Outline of ancient Egypt

Outline of ancient Egypt

Encyclopedia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ancient Egypt:

Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

was an ancient
Ancient history
Ancient history is the study of the written past from the beginning of recorded human history to the Early Middle Ages. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, with Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing, from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC...

 civilization
Civilization
Civilization is a sometimes controversial term that has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such civilizations are generally...

 of eastern North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River
Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...

 in what is now the modern country of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

. Egyptian
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

 civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology
Conventional Egyptian chronology
The Conventional Egyptian chronology represents the scholarly consensus on the chronology of the rulers of ancient Egypt, taking into account well accepted developments during the 20th century but not including any of the major revision proposals that have also been made in that time.All dates are...

) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Upper and Lower Egypt
Ancient Egypt was divided into two regions, namely Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. To the north was Lower Egypt where the Nile stretched out with its several branches to form the Nile Delta. To the south was Upper Egypt, stretching to Syene. The two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt were united c....

 under the first pharaoh
Pharaoh
Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace...

. The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids
Egyptian pyramids
The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found...

, temples
Egyptian temple
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and commemoration of pharaohs in Ancient Egypt and in regions under Egyptian control. These temples were seen as houses for the gods or kings to whom they were dedicated...

, and obelisk
Obelisk
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top, and is said to resemble a petrified ray of the sun-disk. A pair of obelisks usually stood in front of a pylon...

s; a system of mathematics
Egyptian mathematics
Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt from ca. 3000 BC to ca. 300 BC.-Overview:Written evidence of the use of mathematics dates back to at least 3000 BC with the ivory labels found at Tomb Uj at Abydos. These labels appear to have been used as tags for...

, a practical and effective system of medicine
Ancient Egyptian medicine
The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented. From the beginnings of the civilization in the until the Persian invasion of 525 BC, Egyptian medical practice went largely unchanged and was highly advanced for its time, including simple non-invasive surgery, setting of...

, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known ships, Egyptian faience
Egyptian faience
Egyptian faience is a non-clay based ceramic displaying surface vitrification which creates a bright lustre of various blue-green colours. Having not been made from clay it is often not classed as pottery. It is called "Egyptian faience" to distinguish it from faience, the tin glazed pottery...

 and glass technology, new forms of literature
Ancient Egyptian literature
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from Ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination. It represents the oldest corpus of Egyptian literature...

, and the earliest known peace treaty.

Places


See also: Architecture of ancient Egypt (below)

  • Abu Gorab
    Abu Gorab
    Abu Gurab is a sun temple built by the people of ancient Egypt. It was excavated by Egyptologists between 1898 and 1901 by Ludwig Borchardt on behalf of the Berlin Museum and is located near the city of Memphis...

  • Abu Mena
    Abu Mena
    Abu Mena was a town, monastery complex and Christian pilgrimage center in Late Antique Egypt, about 45 km southwest of Alexandria. Its remains were designated a World Heritage Site in 1979...

  • Abu Rawash
    Abu Rawash
    Abu Rawash , 8 km to the North of Giza , is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid, Also known as the lost pyramid — the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu...

  • Abu Simbel
    Abu Simbel
    Abu Simbel temples refers to two massive rock temples in Abu Simbel in Nubia, southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser about 230 km southwest of Aswan...

  • Abydos
    Abydos, Egypt
    Abydos is one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, and also of the eight Upper Nome, of which it was the capital city. It is located about 11 kilometres west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana...

  • Alexandria
    Alexandria
    Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

  • Al Fayyum/Atef-Pehu
    Al Fayyum
    Faiyum is a city in Middle Egypt. Located 130 km southwest of Cairo, it is the capital of the modern Faiyum Governorate. The town occupies part of the ancient site of Crocodilopolis...

  • Amarna/Akhetaten
    Amarna
    Amarna is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly–established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty , and abandoned shortly afterwards...

  • Aswan
    Aswan
    Aswan , formerly spelled Assuan, is a city in the south of Egypt, the capital of the Aswan Governorate.It stands on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract and is a busy market and tourist centre...

  • Asyut
    Asyut
    Asyut is the capital of the modern Asyut Governorate in Egypt; the ancient city of the same name is situated nearby. The modern city is located at , while the ancient city is at .- Etymology :...

  • Avaris
    Avaris
    Avaris , capital of Egypt under the Hyksos , was located near modern Tell el-Dab'a in the northeastern region of the Nile Delta, at the juncture of the 8th, 14th, 19th and 20th Nomes...

  • Beni Hasan
    Beni Hasan
    Beni Hasan is an Ancient Egyptian cemetery site. It is located approximately 20 kilometers to the south of modern-day Minya in the region known as Middle Egypt, the area between Asyut and Memphis.While there are some Old Kingdom burials at the site, it was primarily used during the Middle...

  • Bubastis
    Bubastis
    Bubastis , also known as Tell Basta or Egyptian Per-Bast was an Ancient Egyptian city, the capital of its own nome, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt...

  • Buhen
    Buhen
    Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below the Second Cataract. It is well known for its fortress, probably constructed during the rule of Senusret III, around the year 1860 BC . The site may have been first established as an outpost in Nubia during the...

  • Busiris (Lower Egypt)
    Busiris (Lower Egypt)
    Busiris was an ancient city of Lower Egypt, located at the modern Abu Sir Bana...

  • Buto
    Buto
    Buto , Butus , or Butosus, , now Tell al-Fara'in near the city of Desouk , was an ancient city located 95 km east of Alexandria in the Nile Delta of Egypt. The city stood on the Sebennytic arm of the Nile, near its mouth, and on the southern shore of the Butic Lake...

  • Dahshur
    Dahshur
    Dahshur , is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo...

  • Deir el-Bahri
    Deir el-Bahri
    Deir el-Bahari or Deir el-Bahri is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt....

  • Deir el-Madinah
  • Edfu
    Edfu
    Edfu is an Egyptian city, located on the west bank of the Nile River between Esna and Aswan, with a population of approximately sixty thousand people. For the ancient history of the city, see below...

  • El-Lahun
    El-Lahun
    Located in the Faiyum, Egypt, el-Lahun or Kahun is the workers' village associated with the pyramid of Senusret II . It is located near the modern village of el-Lahun , and is often known by that name...

  • Elephantine/Abu/Yebu
    Elephantine
    Elephantine is an island in the River Nile, located just downstream of the First Cataract at the southern border of Ancient Egypt. This region is referred to as Upper Egypt because the land is higher than that near the Mediterranean coast. The island may have received its name because it was a...

  • Gerzeh
    Gerzeh
    Gerzeh, also Girza or Jirzah, was a predynastic Egyptian cemetery located along the west bank of the Nile and today named after al-Girza, the nearby present day town in Egypt. Gerzeh is situated only several miles due east of the lake of the Al Fayyum.The Gerzean culture is a material culture...

  • Giza
  • Gaza
    Gaza
    Gaza , also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of about 450,000, making it the largest city in the Palestinian territories.Inhabited since at least the 15th century BC,...

  • Heliopolis/Annu/Iunu
    Heliopolis (ancient)
    Heliopolis was one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, the capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome that was located five miles east of the Nile to the north of the apex of the Nile Delta...

  • Luxor
    Luxor
    Luxor is a city in Upper Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate. The population numbers 487,896 , with an area of approximately . As the site of the Ancient Egyptian city of Thebes, Luxor has frequently been characterized as the "world's greatest open air museum", as the ruins of the temple...

