Foreign relations of Australia

Foreign relations of Australia

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The foreign relations of Australia have spanned from the country's time as Dominion
Dominion
A dominion, often Dominion, refers to one of a group of autonomous polities that were nominally under British sovereignty, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the latter part of the 19th century. They have included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland,...

 and later Realm
Commonwealth Realm
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state within the Commonwealth of Nations that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. The sixteen current realms have a combined land area of 18.8 million km² , and a population of 134 million, of which all, except about two million, live in the six...

 of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically, it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic."More recently it has been used for fraternal associations of some sovereign nations...

 to become steadfastly allied with New Zealand
Australia-New Zealand relations
Relations between Australia and New Zealand, also sometimes referred to as Trans-Tasman relations due to the countries being on opposite sides of the Tasman Sea, are extremely close with both sharing British colonial heritage and being part of the Anglosphere...

 through long-standing ANZAC ties dating back to the early 1900s, and the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 throughout the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, to its engagement with Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 as a power in its own right. Its relations with the international community are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid.

Australia's foreign policy is guided by a commitment to multilateralism
Multilateralism
Multilateralism is a term in international relations that refers to multiple countries working in concert on a given issue.International organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization are multilateral in nature...

 and regionalism, as well as to strong bilateral
Bilateralism
Bilateralism consists of the political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states. For example, free trade agreements signed by two states are examples of bilateral treaties. It is in contrast to unilateralism or multilateralism, which refers to the conduct of diplomacy by a...

 relations with its allies. Key concerns include free trade, terrorism, economic cooperation with Asia and stability in the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean...

. Australia is active in the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 and the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

.


History



Its first major independent foreign policy action was to conclude an agreement in 1944 with New Zealand dealing with the security, welfare, and advancement of the people of the independent territories of the Pacific (the ANZAC pact). After the war, Australia played a role in the Far Eastern Commission in Japan and supported Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

n independence during that country's revolt against the Dutch (1945–49).

Australia was one of the founders of both the United Nations and the South Pacific Commission (1947), and in 1950, it proposed the Colombo Plan
Colombo Plan
The Colombo Plan is a regional organization that embodies the concept of collective inter-governmental effort to strengthen economic and social development of member countries in the Asia-Pacific Region...

 to assist developing countries in Asia. In addition to contributing to UN forces in the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

 – it was the first country to announce it would do so after the United States – Australia sent troops to assist in putting down the communist revolt in Malaya in 1948–60 and later to combat the Indonesian-supported invasion of Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 in 1963–65.

Australia also sent troops to assist South Vietnamese and US forces in Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 and joined coalition forces in the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

 in 1991. Australia has been active in the Australia – New Zealand – United Kingdom agreement and the Five Power Defence Arrangement—successive arrangements with Britain and New Zealand to ensure the security of Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 and Malaysia.

In 1999 Australian peace keeping forces intervened in East Timor
East Timor
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor , is a state in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor...

 following its referendum to secede from Indonesia. In 2006 Australia sent a contingent of Australian troops to the state in order to assist in the 2006 East Timor crisis
2006 East Timor crisis
The 2006 East Timorese crisis began as a conflict between elements of the military of East Timor over discrimination within the military, and expanded to a coup attempt and general violence throughout the country, centred in the capital Dili...

.

International agencies, treaties, and agreements



One of the drafters of the UN Charter, Australia has given firm support to the United Nations and its specialised agencies. It was a member of the Security Council in 1986–87, a member of the Economic and Social Council in 1986–89, and a member of the UN Human Rights Commission in 1994–96. Australia takes a prominent part in many other UN activities, including peacekeeping, disarmament negotiations, and narcotics control.

Australia also is active in meetings of the Commonwealth Heads of Government
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, , is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations. Every two years the meeting is held in a different member state, and is chaired by that nation's respective Prime Minister or President, who becomes the...

 and the South Pacific Forum, and has been a leader in the Cairns Group
Cairns Group
The Cairns Group is an interest group of 19 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay.-History...

 — countries pressing for agricultural trade reform in the Uruguay Round
Uruguay Round
The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of Multilateral trade negotiations conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , spanning from 1986-1994 and embracing 123 countries as “contracting parties”. The Round transformed the GATT into the World Trade Organization...

 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization . GATT was signed in 1947 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World...

 (GATT) negotiations — and in the APEC forum. In September 1999, acting under a UN Security Council mandate, Australia led an international coalition to restore order in East Timor upon Indonesia's withdrawal from that territory.

Australia has devoted particular attention to relations between developed and developing nations, with emphasis on the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, commonly abbreviated ASEAN rarely ), is a geo-political and economic organization of ten countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Since then, membership has...

 (ASEAN) — Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Malaysia, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, and Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

 — and the island states of the South Pacific
Oceania
Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

. Australia is an active participant in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), which promotes regional cooperation on security issues. Australia was a participant at the inaugural ASEAN sponsored East Asia Summit
East Asia Summit
The East Asia Summit is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian region. Membership will expand to 18 countries including the United States and Russia at the Sixth EAS in 2011. EAS meetings are held after annual ASEAN leaders’ meetings...

 in 2005. Australia's place at the summit was only secured after it agreed to reverse its policy and accede to ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia. Australia had been reluctant to sign the treaty out of concerns regarding how it would effect Australia's obligation under other treaty arrangements including ANZUS.

Australia has a large bilateral aid programme (about $1.3 billion for 1997–98, mostly in the form of grants) under which some 60 countries receive assistance. Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands...

 (PNG), a former Australian trust territory, is the largest recipient of Australian assistance. Starting in 1997–99 Australia contributed to the IMF program for Thailand and assisted Indonesia and PNG with regional environmental crisis and drought relief efforts.

Security treaties


Australia is party to the Australia, New Zealand, United States security treaty
ANZUS
The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks...

.

It has also been a party of the Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom force
ANZUK
ANZUK was a tripartite force formed by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom to defend the Asian Pacific region after the United Kingdom withdrew forces from the east of Suez in the early seventies. The ANZUK force was formed in 1971 and disbanded in 1974....

.

Trade


Overall Australia's largest trading partners are the United States, Japan, China, and the United Kingdom. Australia currently has bilateral Free Trade Agreements with New Zealand, the United States, Thailand and Singapore as of 2007. As well as this, Australia is in the process undertaking studies on Free Trade Agreements with ASEAN, China, Chile, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea and Malaysia.
  • Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement
    Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement
    The Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement is a trade agreement between the countries of Chile and Australia. It was signed on July 30, 2008 and went into effect in the 1st quarter of 2009...

  • Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement
    Closer Economic Relations
    Closer Economic Relations is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia. It is also known as the Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement and sometimes shortened to...

  • Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement
    Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement
    The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement . The free trade agreement was signed on 18 May 2004, ratified by the U.S. House of Representatives on 14 July 2004 by a...


Foreign missions



Australia has diplomatic representatives in over 90 locations. Australia has official relations with a number of countries. In a number of countries, Australia maintains an embassy, or in the case of Commonwealth countries, a high commission
High Commissioner (Commonwealth)
In the Commonwealth of Nations, a High Commissioner is the senior diplomat in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another.-History:...

. Australia has consulates in many countries where there are no official government ties in existence, and these serve primarily to assist Australian travellers and business people visiting those countries. A number of Canadian missions provide consular assistance to Australians in countries in Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

 where Australia does not maintain an office (and Australia reciprocates this arrangement for Canada in some other countries).

Due to the One China Policy of the People's Republic of China, in Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

 the Australian Commerce and Industry Office unofficially represents Australia's interest. It serves the functions similar to other Australian Consulates.

Oceania


Australia is a member of the Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean. It was founded in 1971 as the South Pacific Forum...

 and other regional organisations. It has High Commissions in Fiji
Fiji
Fiji , officially the Republic of Fiji , is an island nation in Melanesia in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island...

, Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati , officially the Republic of Kiribati, is an island nation located in the central tropical Pacific Ocean. The permanent population exceeds just over 100,000 , and is composed of 32 atolls and one raised coral island, dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometres, straddling the...

, Nauru
Nauru
Nauru , officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the South Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, to the east. Nauru is the world's smallest republic, covering just...

, New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands...

, Samoa
Samoa
Samoa , officially the Independent State of Samoa, formerly known as Western Samoa is a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean. It became independent from New Zealand in 1962. The two main islands of Samoa are Upolu and one of the biggest islands in...

, the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is a sovereign state in Oceania, east of Papua New Guinea, consisting of nearly one thousand islands. It covers a land mass of . The capital, Honiara, is located on the island of Guadalcanal...

, Tonga
Tonga
Tonga, officially the Kingdom of Tonga , is a state and an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, comprising 176 islands scattered over of ocean in the South Pacific...

 and Vanuatu
Vanuatu
Vanuatu , officially the Republic of Vanuatu , is an island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago, which is of volcanic origin, is some east of northern Australia, northeast of New Caledonia, west of Fiji, and southeast of the Solomon Islands, near New Guinea.Vanuatu was...

. It has an embassy in the Federated States of Micronesia
Federated States of Micronesia
The Federated States of Micronesia or FSM is an independent, sovereign island nation, made up of four states from west to east: Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae. It comprises approximately 607 islands with c...

. Australia provides aid to many of its developing Pacific Islands neighbours, and to Papua New Guinea.

Australia's approach to the Pacific has included frequent references to what it has perceived as an "Arc of Instability
Arc of Instability
The Arc of Instability is a proposed, interconnected chain of politically unstable nation states in the Asia-Pacific region. The term came into vogue in the late 1990s, proving especially popular with Australian politicians and journalists...

" among its island neighbours. In August 2006 Australian Defence Minister
Minister for Defence (Australia)
The Minister for Defence of Australia administers his portfolio through the Australian Defence Organisation, which comprises the Department of Defence and the Australian Defence Force. Stephen Smith is the current Minister.-Ministers for Defence:...

 Brendan Nelson
Brendan Nelson
Dr Brendan John Nelson is a former Australian politician and former federal Opposition leader. He served as a member of the Australian House of Representatives from the 1996 federal election until 19 October 2009 as the Liberal member for Bradfield, a northern Sydney seat...

 stated to the Australian Parliament:

We cannot afford to have failing states in our region. The so-called 'arc of instability', which basically goes from East Timor through to the south-west Pacific states, means that not only does Australia have a responsibility in preventing and indeed assisting with humanitarian and disaster relief, but also that we cannot allow any of these countries to become havens for transnational crime, nor indeed havens for terrorism.


Pacific Island countries are currently requesting that Australia allow seasonal migrants from the islands to enter the country on temporary work visas. Tuvalu is also requesting that Australia welcome part of its population on a permanent basis if and when they become climate refugee
Climate refugee
Environmental migrant refers to the people who are purportedly forced to migrate from or flee their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment, which is held to include increased droughts, desertification, sea level rise, and disruption of seasonal weather patterns...

s due to rising sea levels.

As from early 2008 the Australian government led by Kevin Rudd began what it called a "new approach" to relations between Australia and the Pacific, appointing a Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island Affairs, Duncan Kerr. In February, Kerr and fellow Parliamentary Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Bob McMullan visited Samoa, Tonga and Kiribati in February, and stated:
"Broadly, the approach is one of much more partnership and engagement on the basis of mutual respect. We're not going to be lecturing or hectoring, we're going to try and work together with them and I think we set a pretty good standard with the way we started. The relationships we've established with ministers and leaders in those countries [Kiribati, Tonga and Samoa] is very positive."

Fiji


Relations with Fiji are strained due to Australia's condemnation of the military coup
2006 Fijian coup d'état
The Fijian coup d'état of December 2006 occurred as a continuation of the pressure which had been building since the military unrest of the 2000 Fijian coup d'état and 2005-2006 Fijian political crisis....

 which overthrew the government of Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase
Laisenia Qarase
Laisenia Qarase is a Fijian political figure. He served as the sixth Prime Minister of Fiji from 2000 to 2006. After the military quashed the coup that led to the removal of Mahendra Chaudhry, Qarase joined the Interim Military Government as a financial adviser on 9 June 2000, until his appointment...

 in December 2006. Military leader and "interim Prime Minister" Voreqe Bainimarama has accused Australia of "bullying" Fiji by applying sanctions and insisting on a swift return to a democratic government. In March 2008 the Fiji Human Rights Commission
Fiji Human Rights Commission
The Fiji Human Rights Commission was created by presidential decree in 2009, succeeding the entity of the same name established as an independent statutory body under the 1997 Constitution of the Republic of the Fiji Islands.- The 1997 Commission :...

 published a report which alleged that Australia might have been planning an armed intervention in Fiji in late 2006. Australian Foreign Minister Stephen Smith
Stephen Smith (Australian politician)
Stephen Francis Smith , is the Australian Minister for Defence. He has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1993, representing the Division of Perth, Western Australia....

 dismissed the allegations, and stated: "The best thing that can happen in Fiji is not spurious suggestions about Australian activity but having an election, returning Fiji to democracy, respecting human rights".

On November 4, 2009, Fijian military leader, Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, expelled the Australian high commissioner James Batley and his New Zealand counterpart. He said that Australia and New Zealand had tried to undermine Fiji's judiciary and weaken its economy. New Zealand and Australia disputed key aspects of Fiji's claims. In response, Australia quickly expelled Fiji's acting high commissioner, Kamlesh Kumar Arya.

Nauru


Australian-Nauruan relations go back almost a century. Australia administered Nauru as a dependent territory from 1914 to 1968, and has remained one of Nauru's foremost economic and aid partners thereafter. Relations between the two countries are, , cordial, with Australia having committed itself to assisting Nauru's economic development.

Relations between Australia and Nauru were essentially framed by the Pacific Solution
Pacific Solution
The Pacific Solution was the name given to the Australian government policy of transporting asylum seekers to detention camps on small island nations in the Pacific Ocean, rather than allowing them to land on the Australian mainland...

, whereby Nauru housed a detention centre for unauthorised refugee applicants who had attempted to enter Australia, and Australia provided financial aid in return. The detention centre was closed by Australia in February 2008, causing Nauru to express concern regarding the future of its economy.

New Zealand


The relationship between Australia and New Zealand is exceptionally close on both the national and interpersonal scales. This close relationship goes back to the time of the first World War and the ANZAC Spirit forged at Gallipoli
Battle of Gallipoli
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign or the Battle of Gallipoli, took place at the peninsula of Gallipoli in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916, during the First World War...

. Former New Zealand Prime Minister Mike Moore declared that Australians and New Zealanders have more in common than New Yorkers and Californians. Relations are especially close given the number of tourists that travel between the two countries and the (generally) common economics policy.

Papua New Guinea


Papua New Guinea is Australia's closest neighbour, and former dependent territory. Relations between Canberra and Port Moresby
Port Moresby
Port Moresby , or Pot Mosbi in Tok Pisin, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea . It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the southeastern coast of the island of New Guinea, which made it a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43...

 are close, although there have been tensions in recent years. Papua New Guinea has developed much closer relations with Australia than with Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, the only country it shares a border with. The two countries are Commonwealth realms, and Papua New Guinea benefits from economic development aid from Australia. Relations are, at present, cordial.

Under the government of John Howard
John Howard
John Winston Howard AC, SSI, was the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, from 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007. He was the second-longest serving Australian Prime Minister after Sir Robert Menzies....

, Australia's relations with Michael Somare
Michael Somare
Sir Michael Thomas Somare, GCL, GCMG, CH, CF, KStJ, MP was Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea from 2002 to 2011; he had previously been Prime Minister from independence in 1975 until 1980 and again from 1982 until 1985. Somare's first two terms were as a member of the Pangu Party, but he then...

's Papua New Guinea worsened, primarily because of the "Julian Moti
Julian Moti
Julian Moti QC CSI is the former Attorney General of the Solomon Islands. He was born in Fiji and educated in Australia.Moti worked as an Adjunct Professor of Law at Bond University on Australia's Gold Coast from 1992, and taught comparative constitutional law, public and private international...

 affair", but also because of the "shoes episode". Rudd and Somare have met to mend relations between Australia and Papua New Guinea.

Solomon Islands


Under the government of John Howard, Australia's relations with Manasseh Sogavare
Manasseh Sogavare
Manasseh Damukana Sogavare was the sixth Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands from 2000 to 2001 and again from 2006 to 2007. He has served in the National Parliament as Member for East Choiseul since 1997, and he is currently the Leader of the Opposition.-Biography:Sogavare was Permanent...

's Solomon Islands were strained, primarily because of the "Julian Moti
Julian Moti
Julian Moti QC CSI is the former Attorney General of the Solomon Islands. He was born in Fiji and educated in Australia.Moti worked as an Adjunct Professor of Law at Bond University on Australia's Gold Coast from 1992, and taught comparative constitutional law, public and private international...

 affair". Sogavare notably accused Australia of conducting neo-colonialism in the Solomons via RAMSI. On 1 October 2007, the Solomon Islands' Foreign Affairs Minister Patteson Oti addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations, and accused Australia of undermining his country's sovereignty:

Mine is too nationalistic a government to become captive to the fortunes which justify our perpetual retention under siege. My [country's government] remain[s] unmoved by Australian resistance to our attempts to reclaim our sovereignty and independence.


This led Australia to exercise its right of reply, denying the accusation. Relations subsequently improved when both Howard and Sogavare lost office in December 2007, and their successors -Kevin Rudd
Kevin Rudd
Kevin Michael Rudd is an Australian politician who was the 26th Prime Minister of Australia from 2007 to 2010. He has been Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2010...

 and Derek Sikua
Derek Sikua
David Derek Sikua served as the ninth Prime Minister of Solomon Islands from December 20, 2007 to August 25, 2010. He is a member of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party.-Career:Sikua is from Ngalitavethi Village in Guadalcanal Province...

- immediately set out to improve relations between Canberra and Honiara
Honiara
Honiara, population 49,107 , 78,190 , is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town...

.

Australia currently leads the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, at the request of the Governor-General of the Solomon Islands.

Tonga


Following the 2006 riots in Tonga
2006 Nuku'alofa riots
The 2006 Nukualofa riots started on 16 November, in the Tongan capital of Nukualofa. The Legislative Assembly of Tonga was due to adjourn for the year and despite promises of action, had done little to advance democracy in the government. A mixed crowd of democracy advocates took to the streets in...

, Australia sent police officers, at Tonga's request, to help stabilise the situation in the kingdom.

Southeast and East Asia


"When describing Australia in Asia it can be compared to the spot cream left over by the dipping knife of colonialism in a uniquely Asian jar of jam. Both go well together on a multilateral scone but cannot be mixed in a pot. The jam with has too many inconsistencies and the cream is too ambiguous for either to fully blend." (Whyte 2005:57)
Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 East Timor See Australia – East Timor relations
Australia – East Timor relations
Australia and East Timor are near neighbors with close political and trade ties. East Timor, one of the poorest countries in Asia, lies about 610 kilometers northwest of the Australian city of Darwin and Australia has played a prominent role in the young republic's history...



Australia and East Timor are near neighbours with close political and trade ties. East Timor, one of the poorest countries in Asia, lies about 610 kilometres (379 mi) northwest of the Australian city of Darwin
Darwin, Northern Territory
Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory, Australia. Situated on the Timor Sea, Darwin has a population of 127,500, making it by far the largest and most populated city in the sparsely populated Northern Territory, but the least populous of all Australia's capital cities...

 and Australia has played a prominent role in the young republic's history. Australia led the military force that helped stabilise the country after it chose independence from Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 in 1999 and has been a major source of aid since.
  • Australia has an embassy in Dili
    Dili
    Dili, spelled Díli in Portuguese, is the capital, largest city, chief port and commercial centre of East Timor.-Geography and Administration:Dili lies on the northern coast of Timor island, the easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands....

    .
  • East Timor has an embassy in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

     and a consulate general in Sydney
    Sydney
    Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

    .
 Indonesia See Australia–Indonesia relations

Since Indonesian independence, the two countries have maintained mutual diplomatic relations
Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states...

, formalised co-operation (especially in the fields of fisheries conservation, law enforcement, and justice cooperation), a measure of security co-operation, broadening treaty
Treaty
A treaty is an express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention or exchange of letters, among other terms...

 relationships, co-membership of regional forums, and co-participation in several multilateral Treaties of significance
Multilateral treaty
A multilateral treaty is a treaty to which three or more sovereign states are parties. Each party owes the same obligations to all other parties, except to the extent that they have stated reservations...

.

The two nations differ in terms of religion and language: Indonesia is a Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

-majority country, whereas Australia possesses a Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 heritage. Recent years have seen a deepening of Australia's aid commitment to Indonesia, and Australia has become a popular venue for Indonesian students.

In 2008–09 Indonesia is the largest recipient of Australian aid at a value of $462 million.
 Japan See Australia–Japan relations

Australia-Japan relations are generally warm, substantial and driven by mutual interests, and have expanded beyond strong economic and commercial links to other spheres, including culture, tourism, defence and scientific cooperation.
 Malaysia See Australia-Malaysia relations
  • Australia has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur
    Kuala Lumpur
    Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

    .
  • Malaysia has a high commission in Canberra.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations
    Commonwealth of Nations
    The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

    .
  • Both Australia and Malaysia are members of the Five Power Defence Arrangements
    Five Power Defence Arrangements
    The Five Power Defence Arrangements are a series of defence relationships established by a series of bilateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971, whereby the five states will consult each other in the event of external aggression...

     and often participate in military exercises together.
 Kazakhstan
Australia and Kazakhstan relations began in 1992. Since then Kazakhstan has opened a consulate in Sydney in 1996, but it closed in 2003 due to resource straints. There have been a number of high level visits taken place between the two countries to sign cooperation agreements between the two countries. Trade relations are modest.
 People's Republic of China See Australia – People's Republic of China relations

Despite political unsureness, the PRC and Australia actively take part in a close and politically robust partnership.
 Philippines See Australia–Philippines relations
Australia–Philippines relations
Australia–Philippines relations are foreign relations between Australia and Philippines. Australia has an embassy in Manila. Philippines has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney.-Migration:...


  • Australia has an embassy in Manila
    Manila
    Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

    .
  • Philippines has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney.
 Singapore See Australia–Singapore relations
Australia–Singapore relations
Australia–Singapore relations are foreign relations between Singapore and Australia. Singapore has a high commission in Canberra and Australia has a high commission in Singapore.- Trade and investment :...


  • Australia has a high commission in Singapore.
  • Singapore has a high commission in Canberra.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations
    Commonwealth of Nations
    The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

    .
  • Both Australia and Singapore are members of the Five Power Defence Arrangements
    Five Power Defence Arrangements
    The Five Power Defence Arrangements are a series of defence relationships established by a series of bilateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore signed in 1971, whereby the five states will consult each other in the event of external aggression...

     and often participate in military exercises together.
 South Korea 1963-05May 1963 See Australia – South Korea relations
  • During the Korean War
    Korean War
    The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

    , Australia has sent 17,000 soldiers to offer military cooperation with South Korea.
  • Economic ties has been strengthened while trade value between the two reached $18 thousand million in 2007.
  •  Thailand 1952 See Australia-Thailand relations
    • Thailand is represented through its embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney.
    • Australia has an embassy in Bangkok
      Bangkok
      Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

      .
    • Thailand-Australia Free Trade Agreement
     Vietnam 1973 See Australia–Vietnam relations

    Each country has an embassy with the other.

    Americas

    Country Formal Relations Began Notes
     Argentina See Foreign relations of Argentina
    Foreign relations of Argentina
    This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of Argentina.At the political level, these matters are officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Relations, also known as the Cancillería, which answers to the President...

     Barbados See Australia–Barbados relations
    Australia–Barbados relations
    Australia – Barbados relations are foreign relations between Australia and Barbados. Neither country has a resident ambassador. The regional Australian High Commissioner to Barbados is accredited from Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is represented in Australia through its High...


    • The Australian High Commissioner to Barbados is accredited from Port of Spain
      Port of Spain
      Port of Spain, also written as Port-of-Spain, is the capital of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's third-largest municipality, after San Fernando and Chaguanas. The city has a municipal population of 49,031 , a metropolitan population of 128,026 and a transient daily population...

      , Trinidad and Tobago
      Trinidad and Tobago
      Trinidad and Tobago officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is an archipelagic state in the southern Caribbean, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles...

      .
    • Barbados is represented in Australia through its High Commission in Ottawa
      Ottawa
      Ottawa is the capital of Canada, the second largest city in the Province of Ontario, and the fourth largest city in the country. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of Southern Ontario...

      , Ontario
      Ontario
      Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

      , (Canada
      Canada
      Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

      ). Barbados maintains an honorary consul in Australia. Barbados and Australia established diplomatic relations on 7 January 1974. Both Barbados and Australia are current members of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations
      Commonwealth of Nations
      The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

      , and comprised as former parts of the British Empire
      British Empire
      The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

      .
    • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Barbados
    • Australia of Foreign relations with Trinidad and the Caribbean
    • Barbados seeking closer ties with Australia, 27 January 2009, Barbados Advocate Newspaper
     Bolivia

    Bolivia and Australia work together on a wide variety of issues. There is investment in mining services and technology. Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

     and Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

     are part of the Cairns Group
    Cairns Group
    The Cairns Group is an interest group of 19 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay.-History...

    . Still trade is quite small, In 2002 The Hon Mark Vaile
    Mark Vaile
    Mark Anthony James Vaile , Australian politician, is a former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and former leader of the National Party of Australia.-Early life:...

     visited Santa Cruz
    Santa Cruz de la Sierra
    Santa Cruz de la Sierra, commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the capital of the Santa Cruz department in eastern Bolivia and the largest city in the country...

     for the Cairns Group meeting. Bolivia has an embassy in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

    . Australia has a Consulate in La Paz
    La Paz
    Nuestra Señora de La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of the La Paz Department, and the second largest city in the country after Santa Cruz de la Sierra...

