball, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, tennis, and many others. It is also used for concerts.

Arena Zagreb was finished in 2008. The 24,000-seat arena hosted the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship
2009 World Men's Handball Championship
The 2009 World Men's Handball Championship took place in Croatia from 16 January–1 February, in the cities of Split, Zadar, Osijek, Varaždin, Poreč, Zagreb and Pula. Croatia was selected from a group of four potential hosts which included the Czech Republic, Greece and Romania.The opening game and...

.
The Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall
Dražen Petrovic Basketball Hall
Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall is an Indoor sporting arena in Zagreb, Croatia. It serves as the home court for the professional basketball club KK Cibona. The arena has a seating capacity of 5,400 people.-History:...

 seats 5,400 people. Alongside the hall is the 94 metres (308.4 ft) high glass Cibona Tower
Cibona Tower
The Cibona Tower in Zagreb, Croatia is a business tower. The address is Trg Dražena Petrovića 3, near the Savska and Kranjčevićeva intersection.-Technical information:...

.
Sports Park Mladost
Mladost (sports society)
HAŠK Mladost is an academic sports society from Zagreb, Croatia, sponsored by the University of Zagreb.Clubs named Mladost exist in athletics, field hockey, judo, basketball, bowling on ice and asphalt, fencing, volleyball, swimming, rugby, synchronised swimming, skiing, ice-hockey, ice skating,...

, situated on the embankment of the Sava river, has an Olympic-size swimming pool, smaller indoor and outdoor swimming pool
Swimming pool
A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is a container filled with water intended for swimming or water-based recreation. There are many standard sizes; the largest is the Olympic-size swimming pool...

s, a sunbathing terrace, 16 tennis
Tennis
Tennis is a sport usually played between two players or between two teams of two players each . Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all...

 courts as well as basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

, volleyball
Volleyball
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules.The complete rules are extensive...

, handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

, football and field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 courts.
A volleyball sports hall is within the park.
Sports and Recreational Center Šalata, located in Šalata
Šalata
Šalata is an upper-class residential neighborhood in Zagreb, Croatia. It is administratively part of the Gornji Grad - Medveščak city district in the northern part of Zagreb and it has a population of 1,929....

, only a couple hundred meters from the Jelačić Square
Ban Jelacic Square
Ban Jelačić Square is the central square of the city of Zagreb, Croatia, named after ban Josip Jelačić. The official name is Trg bana Jelačića...

, is most attractive for tennis players. It comprises a big tennis court
Tennis court
A tennis court is where the game of tennis is played. It is a firm rectangular surface with a low net stretched across the center. The same surface can be used to play both doubles and singles.-Dimensions:...

 and eight smaller ones, two of which are covered by the so-called "balloon", and another two equipped with lights. The center also has swimming pools, basketball courts, football fields, a gym and fitness center, and a four-lane bowling
Bowling
Bowling Bowling Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule Bowling (1375–1425; late Middle English bowle, variant of boule...

 alley. Outdoor ice skating
Ice skating
Ice skating is moving on ice by using ice skates. It can be done for a variety of reasons, including leisure, traveling, and various sports. Ice skating occurs both on specially prepared indoor and outdoor tracks, as well as on naturally occurring bodies of frozen water, such as lakes and...

 is a popular winter recreation. There are also several fine restaurants within and near the center.

Maksimir Tennis Center, located in Ravnice east of downtown
Donji Grad
Donji grad is one of the 17 city districts of Zagreb, the capital of Croatia. It is located in the central part of the city and has 45,108 inhabitants . The official name of the district is rarely used, for it is dubbed centar by most of the Zagreb residents....

, consists of two sports blocks. The first comprises a tennis center situated in a large tennis hall with four courts. There are 22 outdoor tennis courts with lights. The other block offers multipurpose sports facilities: apart from tennis courts, there are handball, basketball and indoor football
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

 grounds, as well as track and field facilities, a bocci ball
Bocce
Bocce is a ball sport belonging to the boules sport family, closely related to bowls and pétanque with a common ancestry from ancient games played in the Roman Empire...

 alley and table tennis
Table tennis
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net...

 opportunities.
Recreational swimmers can enjoy a smaller-size indoor swimming pool in Daničićeva Street, and a newly opened indoor Olympic-size pool at Utrine
Utrine, Zagreb
Utrine is a residential neighborhood located in the Novi Zagreb - istok city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is bordered by Dubrovnik Avenue in the north, Germany Avenue in the west, Ukrajinska Avenue in the south and Sarajevska Road in the east....

 sports center in Novi Zagreb. Skaters can skate in the skating rink
Ice rink
An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, figure skating and curling as well as exhibitions, contests and ice shows...

 on Trg Sportova (Sports Square) and on the lake Jarun Skaters' park. Hippodrome
Hippodrome
A hippodrome was a Greek stadium for horse racing and chariot racing. The name is derived from the Greek words "hippos and "dromos"...

 Zagreb offers recreational horseback riding
Equestrianism
Equestrianism more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding refers to the skill of riding, driving, or vaulting with horses...

 opportunities, while horse races
Horse racing
Horse racing is an equestrian sport that has a long history. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in ancient Babylon, Syria, and Egypt. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC...

 are held every weekend during the warmer part of the year.

