Slavonia

Slavonia

Overview
Slavonia is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

. It is a fertile agricultural and forested lowland in the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in East-Central Europe.The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense - meaning only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried...

, bounded, in part, by the Drava
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

 river in the north, the Sava river in the south, and the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 river in the east. Slavonia is notable for its light forests, wide plains and significant agricultural industry.

The root of the word is the name "Slav". Historically, the region was referred to as , "the land of the Slavs".
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Encyclopedia
Slavonia is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

. It is a fertile agricultural and forested lowland in the Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in East-Central Europe.The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense - meaning only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried...

, bounded, in part, by the Drava
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

 river in the north, the Sava river in the south, and the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 river in the east. Slavonia is notable for its light forests, wide plains and significant agricultural industry.

Name


The root of the word is the name "Slav". Historically, the region was referred to as , "the land of the Slavs". Numerous Slavonic toponyms are similar, including Slovenia
Slovenia
Slovenia , officially the Republic of Slovenia , is a country in Central and Southeastern Europe touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. Slovenia borders Italy to the west, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north, and also has a small portion of...

, a nearby country.

In the chancel at St. Nicolas' Church, North Stoneham
St. Nicolas' Church, North Stoneham
St. Nicolas' Church is an Anglican parish church at North Stoneham, Hampshire which originated before the 15th century and is known for its "One Hand Clock" which dates from the early 17th century, and also for various memorials to the famous.-Location:...

, between Southampton
Southampton
Southampton is the largest city in the county of Hampshire on the south coast of England, and is situated south-west of London and north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest...

 and Winchester
Winchester
Winchester is a historic cathedral city and former capital city of England. It is the county town of Hampshire, in South East England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, and is located at the western end of the South Downs, along the course of...

, England, there is a tomb inscribed to Schola de Sclavoni (Slavonian merchants) who died in 1491.

Geography


The area is divided into five counties, with a total population of 891,259 (2001 census). Two more counties mostly located in Central Croatia
Central Croatia
Central Croatia or Croatia proper is a term that refers to the areas of the Republic of Croatia that were part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia which excluded Istria, Slavonia, and Dalmatia...

 also include some western parts of Slavonia. The biggest city is Osijek
Osijek
Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 83,496 in 2011. It is the largest city and the economic and cultural centre of the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia, as well as the administrative centre of Osijek-Baranja county...

 with a population of 114,616 (2001). Other cities are:
Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod is a city in Croatia, with a population of 59,507 in 2011. The city was known as Marsonia in the Roman Empire, and as Brod na Savi 1244–1934. It is the sixth largest city in Croatia, after Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek and Zadar. Located in the region of Slavonia, it is the...

,
Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Vinkovci is a city in Croatia, in the Vukovar-Syrmia County. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,375, making it the largest town of the county...

,
Vukovar
Vukovar
Vukovar is a city in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river and the Danube. Vukovar is the center of the Vukovar-Syrmia County...

,
Đakovo,
Požega,
Virovitica
Virovitica
Virovitica is a Croatian town near the Croatian-Hungarian border. It is situated near the Drava river and belongs to the historic region of Slavonia. Virovitica has a population of 14,663, with 21,327 people in the municipality...

,
Nova Gradiška
Nova Gradiška
Nova Gradiška is a city located in the Brod-Posavina County of Croatia, population 14,196 . It is located in the historic region of Slavonia, near the border to Bosnia and Herzegovina....

,
Slatina
Slatina, Croatia
Slatina is a town in Slavonia, Croatia. It is located in the Virovitica-Podravina county, at the contact of the Drava valley and the foothills of Papuk mountain, in the central part of the region of Podravina, southeast of Virovitica; elevation 127 m...

,
Županja
Županja
Županja is a city in eastern Slavonia, Croatia, located 254 km east of Zagreb. It is administratively part of the Vukovar-Syrmia county. It is inhabited by 12,185 people ....

,
Našice
Našice
Našice is a town in the Osijek-Baranja county of Croatia, population 7,894 , total municipality population 16,228 . It is located on the northern slopes of Krndija Mountain in eastern Slavonia, 51 km southwest of Osijek; elevation 157 m....

,
Valpovo
Valpovo
Valpovo is a town in Slavonia, Croatia. It is close to the Drava river in the region of Slavonia, northwest of Osijek. The population of Valpovo is 7,396, with a total of 11,570 in the municipality.-Demographics:...