    .
     Brazil See Australia-Brazil relations
    Brazil has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate general in Sydney. Australia has an embassy in Brasília
    Brasília
    Brasília is the capital city of Brazil. The name is commonly spelled Brasilia in English. The city and its District are located in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central. It has a population of about 2,557,000 as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the...

     and a consulate in São Paulo
    São Paulo
    São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

    .
     Canada See Australia–Canada relations
    Australia–Canada relations
    Australia–Canada relations are the relations between the two countries of Australia and Canada.-Reluctant relations: 1886–1939:The earliest, most notable connections between the two nations was the deportation of Canadian rebels who instigated an uprising in Upper and Lower Canada to Australia...



    Canada's and Australia's militaries have fought alongside each other numerous times including the Second Boer War
    Second Boer War
    The Second Boer War was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the British Empire and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch settlers of two independent Boer republics, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State...

    , World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

    , World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    , the Korean War
    Korean War
    The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

     and many United Nations Security Council
    United Nations Security Council
    The United Nations Security Council is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security. Its powers, outlined in the United Nations Charter, include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of...

    -sanctioned missions. To maintain this military alliance, a Canadian Defence Advisor is stationed at the High Commission in Canberra to share intelligence. Australia and Canada both contributed the International force in East Timor
    East Timor
    The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor , is a state in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor...

     and both worked closely together to fight terrorism
    Terrorism
    Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. In the international community, however, terrorism has no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition...

     in Afghanistan
    Afghanistan
    Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

     Chile
    Diplomatic relations date back from the time when Australia was a British colony, during the Australian gold rush, population grew fast and Chile became one of Australias major wheat
    Wheat
    Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

     supplier and there was a regular traffic of ships between Sydney and Valparaíso
    Valparaíso
    Valparaíso is a city and commune of Chile, center of its third largest conurbation and one of the country's most important seaports and an increasing cultural center in the Southwest Pacific hemisphere. The city is the capital of the Valparaíso Province and the Valparaíso Region...

    . Both countries are members of the APEC the Cairns Group
    Cairns Group
    The Cairns Group is an interest group of 19 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay.-History...

    .

    Australia and Chile signed the Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement
    Australia-Chile Free Trade Agreement
    The Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement is a trade agreement between the countries of Chile and Australia. It was signed on July 30, 2008 and went into effect in the 1st quarter of 2009...

     on 30 July 2008. The agreement will come into effect in the first quarter of 2009.
     Colombia
    Australia and Colombia share a very positive and expanding relationship. Australia and Colombia are part of the Cairns Group
    Cairns Group
    The Cairns Group is an interest group of 19 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay.-History...

    . Colombia
    Colombia
    Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

     reopened its embassy in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...


    in 2008. Colombia
    Colombia
    Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

     and Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

     have a growing trade relationship in mining and Agriculture. Both armies fought alongside each other in the Korean
    Korean War
    The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

     war. Australia established an honorary consulate in Bogota
    Bogotá
    Bogotá, Distrito Capital , from 1991 to 2000 called Santa Fé de Bogotá, is the capital, and largest city, of Colombia. It is also designated by the national constitution as the capital of the department of Cundinamarca, even though the city of Bogotá now comprises an independent Capital district...

     in 1989.
     Cuba
    Cuba and Australia are becoming closer. Official relations began in January 1989. Cuba opened an embassy in Australia on 24 October 2008. The relations between the countries were given a fresh new start in 2009, When the foreign minister at the time Stephen Smith visited Cuba. Foreign Minister of Cuba Bruno Rodriguez, visited Australia as a guest of government in 2010.
     Ecuador
    Australia and Ecuador share a modest and friendly relationship. Ecuador
    Ecuador
    Ecuador , officially the Republic of Ecuador is a representative democratic republic in South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean to the west. It is one of only two countries in South America, along with Chile, that do not have a border...

     has an embassy in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

    .
     El Salvador
    El Salvador and Australia share a good relationship. There is a large Salvadoran community in Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    . Caused by the Salvadoran Civil War, Which helps more links between the two countries.
     Mexico
    Australia and Mexico's partnership is strong and still increasing. The two APEC allies Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

     and Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

     celebrated the 40th anniversary of diplomatic relations in 2006. Cooperation expansions recently has resulted in several commercial outcomes, including bilateral double taxation agreements signed in 2004, a memorandum of understanding on mining (MOU) in 2002, an MOU on Training and Education signed in 2003 an MOU on energy in 2005 and in August 2005 an MOU on investment protection and promotion agreement.
     Peru 1963 See Australia–Peru relations

    Australia and Peru
    Peru
    Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

     have an expanding relationship in all areas. The two APEC allies have worked together on a wide range of issues. The two countries have mutual interests. In 2006 the Australian bureau of meteorology has signed a memorandum of understanding to help with the El Nino and La Nina
    La Niña
    La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño-Southern Oscillation climate pattern. During a period of La Niña, the sea surface temperature across the equatorial Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3–5 °C...

     weather patterns. Another memorandum of understanding was signed on cooperation with education. With goodwill the Peruvian congress signed a Peru Australia Friendship league in 2004. Trade ties are strong and are growing. Many big mining companies have offices in Peru. Peru has an embassy in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

    . Australia has an embassy in Lima
    Lima
    Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

    .
     United States

    See Australia – United States relations

    While Australia has traditionally been aligned with the Commonwealth of Nations
    Commonwealth of Nations
    The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

    , it has strengthened its relationship with the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     since 1942, as Britain's influence in Asia declined. At the governmental level, United-States-Australia relations are formalised by the ANZUS
    ANZUS
    The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks...

     treaty and the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement
    Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement
    The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement . The free trade agreement was signed on 18 May 2004, ratified by the U.S. House of Representatives on 14 July 2004 by a...

    .
     Uruguay See Australia-Uruguay relations
    • Australia is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires
      Buenos Aires
      Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

       (Argentina
      Argentina
      Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

      ) and an honorary consulate in Montevideo
      Montevideo
      Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento...

      .
    • Uruguay has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney.
    • Australia and Uruguay share an interest in the Antarctic waters
      Southern Ocean
      The Southern Ocean comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60°S latitude and encircling Antarctica. It is usually regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions...

       and the fisheries
      Fishery
      Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats,...

       therein.

    Europe

    Country Formal Relations Began Notes
     Austria See Foreign relations of Austria
    Foreign relations of Austria
    The 1955 Austrian State Treaty ended the four-power occupation and recognized Austria as an independent and sovereign state. In October 1955, the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional law in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law...

     Kingdom of Bulgaria 1972
    • Australia is represented in Bulgaria through its embassy in Athens
      Athens
      Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

       (Greece
      Greece
      Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

      ). Australia has an honorary consulate in Sofia
      Sofia
      Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

      .
    • Bulgaria has an embassy in Canberra.
     Cyprus
  • Since 1964, Australia has provided personal and equipment to the UNFICYP.
  • Australia has a High Commission in Nicosia
    Nicosia
    Nicosia from , known locally as Lefkosia , is the capital and largest city in Cyprus, as well as its main business center. Nicosia is the only divided capital in the world, with the southern and the northern portions divided by a Green Line...

