in North America
. It is bordered on the north by the United States
; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean
; on the southeast by Guatemala
, and the Caribbean Sea
; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico
. Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas
by total area and the thirteenth largest independent nation in the world.
1519 Hernan Cortes arrives in Mexico in search of the Aztec civilization and their wealth.
1576 The Mexican city of León is founded by order of the viceroy Don Martín Enríquez de Almanza.
1693 Ignacio de Maya founds the Real Santiago de las Sabinas, now known as Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo León, México.
1811 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of the Mexican insurgency, is executed by the Spanish in Chihuahua, Mexico.
1821 The Treaty of Córdoba is signed in Córdoba, now in Veracruz, Mexico, concluding the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.
1821 Mexico gains its independence from Spain.
1823 Stephen F. Austin receives a grant of land in Texas from the government of Mexico.
1824 Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.
1829 Surrender of the expedition led by Isidro Barradas at Tampico, sent by the Spanish crown in order to retake Mexico, This was the final consummation of Mexican independence.
1835 The Texas Revolution begins with the Battle of Gonzales: Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, Texas, but encounter stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia.