Kyoto

Kyoto

Overview
is a city
Cities of Japan
||A is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as and , with the difference that they are not a component of...

 in the central part of the island of Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan
Capital of Japan
The capital of Japan, where the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor are located, is de facto. While this is generally not in dispute, the capital de jure is unclear. There is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital. Some state that it occurred when Tokyo...

, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture
Kyoto Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region of the island of Honshu. The capital is the city of Kyoto.- History :Until the Meiji Restoration, the area of Kyoto prefecture was known as Yamashiro....

, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.



Although archaeological
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 evidence places the first human settlement on the islands of Japan to approximately 10,000 BC, relatively little is known about human activity in the area before the 6th century AD, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine
Shimogamo Shrine
Shimogamo Shrine, called Shimogamo-jinja in Japanese, is the common name of an important Shinto sanctuary in the Shimogamo district of Kyoto city's Sakyō ward. Its formal name is Kamo-mioya-jinja...

 is believed to have been established.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Kyoto'
Start a new discussion about 'Kyoto'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Recent Discussions
Encyclopedia
is a city
Cities of Japan
||A is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as and , with the difference that they are not a component of...

 in the central part of the island of Honshū
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan
Capital of Japan
The capital of Japan, where the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor are located, is de facto. While this is generally not in dispute, the capital de jure is unclear. There is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital. Some state that it occurred when Tokyo...

, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture
Kyoto Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region of the island of Honshu. The capital is the city of Kyoto.- History :Until the Meiji Restoration, the area of Kyoto prefecture was known as Yamashiro....

, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.

History




Although archaeological
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 evidence places the first human settlement on the islands of Japan to approximately 10,000 BC, relatively little is known about human activity in the area before the 6th century AD, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine
Shimogamo Shrine
Shimogamo Shrine, called Shimogamo-jinja in Japanese, is the common name of an important Shinto sanctuary in the Shimogamo district of Kyoto city's Sakyō ward. Its formal name is Kamo-mioya-jinja...

 is believed to have been established. During the 8th century, when the powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, the Emperor
Emperor
An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife or a woman who rules in her own right...

 chose to relocate the capital to a region far from the Buddhist influence. Emperor Kammu
Emperor Kammu
was the 50th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Kammu reigned from 781 to 806.-Traditional narrative:Kammu's personal name was . He was the eldest son of Prince Shirakabe , and was born prior to Shirakabe's ascension to the throne...

 selected the village of Uda, at the time in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province
Yamashiro Province
was a province of Japan, located in Kinai. It overlaps the southern part of modern Kyoto Prefecture on Honshū. Aliases include , the rare , and . It is classified as an upper province in the Engishiki....

, for this honor.

The new city, Heian-kyō
Heian-kyo
Heian-kyō , was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180....

, a scaled replica of the then Tang
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period
Heian period
The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyōto. It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height...

 of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto (Muromachi shogunate) or in other cities such as Kamakura
Kamakura, Kanagawa
is a city located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, about south-south-west of Tokyo. It used to be also called .Although Kamakura proper is today rather small, it is often described in history books as a former de facto capital of Japan as the seat of the Shogunate and of the Regency during the...

 (Kamakura shogunate
Kamakura shogunate
The Kamakura shogunate was a military dictatorship in Japan headed by the shoguns from 1185 to 1333. It was based in Kamakura. The Kamakura period draws its name from the capital of the shogunate...

) and Edo
Edo
, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868...

 (Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

), Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

. (Some believe that it is still a legal capital: see Capital of Japan
Capital of Japan
The capital of Japan, where the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor are located, is de facto. While this is generally not in dispute, the capital de jure is unclear. There is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital. Some state that it occurred when Tokyo...

.)

The city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War
Onin War
The ' was a civil war that lasted 10 years during the Muromachi period in Japan. A dispute between Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sōzen escalated into a nationwide war involving the Ashikaga shogunate and a number of daimyo in many regions of Japan....

 of 1467-1477, and did not really recover until the mid-16th century. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility (kuge
Kuge
The was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto until the rise of the Shogunate in the 12th century at which point it was eclipsed by the daimyo...

) and religious factions as well. Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since.

In late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
was a daimyo warrior, general and politician of the Sengoku period. He unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle...

 restructured the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called  circulating the city. Teramachi Street
Teramachi Street
is a historical street in Kyoto, Japan, running north-south. The area extending from Shijō Street to somewhat above Sanjō Street is an arcade containing an assortment of shops and services, both traditional and modern. The street's name literally means "Temple Town" and reflects the large number...

 in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

 and Edo.


The Hamaguri rebellion
Hamaguri rebellion
The rebellion at the Hamaguri Gate of the Imperial Palace in Kyōto took place on August 20, 1864 and reflected the discontent of pro-imperial and anti-alien groups...

 of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city, and the subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy. The modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal
Lake Biwa Canal
is a waterway in Japan built during the Meiji Period to transport water, freight, and passengers from Lake Biwa to the nearby City of Kyoto.This waterway was also used as Japan's first hydroelectric power generator, which served to provide electricity for Kyoto's trams.As of 2008, the waterway is...

 in 1890 is one measure taken to revive the city. The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932.

There was some consideration by the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population "better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon." In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
Henry Lewis Stimson was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician and spokesman on foreign policy. He twice served as Secretary of War 1911–1913 under Republican William Howard Taft and 1940–1945, under Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. In the latter role he was a leading hawk...

, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki
Nagasaki
is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District...

. The city was largely spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties.

As a result, Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still has an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya
Machiya
' are traditional wooden townhouses found throughout Japan and typified in the historical capital of Kyoto. Machiya and nōka constitute the two categories of Japanese vernacular architecture known as minka...

. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyoto Station
Kyoto Station
is the most important transportation hub in Kyoto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest train station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof...

 complex.

Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , aimed at fighting global warming...

 on greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

 emissions that bears the city's name.

Name



In Japanese, the city has been called Kyō , Miyako or Kyō no Miyako . In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto ("capital city"), after the Chinese word for capital city, jingdu . After Edo
Edo
, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868...

 was renamed Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

 (meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868, Kyoto was known for a short time as Saikyō .

An obsolete spelling for the city's name is Kioto; it was formerly known to the West as Meaco or Miako . Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi , meaning "metropolis" or "capital".

Geography



Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro (or Kyoto) Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

. This interior positioning results in hot summers and cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa
Katsura River
The is a continuation of two other rivers, the Hozu River, a small, speedy river which begins in the mountains near Kameoka and then slithers through the mountains separating Kameoka and Kyoto; and the Ōi River , which emerges from those mountains and expands into a shallow, slow-flowing river...

 to the west, and the Kamogawa
Kamo River
The is located in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The riverbanks are popular walking spots for residents and tourists. In summer, restaurants open balconies looking out to the river. There are pathways running alongside the river on which one can walk along the river, and some stepping stones that cross...

 to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 km²

The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 feng shui
Feng shui
Feng shui ' is a Chinese system of geomancy believed to use the laws of both Heaven and Earth to help one improve life by receiving positive qi. The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu ....

 following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an
Chang'an
Chang'an is an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an literally means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese. During the short-lived Xin Dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; yet after its fall in AD 23, the old name was restored...

 (present-day Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

). The Imperial Palace
Heian Palace
The Heian Palace was the original imperial palace of Heian-kyō , the capital of Japan, from 794 to 1227. In Japan, this palace is called Daidairi...

 faced south, resulting in Ukyō (the right sector of the capital) being on the west while Sakyō (the left sector) is on the east. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō
Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "central capital ward."As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 102,620 people. Tourism, shopping, and entertainment are the primary sources of income in the area. The Kamo River flows through the...

, Shimogyō
Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. First established in 1879, it has been merged and split, and took on its present boundaries in 1955, with the establishment of a separate Minami-ku....