    .
  • Cyprus has High Commission in Canberra.
  • Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Cyprus
  • Cypriot Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Australia
  •  Czech Republic 1920
  • Australia is represented in the Czech Republic through its embassy in Warsaw
    Warsaw
    Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

     (Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

    ) and through an honorary consulate in Prague
    Prague
    Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

    .
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate in Sydney and five honorary consulates (in Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide, Hobart and Brisbane).
  • There are around 21,000 people of Czech descent living in Australia.
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relation with the Czech Republic
  •  Denmark See Australia–Denmark relations
    Australia–Denmark relations
    Australia–Denmark relations refers to the current and historical relations between Australia and Denmark. Australia has a embassy in Copenhagen, and Denmark has a embassy in Canberra.-History:...

     Estonia See Australia–Estonia relations
    Australia–Estonia relations
    Australia–Estonia relations are foreign relations between Australia and Estonia. Australia first recognised Estonia on 22 September 1921. Australia was among the first countries to re-recognise Estonia's independence on 27 August 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 21...



    Australia was among the first countries to re-recognise Estonia's independence on 27 August 1991. Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on 21 November 1991.

    Australia is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Stockholm
    Stockholm
    Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

     (Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

    ), and through an honorary consulate in Tallinn
    Tallinn
    Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of with a population of 414,940. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the banks of the Gulf of Finland, south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list...

    . Estonia is represented in Australia through its embassy in Tokyo
    Tokyo
    , ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan. Tokyo is the capital of Japan, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family...

     (Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

    ) and through three honorary consulates (in Claremont
    Claremont, Western Australia
    Claremont is a western suburb of Perth, Western Australia on the north bank of the Swan River.-History:Prior to European settlement, the Noongar people used the area as a source of water, for fishing and for catching waterfowl. In 1830, John Butler, a settler, set up an inn at Freshwater Bay to...

    , Hobart, and two in Sydney). Australia is host to one of the largest communities of Estonians abroad, with 8,232 people identifying as Estonian in the 2006 Australian Census.
     Finland See Australia–Finland relations
    Australia–Finland relations
    Australian–Finnish relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Australia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden, and through an honorary consulate in Helsinki...



    Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.
    Australia is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm
    Stockholm
    Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

    , Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

    , and through an honorary consulate in Helsinki
    Helsinki
    Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is , making it by far the most populous municipality in Finland. Helsinki is...

    . Finland has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate in Sydney.
     Early Modern France See Australia–France relations

    France and Australia have a close relationship founded on historical contacts, shared values of democracy
    Democracy
    Democracy is generally defined as a form of government in which all adult citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Ideally, this includes equal participation in the proposal, development and passage of legislation into law...

     and human rights
    Human rights
    Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being." Human rights are thus conceived as universal and egalitarian . These rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national...

    , substantial commercial links, and a keen interest in each other's culture.
     Germany
    • Australia has an embassy in Berlin
      Berlin
      Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

       and a general consulate in Frankfurt
      Frankfurt
      Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

      .
    • Germany has an embassy in Canberra
      Canberra
      Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

      .
    • Trade between the 2 countries is sizable but heavily weighted to imports from Germany. In 2008, total two-way merchandise trade was valued at over A$13.4 billion, of which A$11.4 billion (85 per cent) were imports from Germany.
     Greece
    • There is a large Greek community in Australia (dating back from the 1950s and 1960s). See Greek Australian
      Greek Australian
      Greeks are the seventh-largest ethnic group in Australia, after those declaring their ancestry simply as "Australian". In the 2006 census, 365,147 persons declared having Greek ancestry, either alone or in conjunction with another ethnicity....

      .
    • Australia has an embassy in Athens
      Athens
      Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

      .
    • Australia and Greece were Allies during WWII and Australian forces took part in the Battle of Greece
      Battle of Greece
      The Battle of Greece is the common name for the invasion and conquest of Greece by Nazi Germany in April 1941. Greece was supported by British Commonwealth forces, while the Germans' Axis allies Italy and Bulgaria played secondary roles...

       and Battle of Crete
      Battle of Crete
      The Battle of Crete was a battle during World War II on the Greek island of Crete. It began on the morning of 20 May 1941, when Nazi Germany launched an airborne invasion of Crete under the code-name Unternehmen Merkur...

      .
    • Greece also has Consulates General in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, as well as a Consulate in Perth, honorary consulates general in Brisbane and Darwin, and honorary Consulates in Newcastle
      Newcastle, New South Wales
      The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and includes most of the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie Local Government Areas...

       and Hobart.
    • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Greece
    • Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Australia
     Hungary 1972
  • Australia has an embassy in Budapest
    Budapest
    Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

    .
  • Hungary has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate general in Sydney and four honorary consulate (in Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne and Perth).
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Hungary
  •  Republic of Ireland See Australia–Ireland relations
    • Australia and Ireland share a close historical relationship with strong cultural links between the two nations.
    • Australia has an embassy in Dublin.
    • Ireland has an embassy in Canberra, a Consulate General in Sydney and an honorary consulate in Victoria, and both nations are former British colonies
      British Empire
      The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

      .
    • About 20% of the Australian population have Irish ancestry, which often predates Irish Independence in 1922.
    • Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Ireland
     Italy
    • Australia has an embassy in Rome
      Rome
      Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

       and a general consulate in Milan
      Milan
      Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

      .
    • Italy has an embassy in Canberra, two general consulates (in Melbourne and Sydney) and three consulates (in Adelaide, Brisbane and Perth).
    • Italy and Australia have for long years, sustained a muscular and positively friendly relationship in the categories of immigration
      Immigration
      Immigration is the act of foreigners passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence...

      , political strategism, and commercial trade
      Trade
      Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

      .
    • There are around 850,000 people of Italian descent living in Australia.
    • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relation with Italy
     Republic of Kosovo 21 May 2008 See Australia–Kosovo relations
    Australia–Kosovo relations
    Australian–Kosovan relations are foreign relations between Australia and the Republic of Kosovo. Neither country has resident ambassadors. Australia's Ambassador to Kosovo is subordinate to the Embassy in Vienna, Austria.-History:...

  • Australia recognised the Republic of Kosovo on 19 February 2008.
  • Australia's Ambassador to Kosovo is subordinate to the Embassy in Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

    .
  •  Luxembourg
  • Australia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels
    Brussels
    Brussels , officially the Brussels Region or Brussels-Capital Region , is the capital of Belgium and the de facto capital of the European Union...