  • Memphis/Ineb Hedj
    Memphis, Egypt
    Memphis was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Helwan, south of Cairo.According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes around 3000 BC. Capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom, it remained an...

  • Rosetta
    Rosetta
    Rosetta is a port city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. It is located east of Alexandria, in Beheira governorate. It was founded around AD 800....

  • Saqqara
    Saqqara
    Saqqara is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world famous Step pyramid of Djoser, sometimes referred to as the Step Tomb due to its rectangular base, as well as a number of...

  • Tanis/Djanet
    Tanis, Egypt
    Tanis , the Greek name of ancient Djanet , is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt. It is located on the Tanitic branch of the Nile which has long since silted up.-History:...

  • Thebes/Niwt/Waset
    Thebes, Egypt
    Thebes is the Greek name for a city in Ancient Egypt located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile within the modern city of Luxor. The Theban Necropolis is situated nearby on the west bank of the Nile.-History:...

  • Thinis
    Thinis
    Thinis or This was the capital city of the first dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thinis is, as yet, undiscovered but well attested to by ancient writers, including the classical historian Manetho, who cites it as the centre of the Thinite Confederacy, a tribal confederation whose leader, Menes ,...


Pharaohs

  • Pharaoh
    Pharaoh
    Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace...

     An article about the history of the title "Pharaoh" with descriptions of the regalia, crowns and titles used.
  • List of pharaohs This article contains a list of the pharaoh
    Pharaoh
    Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace...

    s of Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

    , from the Early Dynastic Period
    Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
    The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom...

     before 3000 BC through to the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty
    Ptolemaic dynasty
    The Ptolemaic dynasty, was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Empire in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC...

  • Ancient Egyptian royal titulary

Government Officials

  • Vizier (Ancient Egypt)
    Vizier (Ancient Egypt)
    The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the king, or pharaoh during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Vizier is the generally accepted rendering of ancient Egyptian tjati, tjaty etc, among Egyptologists...

     The vizier was the highest official in Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

      to serve the king, or pharaoh
    Pharaoh
    Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace...

     during the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.
  • Viceroy of Kush The Lower Nubia
    Lower Nubia
    Lower Nubia is the northern portion of Nubia, downstream on the Nile from Upper Nubia. It lies between the First and Second Cataracts, roughly from Aswan in the north to Wadi Halfa in the south. A great deal of Lower Nubia was flooded with the construction of the Aswan High Dam and the creation...

    n Kush
    Kingdom of Kush
    The native name of the Kingdom was likely kaš, recorded in Egyptian as .The name Kash is probably connected to Cush in the Hebrew Bible , son of Ham ....

     was a province of Egypt from the 16th century BCE to eleventh century BCE. During this period it was ruled by a viceroy who reported directly to the Egyptian Pharaoh.
  • Treasurer (Ancient Egypt)
    Treasurer (Ancient Egypt)
    The Treasurer in Ancient Egypt is the modern translation of the title imi-r ḫtmt . The office is known since the end of the Old Kingdom, where people with this title appear sporadically in the organisation of private estates...

     The treasurer was responsible for products coming to the royal palace. They were the main economical administrator of the royal belongings.

Military of ancient Egypt



  • Ancient egyptian warfare
  • Chariotry in ancient Egypt
    Chariotry in ancient Egypt
    In ancient Egyptian society, chariotry stands as an independent unit in the King’s military force. Chariots were first introduced as a weapon in Egypt by the Hyksos. The Egyptians developed their own design of the chariot.-Design:...

  • Ancient Egyptian Navy
    Ancient Egyptian Navy
    The Ancient Egyptian Navy has a very extensive history almost as old as the nation itself. Our best sources over the type of ships they used and their purposes come from the reliefs from the various religious temples that spread throughout the land...


History of ancient Egypt, by period

  • Prehistoric Egypt – The Prehistory of Egypt spans the period of earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt in ca. 3100 BC.
    • Naqada I or Amratian culture
      Amratian culture
      The Amratian Culture was a cultural period in the history of predynastic Upper Egypt, which lasted approximately from 4000 to 3500 BC. It is named after the site of El-Amra, about 120 km south of Badari, Upper Egypt. El-Amra was the first site where this culture group was found without...

       - a cultural period in the history of predynastic Upper Egypt, which lasted approximately from 4000 to 3500 BC.
    • Naqada II or Gerzeh culture - The Gerzean is the second of three phases of the Naqada Culture, and so is called Naqada II. It begins circa 3500 BC lasting through circa 3200 BC.
    • Naqada III
      Naqada III
      Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3000 BC. It is the period during which the process of state formation, which had begun to take place in Naqada II, became highly visible, with named kings heading powerful...

       or Semainean culture - Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqadan period of ancient Egyptian prehistory, dating approximately from 3200 to 3100 BC.

  • Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
    Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
    The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom...

    – The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

     immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include:
    • The First dynasty of Egypt
      First dynasty of Egypt
      The first dynasty of Ancient Egypt is often combined with the Dynasty II under the group title, Early Dynastic Period of Egypt...

    • The Second dynasty of Egypt
      Second dynasty of Egypt
      The second dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasty I under the group title Early Dynastic Period. It dates approximately from 2890 to 2686 BC. The capital at that time was Thinis.-Rulers:...


  • Old Kingdom – The name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

     attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. This time period includes:
    • The Third dynasty of Egypt
      Third dynasty of Egypt
      For the Sumerian Renaissance, see Third Dynasty of Ur.The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom include the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth...

    • The Fourth dynasty of Egypt
      Fourth dynasty of Egypt
      The fourth dynasty of ancient Egypt is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom. Dynasty IV lasted from ca. 2613 to 2494 BC...

    • The Fifth dynasty of Egypt
      Fifth dynasty of Egypt
      The fifth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom. Dynasty V dates approximately from 2494 to 2345 BC.-Rulers:...

    • The Sixth dynasty of Egypt
      Sixth dynasty of Egypt
      The sixth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and V under the group title the Old Kingdom.-Pharaohs:...


  • First Intermediate Period of Egypt
    First Intermediate Period of Egypt
    The First Intermediate Period, often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred years after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181-2055 BC. It included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental...

    – This period is often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

    ian history, spanning approximately 140 years after the end of the Old Kingdom
    Old Kingdom
    Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley .The term itself was...

     from ca. 2181-2055 BC. It included:
    • The Seventh and eighth dynasties of Egypt
      Seventh and eighth dynasties of Egypt
      The seventh and eighth dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined with Dynasties IX, X and XI under the group title First Intermediate Period...

    • The Ninth dynasty of Egypt
      Ninth dynasty of Egypt
      The ninth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, X and XI under the group title First Intermediate Period...

    • The Tenth dynasty of Egypt
      Tenth dynasty of Egypt
      The tenth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, IX and XI under the group title First Intermediate Period...

    • Part of the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
      Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
      The eleventh dynasty of ancient Egypt was one group of rulers, whose earlier members are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom...


  • Middle Kingdom of Egypt
    Middle Kingdom of Egypt
    The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate...

    – The period in the history of ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

     between 2055 BC and 1650 BC. This period includes:
    • Later part of the Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
      Eleventh dynasty of Egypt
      The eleventh dynasty of ancient Egypt was one group of rulers, whose earlier members are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, while the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom...

    • The Twelfth dynasty of Egypt
      Twelfth dynasty of Egypt
      The twelfth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XIII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom.-Rulers:Known rulers of the twelfth dynasty are as follows :...