, and Kamigyō
Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Located in the center of the present-day city of Kyoto, Japan it previously occupied the northern region of the ancient capital of Kyoto. The Kamo River flows on the eastern border of the ward...

 still follow a grid pattern.

Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace
Kyoto Gosho
The is an imperial palace of Japan, though the Emperor of Japan is not in residence. The Emperor has resided at the Tokyo Imperial Palace since 1869 and ordered the preservation of the Kyōto Imperial Palace in 1877....

, with the less-populated northern area retaining a far greener feel. Surrounding areas do not follow the same grid pattern as the center of the city, though streets throughout Kyoto share the distinction of having names.

Kyoto sits atop a large natural water table that provides the city with ample freshwater wells. Due to large scale urbanization, the amount of rain draining into the table is dwindling and wells across the area are drying at an increasing rate.

Demographics


Historically Kyoto was the largest city in Japan, later surpassed by Osaka and Edo (Tokyo) towards the end of the 16th century. In the prewar years, Kyoto traded places with Kobe and Nagoya ranking as the 4th and 5th largest city. In 1947, it went back to being 3rd, but its population has gradually declined ever since. By 1960 it had fallen to 5th again, and by 1990 it had fallen to 7th. If current trends continue it could fall to 9th after Fukuoka and Kawasaki.

Climate


Kyoto has a Humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Koppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa).

Politics and government



The directly elected executive mayor in Kyoto as of 2011 is Daisaku Kadokawa, an independent supported by the Liberal Democratic Party
Liberal Democratic Party (Japan)
The , frequently abbreviated to LDP or , is a centre-right political party in Japan. It is one of the most consistently successful political parties in the democratic world. The LDP ruled almost continuously for nearly 54 years from its founding in 1955 until its defeat in the 2009 election...

, Democratic Party of Japan
Democratic Party of Japan
The is a political party in Japan founded in 1998 by the merger of several opposition parties. Its socially liberal platform is generally considered center-left in the Japanese political spectrum...

, New Komeito Party
New Komeito Party
The , New Kōmei Party, or NKP is a centre-right political party in Japan founded by members of the Nichiren Buddhist organization Sōka Gakkai. The leadership and financing of the two groups are currently independent...

 and Social Democratic Party. The legislative city assembly has 69 elected members.

Kyoto City Assembly

Political party Number of seats
Liberal Democratic Party
Liberal Democratic Party (Japan)
The , frequently abbreviated to LDP or , is a centre-right political party in Japan. It is one of the most consistently successful political parties in the democratic world. The LDP ruled almost continuously for nearly 54 years from its founding in 1955 until its defeat in the 2009 election...

22
Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party
The Japanese Communist Party is a left-wing political party in Japan.The JCP advocates the establishment of a society based on socialism, democracy and peace, and opposition to militarism...

20
Democratic Party of Japan
Democratic Party of Japan
The is a political party in Japan founded in 1998 by the merger of several opposition parties. Its socially liberal platform is generally considered center-left in the Japanese political spectrum...

14
New Komeito Party
New Komeito Party
The , New Kōmei Party, or NKP is a centre-right political party in Japan founded by members of the Nichiren Buddhist organization Sōka Gakkai. The leadership and financing of the two groups are currently independent...

12
vacant 1

Wards



Kyoto has eleven wards
Wards of Japan
A is a subdivision of one of the cities of Japan that is large enough to have been designated by government ordinance. Wards are used to subdivide each city designated by government ordinance...

. They are
  • Fushimi-ku
    Fushimi-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Famous places in Fushimi include the Fushimi Inari Shrine, with thousands of torii lining the paths up and down a mountain; Fushimi Castle, originally built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with its rebuilt towers and gold-lined...

     
  • Higashiyama-ku
    Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto
    ' is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It was created in 1929 when it was split off from Shimogyō-ku. During the years 1931 to 1976 it also covered the area of present-day Yamashina-ku, which was an independent town until its merger into the city in 1931...

     
  • Kamigyō-ku
    Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Located in the center of the present-day city of Kyoto, Japan it previously occupied the northern region of the ancient capital of Kyoto. The Kamo River flows on the eastern border of the ward...

     
  • Kita-ku
    Kita-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "North Ward." As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 122,391 people.-Universities:*Bukkyo University*Kyoto Sangyo University...

     
  • Minami-ku
    Minami-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "South Ward." It was established in 1955 when it was separated from Shimogyo-ku. As of April, 2008 the ward has an estimated population of 98,320 people. The Kamo River and the Katsura River flow through...

     
  • Nakagyō-ku
    Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "central capital ward."As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 102,620 people. Tourism, shopping, and entertainment are the primary sources of income in the area. The Kamo River flows through the...

      - administrative center
  • Nishikyō-ku
    Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "west capital ward" and it is situated on the western edge of the city, to the south of center. The ward was established on October 1, 1976 separating from Ukyō-ku...

     
  • Sakyo-ku
    Sakyo-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It was created in 1929 when it was split off from Kamigyo-ku.It is located in the north-east corner of Kyoto city. In the east it borders the city of Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. In the south Sanjō Street separates it from...

     
  • Shimogyō-ku
    Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. First established in 1879, it has been merged and split, and took on its present boundaries in 1955, with the establishment of a separate Minami-ku....

     
  • Ukyō-ku
    Ukyo-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The word , as opposed to , refers to the western half of the ancient capital of Heiankyō – the palace faced south, hence west was to the right...

     
  • Yamashina-ku
    Yamashina-ku, Kyoto
    is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It lies in the southeastern part of the city, and Yamashina Station is one stop away from Kyoto Station on the Tōkaidō Main Line ....

     


Together, they comprise the city of Kyoto. Like other cities in Japan, Kyoto has a single mayor and a city council.

Culture


Although ravaged by wars, fires, and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was spared from much of the destruction of World War II. It was removed from the atomic bomb target list (which it had headed) by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
Henry Lewis Stimson was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician and spokesman on foreign policy. He twice served as Secretary of War 1911–1913 under Republican William Howard Taft and 1940–1945, under Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt. In the latter role he was a leading hawk...

, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center which he knew from his honeymoon and later diplomatic visits.

With its 2000 religious places- 1600 Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 temples and 400 Shinto shrines, as well as palaces, gardens and architecture intact, it is one of the best preserved cities in Japan. Among the most famous temples in Japan are Kiyomizu-dera
Kiyomizu-dera
, officially is an independent Buddhist temple in eastern Kyoto. The temple is part of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto UNESCO World Heritage site...

, a magnificent wooden temple supported by pillars off the slope of a mountain; Kinkaku-ji
Kinkaku-ji
, also known as , is a Zen Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan. The garden complex is an excellent example of Muromachi period garden design. It is designated as a National Special Historic Site and a National Special Landscape, and it is one of 17 locations comprising the Historic Monuments of Ancient...

, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion; Ginkaku-ji
Ginkaku-ji
, the "Temple of the Silver Pavilion," is a Zen temple in the Sakyo ward of Kyoto, Japan. It is one of the construction that represents the Higashiyama Culture of Muromachi period....

, the Temple of the Silver Pavilion; and Ryōan-ji
Ryoan-ji
is a Zen temple located in northwest Kyoto, Japan. Belonging to the Myoshin-ji school of the Rinzai branch of Zen Buddhism, the temple and karesansui garden is one of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto, a UNESCO World Heritage Site....

, famous for its rock garden. The Heian Jingū
Heian Jingu
The is a Shinto shrine located in Kyoto, Japan. The torii before the main gate is one of the largest in Japan. The architecture of the mirrors the stylge and features of the Kyoto Imperial Palace.-History:thumb|right|220px|Lake at Heian Shrine...

 is a Shinto shrine, built in 1895, celebrating the Imperial family and commemorating the first and last emperors to reside in Kyoto. Three special sites have connections to the imperial family: the Kyoto Gyoen area including the Kyoto Imperial Palace
Kyoto Gosho
The is an imperial palace of Japan, though the Emperor of Japan is not in residence. The Emperor has resided at the Tokyo Imperial Palace since 1869 and ordered the preservation of the Kyōto Imperial Palace in 1877....

 and Sento Imperial Palace
Sento Imperial Palace
The Sentō Imperial Palace or Sentō-gosho is a large garden in Kyoto, Japan, formerly the grounds of a palace for retired emperors...