The 38,923-seat Maksimir Stadium, last 10 years under renovation, is located in Maksimir
Maksimir
Maksimir is one of the neighborhoods of Zagreb, Croatia. Maksimir stadium and Maksimir Park are located in it. It was named after the bishop Maksimilijan Vrhovac....

 in the northeastern part of the city. The stadium is part of the immense Svetice recreational and sports complex (ŠRC Svetice), south of the Maksimir Park. The complex covers an area of 276440 m² (68 acre). It is part of a significant Green Zone, which passes from Medvednica Mountains in the north toward the south. ŠRC Svetice, together with Maksimir Park, creates an ideal connection of areas which are assigned to sport, recreation and leisure.

The latest larger recreational facility is Bundek
Bundek
Bundek is a lake in the Novi Zagreb - istok city district of Zagreb, Croatia. It is located north of the Zapruđe and Središće neighborhoods. Bundek was renovated during 2005 to turn a badly maintained lake into a tourism and events center of Novi Zagreb....

, a group of two small lakes near the Sava in Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb
Novi Zagreb is the part of the city of Zagreb located south of the Sava river, on the way from the Pleso airport to the city center...

, surrounded by a partly forested park. The location had been used prior to the 1970s, but then went to neglect until 2006 when it was renovated.

Some of the most notable sport clubs in Zagreb are: NK Dinamo Zagreb, KHL Medveščak Zagreb
KHL Medveščak Zagreb
KHL Medveščak Zagreb is a Croatian ice hockey team. It is by far the most successful and the most popular ice hockey team in Croatia. Currently the team plays in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga, and is the only Croatian team in the league. Last season club attracted over 200,000 spectators on live...

, RK Zagreb
RK Zagreb
RK Zagreb is a team handball club from Zagreb, Croatia. Currently, RK Zagreb competes in the Croatian First League of Handball and the Croatian Handball Cup....

, KK Cibona
KK Cibona
Košarkaški klub Cibona is a professional basketball club based in Zagreb, Croatia. It competes in the Croatian League and the Adriatic League.-History:The club was founded in 1946 under the name Sloboda...

, KK Zagreb
KK Zagreb
Košarkaški klub Zagreb is a professional basketball club based in Zagreb, Croatia. It competes in the Croatian League, the Adriatic League and in the 2011/12 season for the first time in ULEB Euroleague...

, KK Cedevita, NK Zagreb
NK Zagreb
NK Zagreb is a Croatian football club, from the Croatian capital of Zagreb.NK Zagreb's home is the Stadion Kranjčevićeva with capacity of 8,850. The club's fans are known as the White Angels...

, HAVK Mladost
HAVK Mladost
HAVK Mladost is a Croatian water polo club from Zagreb. It is part of the Mladost sports society. The club was formed in 1946 and is currently coached by Veselin Đuho.It was voted as the world's best water-polo club of the 20th century.- Famous players :...

 and others.

International relations




Twin towns — Sister cities


Zagreb is twinned with the following towns and cities:
Mainz
Mainz
Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (since 1967) Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

 in Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (since 1968) Tromsø
Tromsø
Tromsø is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Tromsø.Tromsø city is the ninth largest urban area in Norway by population, and the seventh largest city in Norway by population...

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 (since 1971) Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 (since 1977) Pittsburgh, USA
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 (since 1980)
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 (since 1972) Kyoto
Kyoto
is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.-History:...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 (since 1972) Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai is the largest city by population in China and the largest city proper in the world. It is one of the four province-level municipalities in the People's Republic of China, with a total population of over 23 million as of 2010...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 (since 1980) Bologna
Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 (since 1963) Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 (since 1994)
Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 (since 1994) Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Sarajevo |Bosnia]], surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans....

, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 (since 2001) Ljubljana
Ljubljana
Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is the centre of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. It is located in the centre of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 270,000 inhabitants...

, Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

 (since 2001)
London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 (since 2009)

Partner cities


The city has partnership arrangements with:
Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

 in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 (since 1975) Tirana
Tirana
Tirana is the capital and the largest city of Albania. Modern Tirana was founded as an Ottoman town in 1614 by Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler from Mullet, although the area has been continuously inhabited since antiquity. Tirana became Albania's capital city in 1920 and has a population of over...

, Albania
Albania
Albania , officially known as the Republic of Albania , is a country in Southeastern Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea...

.

See also


  • 187700 Zagreb
    187700 Zagreb
    187700 Zagreb is an asteroid discovered on March 2, 2008 by brothers Aleksandar and Stefan Cikota at the Observatorio Astronómico de La Sagra. It is named after Zagreb, the capital of Croatia.-External links:*...

  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zagreb
  • Crometeo
    Crometeo
    Crometeo is a non-profit association of Croatian amateur meteorologists. It was founded in November 2005, and its headquarters are in Zagreb, Croatia...

  • Eurovision Song Contest 1990
    Eurovision Song Contest 1990
    The Eurovision Song Contest 1990, the 35th in the series, was held in Zagreb, Yugoslavia on 5 May 1990. The presenters were Helga Vlahović Brnobić and Oliver Mlakar. Toto Cutugno was the winner of this contest with the song "Insieme: 1992"...

  • List of mayors of Zagreb
  • Zagreb County
    Zagreb County
    Zagreb County is a county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, it is often nicknamed "Zagreb ring"...

  • Zagreb County (former)
  • List of radio stations in Zagreb

  • :Category:Buildings and structures in Zagreb
  • :Category:Former counties of Croatia
  • Zagreb Stock Exchange
    Zagreb Stock Exchange
    The Zagreb Stock Exchange or ZSE is a stock exchange located in Zagreb, Croatia. It is Croatia's only stock exchange. The exchange trades shares of Croatian companies, as well as bonds and commercial bills....



External links