Ankara

Ankara

Overview
Ankara (ˈan.ka.ɾa) is the capital of Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and the country's second largest city after Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

. The city has a mean elevation of 938 metres (3,077.4 ft), and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province
Ankara Province
Ankara Province in central Turkey is the location of the country's capital, the city of Ankara.Ankara also gave its name to the Ottoman Empire's Ankara Province which covered a larger area than the current province.- Geography :...

 had a population of 4.4 million.

Centrally located in Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

, Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city.
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Encyclopedia
Ankara (ˈan.ka.ɾa) is the capital of Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and the country's second largest city after Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

. The city has a mean elevation of 938 metres (3,077.4 ft), and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province
Ankara Province
Ankara Province in central Turkey is the location of the country's capital, the city of Ankara.Ankara also gave its name to the Ottoman Empire's Ankara Province which covered a larger area than the current province.- Geography :...

 had a population of 4.4 million.

Centrally located in Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

, Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city. It is the center of the Turkish Government
Politics of Turkey
Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a strictly secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a multi-party system...

, and houses all foreign embassies. It is an important crossroads of trade, strategically located at the centre of Turkey's highway and railway networks, and serves as the marketing centre for the surrounding agricultural area. The city was famous for its long-haired Angora goat
Angora goat
The Angora goat is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara , Turkey and its surrounding region in central Anatolia...

 and its prized wool (mohair
Mohair
Mohair usually refers to a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. The word "mohair" was adopted into English before 1570 from the Arabic: mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally 'choice', from khayyara, 'he chose'. Mohair fiber is approximately 25-45 microns in...

), a unique breed of cat (Angora cat
Turkish Angora
The Turkish Angora is a breed of domestic cat. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally occurring cat breeds, having originated in central Turkey, in the Ankara region...

), white rabbits
Angora rabbit
The Angora rabbit is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft wool. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara , Turkey, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid 18th century, and spread...

 and their prized wool (Angora wool
Angora wool
Angora wool or Angora fibre refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. While their names are similar, Angora fibre is distinct from mohair, which comes from the Angora goat. Angora is known for its softness, thin fibres, and what knitters refer to as a halo...

), pear
Pear
The pear is any of several tree species of genus Pyrus and also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, but the fruit of other species is small, hard, and astringent....

s, honey
Honey
Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans...

, and the region's muscat
Muscat (grape and wine)
The Muscat variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world...

 grape
Grape
A grape is a non-climacteric fruit, specifically a berry, that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, molasses and grape seed oil. Grapes are also...

s.

The historical center of Ankara is situated upon a rocky hill, which rises 150 m (492 ft) above the plain on the left bank of the Ankara Çayı, a tributary of the Sakarya (Sangarius) river. The city is located at 39°52'30" North, 32°52' East (39.875°N 32.8333°E), about 450 km (279.6 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul, the country's largest city. Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey and surrounded mostly by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery, Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, which is 72 m2 per head.

Ankara is a very old city with various Hittite
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

, Phrygia
Phrygia
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Phrygians initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges , changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the...

n, Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

, Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, Byzantine
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, and Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 archaeological site
Archaeological site
An archaeological site is a place in which evidence of past activity is preserved , and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a 'site' can vary widely,...

s. The hill which overlooks the city is crowned by the ruins of the old castle, which adds to the picturesqueness of the view, but only a few historic structures surrounding the old citadel have survived to the present day. There are, however, many finely preserved remains of Hellenistic
Hellenistic civilization
Hellenistic civilization represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE...

, Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 and Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from what is today referred to as the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to...

, the most remarkable being the Temple of Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

 and Rome (20 BC) which is also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum
Monumentum Ancyranum
The name Monumentum Ancyranum refers to the Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ancyra , or to the inscription Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a text recounting the deeds of the first Roman emperor Augustus, the most intact copy of which is preserved on the walls of this temple.The temple was built between 25...

.

Etymology


As with many ancient cities, Ankara has gone by several names over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

 cult center Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate. In classical antiquity and during the medieval period, the city was known as Ánkyra ' onMouseout='HidePop("31086")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Anchor">anchor
Anchor
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, that is used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the vessel from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα .Anchors can either be temporary or permanent...

") in Greek
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek is the stage of the Greek language in the periods spanning the times c. 9th–6th centuries BC, , c. 5th–4th centuries BC , and the c. 3rd century BC – 6th century AD of ancient Greece and the ancient world; being predated in the 2nd millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek...

 and Ancyra in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

; the Galatian Celtic
Galatian language
Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor from the 3rd century BC up to at least the 4th century AD, although ancient sources suggest it was still spoken in the 6th century....

 name was probably a similar variant. Following its annexation by the Seljuq Turks in 1073, the city became known in many European languages as Angora, a usage which continued until its official renaming to "Ankara" under the Turkish Postal Service Law of 1930. Another proposed theory show that the original name of the city might be taken over from the Angara River
Angara River
The Angara River is a long river in Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai, south-east Siberia, Russia. It is the only river flowing out of Lake Baikal, and is the headwater tributary of the Yenisei River....

 of Asia by the invading Seljuk Turks.

History



The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

 Hatti civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygia
Phrygia
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Phrygians initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges , changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the...

ns, and later by the Lydia
Lydia
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern Turkish provinces of Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian....

ns, Persia
Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

ns, Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Galatia
Galatia
Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of...

ns, Romans
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

, Byzantines
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, and Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

 (the Seljuq
Great Seljuq Empire
The Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Persianate, Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf...

 Sultanate of Rûm
Sultanate of Rûm
The Sultanate of Rum , also known as the Anatolian Seljuk State , was a Turkic state centered in in Anatolia, with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya. Since the court of the sultanate was highly mobile, cities like Kayseri and Sivas also functioned at times as capitals...

, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 and Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

.)

Ancient history


The oldest settlements in and around the city centre of Ankara belonged to the Hatti's civilization which existed during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze as the chief hard materials in the manufacture of some implements and weapons. Chronologically, it stands between the Stone Age and Iron Age...

. The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygia
Phrygia
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Phrygians initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges , changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the...

ns starting around 1000 BC, and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion
Gordium
Gordium was the capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, about 70–80 km southwest of Ankara , in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı district. The site was excavated by Gustav and Alfred Körte in 1900 and then by the University of Pennsylvania Museum,...

, (the capital of Phrygia
Phrygia
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Phrygians initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges , changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the...

), after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time. In Phrygian tradition, King Midas
Midas
For the legend of Gordias, a person who was taken by the people and made King, in obedience to the command of the oracle, see Gordias.Midas or King Midas is popularly remembered in Greek mythology for his ability to turn everything he touched into gold. This was called the Golden touch, or the...

 was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias
Pausanias (geographer)
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece , a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from firsthand observations, and is a crucial link between classical...

 mentions that the city was actually far older, which accords with present archaeological knowledge.

Phrygian rule was succeeded first by Lydia
Lydia
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern Turkish provinces of Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian....

n and later by Persia
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

n rule, though the strongly Phrygian character of the peasantry remained, as evidenced by the gravestones of the much later Roman period. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians' defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander came from Gordion
Gordium
Gordium was the capital city of ancient Phrygia. It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, about 70–80 km southwest of Ankara , in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı district. The site was excavated by Gustav and Alfred Körte in 1900 and then by the University of Pennsylvania Museum,...

 to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death at Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

 in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire among his generals, Ankara and its environs fell into the share of Antigonus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus , son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. During his early life he served under Philip II, and he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king in 306 BC and...

.