     (Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

    ) and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg City.
  • Luxembourg is represented in Australia through the embassy of the Netherlands in Canberra and through an honorary consulate in East Lindfield
    East Lindfield, New South Wales
    East Lindfield is a locality on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. East Lindfield is located 13 kilometres north-west of the Sydney Central Business District in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council....

    .
  • Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relation with Luxembourg
  •  Malta 1967
    See Australia–Malta relations
    • Australia has a High Commission in Valletta
      Valletta
      Valletta is the capital of Malta, colloquially known as Il-Belt in Maltese. It is located in the central-eastern portion of the island of Malta, and the historical city has a population of 6,098. The name "Valletta" is traditionally reserved for the historic walled citadel that serves as Malta's...

      .
    • Malta has a High Commission in Canberra, two Consulates-General (in Melbourne and Sydney), and four honorary consulates (in Adelaide, Ascot Vale, Melbourne and Perth).
    • Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Malta
     Kingdom of Montenegro
  • Australia recognised the Republic of Montenegro on 27 June 2006.
  • Australia is represented in Montenegro through a non-resident ambassador based in the Australian embassy in Belgrade (Serbia).
  • Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Montenegro
  •  Netherlands
  • Australia has an embassy in The Hague
    The Hague
    The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Canberra.
  •  Norway
  • Australia has an honourary consulate in Oslo
    Oslo
    Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

    , and is represented in Norway through its embassy in Stockholm
    Stockholm
    Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

     (Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

    )
  • Norway has an embassy in Canberra
    Canberra
    Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of over 345,000, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory , south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Melbourne...

  •  Kingdom of Romania
  • Australia has a non-resident ambassador in its embassy in Belgrade
    Belgrade
    Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

     (Serbia
    Serbia
    Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

    ), and has a consulate general in Bucharest
    Bucharest
    Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

    .
  • Romania has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney.
  • Romania and Australia have concluded an Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement, signed in 1994, a Trade and Economic Agreement (signed with full effect for Australia in July 2002 and for Romania in January 2003) and an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion, signed in 2001.
  •  Russia 1942 See Australia–Russia relations
    Australia–Russia relations
    Australia–Russia relations date back to 1807, when the Russian warship Neva arrived in Sydney as part of its circumnavigation of the globe. Consular relations between Australia and the Russian Empire were established in 1857...


    • The first Australian embassy in Moscow opened in 1943. Australia has an embassy in Moscow
      Embassy of Australia in Moscow
      The Embassy of Australia in Moscow is the diplomatic mission of Australia to the Russian Federation. The chancery is located at 10A/2 Podkolokolny Lane in the Tagansky District of Moscow.- External links :...

       and two honorary consulates (in Saint Petersburg
      Saint Petersburg
      Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

       and Vladivostok
      Vladivostok
      The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

      ).
    • Russia has an embassy in Canberra and a consulate-general in Sydney.
    • Australian Department of Foreign Affaires and Trade about the relation with Russia
     Serbia 1966 See Australia–Serbia relations
    Australia–Serbia relations
    Australian–Serbian relations are foreign relations between Australia and Serbia. The two countries maintained diplomatic relations established by Australia and SFR Yugoslavia in 1966. Australia has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney...


    • Australia has an embassy in Belgrade
      Belgrade
      Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

      . The Australian Ambassador to Serbia is Dr Helena Studdert.
    • Serbia has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Serbian Ambassador to Australia is due to arrive in late 2010 and Consul-General in Sydney is Aleksandar Besarabić.
    • The European office of the Australian Federal Police
      Australian Federal Police
      The Australian Federal Police is the federal police agency of the Commonwealth of Australia. Although the AFP was created by the amalgamation in 1979 of three Commonwealth law enforcement agencies, it traces its history from Commonwealth law enforcement agencies dating back to the federation of...

       is located in Belgrade as of 2003.
    • In the 2006 Australian Census, 95,364 people identified themselves as having Serbian origin.
     Slovenia
  • Australia recognised Slovenia as an independent state on 16 January 1992.
  • Australia is represented in Slovenian through its embassy in Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

    , Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

    , and through an honorary consulate in Ljubljana
    Ljubljana
    Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is the centre of the City Municipality of Ljubljana. It is located in the centre of the country in the Ljubljana Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 270,000 inhabitants...

    .
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Canberra and an honorary consulate in Camperdown, New South Wales
    Camperdown, New South Wales
    Camperdown is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Camperdown is located 4 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district and is part of the Inner West region...

    .
  • There are between 20,000 and 25,000 Slovenians who live in Australia.
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Slovenia
  •  Sweden See Australia–Sweden relations
    Australia–Sweden relations
    Australia–Sweden relations are foreign relations between Australia and Sweden. Australia has an embassy in Stockholm. Sweden has an embassy in Canberra as well as a Consulate-General in Sydney...



    Australia has an embassy in Stockholm
    Stockholm
    Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

    . Sweden has an embassy in Canberra as well as a Consulate-General in Sydney. Sweden is also represented by consulates in Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne and Perth.
     Switzerland 1961
  • Switzerland opened a consulate in Sydney in 1855 and one in Melbourne in 1856.
  • Australia is represented to Switzerland through its embassy in Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

     (Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    ) and Australia also has a consulate-general in Geneva
    Geneva
    Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

    .
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate-general in Sydney and six honorary consulates in Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne and Perth.
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Switzerland
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Australia
  •  Ukraine
  • Ukraine opened an Embassy in Canberra in March 2003.
  • Australia’s Ambassador in Vienna
    Vienna
    Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

     is accredited to Ukraine.
  • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Ukraine
  •  United Kingdom See Australia – United Kingdom relations

    British-Australian relations are close, marked by shared history, culture, institutions and language, extensive people-to-people links, aligned security interests, and vibrant trade and investment cooperation.

    South Asia and Middle East

    Country Formal Relations Began Notes
     India See Australia–India relations
    Australia–India relations
    Australia–India relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Commonwealth of Australia. Before independence Australia and India were both part of the British Empire and both are part of the Commonwealth of Nations...



    In 2009, relations were strained between the two nations by attacks on Indian students, termed "Curry Bashings" in Melbourne
    Melbourne
    Melbourne is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia. The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater...

    . Police denied any racial motivation, but this was viewed differently by the government in India leading to high-level meetings with Australian officials.
     Israel 1948 See Australia-Israel relations
    Australia-Israel relations
    Australia-Israel relations refers to foreign relations between Australia and Israel.-History:The relationship has a strong historical dimension, dating back to the First World War when Australian forces fought in the region, including in modern-day Israel, alongside their Allied Counterparts...