    • The Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
      Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
      The thirteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Other writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period...

    • The Fourteenth dynasty of Egypt
      Fourteenth dynasty of Egypt
      The Eleventh , Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Middle Kingdom, though this dynasty overlaps partially with either the Thirteenth Dynasty or the Fifteenth Dynasty, during the Second Intermediate Period.It is associated with the...



Some writers include the Thirteenth
Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
The thirteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Other writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period...

 and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period.
  • Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
    Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
    The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom...

    (Hyksos
    Hyksos
    The Hyksos were an Asiatic people who took over the eastern Nile Delta during the twelfth dynasty, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt....

    ) – a period when Ancient Egypt
    History of Ancient Egypt
    The History of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC...

     fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom
    Middle Kingdom of Egypt
    The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate...

     and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as the period when the Hyksos
    Hyksos
    The Hyksos were an Asiatic people who took over the eastern Nile Delta during the twelfth dynasty, initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt....

     made their appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised
    • The Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt
      Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt
      The Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period. The Fifteenth Dynasty dates approximately from 1650 to 1550 BC.-Rulers:...

    • The Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt
      Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt
      The sixteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled in Upper Egypt for 50 years during the Second Intermediate Period The sixteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVI) was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled in Upper Egypt for 50 years during the Second Intermediate...

      .

  • New Kingdom of Egypt – Also referred to as the Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

    ian history
    History of Ancient Egypt
    The History of Ancient Egypt spans the period from the early predynastic settlements of the northern Nile Valley to the Roman conquest in 30 BC...

     between the 16th century BC
    16th century BC
    The 16th century BC is a century which lasted from 1600 BC to 1501 BC.-Events:* 1700 BC – 1500 BC: Hurrian conquests.* 1595 BC: Sack of Babylon by the Hittite king Mursilis I....

     and the 11th century BC
    11th century BC
    The 11th century BC comprises all years from 1100 BC to 1001 BC. Although many human societies were literate in this period, some of the individuals mentioned below may be considered legendary rather than fully historical.-Events:...

    , covering:
    • The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
      Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt
      The eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt is perhaps the best known of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt...

    • The Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt
      Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt
      The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, this dynasty is best known for its military conquests in Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria.The warrior kings of the...

    • The Twentieth dynasty of Egypt
      Twentieth dynasty of Egypt
      The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. This dynasty is considered to be the last one of the New Kingdom of Egypt, and was followed by the Third Intermediate Period....

      .

  • Third Intermediate Period – The time in Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh...

     from the death of Pharaoh
    Pharaoh
    Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes the royal palace...

     Ramesses XI
    Ramesses XI
    Ramesses XI reigned from 1107 BC to 1078 BC or 1077 BC and was the tenth and final king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. He ruled Egypt for at least 29 years although some Egyptologists think he could have ruled for as long as 30...

     in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty
    Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt
    The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC . The Dynasty's reign The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC...

     by Psamtik I in 664 BC. This period includes:
    • The Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth, and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.-Rulers:...

    • The Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-second dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.-Rulers:...

    • The Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-third Dynasty of ancient Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Libyan kings, who ruled ancient Egypt. This dynasty is often considered part of the Third Intermediate Period.-Rulers:...

    • The Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Third, Twenty-Fourth and Twenty-Fifth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Third Intermediate Period.-Rulers:...

    • The Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt
      The twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, known as the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire, was the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt....


  • Late Period of ancient Egypt
    Late Period of Ancient Egypt
    The Late Period of Ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Persian conquests and ended with the death of Alexander the Great...

    • The Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC . The Dynasty's reign The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC...

      , also known as the Saite Period, lasted from 672 BC to 525 BC.
    • The Twenty-seventh dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt also known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was effectively a province of the Achaemenid Perisan Empire between 525 BCE to 402 BCE. The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II of Persia in the battle of Pelusium in the...

       The First Persian Period (525 BC - 404 BC
      404 BC
      Year 404 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Volusus, Cossus, Fidenas, Ambustus, Maluginensis and Rutilus...

      ), this period saw Egypt conquered by an expansive Persian Empire under Cambyses
      Cambyses
      Cambyses can refer to two ancient rulers and two plays:-*Cambyses I, King of Anshan 600 to 559 BCE*Cambyses II, King of Persia 530 to 522 BCE*Cambyses, a tragedy by Thomas Preston...

      .
    • The Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt
      The Twenty-Eighth Dynasty is often combined with other groupings of rulers of ancient Egypt under the title, Late Period. These other groupings include the Twenty-Sixth, Twenty-Seventh, Twenty-Ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-First dynasties.-Rulers:...

       consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus
      Amyrtaeus
      Amyrtaeus of Sais is the only king of the Twenty-eighth dynasty of Egypt and is thought to be related to the royal family of the Twenty-sixth dynasty...

      , prince of Sais
      Sais, Egypt
      Sais or Sa el-Hagar was an ancient Egyptian town in the Western Nile Delta on the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was the provincial capital of Sap-Meh, the fifth nome of Lower Egypt and became the seat of power during the Twenty-fourth dynasty of Egypt and the Saite Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt ...

      , who rebelled against the Persians. This dynasty lasted 6 years, from 404 BC to 398 BC
      398 BC
      Year 398 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Potitus, Medullinus, Lactucinus, Fidenas, Camillus and Cornutus...

      .
    • The Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt
      Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt
      Nepherites I founded the Twenty-ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt by defeating Amyrtaeus in open battle, and later putting him to death at Memphis. Nepherites made his capital at Mendes...

       ruled from Mendes
      Mendes
      Mendes , the Greek name of the Ancient Egyptian city of Djedet, also known in Ancient Egypt as Per-Banebdjedet and Anpet, is known today as Tell El-Ruba ....

      , for the period from 398 BC to 380 BC
      380 BC
      Year 380 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Poplicola, Poplicola, Maluginensis, Lanatus, Peticus, Mamercinus, Fidenas, Crassus and Mugillanus...

      .
    • The Thirtieth Dynasty
      Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt
      The Thirtieth Dynasty of ancient Egypt followed Nectanebo I's deposition of Nefaarud II, the son of Hakor. This dynasty is often considered part of the Late Period....

       consisted of a series of three pharaohs ruling from 380 BC until their final defeat in 343 BC
      343 BC
      Year 343 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Corvus and Arvina...

       lead to the re-occupation by the Persians.

  • Graeco-Roman Period –

  • Arab Conquest –

  • Late Period of ancient Egypt
    Late Period of Ancient Egypt
    The Late Period of Ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Persian conquests and ended with the death of Alexander the Great...


History of ancient Egypt, by subject

  • Military history of Ancient Egypt
    Military history of Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. The civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and...

    • Battle of Kadesh
      Battle of Kadesh
      The Battle of Kadesh took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, in what is now the Syrian Arab Republic....


Egyptologists

  • Margaret Benson
    Margaret Benson
    Margaret Benson was an English author and amateur Egyptologist and one of the six children of Edward White Benson, an Anglican clergyman , and his wife Mary Sidgwick Benson, the sister of philosopher Henry Sidgwick...

  • Alan Gardiner
    Alan Gardiner
    Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner was one of the premier British Egyptologists of the early and mid-20th century...

  • Zahi Hawass
    Zahi Hawass
    Zahi Hawass is an Egyptian archaeologist, an Egyptologist, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. He has also worked at archaeological sites in the Nile Delta, the Western Desert, and the Upper Nile Valley....