Another important expansion took place under the Greeks of Pontos
Pontus
Pontus or Pontos is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day northeastern Turkey. The name was applied to the coastal region in antiquity by the Greeks who colonized the area, and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea: Πόντος...

 who came there around 300 BC and developed the city as a trading centre for the commerce of goods between the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

 ports and Crimea to the north; Assyria, Cyprus, and Lebanon to the south; and Georgia, Armenia and Persia to the east. By that time the city also took its name Áγκυρα (Ànkyra, meaning Anchor
Anchor
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, that is used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the vessel from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα .Anchors can either be temporary or permanent...

in Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

) which in slightly modified form provides the modern name of Ankara.

Celtic history


In 278 BC, the city, along with the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by a Celtic group, the Galatia
Galatia
Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of...

ns, who were the first to make Ankara one of their main tribal centres, the headquarters of the Tectosages
Volcae
The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedon circa 270 BC and defeated the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BC...

 tribe. Other centres were Pessinos
Pessinus
Pessinus was a city in Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey on the upper course of the river Sakarya River , from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm...

, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi
Trocmi
The Trocmii or Trocmi were one of the three ancient tribes of Galatia in central Asia Minor, together with the Tolistobogii and Tectosages, part of the possible Celtic group who moved from Macedonia into Asia Minor in the early third century BCE ....

 tribe, and Tavium
Tavium
Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley to Galatia in present-day central Turkey in the 3rd century BCE. Owing to its position on the high roads of commerce was an important trading post...

, to the east of Ankara, for the Tolstibogii tribe. The city was then known as Ancyra. The Celtic element was probably relatively small in numbers; a warrior aristocracy which ruled over Phrygian-speaking peasants. However, the Celtic language continued to be spoken in Galatia for many centuries. At the end of the 4th century, St. Jerome
Jerome
Saint Jerome was a Roman Christian priest, confessor, theologian and historian, and who became a Doctor of the Church. He was the son of Eusebius, of the city of Stridon, which was on the border of Dalmatia and Pannonia...

, a native of Dalmatia, observed that the language spoken around Ankara was very similar to that being spoken in the northwest of the Roman world near Trier
Trier
Trier, historically called in English Treves is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC....

.

Roman history


The city was subsequently conquered by Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

 in 25 BC and passed under the control of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

. Now the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia, Ancyra continued to be a center of great commercial importance. Ankara is also famous for the Monumentum Ancyranum
Monumentum Ancyranum
The name Monumentum Ancyranum refers to the Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ancyra , or to the inscription Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a text recounting the deeds of the first Roman emperor Augustus, the most intact copy of which is preserved on the walls of this temple.The temple was built between 25...

(Temple of Augustus and Rome) which contains the official record of the Acts of Augustus, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti
Res Gestae Divi Augusti
Res Gestae Divi Augusti, is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. The Res Gestae is especially significant because it gives an insight into the image Augustus portrayed to the Roman people...

, an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple. The ruins of Ancyra still furnish today valuable bas-relief
Relief
Relief is a sculptural technique. The term relief is from the Latin verb levo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is thus to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane...

s, inscriptions and other architectural fragments.

Augustus decided to make Ancyra one of three main administrative centres in central Anatolia. The town was then populated by Phrygians and Celts—the Galatians who spoke a language somewhat closely related to Welsh
Welsh language
Welsh is a member of the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa...

 and Gaelic
Goidelic languages
The Goidelic languages or Gaelic languages are one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic languages, the other consisting of the Brythonic languages. Goidelic languages historically formed a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland through the Isle of Man to the north of Scotland...

. Ancyra was the center of a tribe known as the Tectosages, and Augustus upgraded it into a major provincial capital for his empire. Two other Galatian tribal centres, Tavium
Tavium
Tavium, or Tavia, was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley to Galatia in present-day central Turkey in the 3rd century BCE. Owing to its position on the high roads of commerce was an important trading post...

 near Yozgat
Yozgat
Yozgat is a city and the capital district of Yozgat province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to 2009 census, population of the district is 113,614 of which 73,835 live in the city of Yozgat.-History:...

, and Pessinus
Pessinus
Pessinus was a city in Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey on the upper course of the river Sakarya River , from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm...

 (Balhisar) to the west, near Sivrihisar, continued to be reasonably important settlements in the Roman period, but it was Ancyra that grew into a grand metropolis.

An estimated 200,000 people lived in Ancyra in good times during the Roman Empire, a far greater number than was to be the case from after the fall of the Roman Empire until the early 20th century. A small river, the Ankara Çayı
Ankara River
Ankara River, is a small river that runs through the city of Ankara, Turkey. Because of long time exposure to sewage and industrial pollutants, it is no longer viable as a water source for irrigation even though it is still used for irrigation down stream, and causes cholera and other diseases in...

, ran through the centre of the Roman town. It has now been covered and diverted, but it formed the northern boundary of the old town during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Çankaya, the rim of the majestic hill to the south of the present city center, stood well outside the Roman city, but may have been a summer resort. In the 19th century, the remains of at least one Roman villa
Roman villa
A Roman villa is a villa that was built or lived in during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire. A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class...

 or large house were still standing not far from where the Çankaya Presidential Residence stands today. To the west, the Roman city extended until the area of the Gençlik Park and Railway Station, while on the southern side of the hill, it may have extended downwards as far as the site presently occupied by Hacettepe University
Hacettepe University
Hacettepe University is a major state university in Ankara, Turkey.The University has two main campuses. The first is located in the old town of Ankara and hosts the Medical Centre, and the second is the Beytepe Campus, which is 13 km from the city centre...

. It was thus a sizeable city by any standards and much larger than the Roman towns of Gaul
Gaul
Gaul was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age and Roman era, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg and Belgium, most of Switzerland, the western part of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. The Gauls were the speakers of...

 or Britannia
Britannia
Britannia is an ancient term for Great Britain, and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain. However, by the...

.

Ancyra's importance rested on the fact was that it was the junction point where the roads in northern Anatolia running north-south and east-west intersected. The great imperial road running east passed through Ankara and a succession of emperors and their armies came this way. They were not the only ones to use the Roman highway network, which was equally convenient for invaders. In the second half of the 3rd century, Ancyra was invaded in rapid succession by the Goths
Goths
The Goths were an East Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin whose two branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe....

 coming from the west (who rode far into the heart of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in Nevşehir Province.In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine...

, taking slaves and pillaging) and later by the Arabs. For about a decade, the town was one of the western outposts of one of the most brilliant queens of the ancient world, the Arab empress Zenobia
Zenobia
Zenobia was a 3rd-century Queen of the Palmyrene Empire in Roman Syria. She led a famous revolt against the Roman Empire. The second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus, Zenobia became queen of the Palmyrene Empire following Odaenathus' death in 267...

 from Palmyra
Palmyra
Palmyra was an ancient city in Syria. In the age of antiquity, it was an important city of central Syria, located in an oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus and 180 km southwest of the Euphrates at Deir ez-Zor. It had long been a vital caravan city for travellers crossing the Syrian desert...

 in the Syrian desert
Syrian Desert
The Syrian Desert , also known as the Syro-Arabian desert is a combination of steppe and true desert that is located in the northern Arabian Peninsula covering 200,000 square miles . also the desert is very rocky and flat...

, who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire to set up a short-lived state of her own.

The town was reincorporated into the Roman Empire under Emperor Aurelian
Aurelian
Aurelian , was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following...

 in 272. The tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
The term Tetrarchy describes any system of government where power is divided among four individuals, but usually refers to the tetrarchy instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire...

, a system of multiple (up to four) emperors introduced by Diocletian
Diocletian
Diocletian |latinized]] upon his accession to Diocletian . c. 22 December 244  – 3 December 311), was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305....