,
Donji Miholjac
Donji Miholjac
-Geography:Donji Miholjac is located on the river Drava at the border with Hungary, 34 km north of Našice; elevation 97 m.-Economy:Chief occupations are farming, rubber and plastics processing, production of vinegar, soft drinks and pasta.-Population:...

,
Belišće
Belišce
Belišće is a city in Croatia, located in the region of Slavonia, Osijek - Baranja county, at the altitude of 93 m. The population of the city is 6,493 , with 10,790 in the municipality. In 2001 census, the majority were Croats...

,
Orahovica
Orahovica
Orahovica is a town in Slavonia, Croatia. It is situated on the slopes of the mountain Papuk and positioned on the state road D2 Varaždin-Koprivnica-Našice-Osijek.-Economy:...

,
Kutjevo
Kutjevo
Kutjevo is a town in Slavonia, Croatia, located northeast of Požega. In the census of 2011, there were 6,168 people, 2,399 in the town itself. In the census of 2001, 96% of the population declared themselves Croats....

,
Pleternica
Pleternica
Pleternica is a town in the region of Slavonia, Croatia, southeast of Požega, in the Požega Valley . The population of the municipality is 11,286, with 3,443 in Pleternica itself ....

,
Lipik
Lipik
-Settlements:The settlements included in the administrative area of Lipik include:* Antunovac, population 365* Bjelanovac, population 10* Brekinska, population 126* Brezine, population 223* Bujavica, population 33* Bukovčani, population 16...

,
Pakrac
Pakrac
Pakrac is a town in western Slavonia, Croatia, population 4,852, total municipality population 8,482 . Pakrac is located on the road and railroad connecting the regions of Posavina and Podravina.-Name:...

,
Daruvar
Daruvar
Daruvar is a town in central Croatia, population 9,815 , total municipality population 13,243 ....

,
Novska
Novska
Novska is a town in Croatian Slavonia, located between Kutina and Nova Gradiška, southeast of the capital, Zagreb. It has a total population of 13,573 in the following settlements:* Bair, population 6* Borovac, population 276* Brestača, population 911...

,
Otok,
Ilok
Ilok
Ilok is the easternmost town and municipality in Croatia. Located in the Syrmia region, it lies on a hill overlooking the Danube river, which forms the border with the Vojvodina region of Serbia. The population of the town of Ilok is 5,036, while the total municipality population is 6,750...

.
While generally known as a lowland, Slavonia does actually have a number of hills. The main ones are Psunj
Psunj
Psunj is a mountain in the southwestern Slavonia region in eastern Croatia. It is the highest mountain of Slavonia, with the highest peak of Brezovo polje at 984 m.a.s.l. In the north it extends to Ravna gora and Papuk, while otherwise it is surrounded by lowlands...

, Papuk
Papuk
Papuk is the largest mountain in the Slavonia region in eastern Croatia, near the city of Požega. It extends between Bilogora to the northwest, Krndija to the east, and Ravna gora and Psunj to the southwest....

, Požeška Gora
Požeška Gora
Požeška Gora, lit. the Požega Hill, is a mountain located south of Požega, Croatia in the region of Slavonia. The mountain is located east of Psunj and west of Dilj. The highest peak lies at 616 meters above sea level....

, Ravna gora, Krndija
Krndija
Krndija is a hill and village in Slavonia, Croatia, extending eastwards from Papuk. It is located south of Orahovica and Našice and north of Požega....

 and Dilj
Dilj
Dilj is a mountain in south-central Slavonia, located in eastern Croatia. Of all the Slovanian mountains Dilj is lowest-lying at 471 meters. It is located north of Slavonski Brod and south of Krndija.-References:...

, which in turn encircle the valley of Požega.

Historically, the borders of Slavonia fluctuated. In the early medieval period of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

, Slavonia was a vassal province of the Kingdom, and included only the western part of present-day Slavonia, but also parts of present-day central Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 (including Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

) and the western and northern parts of present-day Bosnia
Bosnia (region)
Bosnia is a eponomous region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies mainly in the Dinaric Alps, ranging to the southern borders of the Pannonian plain, with the rivers Sava and Drina marking its northern and eastern borders. The other eponomous region, the southern, other half of the country is...