, homes of the Emperors of Japan for many centuries; Katsura Imperial Villa
Katsura Imperial Villa
The , or Katsura Detached Palace, is a villa with associated gardens and outbuildings in the western suburbs of Kyoto, Japan...

, one of the nation's finest architectural treasures; and Shugaku-in Imperial Villa
Shugaku-in Imperial Villa
The , or Shugaku-in Detached Palace, is a set of gardens and outbuildings in the hills of the eastern suburbs of Kyoto, Japan...

, one of its best Japanese gardens.

Other notable sites in Kyoto include Arashiyama
Arashiyama
is a district on the western outskirts of Kyoto, Japan. It also refers to the mountain across the Ōi River, which forms a backdrop to the district.Notable tourist sites in Arashiyama include...

, the Gion
Gion
is a district of Kyoto, Japan, originally developed in the Middle Ages, in front of Yasaka Shrine. The district was built to accommodate the needs of travelers and visitors to the shrine...

 and Pontochō
Pontocho
Pontochō is a Hanamachi district in Kyoto, Japan, known for geisha and home to many geisha houses and traditional tea houses. Like Gion, Pontochō is famous for the preservation of forms of traditional architecture and entertainment.-Etymology:...

 geisha
Geisha
, Geiko or Geigi are traditional, female Japanese entertainers whose skills include performing various Japanese arts such as classical music and dance.-Terms:...

 quarters, the Philosopher's Walk
Philosopher's Walk
The is a pedestrian path that follows a cherry-tree-lined canal in Kyoto, between Ginkaku-ji and Nanzen-ji. The route is so-named because the influential 20th century Japanese philosopher and Kyoto University professor Nishida Kitaro is thought to have used it for daily meditation. It passes a...

, and the canals which line some of the older streets.


The "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto
Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto
The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto encompasses 17 locations in Japan. The locations are in three cities: Kyoto and Uji in Kyoto Prefecture; and Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. Of the monuments, 13 are Buddhist temples; 3 are Shinto shrines; and one is a castle...

" are listed by the UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

. These include the Kamo Shrine
Kamo Shrine
is a general term for an important Shinto sanctuary complex on both banks of the Kamo River in northeast Kyoto. It is centered on two shrines. The two shrines, an upper and a lower, lie in a corner of the old capital which was known as the due to traditional geomancy beliefs that the north-east...

s (Kami and Shimo), Kyō-ō-Gokokuji
To-ji
is a Buddhist temple of the Shingon sect in Kyoto, Japan. Its name means East Temple, and it once had a partner, Sai-ji . They stood alongside the Rashomon, the gate to the Heian capital. It is formally known as which indicates that it previously functioned as a temple providing protection for the...

 (Tō-ji), Kiyomizu-dera
Kiyomizu-dera
, officially is an independent Buddhist temple in eastern Kyoto. The temple is part of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto UNESCO World Heritage site...

, Daigo-ji
Daigo-ji
is a Shingon Buddhist temple in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Its main devotion is Yakushi. Daigo, literally "ghee," is used figuratively to mean "crème de la crème" and is a metaphor of the most profound part of Buddhist thoughts.- History :...

, Ninna-ji
Ninna-ji
is the head temple of the Omuro school of the Shingon Sect of Buddhism. Located in western Kyoto, Japan, it was founded in AD 888 by the retired Emperor Uda. It is part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto", a UNESCO World Heritage Site.-History:...

, Saihō-ji
Saiho-ji
is a Rinzai Zen Buddhist temple located in Matsuo, Nishikyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. The temple, which is famed for its moss garden, is commonly referred to as , meaning "moss temple", and is also known as . The temple, primarily constructed to honor Amitabha, was first founded by Gyōki and was later...

 (Kokedera), Tenryū-ji
Tenryu-ji
—more formally known as —is the head temple of the Tenryū branch of Rinzai Zen Buddhism, located in Susukinobaba-chō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. The temple was founded by Ashikaga Takauji in 1339, primarily to venerate Gautama Buddha, and its first chief priest was Musō Soseki. Construction was...

, Rokuon-ji
Kinkaku-ji
, also known as , is a Zen Buddhist temple in Kyoto, Japan. The garden complex is an excellent example of Muromachi period garden design. It is designated as a National Special Historic Site and a National Special Landscape, and it is one of 17 locations comprising the Historic Monuments of Ancient...

 (Kinkaku-ji), Jishō-ji
Ginkaku-ji
, the "Temple of the Silver Pavilion," is a Zen temple in the Sakyo ward of Kyoto, Japan. It is one of the construction that represents the Higashiyama Culture of Muromachi period....

 (Ginkaku-ji), Ryōan-ji
Ryoan-ji
is a Zen temple located in northwest Kyoto, Japan. Belonging to the Myoshin-ji school of the Rinzai branch of Zen Buddhism, the temple and karesansui garden is one of the Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto, a UNESCO World Heritage Site....

, Hongan-ji
Hongan-ji
, also archaically romanized as Hongwanji, is the collective name of the largest school of Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism...

, Kōzan-ji
Kozan-ji
, or , is an Omuro Buddhist temple located in Ume-ga-hata Toganoo-chō, Ukyō Ward, Kyoto, Japan. The temple was founded by famous monk Myōe and is renowned for its numerous national treasures and important cultural properties, in particular the famous picture scroll called Chōjū-giga. The temple...

 and the Nijo Castle
Nijo Castle
is a flatland castle located in Kyoto, Japan. The castle consists of two concentric rings of fortifications, the Ninomaru Palace, the ruins of the Honmaru Palace, various support buildings and several gardens...

, primarily built by the Tokugawa shoguns
Tokugawa shogunate
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the , was a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which is now called Tokyo, after the name was...

. Other sites outside the city are also on the list.

Kyoto is renowned for its abundance of delicious Japanese foods and cuisine. The special circumstances of Kyoto as a city away from the sea and home to many Buddhist temples resulted in the development of a variety of vegetables peculiar to the Kyoto area (kyōyasai).

Japan's television and film industry has its center in Kyoto. Many jidaigeki
Jidaigeki
is a genre of film, television, and theatre in Japan. The name means "period drama" and is usually the Edo period of Japanese history, from 1603 to 1868. Some, however, are set much earlier—Portrait of Hell, for example, is set during the late Heian period—and the early Meiji era is also a popular...

, action films featuring samurai, were shot at Toei Uzumasa Eigamura. A film set and theme park in one, Eigamura features replicas of traditional Japanese buildings which are used for jidaigeki. Among the sets are a replica of the old Nihonbashi
Nihonbashi
, or Nihombashi, is a business district of Chūō, Tokyo, Japan which grew up around the bridge of the same name which has linked two sides of the Nihonbashi River at this site since the 17th century. The first wooden bridge was completed in 1603, and the current bridge made of stone dates from 1911...

 (the bridge at the entry to Edo
Edo
, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868...

), a traditional courthouse, a Meiji Period police box
Koban
Koban may refer to:, Japanese neighborhood police substation, sometimes called a "police box", a former Japanese oval gold coin* Koban culture, a Central North Caucasian culture circa 1100 to 400 BC...

 and part of the former Yoshiwara
Yoshiwara
Yoshiwara was a famous Akasen district in Edo, present-day Tōkyō, Japan.In the early 17th century, there was widespread male and female prostitution throughout the cities of Kyoto, Edo, and Osaka. To counter this, an order of Tokugawa Hidetada of the Tokugawa shogunate restricted prostitution to...

 red-light district. Actual film shooting takes place occasionally, and visitors are welcome to observe the action.