 (284-305), seems to have engaged in a substantial programme of rebuilding and of road construction from Ankara westwards to Germe and Dorylaeum
Dorylaeum
Dorylaeum or Dorylaion was an ancient city in Anatolia. It is now in ruins near the city of Eskişehir, Turkey.The city existed under the Phrygians but may have been much older. It was a Roman trading post. It also was probably a key city of the route the Apostle Paul took on his Second Missonary...

 (now Eskişehir
Eskisehir
Eskişehir is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. According to the 2009 census, the population of the city is 631,905. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby...

).

In its heyday, Roman Ankara was a large market and trading center but it also functioned as a major administrative capital, where a high official ruled from the city's Praetorium, a large administrative palace or office. During the 3rd century, life in Ancyra, as in other Anatolian towns, seems to have become somewhat militarised in response to the invasions and instability of the town. In this period, like other cities of central Anatolia, Ankara was also undergoing Christianisation.

Early martyrs, about whom little is known, included Proklos and Hilarios who were natives of the otherwise unknown village of Kallippi, near Ancyra, and suffered repression under the emperor Trajan
Trajan
Trajan , was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117 AD. Born into a non-patrician family in the province of Hispania Baetica, in Spain Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a legatus legionis in Hispania Tarraconensis, in Spain, in 89 Trajan supported the emperor against...

 (98-117). In the 280s AD we hear of Philumenos, a Christian corn merchant from southern Anatolia, being captured and martyred in Ankara, and Eustathius.

As in other Roman towns, the reign of Diocletian
Diocletian
Diocletian |latinized]] upon his accession to Diocletian . c. 22 December 244  – 3 December 311), was a Roman Emperor from 284 to 305....

 marked the culmination of the persecution of the Christians. In 303, Ancyra was one of the towns where the co-Emperors Diocletian and his deputy Galerius
Galerius
Galerius , was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311. During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299. He also campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300...

 launched their anti-Christian persecution. In Ancyra, their first target was the 38-year-old Bishop of the town, whose name was Clement. Clement's life describes how he was taken to Rome, then sent back, and forced to undergo many interrogations and hardship before he, and his brother, and various companions were put to death. The remains of the church of St. Clement
Clement of Ohrid
Saint Clement of Ohrid was a medieval Bulgarian saint, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Slavs. He was the most prominent disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius and is often associated with the creation of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets, especially their popularisation among...

 can be found today in a building just off Işıklar Caddesi in the Ulus district. Quite possibly this marks the site where Clement was originally buried. Four years later, a doctor of the town named Plato and his brother Antiochus also became celebrated martyrs under Galerius. Theodotus of Ancyra
Theodotus of Ancyra (martyr)
-Hagiography:On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus and the saintly virgins Thecusa, his aunt, Alexandra, Claudia, Faina, Euphrasia, Matrona and Julitta", etc...

 is also venerated as a saint.

However, the persecution proved unsuccessful and in 314 Ancyra was the center of an important council of the early church
Early Christianity
Early Christianity is generally considered as Christianity before 325. The New Testament's Book of Acts and Epistle to the Galatians records that the first Christian community was centered in Jerusalem and its leaders included James, Peter and John....

; which considered ecclesiastical policy for the reconstruction of the Christian church
Christian Church
The Christian Church is the assembly or association of followers of Jesus Christ. The Greek term ἐκκλησία that in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church" basically means "assembly"...

 after the persecutions, and in particular the treatment of 'lapsi'—Christians who had given in and conformed to paganism
Paganism
Paganism is a blanket term, typically used to refer to non-Abrahamic, indigenous polytheistic religious traditions....

 during these persecutions.

Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia in Asia Minor, during the 4th century. The first, an orthodox plenary synod, was held in 314, and its 25 disciplinary canons constitute one of the most important documents in the early history of the administration of the Sacrament of Penance
Confession
This article is for the religious practice of confessing one's sins.Confession is the acknowledgment of sin or wrongs...

. Nine of them deal with conditions for the reconciliation of the lapsi; the others, with marriage, alienations of church property, etc.

Though paganism was probably tottering in Ancyra in Clement's day, it may still have been the majority religion. Twenty years later, Christianity and monotheism
Monotheism
Monotheism is the belief in the existence of one and only one god. Monotheism is characteristic of the Baha'i Faith, Christianity, Druzism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Samaritanism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism.While they profess the existence of only one deity, monotheistic religions may still...

 had taken its place. Ancyra quickly turned into a Christian city, with a life dominated by monks and priests and theological disputes. The town council or senate gave way to the bishop as the main local figurehead. During the middle of the 4th century, Ancyra was involved in the complex theological disputes over the nature of Christ, and a form of Arianism
Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

 seems to have originated there.

The synod of 358 was a Semi-Arian conciliabulum
Conciliabulum
Conciliabulum is a Latin word meaning a place of assembly. Its implication transferred to a gathering, such as a conventicle or conference....

, presided over by Basil of Ancyra
Basil of Ancyra
Basil of Ancyra, was a Christian priest in Ancyra, Galatia during the fourth century. Very meager information about his life is preserved in a metaphrastic work: “Life and Deeds of the Martyred Priest Basil.” He fought against the pagans and the Arians...

. It condemned the grosser Arian blasphemies, but set forth an equally heretical doctrine in the proposition that the Son was in all things similar to the Father, but not identical in substance.
In 362-363, the Emperor Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate
Julian "the Apostate" , commonly known as Julian, or also Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer....

 passed through Ancyra on his way to an ill-fated campaign against the Persians, and according to Christian sources, engaged in a persecution of various holy men. The stone base for a statue, with an inscription describing Julian as "Lord of the whole world from the British Ocean to the barbarian nations", can still be seen, built into the eastern side of the inner circuit of the walls of Ankara Castle. The Column of Julian which was erected in honor of the emperor's visit to the city in 362 still stands today. In 375, Arian bishops met at Ancyra and deposed several bishops, among them St. Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
St. Gregory of Nyssa was a Christian bishop and saint. He was a younger brother of Basil the Great and a good friend of Gregory of Nazianzus. His significance has long been recognized in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic and Roman Catholic branches of Christianity...

. The modern Ankara, also known in some Western texts as Angora, remains a Roman Catholic titular see
Titular see
A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese". The ordinary or hierarch of such a see may be styled a "titular bishop", "titular metropolitan", or "titular archbishop"....

 in the former Roman province
Roman province
In Ancient Rome, a province was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy , largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy...

 of Galatia
Galatia
Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of...

 in Asia Minor
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

, suffragan
Suffragan bishop
A suffragan bishop is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop. He or she may be assigned to an area which does not have a cathedral of its own.-Anglican Communion:...

 of Laodicea
Laodicean Church
The Laodicean Church was a Christian community established in the ancient city of Laodicea . The church was established in the earliest period of Christianity, and is probably best known for being one of the seven churches addressed by name in the Book of Revelation The Laodicean Church was a...

. Its episcopal list is given in Gams, "Series episc. Eccl. cath."; also that of another Ancyra in Phrygia Pacatiana
Phrygia
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Phrygians initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges , changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the...

.

In the late 4th century AD, Ancyra became something of an imperial holiday resort
Resort
A resort is a place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company....

. After Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

 became the East Roman
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 capital, emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries would retire from the humid summer weather on the Bosporus to the drier mountain atmosphere of Ancyra. Theodosius II
Theodosius II
Theodosius II , commonly surnamed Theodosius the Younger, or Theodosius the Calligrapher, was Byzantine Emperor from 408 to 450. He is mostly known for promulgating the Theodosian law code, and for the construction of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople...