    • Australia has an embassy in Tel Aviv
      Tel Aviv
      Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

      .
    • Israel has an embassy in Canberra.
    • There are 120,000 Jews living in Australia.
    • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Israel
     Pakistan See Australia–Pakistan relations
    Australia–Pakistan relations
    Pakistan–Australia relations refers to the bilateral relations between Pakistan and Australia. The relations between the two countries have been friendly, with former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf having visited Australia in 2005 and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, also...



    The relations between the two countries have been friendly, with former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf
    Pervez Musharraf
    Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

     having visited Australia in 2005 and the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, also having extended a visit to Pakistan in 2005 as well, following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake
    2005 Kashmir earthquake
    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake was a major earthquake centered in Pakistan-administered Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir, near the city of Muzaffarabad, affecting Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time on 8 October 2005...

     which had immensely targeted the northern areas of Pakistan. He also announced 500 new scholarships for students in Pakistan to study in Australia.
     Sri Lanka
    • Bilateral relations are generally warm, supported by trade
      Trade
      Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

      , investment
      Investment
      Investment has different meanings in finance and economics. Finance investment is putting money into something with the expectation of gain, that upon thorough analysis, has a high degree of security for the principal amount, as well as security of return, within an expected period of time...

       flows, education
      Education
      Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

      , immigration
      Immigration
      Immigration is the act of foreigners passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence...

       and other development
      Economic development
      Economic development generally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policymakers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area...

       cooperations. Australia
      Australia
      Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

       is also a member in helping the economic and social development of Sri Lanka
      Sri Lanka
      Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

      .
    • In 2007 a two-way trade agreement was created between Australia and Sri Lanka valued at $232 million a year. The trade agreement includes exports from Australia such as vegetables and dairy products. Tea and other foods, textiles, clothing, rubber, iron and steel which are the main imports from Sri Lanka.
    • In 2008–09 the estimated budget for aid to Sri Lanka is $27 million.

    Sri Lanka Country Brief
     Turkey 1967 See Australian–Turkish relations
    • Australia has an embassy in Ankara
      Ankara
      Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

       since 1968, a consulate-general in Istanbul
      Istanbul
      Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

       and a consulate in Çanakkale
      Çanakkale
      Çanakkale is a town and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point. The population of the town is 106,116 . The mayor is Ülgür Gökhan ....

      .
    • Turkey has had an embassy in Canberra since 1967 and two consulates-general in Melbourne and Sydney.
    • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Australia
    • Australian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Turkey

    Africa

    Country Formal Relations Began Notes
     Egypt 1950 See Australia–Egypt relations
    • Australia has an embassy in Cairo
      Cairo
      Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

      .
    • Egypt has an embassy in Canberra and two Consulates-General (in Melbourne and Sydney).
    • Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about relations with Egypt
     South Africa See Australia – South Africa relations
    Australia – South Africa relations
    Australia – South Africa relations are foreign relations between Australia and South Africa. Australia has a High Commission in Pretoria. South Africa has a High Commission in Canberra.-History:...


    • Australia has a High Commission in Pretoria
      Pretoria
      Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the executive and de facto national capital; the others are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital.Pretoria is...

      .
    • South Africa has a High Commission in Canberra.
     Zimbabwe See Australia–Zimbabwe relations

    Both countries have full embassy level diplomatic relations. Australia currently manintains an embassy in Harare
    Harare
    Harare before 1982 known as Salisbury) is the largest city and capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,600,000, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area . Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its...

    , and Zimbabwe maintains an embassy in Canberra.

    International disputes


    Australia has a number of ongoing international disputes. Australia's role in the 2003 Invasion of Iraq
    2003 invasion of Iraq
    The 2003 invasion of Iraq , was the start of the conflict known as the Iraq War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and Poland invaded Iraq and toppled the regime of Saddam Hussein in 21 days of major combat operations...

     without UN sanction has been a cause of protest. Presently, there is tension in Australia's relations with Indonesia
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

     over the release of Abu Bakar Bashir
    Abu Bakar Bashir
    Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Bakar Bashir (also Abubakar Ba'asyir, Abdus Somad, and Ustad Abu ("Teacher Abu"), born 17 August 1938, is an Indonesian Muslim cleric and leader of the Indonesian Mujahedeen Council (MMI)....

     as well as Australia's recent decision to grant temporary protection visa
    Temporary protection visa
    A Temporary Protection Visa was an Australian visa document introduced by the Howard Government on 20 October 1999, which was issued to persons who had been recognised as refugees fleeing persecution. The scheme was controversial, with the government claiming it was a necessary response to the...

    s to 42 West Papuans, after which Indonesia's ambassador was recalled. There was also minor tensions between the two countries in 2004–05 when Schapelle Corby
    Schapelle Corby
    Schapelle Leigh Corby is an Australian woman convicted of drug smuggling who is imprisoned in Indonesia.Corby is serving a 20-year sentence for the importation of of cannabis into Bali, Indonesia...

     was imprisoned for 20 years for possessing 4.2 kg of marijuana
    Cannabis (drug)
    Cannabis, also known as marijuana among many other names, refers to any number of preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or for medicinal purposes. The English term marijuana comes from the Mexican Spanish word marihuana...

    .

    Australia has removed an Israeli diplomat after Israel forged Australian passports to carry out a Mossad assassination. Relations with Israel further deteriorated after Israel attacked an AID ship in Gaza, injuring an Australian. Former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
    Kevin Rudd
    Kevin Michael Rudd is an Australian politician who was the 26th Prime Minister of Australia from 2007 to 2010. He has been Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2010...

     has condemned Israel's actions.

    See also

    • Australia and the United Nations
      Australia and the United Nations
      Australia was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and has been actively engaged in the organisation since its formation...

    • Australia House (Ottawa)
      Australia House (Ottawa)
      Australia House in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is the official residence of the Australian High Commissioner to Canada. The house is located on a corner lot at 407 Wilbrod Street in the Sandy Hill neighbourhood of Ottawa, near to a number of other embassies and residences. The house was built in...

    • Australian contribution to the 2003 Gulf War
    • Defence of Australia Policy
      Defence of Australia Policy
      The Defence of Australia Policy was Australia's dominant defence policy between 1972 and 1997. The policy was focused on the defence of continental Australia against external attack...

    • List of Australians imprisoned or executed abroad
    • List of diplomatic missions in Australia
    • List of diplomatic missions of Australia
    • Visa requirements for Australian citizens
      Visa requirements for Australian citizens
      According to the "Henley Visa Restrictions Index 2011," Australian citizens can travel to 166 countries visa-free / with visa on arrival.-Africa:-Americas:-Asia:-Europe:-Oceania:-See also:...


    External links