Kyoto International Manga Museum
Kyoto International Manga Museum
The is located in Nakagyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The building housing the museum is the former Tatsuike Elementary School. The museum opened on November 25, 2006. Its collection of 200,000 items includes such rarities as Meiji period magazines and postwar rental books....

 is also situated in Kyoto. For an entrance fee visitors are able to view exhibitions and read as much manga
Manga
Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

 as they desire. The museum is making an attempt to acquire every manga ever published and so far houses approximately 200,000 titles.

Economy


The key industry of Kyoto is information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 and electronics: the city is home to the headquarters of Nintendo
Nintendo
is a multinational corporation located in Kyoto, Japan. Founded on September 23, 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as a cab company and a love hotel....

, Intelligent Systems
Intelligent Systems
is a Japanese first-party video game developer and internal team of Nintendo Co., Ltd. It has its headquarters in the Nintendo Kyoto Research Center in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture....

, TOSE
TOSE
is a video game development company based in Kyoto, Japan. It is most known for developing Nintendo's Game & Watch Gallery series, various Dragon Ball games, as well as other Nintendo products...

, OMRON
OMRON
is a Japanese electronics company based in Kyoto.Omron was established by Kazuma Tateishi in 1933 and incorporated in 1948. Omron's primary business is the manufacture and sale of automation components, equipment and systems, but it is generally known for medical equipment such as digital...

, Kyocera
Kyocera
is a multinational manufacturer based in Kyoto, Japan. It was founded as in 1959 by Kazuo Inamori and renamed in 1982. The company has diversified its founding technology in ceramic materials through internal development as well as strategic mergers and acquisitions...

, Shimadzu Corp.
Shimadzu Corp.
is a manufacturer of precision instruments, measuring instruments and medical equipment, based in Kyoto, Japan.The company was established by in 1875. X-ray devices, the spectrum camera, the electron microscope, and the gas chromatograph were developed and commercialized in advance of other...

, Rohm
Rohm
ROHM Semiconductor is a Japanese electronic parts supplier based in Kyoto, Japan. ROHM was incorporated as Toyo Electronics Industry Corporation by Kenichiro Sato on September 17, 1958. The name was officially changed to Rohm in 1981 and then changed again to "ROHM Semiconductor" in January of...

, Horiba
Horiba
is a Japanese manufacturer of precision instruments for measurement and analysis. They claim to have 80% of the world market for instruments that measure and analyze automobile exhaust gas, and also make instruments for environmental, medical and scientific applications.Horiba was founded in 1945...

, Nidec Corporation
Nidec Corporation
is a manufacturer of electric motors in Japan. Their products are found in hard-disk drives, household electric appliances, commercial and manufacturing equipment. The two product groups with the largest sales are hard-disk drive motors and electrical and optical components . The paid-in capital...

, Nichicon
Nichicon
is a manufacturer of capacitors of various types and applications and is one of the largest manufacturers of capacitors in the world, headquartered in Karasuma Oike, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan. In 1950, it separated from the Nii Works Co., established itself as Kansai-Nii Works and finished its first...

, GS Yuasa and Murata Machinery
Murata Machinery
, abbrev. MML, is a privately held Japanese multinational corporation founded in 1935 with its Head Office at Fushimi-ku, Kyoto.In 1972 MML began distributing fax and copier machines in Japan under an agreement with Graphic Science, inc...

 and the headquarters of Murata Manufacturing
Murata Manufacturing
is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic components, based in Nagaokakyo, Kyoto.Honorary Chairman Akira Murata started Murata Manufacturing as a personal venture in October, 1944. On December, 1950 reorganized the company into Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd...

 are located in the suburbs of Kyoto in the city of Nagaokakyō
Nagaokakyo, Kyoto
is a city located in Kyoto, Japan.As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 79,306 and the density of 4,070.96 persons per km². The total area is 19.18 km²....

.

Tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 also forms a large base of Kyoto's economy. The city's cultural heritages are constantly visited by school groups from across Japan, and many foreign tourists also stop in Kyoto. In 2007, the city government announced that a record number of tourists had visited Kyoto for the sixth year in a row., and it was chosen as the second most attractive city in Japan, in a regional brand survey.

Traditional Japanese crafts
Japanese handicrafts
The many and varied traditional handicrafts of Japan are officially recognised and protected and, owing to the folk art movement, are much in demand. Some enjoy status as a meibutsu or regional specialty. Each craft demands a set of specialized skills...

 are also major industry of Kyoto, most of which are run by artisans in small plants. Kyoto's kimono
Kimono
The is a Japanese traditional garment worn by men, women and children. The word "kimono", which literally means a "thing to wear" , has come to denote these full-length robes...

 weavers are particularly renowned, and the city remains the premier center of kimono manufacturing. Such businesses, vibrant in past centuries, have declined in recent years as sales of traditional goods stagnate.

Sake brewing is Kyoto's traditional industry. Gekkeikan
Gekkeikan
is a Japanese manufacturer of sake based in Kyoto, Japan. Founded in 1637 by Jiemon Okura, in Fushimi, it is one of the world's oldest companies. The name of the company literally means "laurel wreath"....

 and Takara Holdings
Takara Holdings
Takara Holdings is a Japanese company based in Kyoto. The company is mainly involved with beverage production, food, travel, printing, medical supplies, computer systems....

 are major sake brewers headquartered in Kyoto.

Other businesses headquartered in Kyoto include the apparel company Wacoal
Wacoal
is a worldwide lingerie manufacturer and marketer headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. It is a subsidiary wholly owned by .Wako Shoji was founded by Koichi Tsukamoto in 1946...

, the delivery transportation company Sagawa Express
Sagawa Express
is a major transportation company in Japan. Its headquarters are in Minami-ku, Kyoto. It competes with Yamato Transport, Nippon Express and other major logistics companies. Its total sales for the year ending March 2005 were ¥728,000,000,000....

 and the garage kits maker Volks
Volks
is a Japan-based corporation that produces garage kits and mecha kits as well as the Dollfie, Super Dollfie and Dollfie Dream lines of dolls. The company's headquarters is in Kyoto, with some 30 shops worldwide, and annual sales of about $50 million, as of 2008....

.

Colleges and universities


Home to 37 institutions of higher education, Kyoto is one of the academic centers of the country. Kyoto University
Kyoto University
, or is a national university located in Kyoto, Japan. It is the second oldest Japanese university, and formerly one of Japan's Imperial Universities.- History :...

, one of Japan's national universities
Japanese national university
As of 2008, there were 87 , 89 public universities and 580 private universities in Japan. National universities, tend to be held in higher regard in higher education in Japan than private or public universities....

, is considered to be one of the top universities in Japan. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement
The Times Higher Education Supplement
The Times Higher Education , formerly Times Higher Education Supplement , is a weekly British magazine based in London reporting specifically on news and other issues related to higher education...

 top-ranking university, Kyoto University
Kyoto University
, or is a national university located in Kyoto, Japan. It is the second oldest Japanese university, and formerly one of Japan's Imperial Universities.- History :...

 is ranked the second university in Japan and 25th in the world. The Kyoto Institute of Technology
Kyoto Institute of Technology
Kyoto Institute of Technology in Kyoto, Japan is a Japanese national university established in 1949. History of the Institute extends back to two schools, Kyoto Craft High School and Kyoto Sericulture Training School Kyoto Institute of Technology (京都工芸繊維大学, Kyōto Kōgei Sen'i Daigaku) in Kyoto,...

 is also among the most famous universities in Japan and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture and design in the country. Doshisha University
Doshisha University
, or is a prestigious private university in Kyoto, Japan. The university has approximately 27,000 students on three campuses, in faculties of theology, letters, law, commerce, economics, policy, and engineering...

 and Ritsumeikan University
Ritsumeikan University
Ritsumeikan University has a growing reputation as one of the main private universities of Japan. It is part of a group of prestigious private universities in the Kansai area, called "Kan -Kan -Dou -Ritsu "...

 are popular private universities in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto
Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto
is a Japanese metropolitan region encompassing the metropolitan areas of the cities of Osaka in Osaka prefecture, Kobe in Hyōgo Prefecture, and Kyoto in Kyoto prefecture. The entire region has a population of 18,644,000 over an area of 11,170 km²...

 metropolitan area.