 (408-450) kept his court in Ancyra in the summers. Laws issued in Ancyra testify to the time they spent there. The city's military as well as logistical significance lasted well into the long Byzantine rule
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

. Although Ancyra temporarily fell into the hands of several Arab Muslim armies numerous times after the 7th century, it remained an important crossroads polis within the Byzantine Empire until the late 11th century. It was also the capital of the powerful Opsician Theme
Opsikion
The Opsician Theme or simply Opsikion was a Byzantine theme located in northwestern Asia Minor . Created from the imperial retinue army, the Opsikion was the largest and most prestigious of the early themes, being located closest to Constantinople...

, and after ca. 750 of the Bucellarian Theme
Bucellarian Theme
The Bucellarian Theme , more properly known as the Theme of the Bucellarians was a Byzantine theme in northern Asia Minor...

.

Turkish history



In 1071, the Turkish Seljuq
Seljuq dynasty
The Seljuq ; were a Turco-Persian Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries...

 Sultan Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan was the third sultan of the Seljuq dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty...

 conquered much of eastern and central Anatolia after his victory at the Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
The Battle of Manzikert , was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert...

. He then annexed Ankara, an important location for military transportation and natural resource
Natural resource
Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems....

s, to his territory in 1073. After the Battle of Köse Dağ
Battle of Köse Dag
The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Anatolia and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincan and Gümüşhane in northeast Anatolia, modern Turkey, and ended in a decisive Mongol victory....

 in 1243 in which the Mongols
Mongols
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

 defeated the Seljuqs, most of Anatolia became part of the dominion of the Mongols. Taking advantage of Seljuq decline, a semi religious cast of craftsmen and trade people named Ahiler chose Ankara as their independent city state in 1290. Orhan I
Orhan I
Orhan I or Orhan Bey was the second bey of the nascent Ottoman Empire from 1326 to 1359...

, the second Bey
Bey
Bey is a title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. Accoding to some sources, the word "Bey" is of Turkish language In historical accounts, many Turkish, other Turkic and Persian leaders are titled Bey, Beg, Bek, Bay, Baig or Beigh. They are all the same word...

 of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

, captured the city in 1356. Timur
Timur
Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

 defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place at the field of Çubuk between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I and the Turko-Mongol forces of Timur, ruler of the Timurid Empire. The battle was a major victory for Timur, and it led to a period of crisis for...

 in 1402 and took the city, but in 1403 Ankara was again under Ottoman control.

Following the Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 defeat at World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the Ottoman capital Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

 and much of Anatolia
Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

 were occupied by the Allies, who planned to share these lands between Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, leaving for the Turks the core piece of land in central Anatolia. In response, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey....

, established the headquarters of his resistance movement
Turkish National Movement
The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries which resulted in the creation and shaping of the Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I....

 in Ankara in 1920 (see the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
The Treaty of Sèvres was the peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War I. The Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany before this treaty to annul the German concessions including the economic rights and enterprises. Also, France, Great Britain and Italy...

 and the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
The Turkish War of Independence was a war of independence waged by Turkish nationalists against the Allies, after the country was partitioned by the Allies following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I...

.) After the War of Independence was won and the Treaty of Sèvres was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland on 24 July 1923, that settled the Anatolian and East Thracian parts of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty of Lausanne was ratified by the Greek government on 11 February 1924, by the Turkish government on 31...

, the Turkish nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 on 29 October 1923. A few days earlier, Ankara had officially replaced Istanbul (formerly Constantinople
Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...

) as the new Turkish capital city, on 13 October 1923.

After Ankara became the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey, new development divided the city into an old section, called Ulus, and a new section, called Yenişehir. Ancient buildings reflecting Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman history and narrow winding streets mark the old section. The new section, now centered on Kızılay, has the trappings of a more modern city: wide streets, hotels, theaters, shopping malls, and high-rises. Government offices and foreign embassies are also located in the new section. Ankara has experienced a phenomenal growth since it was made Turkey's capital. It was "a small town of no importance" when it was made the capital of Turkey. In 1924, the year after the government had moved there, Ankara had about 35,000 residents. By 1927 there were 44,553 residents and by 1950 the population had grown to 286,781.

Economy


Historically, the production of Mohair
Mohair
Mohair usually refers to a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. The word "mohair" was adopted into English before 1570 from the Arabic: mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally 'choice', from khayyara, 'he chose'. Mohair fiber is approximately 25-45 microns in...

 from the Angora goat
Angora goat
The Angora goat is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara , Turkey and its surrounding region in central Anatolia...

; and Angora wool
Angora wool
Angora wool or Angora fibre refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. While their names are similar, Angora fibre is distinct from mohair, which comes from the Angora goat. Angora is known for its softness, thin fibres, and what knitters refer to as a halo...

 from the Angora rabbit
Angora rabbit
The Angora rabbit is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft wool. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara , Turkey, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid 18th century, and spread...

; have been an important part of the city's economy. These fabrics have been exported from Ankara to Europe and other parts of the globe for centuries.

The Central Anatolia Region
Central Anatolia Region
The Central Anatolia Region is one of Turkey's seven census-defined geographical regions.- Provinces :Total population: 12,105,975* Aksaray Province* Ankara Province* Çankırı Province* Eskişehir Province* Karaman Province* Kayseri Province...

 is one of the primary locations of grape
Grape
A grape is a non-climacteric fruit, specifically a berry, that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, molasses and grape seed oil. Grapes are also...

 and wine production in Turkey
Turkish wine
Turkish wine is wine made in the transcontinental Eurasian country of Turkey. The Caucasus region, where the countries of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey are located today, played a pivotal role in the early history of wine and is likely have been one of the earliest wine-producing regions...

, and Ankara is particularly famous for its Kalecik Karası
Kalecik Karasi
Kalecik Karası is a Turkish grape variety and a Turkish wine produced from this grape. This grape and wine are called by the name of area, the Kalecik district of Ankara Province, Turkey....

 and Muscat grapes
Muscat (grape and wine)
The Muscat variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world...

; and its Kavaklıdere wine
Kavaklidere (winery)
Kavaklıdere is the oldest and best known winery in Turkey. Founded by the And family, it is located in Ankara and is named after a neighborhood in the city.-External links:* *...

, which is produced in the Kavaklıdere
Kavaklidere, Ankara
Kavaklıdere is a neighbourhood of Çankaya district in Ankara, capital of Turkey....

 neighbourhood within the Çankaya district of the city. Ankara is also famous for its pear
Pear
The pear is any of several tree species of genus Pyrus and also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, but the fruit of other species is small, hard, and astringent....

s. Another renowned natural product of Ankara is its indigenous type of honey
Honey
Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans...

 (Ankara Balı) which is known for its light colour and is mostly produced by the Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo is an expansive recreational farming area, which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery in Ankara, Turkey...

 in the Gazi district, and by other facilities in the Elmadağ, Çubuk and Beypazarı districts.

A number of the global automotive companies
Automotive industry
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

 have production facilities in Ankara, such as the German bus and truck manufacturer MAN AG
MAN AG
MAN SE , formerly MAN AG, is a mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group. MAN SE is based in Munich, in the German State of Bavaria. Its primary output is for the automotive industry, particularly heavy trucks...

. Ankara is also the center of the state-owned and private Turkish defence
Arms industry
The arms industry is a global industry and business which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. It comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military material, equipment and facilities...

 and aerospace
Aerospace manufacturer
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft....

 companies, where the industrial plants and headquarters of the TAI
Turkish Aerospace Industries
Turkish Aerospace Industries, Inc. is the center of technology in design, development, manufacturing, integration of aerospace systems, modernization and after sales support in Turkey....

, MKE
Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation (Turkey)
The Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation , established in 1950, is a reorganization of government-controlled group of factories in Turkey that supplied the Turkish Army with supplies, munitions and equipment.-History:...

, Aselsan
Aselsan
Aselsan is a Turkish corporation which produces tactical military radios and defense electronic systems for the Turkish Army.- History :...

, Havelsan
Havelsan
Havelsan is a Turkish software and systems company having business presence in the defence and IT sectors. It is headquartered in Ankara, Turkey, with subsidiary companies and offices around Turkey and abroad...

, Roketsan
Roketsan
Roketsan is a major Turkish weapons manufacturer and defense contractor based in the central Anatolian province of Ankara. Incorporated in 1988 by Turkey's Defense Industry Executive Committee in order to establish the nation's industrial base on rocket technology, the company has quickly risen to...

, FNSS, Nurol, and numerous other firms are located. Exports to foreign countries from these defence firms have steadily increased in the past decades. The IDEF
International Defence Industry Fair
International Defence Industry Fair is Turkey's defence industry fair. The fair is held by the Turkish Armed Forces Foundation. The Foundation organizes IDEF on odd years and before each fair it chooses the organizer firm by calling a tender....

 in Ankara is one of the largest international expositions of the global arms industry
Arms industry
The arms industry is a global industry and business which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. It comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military material, equipment and facilities...

.

A large percentage of the employment in Ankara is provided by the state institutions; such as the ministries
Ministry (government department)
A ministry is a specialised organisation responsible for a sector of government public administration, sometimes led by a minister or a senior public servant, that can have responsibility for one or more departments, agencies, bureaus, commissions or other smaller executive, advisory, managerial or...

, undersecretariats, and other administrative bodies of the Turkish government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

. There are also many foreign citizens working as diplomat
Diplomat
A diplomat is a person appointed by a state to conduct diplomacy with another state or international organization. The main functions of diplomats revolve around the representation and protection of the interests and nationals of the sending state, as well as the promotion of information and...

s or clerks in the embassies of their respective countries.

Climate


Ankara has a continental climate
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

, with cold, snowy winters due to its elevation and inland location, and hot, dry summers. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn. Under Köppen's climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, Ankara features a semi-arid climate. Because of Ankara's high altitude and its dry summers, nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool. Ankara's annual average precipitation is fairly low at 415 millimetres (16 in), nevertheless precipitation can be observed throughout the year. Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.1 °C (32.2 °F) in January to 22.9 °C (73.2 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 11.7 °C (53.1 °F).

Demographics



Central Ankara has a population of 3,763,591 (2007) of which 1,870,831 are men and 1,892,760 are women. The metropolitan municipality, containing the central part of the city and the surrounding 8 districts under its jurisdiction, had a total population of 3,901,201 the same year.

When Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, it was designated as a planned city for 500,000 future inhabitants. During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace. However, from the 1950s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment , as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks...

 and poverty
Poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

 forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living. As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu
Gecekondu
Gecekondu is a Turkish word meaning a house put up quickly without proper permissions, a squatter's house, and by extension, a shanty or shack...

 were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough. Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities.

Nevertheless, many of these gecekondus have been replaced by huge public housing projects in the form of tower block
Tower block
A tower block, high-rise, apartment tower, office tower, apartment block, or block of flats, is a tall building or structure used as a residential and/or office building...

s such as Elvankent, Eryaman and Güzelkent; and also as mass housing compounds for military and civil service accommodation. Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are gradually being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find.
Population of Ankara
Year Population
2010 4,431,719
2007 3,901,201
2000 3,703,362
1990 2,583,963
1985 2,251,533
1970 1,209,000
1965 906,000
1960 646,000
1955 453,000
1950 287,000
1927 75,000

Museums


  • Anıtkabir
    Anitkabir
    Anıtkabir is the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the Turkish War of Independence and the founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey...

is located on an imposing hill, Anıttepe quarter of the city, where the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was an Ottoman and Turkish army officer, revolutionary statesman, writer, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey....

, founder of the Republic of Turkey, stands. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles. An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic. Anıtkabir is open every day, while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays.
  • Ankara Ethnography Museum
    Ethnography Museum of Ankara
    The Ethnography Museum of Ankara is a museum of ethnography dedicated to the cultures of historic and current civilizations that flourished in Turkey...

     (Etnoğrafya Müzesi)
This museum is opposite the Opera House on Talat Paşa Boulevard, in the Ulus district. There is a fine collection of folkloric as well as Seljuq- and Ottoman-era artifacts.
  • Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
    Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
    The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations is located on the south side of Ankara Castle in the Atpazarı area in Ankara, Turkey. It consists of the old Ottoman Mahmut Paşa bazaar storage building, and the Kurşunlu Han...

     (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi)
Situated at the entrance of Ankara Castle, it is an old bedesten (covered bazaar) that has been beautifully restored and now houses a unique collection of Paleolithic
Paleolithic
The Paleolithic Age, Era or Period, is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered , and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory...

, Neolithic
Neolithic
The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world. It is traditionally considered as the last part of the Stone Age...

, Hatti, Hittite
Hittites
The Hittites were a Bronze Age people of Anatolia.They established a kingdom centered at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia c. the 18th century BC. The Hittite empire reached its height c...

, Phrygia
Phrygia
In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now modern-day Turkey. The Phrygians initially lived in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges , changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the...

n, Urartian
Urartu
Urartu , corresponding to Ararat or Kingdom of Van was an Iron Age kingdom centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highland....

, and Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydia
Lydia
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern Turkish provinces of Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian....

n treasures.
  • State Art and Sculpture Museum
    State Art and Sculpture Museum
    The State Art and Sculpture Museum is a museum dedicated to fine arts and sculpture in Ankara, Turkey. It was designed in 1927 by architect Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu and built between 1927 and 1930 as the Türkocağı Building, upon the direction of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President...

     (Resim-Heykel Müzesi)
This museum is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions.
  • Cer Modern
is the modern-arts museum of Ankara inaugurated in 01 April 2010. It is situated in the renovated building of the historic TCDD
Turkish State Railways
The State Railways of the Turkish Republic or TCDD is the government owned, national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara...

 Cer Atölyeleri, the workshop of the Turkish National Railways. The museum incorporates the largest exhibition hall in Turkey. The museum holds periodic exhibitions of modern and contemporary art as well as hosting other contemporary arts events.
  • War of Independence Museum
    War of Independence Museum
    War of Independence Museum , housed in the first Turkish Grand National Assembly building in the Ulus district of Ankara, Turkey, displays important photographs, documents and furniture from the Turkish War of Independence....

     (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi)
This building, located on Ulus Square, was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit.
  • TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum
    TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum
    TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum is a railroad museum in the Maltepe district of Ankara, Turkey, which traces the history of steam locomotives.-Museum:Exhibits on display;*34061 1930 Henschel & Son Locomotive...

     - An open-air museum which traces the history of steam locomotive
    Steam locomotive
    A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its power through a steam engine. These locomotives are fueled by burning some combustible material, usually coal, wood or oil, to produce steam in a boiler, which drives the steam engine...

    s.
  • Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum
is a museum of industrial technology situated in Çengelhan, an Ottoman Era caravanserai
Caravanserai
A caravanserai, or khan, also known as caravansary, caravansera, or caravansara in English was a roadside inn where travelers could rest and recover from the day's journey...

. The exhibits include industrial/technological artifacts from 1850s onwards.
  • Ankara Aviation Museum
    Ankara Aviation Museum
    Ankara Air Force Museum is a military aviation museum founded by the Turkish Air Force, and opened on September 18, 1998 by Sabiha Gökçen and the commanders Halis Burhan and Ahmet Çörekçi. It is located in Etimesgut district of Ankara, Turkey.-External links:...

     (Hava Kuvvetleri Müzesi Komutanlığı)
The museum is near the Istanbul Road in Etimesgut. It is home to various missiles, avionics, aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force
Turkish Air Force
The Turkish Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. It ranks 3rd in NATO in terms of fleet size behind the USAF and Royal Air Force with a current inventory of 798 aircraft .-Initial stages:...

 (e.g. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre
F-86 Sabre
The North American F-86 Sabre was a transonic jet fighter aircraft. Produced by North American Aviation, the Sabre is best known as America's first swept wing fighter which could counter the similarly-winged Soviet MiG-15 in high speed dogfights over the skies of the Korean War...

, F-100 Super Sabre
F-100 Super Sabre
The North American F-100 Super Sabre was a supersonic jet fighter aircraft that served with the United States Air Force from 1954 to 1971 and with the Air National Guard until 1979. The first of the Century Series collection of USAF jet fighters, it was the first USAF fighter capable of...

, F-102 Delta Dagger
F-102 Delta Dagger
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was a US interceptor aircraft built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s. Entering service in 1956, its main purpose was to intercept invading Soviet bomber fleets...

, F-104 Starfighter
F-104 Starfighter
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, high-performance, supersonic interceptor aircraft originally developed for the United States Air Force by Lockheed. One of the Century Series of aircraft, it served with the USAF from 1958 until 1969, and continued with Air National Guard units...

, F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-4 Phantom
F-4 Phantom II
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engined, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor fighter/fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft. It first entered service in 1960 with the U.S. Navy. Proving highly adaptable,...

; and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160
Transall C-160
|-See also:-References:* Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1982-83. London:Jane's Yearbooks, 1982. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.-External links:*...

.) Also, a Hungarian MiG-21
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 is a supersonic jet fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. It was popularly nicknamed "balalaika", from the aircraft's planform-view resemblance to the Russian stringed musical instrument or ołówek by Polish pilots due to...

, a Pakistani MiG-19
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 is a Soviet second-generation, single-seat, twin jet-engined fighter aircraft. It was the first Soviet production aircraft capable of supersonic speeds in level flight. A comparable U.S...

, and a Bulgarian MiG-17
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants. Most MiG-17 variants cannot carry air-to-air missiles, but shot down many aircraft with its cannons...

 are on display in the museum.
  • METU Science and Technology Museum
    METU Science and Technology Museum
    METU Science and Technology Museum is a museum established within the campus of the Middle East Technical University, Ankara,Turkey. The museum is aimed to present the modern technological tools as well as technological past of Turkey.- Construction :...

     (ODTÜ Bilim ve Teknoloji Müzesi)
is based in the Middle East Technical University
Metu
Metu is a market town in southwestern Ethiopia. Located in the Illubabor Zone of the Oromia Region along the Sor River, this town has a latitude and longitude of and an altitude of 1605 meters...

 campus.

Ankara Citadel



The foundations of the citadel or castle were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava
Lava
Lava refers both to molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption and the resulting rock after solidification and cooling. This molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites. When first erupted from a volcanic vent, lava is a liquid at...

 outcrop (39.941°N 32.864°E), and the rest was completed by the Romans. The Byzantines and Seljuqs further made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadel, being the oldest part of Ankara, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture. There are also recreational areas to relax. Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants, serving local cuisine.

The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927–1952 and 1983–1989.

Roman Theatre


The remains, the stage, and the backstage can be seen outside the castle. Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations is located on the south side of Ankara Castle in the Atpazarı area in Ankara, Turkey. It consists of the old Ottoman Mahmut Paşa bazaar storage building, and the Kurşunlu Han...

 (see above). The seating area is still under excavation.

Temple of Augustus and Rome


The temple, also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum
Monumentum Ancyranum
The name Monumentum Ancyranum refers to the Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ancyra , or to the inscription Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a text recounting the deeds of the first Roman emperor Augustus, the most intact copy of which is preserved on the walls of this temple.The temple was built between 25...

, was built between 25 BC - 20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 and the formation of the Roman province of Galatia
Galatia
Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the immigrant Gauls from Thrace , who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC. It has been called the "Gallia" of...

, with Ancyra (modern Ankara) as its administrative capital. After the death of Augustus in 14 AD, a copy of the text of Res Gestae Divi Augusti
Res Gestae Divi Augusti
Res Gestae Divi Augusti, is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. The Res Gestae is especially significant because it gives an insight into the image Augustus portrayed to the Roman people...

 was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. The temple, on the ancient Acropolis of Ancyra, was enlarged by the Romans in the 2nd century. In the 5th century it was converted into a church by the Byzantines
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

. It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city.

Roman Bath


This bath has all the typical features of a classical Roman bath
Thermae
In ancient Rome, thermae and balnea were facilities for bathing...

: a frigidarium (cold room), tepidarium (warm room) and caldarium (hot room). The bath was built during the reign of Emperor Caracalla
Caracalla
Caracalla , was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he murdered the latter in 211...

 in the 3rd century AD to honour Asclepios
Asclepius
Asclepius is the God of Medicine and Healing in ancient Greek religion. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia , Iaso , Aceso , Aglæa/Ægle , and Panacea...

, the God of Medicine. Today, only the basement and first floors remain. It is situated in the Ulus quarter.

Column of Julian


The Column of Julian or Julianus, now in the Ulus district, was erected in honor of the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate
Julian the Apostate
Julian "the Apostate" , commonly known as Julian, or also Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer....

's visit to Ancyra in 362.

Mosques


  • The Alaaddin Mosque. It has a carved walnut mimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was built in the 12th century by the Seljuq ruler, Mesut.
  • Ahi Elvan Mosque, founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara Citadel and was constructed during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.
  • Hacı Bayram Mosque. This mosque, in the Ulus quarter next to the Temple of Augustus
    Monumentum Ancyranum
    The name Monumentum Ancyranum refers to the Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ancyra , or to the inscription Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a text recounting the deeds of the first Roman emperor Augustus, the most intact copy of which is preserved on the walls of this temple.The temple was built between 25...

    , was built in the early 15th century in Seljuq
    Seljuq dynasty
    The Seljuq ; were a Turco-Persian Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries...

     style by an unknown architect. It was subsequently restored by architect Mimar Sinan in the 16th century, with Kütahya
    Kütahya
    Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 212,444 inhabitants , lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 517 804 people...

     tiles being added in the 18th century. The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram Veli, whose tomb is next to the mosque, two years before his death (1427–28). The usable space inside this mosque is 437 m² (4,704 sq ft) on the first floor and 263 m² (2,831 sq ft) on the second floor.
  • Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque. It is the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone (red porphyry), an example of very fine workmanship. Yeni Cami is on Ulucanlar Avenue.
  • Kocatepe Mosque
    Kocatepe Mosque
    The Kocatepe Mosque is the largest mosque in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. It was built between 1967 and 1987 in the Kocatepe quarter in Kızılay, and its size and prominent situation have made it a landmark that can be seen from almost anywhere in central Ankara.-History of the mosque:The idea of...

    , the largest mosque in the city. Located in the Kocatepe quarter, it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets. Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city.

