Berlin is the capital
Capital of Germany
The Capital of Germany muskan is the city state of Berlin. It is the seat of the President of Germany, whose official residence is Schloss Bellevue. The Bundesrat is the representation of the Federal States of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian Herrenhaus...

 city of Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and is one of the 16 states of Germany
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper
Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits
This is a list of the largest cities in the European Union by population within city limits which have more than 300,000 inhabitants. It deals exclusively with the areas within city administrative boundaries as opposed to urban areas or metropolitan areas, which are generally larger in terms of...

 and the seventh most populous urban area
Largest urban areas of the European Union
This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 750,000 inhabitants each in 2011.This list is an attempt to present a consistent list of population figures for urban areas in the European Union. All the figures here have been compiled by Demographia.-Important...

 in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. Located in northeastern Germany, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
The Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region is one of the 11 metropolitan regions of Germany...

, which has 4.4 million residents from over 190 nations. Located in the European Plain
European Plain
The European Plain or Great European Plain is a plain in Europe. It is the largest mountain-free landform in Europe, although a number of highlands are identified within. It stretches from the Pyrenees Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east.It consists of the...

s, Berlin is influenced by a temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

 seasonal climate. Around one third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.

First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

 (1701–1918), the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

 (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

 (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945).

1760    Seven Years' War: Russian forces occupy Berlin.

1806    The French Army enters Berlin.

1813    Russian troops fighting the army of Napoleon reach Berlin in Germany and the French garrison evacuates the city without a fight.

1876    The Reichsbank opens in Berlin.

1893    Henrik Ibsen's play ''The Master Builder'' receives its premiere performance in Berlin.

1900    Max Planck, in his house at Grunewald, on the outskirts of Berlin, discovers the law of black body emission.

1912    The Deutsche Opernhaus (now Deutsche Oper Berlin) opens in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg, with a production of Beethoven's ''Fidelio''.

1920    The Kapp Putsch briefly ousts the Weimar Republic government from Berlin.

1933    Reichstag fire: Germany's parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, is set on fire.

1940    World War II: The Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Japan and Italy.