Kyoto also has a unique higher education network called the Consortium of Universities in Kyoto, which consists of three national, five public (prefectural and municipal), and 41 private universities, as well as the city and four other organizations. The consortium does not offer a degree, but offers the courses as part of a degree at participating universities.

As well as more than 30 Japanese universities and colleges, American universities find the city as an important place for education and research. Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies
Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies
The , or KCJS, is a study abroad program founded in 1989 and currently housed at Doshisha University in Kyoto, Japan. Operated by a consortium of universities, the program is centered on advanced Japanese language training combined with Japanese or English-language coursework for college credit...

 (KCJS) is a consortium of 14 American universities that sponsors a rigorous, two-semester academic program for undergraduates who wish to do advanced work in Japanese language and cultural studies. In addition, Stanford University
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

 has its own Japan Center in Kyoto.

Transportation





Rail



Kyoto Station
Kyoto Station
is the most important transportation hub in Kyoto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest train station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof...

 is the center for transportation in the city. The second-largest in Japan, it houses a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan
Isetan
is a Japanese department store. Based in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Isetan has branches throughout Japan and East Asia, including Bangkok, Jinan, Kaohsiung, Kuala Lumpur, Shanghai, Singapore and Tianjin and formerly in Hong Kong, London and Vienna....

 department store, and several local government facilities all under one fifteen-story roof. The Tōkaidō Shinkansen Line (see below) as well as all conventional rail lines operated by JR West connect here.

The Keihan
Keihan Electric Railway
is a Japanese railway operator in Osaka, Kyoto, and Shiga Prefectures. It is known as , or .-History:Keihan started its operation between Osaka and Kyoto in 1910. It was the first electric railway to connect these two cities, and the first line on the left bank of Yodo River...

, Hankyu
Hankyu Railway
is a Japanese private railway that provides commuter and interurban service to the northern Kansai region and is one of major businesses operated by Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc. The railway's main terminal is at Umeda Station in Osaka...

, Kintetsu
Kintetsu
, named Kinki Nippon Railway Co., Ltd. in English until June 27, 2003, is a Japanese rail transit corporation commonly known as . It is the largest non-JR railway in Japan. Its complex network of lines connects Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, Nagoya, Tsu and Ise...

, and other rail networks also offer frequent service to other cities in the Kansai
Kansai
The or the lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū. The region includes the prefectures of Mie, Nara, Wakayama, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyōgo, and Shiga. Depending on who makes the distinction, Fukui, Tokushima and even Tottori Prefecture are also included...

 region. JR West and Kintetsu connect at Kyoto Station. Hankyu has a terminal at the intersection of Shijō Kawaramachi, Kyoto's most thriving shopping and amusement district. Keihan has a station at which is not far from Shijō Kawaramachi.

Subway



The Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau
Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau
is an agency of the city government of Kyoto, Japan that operates municipal subways and city buses within the city. Previously, it also operated trams and trolley buses.-Subway:The Kyoto Municipal Subway operates the following two lines:*Karasuma Line...

 operates the Kyoto Municipal Subway
Kyoto Municipal Subway
is the metro network in the city of Kyoto, Japan. It is operated by Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau. It has two lines.-Lines:- External links :**...

 consisting of two lines: the Karasuma Line and the Tōzai Line.
Karasuma Line


The Karasuma Line is colored green, and its stations are given numbers following the letter K.

The line has following stations, from north to south: Kokusaikaikan
Kokusaikaikan Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Sakyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It is the beginning of the line, and was opened on 3 June 1997.-Layout:The station has an island platform serving 2 tracks.-Adjacent stations:-Around the station:...

 (terminal) and Matsugasaki
Matsugasaki Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 in Sakyō-ku
Sakyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It was created in 1929 when it was split off from Kamigyo-ku.It is located in the north-east corner of Kyoto city. In the east it borders the city of Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. In the south Sanjō Street separates it from...

; Kitayama
Kitayama Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 and Kitaōji
Kitaoji Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Layout:*This station has an island platform with 2 tracks under Karasuma Street.-Surroundings:*Kitaōji Town**Kyoto City Kitaōji Bus Terminal**Kyoto North Hall...

 in Kita-ku
Kita-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "North Ward." As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 122,391 people.-Universities:*Bukkyo University*Kyoto Sangyo University...

; Kuramaguchi
Kuramaguchi Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 and Imadegawa
Imadegawa Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 in Kamigyō-ku
Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Located in the center of the present-day city of Kyoto, Japan it previously occupied the northern region of the ancient capital of Kyoto. The Kamo River flows on the eastern border of the ward...

; Marutamachi and Karasuma Oike
Karasuma Oike Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line and Tōzai Line in Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Lines:* Kyoto Municipal Subway* Karasuma Line * Tōzai Line -Layout:...

 in Nakagyō-ku
Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "central capital ward."As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 102,620 people. Tourism, shopping, and entertainment are the primary sources of income in the area. The Kamo River flows through the...

; Shijō, Gojō and Kyōto
Kyoto Station
is the most important transportation hub in Kyoto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest train station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof...

 in Shimogyō-ku
Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. First established in 1879, it has been merged and split, and took on its present boundaries in 1955, with the establishment of a separate Minami-ku....

; Kujō
Kujo Station (Kyoto)
is a subway station on the Karasuma Line in Minami-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The station sits at the intersection of Kujō Street and Karasuma Street. Kujō Station is one station south of Kyoto Station, the central hub of Kyoto. It was opened on 11 June 1988....

 and Jūjō
Jujo Station (Kyoto Municipal Subway)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Minami-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 in Minami-ku
Minami-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "South Ward." It was established in 1955 when it was separated from Shimogyo-ku. As of April, 2008 the ward has an estimated population of 98,320 people. The Kamo River and the Katsura River flow through...

; and Kuinabashi
Kuinabashi Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Minami-ku, Kyoto, Japan.- Adjacent stations :...

 and Takeda
Takeda Station (Kyoto)
is a railway station in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The station is managed by Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau which controls the municipal Karasuma Line subway.-Lines:The station is a junction of the following two railway lines:*Kintetsu Corporation...

 (terminal) in Fushimi-ku
Fushimi-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Famous places in Fushimi include the Fushimi Inari Shrine, with thousands of torii lining the paths up and down a mountain; Fushimi Castle, originally built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with its rebuilt towers and gold-lined...

.

Between and , trains run beneath the north-south , hence the name. They link to the other subway line, the Tozai Line, at . They also connect to the JR lines at Kyoto Station
Kyoto Station
is the most important transportation hub in Kyoto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest train station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof...

 and the Hankyu Kyoto Line running cross-town beneath Shijō Street
Shijo Street
runs center of Kyoto, Japan east to west through the commercial center of the city. Shijō literally means fourth street of Heian-kyō, the ancient capital.- Along the street :...

 at the intersection of Shijō Karasuma, Kyoto's central business district
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

. At Shijō Karasuma, the subway station is named , whereas Hankyu's station is called .

The Transportation Bureau and Kintetsu Corporation jointly operate through services, which continue to the Kintetsu Kyoto Line to Kintetsu Nara Station
Kintetsu Nara Station
is a train station on the Kintetsu Nara Line located in Nara, Japan.The station is also called "" or "" to distinguish Nara Station on the JR West Lines.-Around the station:...

 in Nara
Nara, Nara
is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. The city occupies the northern part of Nara Prefecture, directly bordering Kyoto Prefecture...