 (The eastern parts of present-day Slavonia were located within the main part of the Kingdom of Hungary). In the late Medieval period Slavonia occupied territories between the rivers Sava, Drava
Drava
Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe, a tributary of the Danube. It sources in Toblach/Dobbiaco, Italy, and flows east through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria, into Slovenia , and then southeast, passing through Croatia and forming most of the border between Croatia and...

, Sutla and Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

. In the 18th and 19th century, the Kingdom of Slavonia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

, and included northern parts of present day regions of Slavonia and Syrmia
Syrmia
Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the west....

, while the southern parts of these regions were part of the Habsburg Military Frontier
Military Frontier
The Military Frontier was a borderland of Habsburg Austria and later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire...

 (Slavonian Krajina
Slavonian Krajina
The Slavonian Military Frontier or Slavonian Krajina was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. It was formed out of territories the Habsburgs conquered from the Ottoman Empire and included southern parts of Slavonia and Syrmia; today the area it covered is mostly in eastern Croatia, with its...

).

History


This region was originally part of the Roman province of Pannonia
Pannonia
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia....

. In the 7th century a Slavonic state owing allegiance to the Avars
Eurasian Avars
The Eurasian Avars or Ancient Avars were a highly organized nomadic confederacy of mixed origins. They were ruled by a khagan, who was surrounded by a tight-knit entourage of nomad warriors, an organization characteristic of Turko-Mongol groups...

 was established, but soon replaced by the Croats
Croats
Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

. Slavonia was defended by King Tomislav
Tomislav
King Tomislav was a ruler of Croatia in the Middle Ages. He reigned from 910 until 928, first as Duke of Dalmatian Croatia in 910–925, and then became first King of the Croatian Kingdom in 925–928....

 of the House of Trpimirović from Hungarian invaders and annexed to his newly-created Kingdom of Croatia
Kingdom of Croatia (medieval)
The Kingdom of Croatia , also known as the Kingdom of the Croats , was a medieval kingdom covering most of what is today Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Balkans.Established in 925, it ruled as a sovereign state for almost two centuries...

 in 925. In 1027 a Hungarian Army under Stjepan Svetoslavić
Stjepan Svetoslavic
Stjepan was a son of Croatian King Svetoslav Suronja, member of Trpimirović dynasty.As his father was allied with Venetian Republic in Croatian civil wars and Croatian-Bulgarian wars, as well as in campaign of Pietro Orseolo II against Croatia in 1000, it was decided to strengthen those bonds even...

 of the side branch of the Trpimirović dynasty took Slavonia and made it the Slavonian Banate
Banovina of Slavonia
The Banovina of Slavonia was a province of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Croatia. It included parts of present-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary comprised present-day Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia , Transylvania , Carpatho Ruthenia , Vojvodina , Burgenland , and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders...

, ruled by its own dynasty of Svetoslavić. Slavonia was reunified with Croatia in the 1070s under King Dmitar Zvonimir Svetoslavić. In 1091 it separated again and accepted the suzerainty of the Hungarian crown. 11 years later, the rest of Croatia also accepted the suzerainty of the Hungarian crown. In the 12th century it became the practice that the successor of the throne first became Duke of "whole Slavonia" (like the eldest British prince becomes Prince of Wales), and there were some power grabs since in many cases son waged war against father while trying to establish and confirm his power base. Though Slavonia was initially considered to be part of the Kingdom of Hungary by Hungarian public law
Public law
Public law is a theory of law governing the relationship between individuals and the state. Under this theory, constitutional law, administrative law and criminal law are sub-divisions of public law...

, it became more and more separated from the Kingdom of Hungary and more and more tied to the Kingdom of Croatia.

In the 13th century, Croatia was divided into 2 banovinas, one of which was named Slavonia
Banovina of Slavonia
The Banovina of Slavonia was a province of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Croatia. It included parts of present-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina...

 (the other keeping the name Croatia). The nobility of Slavonia was more connected to the Kingdom of Hungary than was the nobility of Croatia. In the late 13th century the eastern parts of the region were turned into the semi-independent state of the powerful local ruler Ugrin Csák
Ugrin Csák
Ugrin Csák was a prominent Hungarian nobleman and oligarch in the early 14th century.-Ugrin Csák as an oligarch:...