  • Salima Ikram
  • William Matthew Flinders Petrie
    William Matthew Flinders Petrie
    William Matthew Flinders Petrie FRS , commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts...


Egypt

  • Cairo Museum of Egyptian Antiquities
    Egyptian Museum
    The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities. It has 120,000 items, with a representative amount on display, the remainder in storerooms....

  • Luxor Museum
    Luxor Museum
    Luxor Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor . It stands on the corniche, overlooking the west bank of the River Nile, in the central part of the city.Inaugurated in 1975, the museum is housed in a small, purpose-built building...

  • Luxor Mummification Museum
    Mummification Museum
    The Mummification Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor. It stands on the corniche, in front of the Mina Palace Hotel, to the north of Luxor Temple, overlooking the River Nile....


Culture of ancient Egypt


  • Art of ancient Egypt
    Art of Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 BC to 300 AD. Ancient Egyptian art reached a high level in painting and sculpture, and was both highly stylized and symbolic...

     –
    • Amarna art
      Amarna art
      The Ancient Egyptian art style known as Amarna Art was a style of art that was adopted in the Amarna Period , and is noticeably different from more conventional Egyptian art styles.It is characterized by a sense of movement and activity in images, with figures having raised heads, many figures...

       –
    • Dance and Dancers in Ancient Egypt
      Dance and Dancers in Ancient Egypt
      Dancers Dancing played a vital role in the lives of the ancient Egyptians. All social classes were exposed to music and dancing. “The laborers worked in rhythmic motion to the sounds of songs and percussion, and street dancers entertained passers by.” The trf was a dance performed by a pair of men...

  • Calendar
    Egyptian calendar
    The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 360 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five extra days at the end of the year. The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each...

     –
  • Cats in ancient Egypt
    Cats in ancient Egypt
    Cats , known in Ancient Egypt as mau, were important in ancient Egyptian society. Beginning as a wild, untamed species, cats were useful for limiting vermin in Egyptian crops and harvests; through exposure, cats became domesticated and learned to coexist with humans...

  • Cuisine of ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egyptian cuisine
    The cuisine of ancient Egypt covers a span of over three thousand years, but still retained many consistent traits until well into Greco-Roman times...

  • Ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture
    Ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture
    There was widespread belief in ghosts in ancient Egyptian culture in the sense of the continued existence of the soul and spirit after death, with the ability to assist or harm the living, and the possibility of a second death. Over a period of more than 2,500 years, Egyptian beliefs about the...

  • Homosexuality in ancient Egypt
    Homosexuality in ancient Egypt
    Very little is known about the nature of homosexuality in Ancient Egypt. Most of what historians believe is based on speculation.-Historical Examples:...

  • Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)
    Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)
    The Pectorals of ancient Egypt were a form of jewellery, often represented as a brooch. This was mostly worn by richer people.One type, was the pectoral with a necklace, as a form of attachment, to be suspended from the neck, but to lay upon the breast...

  • Symbols of ancient Egypt
    • Ankh
      Ankh
      The ankh , also known as key of life, the key of the Nile or crux ansata, was the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic character that read "eternal life", a triliteral sign for the consonants ʻ-n-ḫ...

    • Djed
      Djed
      The djed symbol is a pillar-like ancient Egyptian symbol representing stability. It has been interpreted as the backbone of the Egyptian god Osiris, especially in the form Banebdjedet . Djedu is the Egyptian name for Busiris, a centre of the cult of Osiris...

    • Wadjet
      Wadjet
      In Egyptian mythology, Wadjet, or the Green One , was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep , which became part of the city that the Egyptians named Per-Wadjet, House of...

    • Was scepter
      Was
      The was sceptre is a symbol that appeared often in relics, art and hieroglyphics associated with the ancient Egyptian religion...

    • Uraeus
      Uraeus
      The Uraeus is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian spitting cobra , used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity, and divine authority in ancient Egypt.The Uraeus is a symbol for the goddess Wadjet, who was one of the earliest Egyptian deities and who...

    • Pschent
      Pschent
      The Pschent was the name of the Double Crown of Ancient Egypt. The Ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhemti , the Two Powerful Ones. It combined the Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Hedjet Crown of Upper Egypt....

    • Hedjet
      Hedjet
      Hedjet is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt. The crown was white and, after the unification of Egypt, it was combined with the Red Crown of Lower Egypt, with the delta to form the Pschent, the Double Crown of Egypt...

    • Deshret
      Deshret
      Deshret, from ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet, the fertile Nile river basin. The end has a curly wire on it, that represents the proboscis of a honey bee. Deshret or DSRT also represents the insect known as the honeybee...

    • Atef
      Atef
      Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the Egyptian Deity Osiris. It combines the Hedjet, the crown of Upper Egypt, with red ostrich feathers for the Osiris cult. The feathers are identified as ostrich from their curl or curve at the upper ends, with a slight flare toward the base. They are...

    • Reserve head
      Reserve head
      Reserve heads are distinctive sculptures made primarily of fine limestone that have been found in a number of non-royal tombs of the Fourth dynasty of Egypt; primarily from the reigns of pyramid-building pharaohs Khufu to Khafre, circa 2551-2496 B.C...

  • Technology of ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egyptian technology
    The characteristics of ancient Egyptians are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many basic machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships...

     –
    • Chariotry in ancient Egypt
      Chariotry in ancient Egypt
      In ancient Egyptian society, chariotry stands as an independent unit in the King’s military force. Chariots were first introduced as a weapon in Egypt by the Hyksos. The Egyptians developed their own design of the chariot.-Design:...

    • Obelisk building technology in ancient Egypt
      Obelisk building technology in ancient Egypt
      Obelisk making technology in ancient Egypt is an archaeological matter that is quite well understood today. Ancient Egyptian Obelisks are tapering stone pillars which have a square cross-section, were used for ornamental purposes in temples and had religious or socio-political connotations...

    • Stone quarries of ancient Egypt
      Stone quarries of ancient Egypt
      The stone quarries of ancient Egypt once produced quality stone for the construction of decorative monuments such as sculptures and obelisks. These quarries are now recognised archaeological sites...

    • Urban planning in ancient Egypt
      Urban planning in ancient Egypt
      The use of urban planning in ancient Egypt is a matter of continuous debate. Because ancient sites usually survive only in fragments, and many ancient Egyptian cities have been continuously inhabited since their original forms, relatively little is actually understood about the general designs of...

    • Ancient Egyptian technology
      Ancient Egyptian technology
      The characteristics of ancient Egyptians are indicated by a set of artifacts and customs that lasted for thousands of years. The Egyptians invented and used many basic machines, such as the ramp and the lever, to aid construction processes. They used rope trusses to stiffen the beam of ships...

    • Ancient Egyptian medicine
      Ancient Egyptian medicine
      The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented. From the beginnings of the civilization in the until the Persian invasion of 525 BC, Egyptian medical practice went largely unchanged and was highly advanced for its time, including simple non-invasive surgery, setting of...

    • Ancient Egyptian units of measurement
      Ancient Egyptian units of measurement
      -Length:Units of length date back to at least the early dynastic period. In the Palermo stone for instance the level of the Nile river is recorded. During the reign of Pharaoh Djer the height of the river Nile was given as measuring 6 cubits and 1 palm...