. The Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line connect at and . All the stations are located in the city proper.
Tozai Line


The Tōzai Line is coloured vermilion, and its stations are given numbers following the letter T. This line runs from the southeastern area of the city, then east to west (i.e. tōzai in Japanese) through the Kyoto downtown area where trains run beneath the three east-west streets: , and .

The line has following stations, from east to west: Rokujizō
Rokujizo Station
Rokujizō Station refers to 3 different railway stations of the same name, located within the same vicinity in Rokujizo Naramachi, Uji, Kyoto Prefecture, each operated by a different train company...

 (terminal) in Uji
Uji, Kyoto
is a city on the southern outskirts of the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Founded on March 1, 1951, Uji is located between the two ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto. The city sits on the Uji River, which has its source in Lake Biwa. As of April 1, 2008, Uji has an estimated population...

; Ishida
Ishida Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 and Daigo
Daigo Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Fushimi-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

 in Fushimi-ku
Fushimi-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Famous places in Fushimi include the Fushimi Inari Shrine, with thousands of torii lining the paths up and down a mountain; Fushimi Castle, originally built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with its rebuilt towers and gold-lined...

; Ono
Ono Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

, Nagitsuji
Nagitsuji Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

, Higashino
Higashino Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

, Yamashina
Yamashina Station
is a train station in Yamashina-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.The station has two separated sections: underground subway section and above-ground JR section. In addition, on the Keishin Line of Keihan Electric Railway is located just in front of the JR station...

 and Misasagi
Misasagi Station
is a train station in Yamashina-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.-Lines:* Kyoto Municipal Subway* Tōzai Line * Keihan Electric Railway* Keishin Line - Misasagi is the terminus of the line.-Layout:2nd basement...

 in Yamashina-ku
Yamashina-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It lies in the southeastern part of the city, and Yamashina Station is one stop away from Kyoto Station on the Tōkaidō Main Line ....

; Keage
Keage Station
is a train station in Higashiyama-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is the closest subway station to Eikan-dō Zenrin-ji temple.-Adjacent stations:...

, Higashiyama
Higashiyama Station (Kyoto)
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Higashiyama-ku, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.-Layout:The subway station has an island platform serving two tracks separated by platform screen doors.-Surroundings:North of Sanjō-dōri...

 and Sanjō Keihan
Sanjo Keihan Station
Sanjō Keihan Station is a subway station in Higashiyama ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.-General information:...

 in Higashiyama-ku
Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto
' is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It was created in 1929 when it was split off from Shimogyō-ku. During the years 1931 to 1976 it also covered the area of present-day Yamashina-ku, which was an independent town until its merger into the city in 1931...

; Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae
Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station
Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station is a stop on the Tozai Line of Kyoto Municipal Subway in Kyoto, Japan. It is in Nakagyo-ku. With the station number designation T12, its station color is kara kurenai...

, Karasuma Oike
Karasuma Oike Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line and Tōzai Line in Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Lines:* Kyoto Municipal Subway* Karasuma Line * Tōzai Line -Layout:...

, Nijōjō-mae
Nijojo-mae Station
is a train station in Nakagyō-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.-Adjacent stations:...

, Nijō
Nijo Station (Kyoto)
is a train station in Nakagyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Lines:* West Japan Railway Company * Sagano Line * Kyoto Municipal Subway* Tōzai Line -JR West:...

 and Nishiōji Oike
Nishioji Oike Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line in Nakagyō-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.-History:* January 16, 2008 – Station begins operation as the Tōzai Line extension from Nijō to Uzumasa Tenjingawa completed...

 in Nakagyō-ku
Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "central capital ward."As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 102,620 people. Tourism, shopping, and entertainment are the primary sources of income in the area. The Kamo River flows through the...

; and Uzumasa Tenjingawa
Uzumasa Tenjingawa Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tōzai Line, in Ukyō-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan.-Lines:* Kyoto Municipal Subway* Tōzai Line...

 (terminal) in Ukyō-ku
Ukyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The word , as opposed to , refers to the western half of the ancient capital of Heiankyō – the palace faced south, hence west was to the right...

.

The Keihan Keishin Line
Keihan Keishin Line
The is an interurban railway line of Keihan Electric Railway.The 7.5 km line starts from Misasagi Station in Kyoto and ends at Hamaōtsu Station in neighbouring city of Ōtsu.-History:...

 has been integrated into this line, and thus Keihan provides through services from in the neighbouring city of Ōtsu
Otsu, Shiga
is the capital city of Shiga, Japan. The city was founded on October 1, 1898. As of October 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 338,629 with an average age of 40.7 years and a population density of 905.28 persons per km²...

, the capital of Shiga Prefecture
Shiga Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan, which forms part of the Kansai region on Honshu Island. The capital is the city of Ōtsu.- History :Shiga was known as Ōmi Province or Gōshū before the prefectural system was established...

.

The Tōzai Line connects to the Keihan lines at , , and , to the JR lines at , and , and to the Keifuku Electric Railroad
Keifuku Electric Railroad
is a railroad company based in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan in operation since March 2, 1942. It is a parent company of Keifuku Bus, and an affiliated company of Keihan Electric Railway, which owns 42.89% of the company stock...

 at Uzumasa Tenjingawa. All the stations except Rokujizō are located in Kyoto.

High speed rail


The Tōkaidō Shinkansen operated by JR Central provides high-speed rail service linking Kyoto with Nagoya
Nagoya, Aichi
is the third-largest incorporated city and the fourth most populous urban area in Japan.Located on the Pacific coast in the Chūbu region on central Honshu, it is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Yokohama, Chiba, and Moji...

, Yokohama
Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

 and Tokyo
Tokyo
, ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

 to the east of Kyoto and with nearby Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

 and points west on the San'yo Shinkansen, such as Kobe
Kobe
, pronounced , is the fifth-largest city in Japan and is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, approximately west of Osaka...

, Okayama, Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 A.M...

, Kitakyushu and Fukuoka
Fukuoka, Fukuoka
is the capital city of Fukuoka Prefecture and is situated on the northern shore of the island of Kyushu in Japan.Voted number 14 in a 2010 poll of the World's Most Livable Cities, Fukuoka is praised for its green spaces in a metropolitan setting. It is the most populous city in Kyushu, followed by...

. The trip from Tokyo takes about two hours and twenty-two minutes. From Hakata
Hakata Station
Hakata Station , located in Hakata-ku, is the main railway terminal of the city of Fukuoka, Japan. It is the largest and busiest station on Kyūshū, and is a gateway to other cities in Kyūshū for travellers from Honshū. The Sanyō Shinkansen from Osaka ends at this station...

 in Fukuoka, Nozomi
Nozomi (Shinkansen)
is the fastest train service running on the Tōkaidō/Sanyō Shinkansen in Japan. The service stops at only the largest stations, and along the stretch between Shin-Osaka and Hakata, Nozomi services using N700 series equipment reach speeds of...

 takes you to Kyoto in just over three hours. All trains including Nozomi stop at Kyoto Station, serving as a gateway to not only Kyoto Prefecture
Kyoto Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kansai region of the island of Honshu. The capital is the city of Kyoto.- History :Until the Meiji Restoration, the area of Kyoto prefecture was known as Yamashiro....

 but also northeast Osaka
Osaka Prefecture
is a prefecture located in the Kansai region on Honshū, the main island of Japan. The capital is the city of Osaka. It is the center of Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto area.- History :...

, south Shiga
Shiga Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan, which forms part of the Kansai region on Honshu Island. The capital is the city of Ōtsu.- History :Shiga was known as Ōmi Province or Gōshū before the prefectural system was established...

 and north Nara
Nara Prefecture
is a prefecture in the Kansai region on Honshū Island, Japan. The capital is the city of Nara.-History:The present-day Nara Prefecture was created in 1887, making it independent of Osaka Prefecture....

.

