city of Germany
and is one of the 16 states of Germany
. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper
and the seventh most populous urban area
in the European Union
. Located in northeastern Germany, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
, which has 4.4 million residents from over 190 nations. Located in the European Plain
s, Berlin is influenced by a temperate
seasonal climate. Around one third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.
First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia
(1701–1918), the German Empire
(1871–1918), the Weimar Republic
(1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).
1760 Seven Years' War: Russian forces occupy Berlin.
1806 The French Army enters Berlin.
1813 Russian troops fighting the army of Napoleon reach Berlin in Germany and the French garrison evacuates the city without a fight.
1876 The Reichsbank opens in Berlin.
1893 Henrik Ibsen's play ''The Master Builder'' receives its premiere performance in Berlin.
1900 Max Planck, in his house at Grunewald, on the outskirts of Berlin, discovers the law of black body emission.
1912 The Deutsche Opernhaus (now Deutsche Oper Berlin) opens in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg, with a production of Beethoven's ''Fidelio''.
1920 The Kapp Putsch briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin.
1933 Reichstag fire: Germany's parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, is set on fire.
1940 World War II: The Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Japan and Italy.