    • Egyptian mathematics
      Egyptian mathematics
      Egyptian mathematics is the mathematics that was developed and used in Ancient Egypt from ca. 3000 BC to ca. 300 BC.-Overview:Written evidence of the use of mathematics dates back to at least 3000 BC with the ivory labels found at Tomb Uj at Abydos. These labels appear to have been used as tags for...

      • Ancient Egyptian multiplication
        Ancient Egyptian multiplication
        In mathematics, ancient Egyptian multiplication , one of two multiplication methods used by scribes, was a systematic method for multiplying two numbers that does not require the multiplication table, only the ability to multiply and divide by 2, and...


Architecture of ancient Egypt



  • Block statue (Egyptian)
    Block statue (Egyptian)
    The block statue is a type of memorial statue that first emerged in the Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. The block statue grew in popularity in the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period, and by the Late Period, this type of statue was the most common. These statues were used in temples...

  • False door
    False door
    A false door is a common architectural element in the tombs of Ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians believed that the false door was a threshold between the world of the living and the dead, and through which a deity or the spirit of the deceased could enter and exit.The false door was usually the...

  • Step pyramid
    Step pyramid
    Step pyramids are structures which characterized several cultures throughout history, in several locations throughout the world. These pyramids typically are large and made of several layers of stone...


Buildings and structures

  • Abu Simbel
    Abu Simbel
    Abu Simbel temples refers to two massive rock temples in Abu Simbel in Nubia, southern Egypt on the western bank of Lake Nasser about 230 km southwest of Aswan...

  • Benben
    Benben
    Benben or Ben-ben, in Egyptian mythology, specifically in the Heliopolitan tradition, was the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, and on which the creator god Atum settled. In the Pyramid Texts, e.g. Utterances 587 and 600, Atum himself is at times referred to as "mound"...

  • Deir el-Bahri
    Deir el-Bahri
    Deir el-Bahari or Deir el-Bahri is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt....

  • Colossi of Memnon
    Colossi of Memnon
    The Colossi of Memnon are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. For the past 3400 years they have stood in the Theban necropolis, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor.-Description:The twin statues depict Amenhotep III The Colossi of Memnon (known to locals as...

  • Egyptian pyramids
    Egyptian pyramids
    The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt.There are 138 pyramids discovered in Egypt as of 2008. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods.The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found...

     (List)
    • Bent Pyramid
      Bent Pyramid
      The Bent Pyramid is an ancient Egyptian pyramid located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo, built under the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu...

    • Black Pyramid
      Black Pyramid
      King Amenemhat III built the Black pyramid during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt . It is one of the five remaining pyramids of the original eleven pyramids at Dahshur in Egypt. Originally named Amenemhet is Mighty, the pyramid earned the name the Black pyramid for its dark, decaying appearance as a...

    • Giza pyramid complex
      Giza pyramid complex
      The Giza Necropolis is an archaeological site on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient monuments includes the three pyramid complexes known as the Great Pyramids, the massive sculpture known as the Great Sphinx, several cemeteries, a workers' village and an...

      • Great pyramid of Giza
        Great Pyramid of Giza
        The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact...

  • Sphinx
    Great Sphinx of Giza
    The Great Sphinx of Giza , commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt....

  • Karnak Temple
    Karnak
    The Karnak Temple Complex—usually called Karnak—comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings, notably the Great Temple of Amun and a massive structure begun by Pharaoh Ramses II . Sacred Lake is part of the site as well. It is located near Luxor, some...

  • Lighthouse of Alexandria
    Lighthouse of Alexandria
    The Lighthouse of Alexandria, also known as the Pharos of Alexandria , was a tower built between 280 and 247 BC on the island of Pharos at Alexandria, Egypt...

  • Library of Alexandria
    Library of Alexandria
    The Royal Library of Alexandria, or Ancient Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the...

  • Luxor temple
    Luxor Temple
    Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor and was founded in 1400 BCE.,...

  • Mastaba
    Mastaba
    A mastaba, or "pr-djt" , is a type of ancient Egyptian tomb in the form of a flat-roofed, rectangular structure with outward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypt's ancient period...

  • Ramesseum
    Ramesseum
    The Ramesseum is the memorial temple of Pharaoh Ramesses II . It is located in the Theban necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor...

  • Serdab
    Serdab
    A serdab , literally meaning "cold water", which became a loan word in Persian for 'cellar') is an ancient Egyptian tomb structure that served as a chamber for the Ka statue of a deceased individual. Used during the Old Kingdom, the serdab was a sealed chamber with a small slit or hole to allow the...


Religion in ancient Egypt



  • Death
    • Ancient Egyptian burial customs
      • Canopic jar
        Canopic jar
        Canopic jars were used by the Ancient Egyptians during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from limestone or were made of pottery...

        s
      • Mummy
        Mummy
        A mummy is a body, human or animal, whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or incidental exposure to chemicals, extreme coldness , very low humidity, or lack of air when bodies are submerged in bogs, so that the recovered body will not decay further if kept in cool and dry...

    • Ancient Egyptian funerary texts
      Ancient Egyptian Funerary Texts
      The literature that make up the Ancient Egyptian Funerary Texts are a collection of religious documents that were used in Ancient Egypt, usually to help the spirit of the concerned person to be preserved in the afterlife....

      • Book of Caverns
        Book of Caverns
        The Book of Caverns is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom. Like many funerary texts, it was written on the inside of the tomb for reference by the deceased...

      • Book of Gates
        Book of Gates
        The Book of Gates is an Ancient Egyptian funerary text dating from the New Kingdom. It narrates the passage of a newly deceased soul into the next world, corresponding to the journey of the sun though the underworld during the hours of the night. The soul is required to pass though a series of...

      • Book of the Dead
        Book of the Dead
        The Book of the Dead is the modern name of an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom to around 50 BC. The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw is translated as "Book of Coming Forth by Day". Another translation would be "Book of...

      • Book of the Earth
        Book of the Earth
        The Book of the Earth is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom and later.-External links:*...

      • Book of the Netherworld
        Book of the Netherworld
        The Book of the Netherworld, or Book of What is in the Underworld, is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom.-Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld :...

      • Books of Breathing
        Books of Breathing
        The Books of Breathing is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the Late Period and the Roman Period....

    • Mortuary temple
      Mortuary temple
      Mortuary temples were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Ancient Egypt. The temples were designed to commemorate the reign of the pharaoh by whom they were built, as well as for use by the pharaoh's cult after death.-History:Mortuary temples were built...

    • Ancient Egyptian offering formula
    • Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifices
      Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifices
      Ancient Egyptian retainer sacrifice is a type of human sacrifice in which pharaohs and occasionally other high court nobility would have servants killed after the pharaohs' deaths to continue to serve them in the afterlife...


  • Egyptian mythology
    Egyptian mythology
    Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians' interaction with a multitude of deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature...

    • Ancient Egyptian creation myths
      Ancient Egyptian creation myths
      Ancient Egyptian creation myths refers to the ancient Egyptian accounts of the creation of the world. The Pyramid Texts, tomb wall decorations and writings, dating back to the Old Kingdom have given us most of our information regarding early Egyptian creation myths. These myths also form the...

    • Egyptian pantheon
      Egyptian pantheon
      The Egyptian pantheon consisted of the many gods worshipped by the Ancient Egyptians. A number of major deities are addressed as the creator of the cosmos. These include Atum, Ra, Amun and Ptah amongst others, as well as composite forms of these gods such as Amun-Ra. This was not seen as...