Airport




Although Kyoto does not have its own airport, travelers can get to the city via Kansai International Airport
Kansai International Airport
is an international airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay, southwest of Ōsaka Station, located within three municipalities, including Izumisano , Sennan , and Tajiri , in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The airport is off the Honshu shore. The airport serves as an...

 and Itami Airport in Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
is a prefecture located in the Kansai region on Honshū, the main island of Japan. The capital is the city of Osaka. It is the center of Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto area.- History :...

. The Haruka Express operated by JR West carries passengers from Kansai Airport to Kyoto Station
Kyoto Station
is the most important transportation hub in Kyoto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest train station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof...

 in 73 minutes.

JR-WEST: Travel Information > Access to Kansai Airport

Osaka Airport Transport buses connect Itami Airport and Kyoto Station Hachijo Exit in an hour and cost 1,280 yen for a one-way trip. Some buses go further, make stops at major hotels and intersections in downtown, and get to Nijō Station
Nijo Station (Kyoto)
is a train station in Nakagyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Lines:* West Japan Railway Company * Sagano Line * Kyoto Municipal Subway* Tōzai Line -JR West:...

 or the Westin Miyako Hotel Kyoto near Keage Station
Keage Station
is a train station in Higashiyama-ku ward, city of Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is the closest subway station to Eikan-dō Zenrin-ji temple.-Adjacent stations:...

 of Municipal Subway Tozai Line.

Buses


Kyoto's municipal bus network
Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau
is an agency of the city government of Kyoto, Japan that operates municipal subways and city buses within the city. Previously, it also operated trams and trolley buses.-Subway:The Kyoto Municipal Subway operates the following two lines:*Karasuma Line...

 is extensive. Private carriers also operate within the city. Many tourists join commuters on the public buses, or take tour buses. Kyoto's buses have announcements in English and electronic signs with stops written in the Latin alphabet.

Most city buses have a fixed fare. A one-day bus pass and a combined unlimited train and bus pass are also available. These are especially useful for visiting many different points of interest within Kyoto. The bus information center just outside the central station handles tickets and passes. The municipal transport company publishes a very useful leaflet called "Bus Navi." It contains a route map for the bus lines to most sights and fare information. This too is available at the information center in front of the main station.

Buses operating on routes within the city, the region, and the nation stop at Kyoto Station
Kyoto Station
is the most important transportation hub in Kyoto, Japan. It has Japan's second-largest train station building and is one of the country's largest buildings, incorporating a shopping mall, hotel, movie theater, Isetan department store, and several local government facilities under one 15-story roof...

. In addition to Kyoto Station, bus transfer is available at the intersections of Shijō Kawaramachi and . The intersection of Karasuma Kitaōji
Kitaoji Station
is a train station on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line in Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan.-Layout:*This station has an island platform with 2 tracks under Karasuma Street.-Surroundings:*Kitaōji Town**Kyoto City Kitaōji Bus Terminal**Kyoto North Hall...

 to the north of downtown has a major bus terminal serving passengers who take the Karasuma Line running beneath Karasuma Street, Kyoto's main north-south street.

Cycling


Cycling
Cycling
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are cyclists or bicyclists...

 is a very important form of personal transportation in the city. The geography and scale of the city are such that the city may be easily navigated on a bicycle. Bicycle theft is not common, but finding permitted bicycle parking areas can be difficult. Bicycles parked in non-permitted areas are impounded.

Roads


The city is connected with other part of Japan by the Meishin Expressway
Meishin Expressway
The is a toll expressway in Japan. It runs from a junction with the Tomei Expressway in Nagakute, Aichi west to Nishinomiya, Hyōgo . It is the main road link between Osaka and Nagoya, and, along with the Tōmei Expressway, forms the main road link between Osaka and Tokyo...

, which has two interchanges in the city: Kyoto Higashi (Kyoto East) in Yamashina-ku and Kyoto Minami (Kyoto South) in Fushimi-ku. The Kyoto Jūkan Expressway connects the city to northern regions of Kyoto Prefecture. The Daini Keihan Road is a new bypass (completed in 2010) to Osaka.

Unlike other metropolitan cities of Japan, Kyoto has poor network of intra-city expressways. As of 2010, only 8.2 km of the Hanshin Expressway
Hanshin Expressway
The is a network of expressways surrounding Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto, Japan. Operated by , it opened in 1962.Portions of the Hanshin Expressway collapsed during the Kobe earthquake on January 17, 1995. These sections were rebuilt by 1996...

 Kyoto Route is in operation.

There are nine national highways in the city of Kyoto:
Route 1
Route 1 (Japan)
National Route 1 is a major highway on the island of Honshū in Japan. It connects Chūō, Tokyo in the Kantō region with the city of Osaka, Osaka Prefecture in the Kansai region, passing through the Chūbu region en route. It follows the old Tōkaidō westward from Tokyo to Kyoto, and the old Kyo Kaidō...

, Route 8
Route 8 (Japan)
National Route 8 is an important highway in the Hokuriku and Kansai regions. It connects the prefectural capitals of Niigata, Toyama, Kanazawa , Fukui, Otsu , and Kyoto.-Route Data:*Length:...

, Route 9
Route 9 (Japan)
National Route 9 is an important highway in the Kansai and Chūgoku regions. It connects the prefectural capitals of Kyoto, Tottori, Matsue , and Yamaguchi. Other significant cities along the route include Yonago, Tottori and Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi. Route 9 also passes through parts of Hyōgo...

, Route 24, Route 162
Route 162 (Japan)
National Route 162 is a national highway of Japan connecting Shimogyō-ku, Kyoto and Tsuruga, Fukui in Japan, with a total length of 148 km ....

, Route 171
Route 171 (Japan)
National Route 171 is a national highway of Japan connecting Minami-ku, Kyoto and Chūō-ku, Kobe in Japan, with a total length of 67.7 km ....

, Route 367, Route 477 and Route 478.

Tourism



Kyoto contains roughly 2,000 temples and shrines, and receives over 30 million tourists annually.

The UNESCO World Heritage Site


About 20% of Japan's National Treasures and 14% of Important Cultural Properties exist in the city proper. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) includes 17 locations in Kyoto, Uji in Kyoto Prefecture and Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. The site has been designated as World Heritage in 1994.

Iwatayama monkey park



The Iwatayama Monkey Park (popularly called "Monkey Mountain") in Nishikyō-ku
Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto
is one of the eleven wards in the city of Kyoto, in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Its name means "west capital ward" and it is situated on the western edge of the city, to the south of center. The ward was established on October 1, 1976 separating from Ukyō-ku...

 is a park where monkeys roam freely. The park itself is inhabited by a troupe of over 170 Japanese macaque
Japanese Macaque
The Japanese macaque , historically known as saru , but now known as Nihonzaru to distinguish it from other primates, is a terrestrial Old World monkey species native to Japan....

 monkeys. After paying admission, one walks up a steep hill, at the top of which is an enclosure where visitors may go in and safely feed the monkeys. As there are no fences, the monkeys can come and go as they please, but they are especially tempted by food such as apples or peanuts. Even though the animals are wild, they have become accustomed to humans, and so are not afraid to come close to tourists bearing food.

Museums and gardens





  • Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum
    Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum
    is a railway museum located in Shimogyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Opened in 1972, the locomotive depot preserves 19 steam locomotives.The museum is owned by West Japan Railway Company and is operated by Transportation Culture Promotion Foundation.-Facility:...

     
  • Onishi Seiwemon Museum 
  • Kitamura Museum 
  • The Kyoto Arashiyama Orgel Museum 
  • Kyoto City Heiankyo Sosei-Kan Museum 
  • Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art
    Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art
    The is an art museum in the city of Kyoto which opened in 1933. It was conceived in 1928 as a commemoration of the Showa emperor's coronation ceremony, and it was initially called the Showa Imperial Coronation Art Museum of Kyoto....

     
  • Kyoto City Archaeological Museum 
  • Kyoto Art Center
    Kyoto Art Center
    Kyoto Art Center is a center for promoting arts, and located in the heart of Kyoto.Before the center was founded, there was Meirin elementary school founded by local people of Kyoto in the Meiji era....