, although the Hungarian King took the area in 1311 after the death of Ugrin.

Ever since the fall of the Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
The Serbian Despotate was a Serbian state, the last to be conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Although the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 is generally considered the end of the medieval Serbian state, the Despotate, a successor of the Serbian Empire and Moravian Serbia survived for 70 more years,...

 migrations of Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 from Ottoman territories in the Balkans took place, including Serbian nobility which became an important political factor in Slavonia. Slavonia and Croatia were ruled by separate bans
Ban (title)
Ban was a title used in several states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century.-Etymology:The word ban has entered the English language probably as a borrowing from South Slavic ban, meaning "lord, master; ruler". The Slavic word is probably borrowed from...

 until 1476 when these two ruling positions were merged into one.

When the Ottoman Empire invaded the Kingdom of Hungary and destroyed the Hungarian army at the battle of the Mohács
Battle of Mohács
The Battle of Mohács was fought on August 29, 1526 near Mohács, Hungary. In the battle, forces of the Kingdom of Hungary led by King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia were defeated by forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent....

 in 1526, the Croatian Parliament invited the Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

s to assume control over Croatia. After many fierce battles the Ottomans conquered all of today's Slavonia bit by bit in 1529, 1536, 1540, 1543 and 1552, but not the whole of the late medieval Kingdom of Slavonia (its borders extending west to the Sutla river), with Habsburgs ruling over the western remains around Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

, today considered Central Croatia
Central Croatia
Central Croatia or Croatia proper is a term that refers to the areas of the Republic of Croatia that were part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia which excluded Istria, Slavonia, and Dalmatia...

n region. During Ottoman administration, an administrative unit named Sanjak of Pojega
Sanjak of Pojega
The Sanjak of Pojega was an administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire formed in 1537/1538. It existed until the Treaty of Karlowitz when region was transferred to the Habsburg Monarchy. It was located in present-day eastern Croatia, in Slavonia region...

 existed in the territory of present-day Slavonia.

The Habsburgs took the entire region from the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century.-1667–1683:...

, a result affirmed by the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Sremski Karlovci , concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side had been defeated at the Battle of Zenta...

 in 1699. During Habsburg administration, the Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
The Kingdom of Slavonia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868. The province included northern parts of present-day regions of Slavonia and Syrmia...

 was a Habsburg province and was part of both the Kingdom of Croatia
Kingdom of Croatia (Habsburg)
The Kingdom of Croatia was an administrative division that existed between 1527 and 1868 within the Habsburg Monarchy . The Kingdom was a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years...

 and the Kingdom of Hungary. The southern parts of present-day Slavonia were not included in this province, but into the Habsburg Military Frontier
Military Frontier
The Military Frontier was a borderland of Habsburg Austria and later the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which acted as the cordon sanitaire against incursions from the Ottoman Empire...

 (Slavonian Krajina
Slavonian Krajina
The Slavonian Military Frontier or Slavonian Krajina was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. It was formed out of territories the Habsburgs conquered from the Ottoman Empire and included southern parts of Slavonia and Syrmia; today the area it covered is mostly in eastern Croatia, with its...

), which the Slavonian nobles at numerous times tried to integrate into Slavonia, but with no success. Post-1699 Slavonia was a different geographical entity from the medieval Slavonia. Whereas medieval Slavonia incorporated the territories between the Drava, Kupa
Kupa
Kupa may refer to:*Kupa River, a river in Croatia and Slovenia*Kupa River , a river in Lithuania*Kupa River in Siberia, see Kuta River*Kupa Synagogue, a synagogue in Krakow*Kupa, Hungary, a village in Northern Hungary...

 and Sutla Rivers, Habsburg Slavonia was extended eastwards to include the sparsely populated territories between the Sava and Drava Rivers.

During the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It was the first Europe-wide collapse of traditional authority, but within a year reactionary...

 Slavonia was temporarily united with Croatia under the Ban Josip Jelačić
Josip Jelacic
Count Josip Jelačić of Bužim was the Ban of Croatia between 23 March 1848 and 19 May 1859...

. After 1849, both Slavonia and Croatia were affirmed as completely separate Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 crown lands. Following the 1868 Croatian–Hungarian Agreement
Croatian–Hungarian Agreement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement was a pact signed in 1868, that governed Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary...

 with the Kingdom of Hungary, Slavonia was joined with Croatia in the single Croatia-Slavonia kingdom, which although under the suzerainty of the Crown of Saint Stephen, kept a certain level of self-rule. The year 1882 also saw the dissolution of the Slavonian Krajina and its incorporation into the existing Slavonian Counties.

Following the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Croatia-Slavonia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

 in December 1918. Between 1922 and 1929, Slavonia was a province known as the Osijek Oblast
Osijek Oblast
The Osijek Oblast was an administrative division of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. It existed from 1922 to 1929 and its capital was in the city of Osijek.-Oblast elections:Elections to oblasts were held once on January 23, 1927....

 (Osijek Province), administered from Osijek, and since the transformation of the country into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a state stretching from the Western Balkans to Central Europe which existed during the often-tumultuous interwar era of 1918–1941...

 in 1929, Slavonia was part of the Sava Banovina
Sava Banovina
The Sava Banovina or Sava Banate was a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1939. This province consisted of much of present-day Croatia and was named for the Sava River...

 administered from Zagreb. In August 1939 it became part of the Banovina of Croatia
Banovina of Croatia
The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia was a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1939 and 1943 . Its capital was at Zagreb and it included most of present-day Croatia along with portions of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia...

.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Slavonia became part of the Nazi puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
The Independent State of Croatia was a World War II puppet state of Nazi Germany, established on a part of Axis-occupied Yugoslavia. The NDH was founded on 10 April 1941, after the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. All of Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed to NDH, together with some parts...

. When the Yugoslav federation
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the abolition of the Yugoslav monarchy until it was dissolved in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia,...

 was formed after the war, Slavonia became part of the People's Republic of Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 (in 1945).

When Croatia declared its independence in 1991, the Serbs of Krajina
RSK
RSK may stand for:* Republic of Serbian Krajina* Robinson–Schensted–Knuth algorithm, between biwords and pairs of tableaux* Ribosomal s6 kinase, in molecular biology, a signal transducer* Sanyo Broadcasting, a Japanese radio and TV station...

 proclaimed their own state that comprised portions of eastern and western Slavonia.

The eastern portion was referred to as the Serbian Autonomous Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia
Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Srem
Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia was a self-proclaimed Serb political entity in eastern Croatia, established during Yugoslav wars. Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia was one of three SAO Krajina proclaimed at the territory of Socialist Republic of Croatia and last and the...

, and it encompassed roughly everything east of Osijek
Osijek
Osijek is the fourth largest city in Croatia with a population of 83,496 in 2011. It is the largest city and the economic and cultural centre of the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia, as well as the administrative centre of Osijek-Baranja county...

 and Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Vinkovci is a city in Croatia, in the Vukovar-Syrmia County. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,375, making it the largest town of the county...

 and northeast of Županja
Županja
Županja is a city in eastern Slavonia, Croatia, located 254 km east of Zagreb. It is administratively part of the Vukovar-Syrmia county. It is inhabited by 12,185 people ....

, including the cities of Vukovar
Vukovar
Vukovar is a city in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river and the Danube. Vukovar is the center of the Vukovar-Syrmia County...

 and Ilok
Ilok
Ilok is the easternmost town and municipality in Croatia. Located in the Syrmia region, it lies on a hill overlooking the Danube river, which forms the border with the Vojvodina region of Serbia. The population of the town of Ilok is 5,036, while the total municipality population is 6,750...

, as well as all of the Croatian part of Baranja
Baranya (region)
Baranya or Baranja is a geographical region between the Danube and the Drava rivers. Its territory is divided between Hungary and Croatia...

. This part of Krajina was ethnically mixed with a relative Croatian majority and witnessed bitter fighting during the war (See: War in Croatia), between the Yugoslav National Army (JNA)
Yugoslav People's Army
The Yugoslav People's Army , also referred to as the Yugoslav National Army , was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.-Origins:The origins of the JNA can...

 and the fledgling Croatian Army. The 1991 Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
The Battle of Vukovar was an 87-day siege of Vukovar in eastern Croatia by the Yugoslav People's Army , supported by various paramilitary forces from Serbia, between August and November 1991. Before the Croatian War of Independence the Baroque town was a prosperous, mixed community of Croats,...

 was the most important event of the war in this area, a three-month siege that left Vukovar leveled to the ground and its population decimated, including the worst atrocity of the war in Croatia, the Vukovar massacre
Vukovar massacre
The Vukovar massacre, also known as Vukovar hospital massacre or simply Ovčara, was a war crime that took place between November 20 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia...