      • Ennead
        Ennead
        The Ennead was a group ofnine deities in Egyptian mythology. The Ennead were worshipped at Heliopolis and consisted of the god Atum, his children Shu and Tefnut, their children Geb and Nut and their children Osiris, Isis, Horus, Set and Nephthys.-Terminology:Egyptian mythology established multiple...

        • Atum
          Atum
          Atum, sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology.- Name :Atum's name is thought to be derived from the word 'tem' which means to complete or finish. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to...

        • Shu
          Shu (Egyptian deity)
          In Egyptian mythology, Shu is one of the primordial gods, a personification of air, one of the Ennead of Heliopolis. He was created by Atum, his father and Iusaaset, his mother in the city of Heliopolis. With his sister, Tefnut , he was the father of Nut and Geb...

        • Tefnut
          Tefnut
          In Ancient Egyptian religion, Tefnut, transliterated tfnt is a goddess of moisture, moist air, dew and rain. She is the sister and consort of the air god Shu and the mother of Geb and Nut.- Etymology :...

        • Geb
          Geb
          Geb was the Egyptian god of the Earth and a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. It was believed in ancient Egypt that Geb's laughter was earthquakes and that he allowed crops to grow. The name was pronounced as such from the Greek period onward,...

        • Nut (Nuit)
          Nut (goddess)
          In the Ennead of Egyptian mythology, Nut was the goddess of the sky.-Goddess of the sky:...

        • Osiris
          Osiris
          Osiris is an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead. He is classically depicted as a green-skinned man with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side, and...

        • Isis
          Isis
          Isis or in original more likely Aset is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the matron of nature and magic...

        • Set
          Set (mythology)
          Set was in Ancient Egyptian religion, a god of the desert, storms, and foreigners. In later myths he was also the god of darkness, and chaos...

        • Nephthys
          Nephthys
          In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys is a member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis, a daughter of Nut and Geb. Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Seth.Nephthys is regarded as...

      • Ogdoad
        Ogdoad
        In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad were eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC...

         of Hermopolis
        • Amun
          Amun
          Amun, reconstructed Egyptian Yamānu , was a god in Egyptian mythology who in the form of Amun-Ra became the focus of the most complex system of theology in Ancient Egypt...

           and Amunet
          Amunet
          Amunet, Amaunet, or Amonet was a primordial goddess in Ancient Egyptian religion. She is a member of the Ogdoad and the consort of Amun. Her name, meaning "the female hidden one", was simply the feminine form of Amun's own name. Therefore, it is likely that she was never an independent deity, but...

        • Huh and Hauhet
          Huh (god)
          In Egyptian mythology, Huh was the deification of eternity in the Ogdoad, his name itself meaning endlessness. As a concept, he was androgynous, his female form being known as Hauhet, which is simply the feminine form of his name...

        • Kuk and Kauket
          Kuk
          Kuk is the deification of the primordial concept of darkness in Egyptian mythology. In the Ogdoad cosmogony, his name meant darkness. As a concept, Kuk was viewed as androgynous, his female form being known as Kauket , which is simply the female form of the word Kuk...

        • Nun and Naunet
          Naunet
          In Egyptian mythology, Nu or Nun is the deification of the primordial watery abyss. In the Ogdoad cosmogony, the name nu means "abyss"....

      • Other major deities
        • Amun
          Amun
          Amun, reconstructed Egyptian Yamānu , was a god in Egyptian mythology who in the form of Amun-Ra became the focus of the most complex system of theology in Ancient Egypt...

        • Anubis
          Anubis
          Anubis is the Greek name for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion. In the ancient Egyptian language, Anubis is known as Inpu . According to the Akkadian transcription in the Amarna letters, Anubis' name was vocalized as Anapa...

        • Apep
          Apep
          In Egyptian mythology, Apep was an evil god, the deification of darkness and chaos , and thus opponent of light and Ma'at , whose existence was believed from the 8th Dynasty onwards...

        • Apis
          Apis (Egyptian mythology)
          In Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis , was a bull-deity worshipped in the Memphis region.According to Manetho, his worship was instituted by Kaiechos of the Second Dynasty. Hape is named on very early monuments, but little is known of the divine animal before the New Kingdom...

        • Aten
          Aten
          Aten is the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. The deified Aten is the focus of the monolatristic, henotheistic, or monotheistic religion of Atenism established by Amenhotep IV, who later took the name Akhenaten in worship in recognition of Aten...

        • Bast
          Bast (goddess)
          Bastet is the name commonly used by scholars today to refer to a feline goddess of ancient Egyptian religion who was worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty...

        • Hathor
          Hathor
          Hathor , is an Ancient Egyptian goddess who personified the principles of love, beauty, music, motherhood and joy. She was one of the most important and popular deities throughout the history of Ancient Egypt...

        • Horus
          Horus
          Horus is one of the oldest and most significant deities in the Ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times. Different forms of Horus are recorded in history and these are treated as distinct gods by Egyptologists...

        • Khepri
          Khepri
          This article is about the Egyptian god. For the type of robot, see Khepera mobile robot.In Egyptian mythology, Khepri is the name of a major god. Khepri is associated with the dung beetle , whose behavior of maintaining spherical balls of dung represents the forces which move the sun...

        • Chons
          Chons
          Khonsu is an Ancient Egyptian god whose main role was associated with the moon. His name means "traveller" and this may relate to the nightly travel of the moon across the sky. Along with Thoth he marked the passage of time...

        • Ma'at
        • Min
          Min (god)
          Min is an Ancient Egyptian god whose cult originated in predynastic times . He was represented in many different forms, but was often represented in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail...

        • Neith
          Neith
          In Egyptian mythology, Neith was an early goddess in the Egyptian pantheon. She was the patron deity of Sais, where her cult was centered in the Western Nile Delta of Egypt and attested as early as the First Dynasty...

        • Ptah
          Ptah
          In Ancient Egyptian Religion, Ptah was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen , meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land, though Tatenen was a god in his...

        • Ra
          Ra
          Ra is the ancient Egyptian sun god. By the Fifth Dynasty he had become a major deity in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the mid-day sun...

        • Sekhmet
          Sekhmet
          In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet , was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing for Upper Egypt. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath created the desert...

        • Sobek
          Sobek
          Sobek , and in Greek, Suchos was the deification of crocodiles, as crocodiles were deeply feared in the nation so dependent on the Nile River...

        • Thoth
          Thoth
          Thoth was considered one of the more important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. In art, he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him. His feminine counterpart was Seshat...

        • Wepwawet
          Wepwawet
          In late Egyptian mythology, Wepwawet was originally a war deity, whose cult centre was Asyut in Upper Egypt . His name means, opener of the ways...

      • Deified concepts
        • Chons
          Chons
          Khonsu is an Ancient Egyptian god whose main role was associated with the moon. His name means "traveller" and this may relate to the nightly travel of the moon across the sky. Along with Thoth he marked the passage of time...

        • Hapy
          Hapy
          Hapi, sometimes transliterated as Hapy, not to be confused with another god of the same name, was a deification of the annual flooding of the Nile River in Ancient Egyptian religion, which deposited rich silt on its banks, allowing the Egyptians to grow crops. His name means Running One, probably...

        • Ma'at
        • Min
          Min (god)
          Min is an Ancient Egyptian god whose cult originated in predynastic times . He was represented in many different forms, but was often represented in male human form, shown with an erect penis which he holds in his left hand and an upheld right arm holding a flail...