Historic buildings

  • Çankaya Köşkü
    Çankaya Köskü
    Çankaya Köşkü or Çankaya Köşk is the official residence of the President of Turkey. It is located in the Çankaya district of Ankara, which lends its name to the palace. The name is sometimes used as a metonymy for the current president. The Çankaya Presidential Compound stretches over of land...

    , the residence of the President of Turkey
    President of Turkey
    The President of Turkey is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office but has some important functions...

    .
  • Pembe Köşk
    Pembe Köşk
    Pembe Köşk is an Ottoman orchard house in the Çankaya district of Ankara, Turkey, which is the city’s oldest villa and was the home of Turkish President İsmet İnönü from 1925 to 1973....

    , the residence of Turkish President İsmet İnönü
    Ismet Inönü
    Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General, Prime Minister and the second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef" .-Family and early life:...

     from 1925 to 1973.

Modern monuments



Victory Monument


It was erected in 1927 on Zafer Square in the Sıhhiye quarter and depicts Atatürk in uniform.

Monument to a Secure, Confident Future


This monument, located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk! Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself."

The monument was depicted on the reverse
Obverse and reverse
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags , seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics. In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse...

 of the Turkish 5 lira
Turkish lira
The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the de facto independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira is subdivided into 100 kuruş...

 banknote of 1937–1952 and of the 1000 lira banknotes of 1939–1946.

Hatti Monument


Built in the 1970s on Sıhhiye Square, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti
Hattians
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in present-day central part of Anatolia, Turkey, noted at least as early as the empire of Sargon of Akkad , until they were gradually displaced and absorbed ca...

 gods and commemorates Anatolia's earliest known civilization. The symbol derived from this monument has been used as the logo of the city for a long time.

Parks


Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Parkı
Gençlik Parkı
- Geography :The park is almost at the center of Ankara. Its altitude is about , which makes it one of the lowest points of Ankara. It is surounded by Ulus Square in the north, Opera house in the east, Selim Sırrı Tarcan Sports Hall and Ankara Central Station in the south and, 19 Mayıs Stadium in...

 (houses an amusement park
Amusement park
thumb|Cinderella Castle in [[Magic Kingdom]], [[Disney World]]Amusement and theme parks are terms for a group of entertainment attractions and rides and other events in a location for the enjoyment of large numbers of people...

 with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical Garden
Botanical garden
A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi
Abdi Ipekçi
Abdi İpekçi was a Turkish journalist, intellectual and an activist for human rights. He was murdered while editor-in-chief of the Turkish daily newspaper Milliyet.-Biography:...

 Park, Güven Park (see above for the monument), Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink), Altınpark
Altınpark
- Geography :Altınpark is in Altındağ district of Ankara, situated on the way connecting Ankara to Ankara airport. The park area is - History :Up to 1977, the park area was a golf course. In 1985, it was transformed into a public park by the metropolitan municipality of Ankara.- The park today :The...

 (also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park.

Gençlik Park was depicted on the reverse
Obverse and reverse
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags , seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics. In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse...

 of the Turkish 100 lira
Turkish lira
The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the de facto independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira is subdivided into 100 kuruş...

 banknotes of 1952–1976.

Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo
Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo is an expansive recreational farming area, which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery in Ankara, Turkey...

 (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo
Zoo
A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred....

, several small agricultural farms, greenhouse
Greenhouse
A greenhouse is a building in which plants are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings...

s, restaurants, a dairy farm
Dairy farming
Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.Most dairy farms...

 and a brewery
Brewery
A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of beer, though beer can be made at home, and has been for much of beer's history. A company which makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company....

. It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family, be it for having picnics, hiking, biking or simply enjoying good food and nature. There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881, in Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki , historically also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

. Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans, can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream
Ice cream
Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners...

, fresh dairy product
Dairy product
Dairy products are generally defined as foods produced from cow's or domestic buffalo's milk. They are usually high-energy-yielding food products. A production plant for such processing is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Raw milk for processing comes mainly from cows, and, to a lesser extent,...

s and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal, at a traditional restaurant (Merkez Lokantası, Central Restaurant), cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm.

Shopping



Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruit
Dried fruit
Dried fruit is fruit where the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized...

s, nuts, and other produce.

Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies (Karum)
Kültepe
Kültepe is a modern village near the ancient city of Kaneš or Kanesh , located in the Kayseri Province of Turkey's Central Anatolia Region...

 that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in the Atakule Tower
Atakule Tower
Atakule is a 125m high communications and observation tower located in the Çankaya district of central Ankara, Turkey and is the primary landmark of the city. As the district of Çankaya is itself on a hill, the tower can be spotted from almost anywhere in the city during clear days...

 at Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city, which commands a magnificent view over the whole city and also has a revolving restaurant
Revolving restaurant
A revolving restaurant is a usually tower restaurant eating space designed to rest atop a broad circular revolving platform that operates as a large turntable. The building remains stationary and the diners are carried on the revolving floor. The revolving rate varies between one and three times...

 at the top where the complete panorama can be enjoyed in a more leisurely fashion. The symbol of the Armada Shopping Mall is an anchor
Anchor
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, that is used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the vessel from drifting due to wind or current. The word derives from Latin ancora, which itself comes from the Greek ἄγκυρα .Anchors can either be temporary or permanent...

, and there's a large anchor monument at its entrance, as a reference to the ancient Greek name of the city, Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra), which means anchor. Likewise, the anchor is also related with the Spanish name of the mall, Armada
Wiktionary
Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in 158 languages...

, which means naval fleet
Naval fleet
A fleet, or naval fleet, is a large formation of warships, and the largest formation in any navy. A fleet at sea is the direct equivalent of an army on land....

.

As Ankara started expanding westward in the 1970s, several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir
Eskisehir
Eskişehir is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. According to the 2009 census, the population of the city is 631,905. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby...

 Road. The Armada and CEPA malls on the highway, the Galleria in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, Real in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway.) There is also the newly expanded Ankamall at the outskirts, on the Istanbul Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands. This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region.

Culture and education



Turkish State Opera and Ballet
Turkish State Opera and Ballet
The State Opera and Ballet is the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey, with venues in Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir, Mersin, Antalya and Samsun...

, the national directorate of opera
Opera
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance...

 and ballet
Ballet
Ballet is a type of performance dance, that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century, and which was further developed in France and Russia as a concert dance form. The early portions preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were presented in large chambers with...

 companies of Turkey, has its headquarters in Ankara, and serves the city with three venues:
  • Ankara Opera House
    Ankara Opera House
    Ankara Opera House of the Turkish State Opera and Ballet is the largest of the three venues for opera and ballet in Ankara, Turkey, the other two being Leyla Gencer Sahnesi in Ostim and Operet Sahnesi in Sıhhiye....

     (Opera Sahnesi, also known as Büyük Tiyatro)
  • Leyla Gencer Sahnesi (named after world-famous soprano Leyla Gencer
    Leyla Gencer
    Leyla Gencer, or Ayşe Leyla Çeyrekgil was a world-renowned Turkish operatic soprano.Known as "La Diva Turca" and "La Regina" in the opera world, Gencer was a notable bel canto soprano who spent most of her career in Italy, from the early 1950s through the mid-1980s, and had a repertoire...

    )
  • Operet Sahnesi (also known as the Türkocağı Binası)


The Turkish State Theatres
Turkish State Theatres
The Turkish State Theatres is the official directorate of the national theatre companies in Turkey. It is bound to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and financed by the state to promote performed arts and enhance the public interest they receive...

 also has its head office in Ankara and runs the following stages in the city:
  • 125. Yıl Çayyolu Sahnesi
    125. Yil Çayyolu Sahnesi
    125. Yıl Çayyolu Sahnesi is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

  • Büyük Tiyatro (also doubling as the Ankara Opera House)
  • Küçük Tiyatro
    Küçük Tiyatro
    Küçük Tiyatro is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres as it actually located in the same building in the Evkaf Apartmanı in which the Head Office of the Turkish State Theaters is situated. The building also houses the Oda Tiyatrosu....