, when Serb paramilitary units executed over 250 wounded prisoners and few civilians. The area was designated by UNPROFOR peacekeeping forces as Sector East.

The western portion of Slavonia (inhabited by sizable Serb population), known as SAO Western Slavonia
SAO Western Slavonia
SAO Western Slavonia or Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia was a Serbian self-proclaimed autonomous region within Croatia. It was formed on 12 August 1991 and was subsequently included into Republic of Serbian Krajina...

, controlled by RSK forces, included the area around Okučani
Okucani
Okučani is a village in western Slavonia, Croatia. It is located at the contact point between the Posavina plain and the southern slopes of Psunj; 19 km southeast of Novska and 17 km west of Nova Gradiška; elevation 119 m. Chief occupations are farming, livestock breeding, fishing and...

 and most of the Psunj
Psunj
Psunj is a mountain in the southwestern Slavonia region in eastern Croatia. It is the highest mountain of Slavonia, with the highest peak of Brezovo polje at 984 m.a.s.l. In the north it extends to Ravna gora and Papuk, while otherwise it is surrounded by lowlands...

 mountain. In May 1995 the western region was seized by Croatian forces in the military Operation Flash
Operation Flash
The Serbs in western Slavonia took part in the organized rebellion against the government of the Republic of Croatia that had just proclaimed independence in June 1991, by proclaiming the Serbian Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia in August 1991...

.

After the 1995 Operation Storm
Operation Storm
Operation Storm is the code name given to a large-scale military operation carried out by Croatian Armed Forces, in conjunction with the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, to gain back control of parts of Croatia which had been claimed by separatist ethnic Serbs, since early...

, the UN-sponsored Erdut Agreement
Erdut Agreement
The Erdut Agreement , officially the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium, was the agreement reached on November 12, 1995 between the authorities of the Republic of Croatia and the local Serb authorities of the Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia...

 was signed and the remaining occupied areas in eastern Slavonia were peacefully reintegrated into Croatia after a transitional period during which the UNTAES peacekeepers were deployed. This process was completed in January 1998.

The area suffered heavily during war and today has one of the worst unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment , as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks...

 rates in Croatia and a struggling industry. The Croatian government has offered various incentives for new industries - such as tax exemption
Tax exemption
Various tax systems grant a tax exemption to certain organizations, persons, income, property or other items taxable under the system. Tax exemption may also refer to a personal allowance or specific monetary exemption which may be claimed by an individual to reduce taxable income under some...

 - to jumpstart the recovery of the area.

Counties



Five counties of Croatia located mostly in the Slavonia region are:
  • Osijek-Baranja County
    Osijek-Baranja County
    Osijek-Baranja county is a county in Croatia, located in northeastern Slavonia and Baranja. Its center is Osijek; other cities include Đakovo, Našice, Valpovo, Belišće, Beli Manastir.-Administrative divisions:Osijek-Baranja county is divided into:...

     (mostly in Slavonia, but also include Baranja region)
  • Vukovar-Syrmia County
    Vukovar-Syrmia County
    Vukovar-Syrmia county is the easternmost Croatian county. It includes the eastern parts of Slavonia and western parts of Syrmia regions; but also the lower Sava river basin ....

     (located in the western part of Syrmia
    Syrmia
    Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. It is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the west....

    , which is also regarded as part of Slavonia)
  • Brod-Posavina County
    Brod-Posavina County
    Brod-Posavina County is the southern Slavonian county in Croatia. Its center is the city of Slavonski Brod and it spreads along the left bank of the Sava river, hence the name Posavina...

  • Požega-Slavonia County
    Požega-Slavonia County
    Požega-Slavonia county is a Croatian county in western Slavonia. Its capital is Požega. Population: 85,831 .-Geography:The Požega-Slavonia county borders on the Bjelovar-Bilogora County in the northwest, Virovitica-Podravina County in the north, Osijek-Baranja County in the northeast,...