     
  • The Kyoto International Manga Museum
    Kyoto International Manga Museum
    The is located in Nakagyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The building housing the museum is the former Tatsuike Elementary School. The museum opened on November 25, 2006. Its collection of 200,000 items includes such rarities as Meiji period magazines and postwar rental books....

     
  • The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto
    National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto
    The is an art museum in Kyoto, Japan.This Kyoto museum is also known by the English acronym MoMAK .-MoMAK history:...

     
  • The Kyoto National Museum
    Kyoto National Museum
    The is one of the three formerly imperially-mandated art museums in Japan. The museum is located in Higashiyama Ward in Kyoto. The collections of the Kyoto National Museum focus on pre-modern Japanese and Asian art....

     
  • The Kyoto University Museum 
  • Kyoto Museum of Traditional Crafts 
  • The Museum of Kyoto 
  • The Kyoto Botanical Garden
    Kyoto Botanical Garden
    The , also known as the Kyoto Prefectural Botanical Garden, is a major botanical garden with conservatory located next to the Kamo River, Hangi-cho Simogamo, Sakyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It is open daily; an admission fee is charged....

     
  • Garden of Fine Arts, Kyoto 
  • Kyoto Prefectural Insho-Domoto Museum of Fire Arts 
  • Koryo Museum of Art 
  • Joutenkaku Museum 
  • Ryozen Museum of History
    Ryozen Museum of History
    The is a history museum located in Kyoto, Japan. It specializes in the history of the Bakumatsu period and the Meiji Restoration.The Museum is next to the Kyoto Ryozen Gokoku Shrine.-External links: ....

     
  • Sen-oku Hakuko Kan 
  • Toei Kyoto Studio Park 
  • Nomura Art Museum 
  • Namikawa Cloisonne Museum of Kyoto 
  • The Yurinkan Museum 
  • The Tin Toy Museum 
  • The Hosomi Museum 
  • Hakusasonso Hashimoto Kansetsu Memorial Museum and Garden 
  • The Raku Museum 
  • Kyoto Museum for World Peace
    Kyoto Museum for World Peace
    The is part of Ritsumeikan University in Kita-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The Museum is accessible to the public for a 400-600 Yen fee. The displays and materials are mostly in Japanese but there is a 25 page English booklet describing the exhibits...

     of Ritsumeikan University
    Ritsumeikan University
    Ritsumeikan University has a growing reputation as one of the main private universities of Japan. It is part of a group of prestigious private universities in the Kansai area, called "Kan -Kan -Dou -Ritsu "...

     
  • Ōkōchi Sansō
    Ōkōchi Sansō
    is the former home and garden of the Japanese jidaigeki film actor Denjirō Ōkōchi and is located in Arashiyama, Kyoto. The villa is open to the public for an admission fee and is known for its gardens and views of the Kyoto area. Several of the buildings are recorded as cultural properties by the...

     
  • The Kyoto Kaleidoscope Museum

Festivals


Kyoto is well known for its traditional festivals which have been held for over 1000 years and are a major tourist attraction. The first is the Aoi Matsuri
Aoi Matsuri
The , or "Hollyhock Festival," is one of the three main annual festivals held in Kyoto, Japan, the other two being the Festival of the Ages and the Gion Festival. It is a festival of the two Kamo shrines in the north of the city, Shimogamo Shrine and Kamigamo Shrine...

 on May 15. Two months later (July 1 to 31) is the Gion Matsuri
Gion Matsuri
The takes place annually in Kyoto and is one of the most famous festivals in Japan. It spans the entire month of July and is crowned by a parade, the on July 17. It takes its name from Kyoto's Gion district....

 known as one of the 3 great festivals of Japan, culminating in a massive parade on July 17. Kyoto marks the Bon Festival
Bon Festival
or just is a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the spirits of one's ancestors. This Buddhist-Confucian custom has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people return to ancestral family places and visit and clean their ancestors' graves, and when the spirits of ancestors are supposed...

 with the Gozan Okuribi, lighting fires on mountains to guide the spirits home (August 16). The October 22 Jidai Matsuri
Jidai Matsuri
The is a traditional Japanese festival held on October 22 annually in Kyoto, Japan. It is one of Kyoto's renowned three great festivals, with the other two being the Aoi Matsuri, held annually on May 15, and the Gion Matsuri, which is held annually from 17 to July 24...

, Festival of the Ages, celebrates Kyoto's illustrious past.

Soccer


In soccer, Kyoto is represented by Kyoto Sanga F.C. who won the Emperor's Cup
Emperor's Cup
, commonly known as or , is a Japanese association football competition. It has the longest tradition of any football tournament in Japan, dating back to 1921, before the formation of the J. League, Japan Football League and their predecessor, Japan Soccer League...

, in 2002, and rose to J. League
J. League
The or is the top division of and is the top professional association football league in Japan. It is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football and the only league given top class 'A' ranking by the AFC. Currently, J. League Division 1 is the first level of the Japanese...

's Division 1 in 2005. Kyoto Sanga has a long history as an amateur non-company club, although it was only with the advent of professionalization that it was able to compete in the Japanese top division.

Amateur football clubs such as F.C. Kyoto BAMB 1993 and Kyoto Shiko Club (both breakaway factions of the original Kyoto Shiko club that became Kyoto Sanga) as well as unrelated AS Laranja Kyoto compete in the regional Kansai soccer league.

Baseball


With the popularity of the nearby Hanshin Tigers
Hanshin Tigers
The are a Nippon Professional Baseball team based in Koshien, Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, and are in the Central League. Hanshin Electric Railway Co., Ltd., the subsidiary of Hankyu Hanshin Holdings Inc., owns the Hanshin Tigers directly...

, Kyoto has never had a team in Nippon Professional Baseball, though the Tigers played a neutral-site game at Kyoto's Nishikyogoku Baseball Stadium every year until 2005, excluding 1999. The Tigers had a poor record when playing at the stadium for 11 years (no game for the rain in 1998, 2002, 2003, and 2004, and 6 successive losses inserting the cancellation). The professional baseball games at Nishikyogoku Baseball Stadium revived in 2010, because the stadium became the home of a girls professional baseball team, the Kyoto Asto Dreams.

Additionally, Kyoto's high school baseball teams are strong, with Heian and Toba in particular making strong showings recently at the annual tournament
High school baseball in Japan
In Japan, high school baseball generally refers to the two annual baseball tournaments played by high schools nationwide culminating at a final showdown at Hanshin Kōshien Stadium in Nishinomiya, Japan...

 held in Koshien Stadium
Koshien Stadium
is a baseball park located near Kobe in Nishinomiya, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan. The stadium was built to host the national high school baseball tournaments, and opened on April 1, 1924. It was the largest stadium in Asia at the time it was completed, with a capacity of 55,000.The name Kōshien comes...

, Nishinomiya, Hyōgo
Nishinomiya, Hyogo
is a city located in Hyōgo, Japan, between the cities of Ōsaka and Kōbe. On April 1, 2005, the city of Nishinomiya celebrated its 80th anniversary. It is best known as the home of Kōshien Stadium, where the Hanshin Tigers baseball team plays home games and where Japan's annual high school baseball...

, near Osaka.

Twin towns — Sister cities


The city of Kyoto has a sister city relationship with:

Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 (Friendship Pledge city) Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Cuzco, Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 Konya
Konya
Konya is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The metropolitan area in the entire Konya Province had a population of 1,036,027 as of 2010, making the city seventh most populous in Turkey.-Etymology:...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 Florence
Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 (Friendship city) Guadalajara
Guadalajara, Jalisco
Guadalajara is the capital of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is located in the central region of Jalisco in the western-pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,564,514 it is Mexico's second most populous municipality...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 Zagreb
Zagreb
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Croatia. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level. According to the last official census, Zagreb's city...

, Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...


See also


External links