        • Renenutet
          Renenutet
          In Egyptian mythology, Renenutet was the anthropomorphic deification of the act of gaining a true name, an aspect of the soul, during birth. Her name simply meaning, gives Ren, with Ren being the Egyptian word for this true name...

        • Shai
          Shai
          Shai was the deification of the concept of fate in Egyptian mythology...

        • Hu
          Hu (mythology)
          In Egyptian mythology, Hu is the deification of the first word, the word of creation, that Atum was said to have exclaimed upon ejaculating or, alternatively, his self-castration, in his masturbatory act of creating the Ennead....

        • Saa
          Saa
          In Egyptian mythology, Saa was the deification of perception in the Heliopolitan Ennead cosmogeny and is probably equivalent to the intellectual energies of the heart of Ptah in the Memphite cosmogeny. He also had a connection with writing and was often shown in anthropomorphic form holding a...

      • War deities
        • Anhur
          Anhur
          In early Egyptian mythology, Anhur was originally a god of war who was worshipped in the Egyptian area of Abydos, and particularly in Thinis...

        • Bast
          Bast (goddess)
          Bastet is the name commonly used by scholars today to refer to a feline goddess of ancient Egyptian religion who was worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty...

        • Maahes
          Maahes
          Maahes was an ancient Egyptian lion-headed god of war, whose name means "he who is true beside her". He was seen as the son of a lion goddess whose nature he shared...

        • Pakhet
          Pakhet
          In Egyptian mythology, Pakhet, Egyptian Pḫ.t , meaning she who scratches is considered a synthesis of Bast and Sekhmet, ancient deities in the two Egypts who were similar lioness war deities, one for Upper Egypt and the other for Lower Egypt...

        • Sekhmet
          Sekhmet
          In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet , was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing for Upper Egypt. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath created the desert...

      • Other deities
        • Bes
          Bes
          Bes was an Egyptian deity worshipped in the later periods of dynastic history as a protector of households and in particular mothers and children. In time he would be regarded as the defender of everything good and the enemy of all that is bad...

        • Chnum
          Chnum
          In Egyptian mythology, Khnum was one of the earliest Egyptian deities, originally the god of the source of the Nile River...

        • Seker
          Seker
          Seker or Sokar is a falcon god of the Memphite necropolis. Although the meaning of his name remains uncertain the Egyptians themselves in the Pyramid Texts linked his name to the anguished cry of Osiris to Isis 'Sy-k-ri' , in the underworld. Seker is strongly linked with two other gods, Ptah the...

        • Seshat
          Seshat
          In Egyptian mythology, Seshat was the Ancient Egyptian goddess of wisdom, knowledge, and writing. She was seen as a scribe and record keeper, and her name means she who scrivens , and is credited with inventing writing...

        • Tawaret
          Tawaret
          In Egyptian mythology, Taweret is the Egyptian Goddess of childbirth and fertility. The name "Taweret" means, "she who is great" or simply, "great one"...

        • Montu
          Mõntu
          Mõntu is a village in Torgu Parish, Saare County in western Estonia....

        • Nepthys
        • Bastet
        • Ammit
          Ammit
          thumb|right|400px|This detail scene from the [[Papyrus]] of [[Hunefer]] shows [[Hunefer]]'s heart being weighed on the scale of [[Maat]] against the [[feather of truth]], by the [[jackal]]-headed [[Anubis]]. The [[Ibis]]-headed [[Thoth]], [[scribe]] of the [[gods]], records the result...

        • Bes
          Bes
          Bes was an Egyptian deity worshipped in the later periods of dynastic history as a protector of households and in particular mothers and children. In time he would be regarded as the defender of everything good and the enemy of all that is bad...

  • Religious concepts
    • Ba
    • Ka
      Ka
      -Language:* Ka * Ka * Georgian language, ISO 639-1 code ka* A glyph in the Brahmic family of scripts-Media and entertainment:* Ka * Kà, a Cirque du Soleil show* Mister Mosquito, a video game, known in Japan as Ka...

    • Akh
    • Duat
      Duat
      In Egyptian mythology, Duat is the underworld. The Duat is a vast area under the Earth, connected with Nun, the waters of the primordial abyss. The Duat is the realm of the god Osiris and the residence of other gods and supernatural beings...

    • Atenism
      Atenism
      Atenism, or the Amarna heresy, refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenophis IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten...

    • Egyptian soul
      Egyptian soul
      The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body...

    • Ennead
      Ennead
      The Ennead was a group ofnine deities in Egyptian mythology. The Ennead were worshipped at Heliopolis and consisted of the god Atum, his children Shu and Tefnut, their children Geb and Nut and their children Osiris, Isis, Horus, Set and Nephthys.-Terminology:Egyptian mythology established multiple...


Ancient Egyptian language



  • Stages of ancient Egyptian language
    • Archaic Egyptian
      Archaic Egyptian
      Archaic Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language spoken during the Early Dynastic Period, which lasted up to about 2600 BC. The first known inscriptions in Archaic Egyptian date from around 3400 BC....

       – before 2600 BC, the language of the Early Dynastic Period
      Early Dynastic Period of Egypt
      The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom...

      . Egyptian writing in the form of labels and signs has been dated to 3200 BC.
    • Old Egyptian
      Old Egyptian
      Old Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language spoken from 2600 BC to 2000 BC during the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period. The Pyramid Texts are the largest body of literature written in this phase of the language. Tomb walls of elite Egyptians from this period bear autobiographical...

       – 2686 BC – 2181 BC, the language of the Old Kingdom
      Old Kingdom
      Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley .The term itself was...

    • Middle Egyptian
      Middle Egyptian
      Middle Egyptian is the typical form of Egyptian written from 2000 BCE to 1300 BCE .Although evolving into Late Egyptian from the 14th century, Middle Egyptian remained in use as literary standard language until the 4th century AD. As such, it is the classical variant of Egyptian that historically...

       – 2055 BC – 1650 BC, characterized the Middle Kingdom
      Middle Kingdom of Egypt
      The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2055 BC and 1650 BC, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate...

       (2055 BC – 1650 BC), but endured through the early 18th Dynasty until the Amarna Period(1353 BC), and continued on as a literary language
      Literary language
      A literary language is a register of a language that is used in literary writing. This may also include liturgical writing. The difference between literary and non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others...

       into the 4th century AD.
    • Late Egyptian
      Late Egyptian
      Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom around 1350 BC – the Amarna period. Texts written wholly in Late Egyptian date to the Ramesside Period and later...

       – 1069 BC – 700 BC, characterized the Third Intermediate Period
      Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
      The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty....

       (1069 BC – 700 BC), but started earlier with the Amarna Period
      Amarna Period
      The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the latter half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten in what is now modern-day Amarna...

       (1353 BC).
    • Demotic – 7th century BC – 5th century AD, from the Late Period
      Late Period of Ancient Egypt
      The Late Period of Ancient Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period from the 26th Saite Dynasty into Persian conquests and ended with the death of Alexander the Great...

       through Roman times
    • Coptic
      Coptic language
      Coptic or Coptic Egyptian is the current stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century. Egyptian began to be written using the Greek alphabet in the 1st century...

       – 1st century AD – 17th century AD, from early Roman times to early modern times
      Early modern period
      In history, the early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the Middle Ages through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions...