  • Virovitica-Podravina County
    Virovitica-Podravina County
    Virovitica-Podravina county is a northern Slavonian county in Croatia. Its county seat is in Virovitica and it includes the area around the Drava river, hence the name Podravina...



Two counties located mostly in Central Croatia
Central Croatia
Central Croatia or Croatia proper is a term that refers to the areas of the Republic of Croatia that were part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia which excluded Istria, Slavonia, and Dalmatia...

, but also include parts of Slavonia:
  • Sisak-Moslavina County
    Sisak-Moslavina County
    Sisak-Moslavina County is a Croatian county in eastern Central Croatia and southwestern Slavonia. It is named after the city of Sisak and the region Moslavina just across the river Sava. According to 2001 census it is inhabited by 185 thousand people....

  • Bjelovar-Bilogora County
    Bjelovar-Bilogora County
    Bjelovar-Bilogora County is a county in central Croatia.The central town of Bjelovar was first mentioned in 1413, and it only gained importance when a new fort was built in 1756 to defend against the Ottoman invasions...


Demographics


The rough population of Slavonia (comprising five Slavonian counties) numbering 891,259 people (2001 census), including:
  • 763,323 (85.65%) Croats
    Croats
    Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

  • 78,085 (8.76%) Serbs
    Serbs
    The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

  • others (including Hungarians, Czechs, Germans
    Germans
    The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

    , Austrians
    Austrians
    Austrians are a nation and ethnic group, consisting of the population of the Republic of Austria and its historical predecessor states who share a common Austrian culture and Austrian descent....

    , Slovaks
    Slovaks
    The Slovaks, Slovak people, or Slovakians are a West Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia...

    , Bosniaks
    Bosniaks
    The Bosniaks or Bosniacs are a South Slavic ethnic group, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a smaller minority also present in other lands of the Balkan Peninsula especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Croatia...

    , Italians, Rusyns
    Pannonian Rusyns
    Rusyns in Pannonia, or simply Rusyns or Ruthenians , are a Slavic minority in Serbia and Croatia...

    , Ukrainians
    Ukrainians
    Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

    , etc.)

Economy


Wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 and maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

 are the major crops, and the leading industry is food
Food
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals...

 processing. It also has some oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 resources.

Flora and fauna


A subspecies of pedunculate
Pedunculate Oak
Quercus robur is commonly known as the Pedunculate Oak or English oak. It is native to most of Europe, and to Anatolia to the Caucasus, and also to parts of North Africa.-Taxonomy:Q...

 (common) oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

 Quercus robur slavonica is named after Slavonia. The region is home to these and sessile oaks.

Traditions


Slavonians are very familiar in that part of the Europe because of their traditional food. Most of the popular traditional Slavonian dishes are made of pork at a yearly festivity
Pig slaughter
Pig slaughter is the work of slaughtering domestic pigs which is both a common economic activity as well as a traditional feast in some European countries.-Agriculture:...

. This food includes so called kobasica (kobasytsa) sausage, kulen
Kulen
Kulen is a type of flavored sausage made of minced pork that is traditionally produced in Croatia and Serbia , and its designation of origin has been protected. In parts of Slavonia, kulen is called kulin due to Ikavian speech.The meat is low-fat, rather brittle and dense, and the flavor is spicy...

 and krvavica
Krvavica
Krvavica is a village in the municipality of Kruševac, Serbia. According to the 2002 census, the village has a population of 862 people....

. Lamb and beef are also very popular.

See also

  • Banovina of Slavonia
    Banovina of Slavonia
    The Banovina of Slavonia was a province of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Croatia. It included parts of present-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina...

  • Croatia-Slavonia
  • Kingdom of Slavonia
    Kingdom of Slavonia
    The Kingdom of Slavonia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire that existed from 1699 to 1868. The province included northern parts of present-day regions of Slavonia and Syrmia...

  • Sava Banovina
    Sava Banovina
    The Sava Banovina or Sava Banate was a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1939. This province consisted of much of present-day Croatia and was named for the Sava River...

  • Slavonian Krajina
    Slavonian Krajina
    The Slavonian Military Frontier or Slavonian Krajina was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. It was formed out of territories the Habsburgs conquered from the Ottoman Empire and included southern parts of Slavonia and Syrmia; today the area it covered is mostly in eastern Croatia, with its...


External links