  • Egyptian writing
    • Hieroglyphs
      Hieroglyphs
      Hieroglyph or hieroglyphics may refer to:*Anatolian hieroglyphs*Chinese character*Cretan hieroglyphs*Cursive hieroglyphs*Dongba script*Egyptian hieroglyphs*Hieroglyphic Luwian*Mayan hieroglyphs...

    • Hieratic
      Hieratic
      Hieratic refers to a cursive writing system that was used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia that developed alongside the hieroglyphic system, to which it is intimately related...

    • Demotic
      Demotic
      Demotic may refer to:*Demotic Greek, a variety of the Greek language*Demotic , a script and stage of the Egyptian language...

    • Ancient Egyptian literature
      Ancient Egyptian literature
      Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from Ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination. It represents the oldest corpus of Egyptian literature...

    • Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian
      Transliteration of ancient Egyptian
      In the field of Egyptology, transliteration is the process of converting texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and demotic counterparts...

  • Writing in Ancient Egypt
    Writing in Ancient Egypt
    The native writing systems of Ancient Egypt used to record the Egyptian language include both the Egyptian hieroglyphs and Hieratic from Protodynastic times, the 13th century BC cursive variants of the hieroglyphs which became popular, then the latest Demotic script developed from Hieratic, from...


Scholars

  • Egyptologists
    • Alan Gardiner
      Alan Gardiner
      Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner was one of the premier British Egyptologists of the early and mid-20th century...

    • Auguste Mariette
      Auguste Mariette
      François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette was a French scholar, archaeologist and Egyptologist, the designer of the rebuilt Egyptian Museum under Maximilian of Austria orders when the later had gained control of the artifacts collected to that point.-Early career:Born at Boulogne-sur-Mer, Mariette...

    • E. A. Wallis Budge
      E. A. Wallis Budge
      Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.-Earlier life:...

    • Édouard Naville
      Édouard Naville
      Captaine Henri Édouard Naville was a Swiss egyptologist.He was born in Geneva. He studied in London, Paris and Berlin ....

    • Edward R. Ayrton
      Edward R. Ayrton
      Edward Russell Ayrton was an English Egyptologist and archaeologist.He was the son of William Scrope Ayrton and his wife Ellen Louisa McClatchie, and was born in Wuhu, China, on 17 December 1882...

    • Bob Brier
      Bob Brier
      Robert Brier , also known as Mr. Mummy, is an American Egyptologist specializing in paleopathology. A Senior Research Fellow at the C.W...

    • Edwin Smith (Egyptologist)
      Edwin Smith (Egyptologist)
      Edwin Smith was an American dealer and collector of antiquities who gave his name to an Ancient Egyptian medical papyrus, the Edwin Smith Papyrus....

    • Flinders Petrie

Publications about ancient Egypt

  • Ancient Egypt (magazine)
  • Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide
    Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide
    The Egyptian hieroglyphic text Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs: A Practical Guide is one of the modern primers on the Egyptian language hieroglyphs, from the late 20th to early 21st century....

  • Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt
    Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt
    The Egyptian hieroglyphics text Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt is one of the modern primers on the Egyptian language hieroglyphs, from the late 20th to early 21st century. The text is authored by Maria Carmela Betrò, c...

  • The Hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt
    The Hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt
    The Hieroglyphs of Ancient Egypt is part of a new genre of books focussed on Egyptian hieroglyphs. The book is a primer on hieroglyphs from the viewpoint of topical use within history, with example photographs or illustrations...

  • Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
    Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
    The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by Donald B. Redford and published in three volumes by Oxford University Press in 2001 contains 600 articles that cover the 5,000 years of the history of Ancient Egypt, from the predynastic era to the seventh century CE...

  • Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture
    Reading Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture
    hi Egyptian Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture is part of a new genre of books focussed on Egyptian hieroglyphs...


See also


  • Outline of classical studies


  • Egyptian calendar
    Egyptian calendar
    The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 360 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus five extra days at the end of the year. The months were divided into three weeks of ten days each...

    • Beautiful festival of the valley
      Beautiful festival of the valley
      The Beautiful Festival of the Valley was an Ancient Egyptian festival, celebrated annually in Thebes, during the Middle Kingdom period and later....

  • Egyptian burial rituals and protocol
    Egyptian burial rituals and protocol
    The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of burial customs that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals and protocols included mummification, casting of magic spells, and burial with specific grave goods thought to be needed in the afterlife.The burial...

  • Racial characteristics of ancient Egyptians
  • Ancient Egyptian race controversy
    Ancient Egyptian race controversy
    The question of the race of ancient Egyptians was raised historically as a product of the scientific racism of the 18th and 19th centuries, and was linked to models of racial hierarchy. A variety of views circulated about the racial identity of the Egyptians and the source of their culture...


  • Ancient Egypt in the Western imagination
  • Ancient Egyptian Boats (First Dynasty) – Abydos
    Ancient Egyptian Boats (First Dynasty) – Abydos
    The Abydos boats were discovered in 2000. At first glance they appear to be a great white, ‘ghostly’ fleet of 14 boat images in the desert sand. They are not the oldest boat remains to be discovered in Egypt as is sometimes proclaimed, but they are extremely important to the history of Egyptian...

  • Ancient Egyptian Deities in popular culture
    Ancient Egyptian Deities in popular culture
    -Literature:* American Gods: Set is mentioned to have retired in San Francisco in 1906, the time of the San Francisco Earthquake, hinting he was responsible for it.* Conan mythos: Set is worshiped as a snake god by the people of Stygia in the Hyborean Age...

  • Ancient Egyptian Libyan glyphs
    Ancient Egyptian Libyan glyphs
    -Glyphs & Symbols:Geo glyphs may be seen on the Egypt / Libya border between Tubruq, Bardiyah and the Bay of As Sallum.In Google Earth these geo glyphs may be seen from elevations between 100 - 200 meters, discovered by John Walicki on October 26, 2009....

  • Ancient Egyptian cattle
  • Ancient Egyptian units of measurement
    Ancient Egyptian units of measurement
    -Length:Units of length date back to at least the early dynastic period. In the Palermo stone for instance the level of the Nile river is recorded. During the reign of Pharaoh Djer the height of the river Nile was given as measuring 6 cubits and 1 palm...

  • Ancient Egyptians (TV series)
    Ancient Egyptians (TV series)
    Ancient Egyptians is a vivid realisation of life in the land of the Pharaohs at the time of the great dynasties. Their stories, which span 1,500 years, unfold against the backdrop of great events in the kingdom’s history and paint intimate and dramatic portraits of a rich and fascinating society...

  • Architecture and sculptures of Ancient Egypt
  • Cities of Ancient Egypt
    Cities of Ancient Egypt
    -Lower Egypt:*Heraclion*Pikuat *Naucratis*Tjafanet *Pi-Ramesse *Hatwaret *Taremu...

  • Glossary of Ancient Egypt artifacts
    Glossary of Ancient Egypt artifacts
    -Glossary of ancient Egypt artifacts and materials:*Amulet—Predynastic, and onward.*Canopic jar—Vessel containing internal body organs removed during -Glossary of ancient Egypt artifacts and materials:*[[Amulet]]—Predynastic, and onward....

  • List of portraiture offerings with Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs
  • Portraiture in Ancient Egypt
    Portraiture in Ancient Egypt
    Portraiture in Ancient Egypt forms a conceptual attempt to portray “the subject from its own perspective rather than the viewpoint of the artist … to communicate essential information about the object itself”...



Ancient Egyptian lists