    ,
  • Şinasi Sahnesi
    Sinasi Sahnesi
    Şinasi Sahnesi is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

    ,
  • Akün Sahnesi
    Akün Sahnesi
    Akün Sahnesi is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

    ,
  • Altındağ Tiyatrosu
    Altindag Tiyatrosu
    Altındağ Tiyatrosu is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

    ,
  • İrfan Şahinbaş Atölye Sahnesi
    Irfan Sahinbas Atölye Sahnesi
    İrfan Şahinbaş Atölye Sahnesi is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

    ,
  • Oda Tiyatrosu
    Oda Tiyatrosu
    Oda Tiyatrosu is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres as it actually located in the same building in the Evkaf Apartmanı in which the Head Office of the Turkish State Theaters is situated. The building also houses the Küçük Tiyatro....

    ,
  • Mahir Canova Sahnesi
    Mahir Canova Sahnesi
    Mahir Canova Sahnesi is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

    ,
  • Muhsin Ertuğrul Sahnesi
    Muhsin Ertugrul Sahnesi
    Muhsin Ertuğrul Sahnesi is a theatre in Ankara, Turkey. It is operated by the Turkish State Theatres....

    .


In addition, the city is served by several private theatre companies among which Ankara Sanat Tiyatrosu who have their own stage in the city centre is a notable example.

Ankara is host to five classical music orchestras:
  • Cumhurbaşkanlığı Senfoni Orkestrası
    Presidential Symphony Orchestra
    Presidential Symphony Orchestra is the presidential symphony orchestra of the Republic of Turkey. It is headquartered in Ankara...

     (Turkish Presidential Symphony Orchestra)
  • Bilkent Senfoni Orkestrası
    Bilkent Symphony Orchestra
    The Bilkent Symphony Orchestra is a major symphony orchestra of Turkey located in Bilkent, Ankara. It was founded in 1993 by Bilkent University. Since 1994 the orchestra is based in Bilkent Concert Hall...

  • Hacettepe Senfoni Orkestrası
    Hacettepe Symphony Orchestra
    The Hacettepe Symphony Orchestra is an orchestra based in Ankara, Turkey.It was founded in 2003 and is currently conducted by Erol Erdinç....

  • Orkestra Akademik Başkent
  • Başkent Oda Orkestrası (Chamber Orchestra of the Capital)


There are four concert halls in the city:
  • CSO Konser Salonu
    CSO Concert Hall
    -External links:*...

  • Bilkent Konser Salonu
    Bilkent Concert Hall
    Bilkent Concert Hall is a performing arts center in Turkey. It is located in the Bilkent University campus, Ankara. Home to the Bilkent Symphony Orchestra, the building hosts over 80 concerts per year...

  • MEB Şura Salonu
    MEB Sura Salonu
    MEB Şura Salonu also known as Festival Hall is a concert hall in Ankara. It is noted for its tango performances.-External links:*...

     (also known as the Festival Hall)
  • Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi Konser Salonu
    Çankaya Çagdas Sanatlar Merkezi Concert Hall
    Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi is a concert hall in Ankara....



The city has been host to several well-established, annual theatre, music, film festivals:
  • Ankara Film Festivali (Ankara Film Festival)
  • Ankara Uluslararası Müzik Festivali (International Ankara Music Festival)
  • Ankara Tiyatro Festivali (Ankara Theatre Festival)
  • Ankara Caz Festivali (Ankara Jazz Festival)

Universities


Ankara is noted, within Turkey, for the multitude of universities it is home to. These include the following, several of them being among the most reputable in the country:
  • Ankara University
    Ankara University
    Ankara University is a public university in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. It was the first higher education institution founded in the Turkish Republic....

  • Atılım University
    Atilim University
    Atılım University is a private university founded in 1996. It is located in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. The language of instruction for most courses is English. Education programs are at international standards Atılım University (In Turkish: Atılım Üniversitesi) is a private university founded...

  • Başkent University
    Baskent University
    Başkent University was founded on January 13, 1994 by Prof. Dr. Mehmet Haberal. The University center is located in Ankara and also has Medical and Research Centers and Dialysis Centers all around Turkey.-History:...

  • Bilkent University
    Bilkent University
    İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, commonly referred to as Bilkent University or Bilkent, is the first private, nonprofit university in Turkey with the fundamental aim of creating a center of excellence in higher education and research...

  • Çankaya University
    Çankaya University
    Çankaya University was established on August 27, 1997, by the Sıtkı Alp Education Foundation in Ankara, Turkey. The university began its teaching in the Fall 1997 semester. Sıtkı Alp is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees.-History:...

  • Gazi University
    Gazi University
    Gazi University is a public university primarily located in Ankara, Turkey.It was established in 1926 by Kemal Atatürk as Gazi Teacher Training Institute...

  • Hacettepe University
    Hacettepe University
    Hacettepe University is a major state university in Ankara, Turkey.The University has two main campuses. The first is located in the old town of Ankara and hosts the Medical Centre, and the second is the Beytepe Campus, which is 13 km from the city centre...

  • Middle East Technical University
    Middle East Technical University
    Middle East Technical University is a public technical university located in Ankara, Turkey...

  • TOBB University of Economics and Technology
    TOBB University of Economics and Technology
    TOBB University of Economics and Technology is a private university in Turkey, which was founded by the Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey on July 1, 2003 in Ankara.- Academic Units :Faculties and Departments:* Faculty of Engineering...

  • Turgut Özal University
  • Ufuk University
    Ufuk University
    Ufuk University , located in Ankara, Turkey, was established by the Turkish Foundation of Traffic Accidents in 1999.The University consists of Faculties of Medicine, Law, Education, Science-Literature , Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences .-External links:*...

  • Yıldırım Beyazıt University
  • Gülhane Military Medical Academy
  • Turkish Military Academy
  • Turkish National Police Academy
    Turkish National Police Academy
    - History:The Police academy was founded on 6 November 1937 in accordance with Article 18 of the Act 3201 as a one-year-in service-training institute of higher education to educate and train junior and senior executive constables...


  • Transportation


    Esenboğa International Airport
    Esenboga International Airport
    Esenboğa International Airport , is an airport located northeast of Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. It has been operating since 1955. The name of the airport comes from the village of Esenboğa , which literally means "flying bull"....

    , located in the north-east of the city, is the main airport of Ankara.
    Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal is an important part of the bus network
    Bus network
    A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line, called a bus. There are several common instances of the bus architecture, including one in the motherboard of most computers, and those in some versions of Ethernet...

     which covers every neighbourhood in the city.

    The Ankara Central Station is a major rail hub in Turkey. The Turkish State Railways
    Turkish State Railways
    The State Railways of the Turkish Republic or TCDD is the government owned, national railway carrier in the Republic of Turkey, headquartered in Ankara...

     operates passenger train service from Ankara to other major cities, such as: İstanbul
    Istanbul
    Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

    , Eskişehir
    Eskisehir
    Eskişehir is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. According to the 2009 census, the population of the city is 631,905. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby...

    , Balıkesir
    Balikesir
    Balıkesir is the capital city of Balıkesir Province. Balıkesir is in the Marmara region of Turkey and has a population of 265,747 inhabitants. Old name is Karesi or Karasi.- History :...

    , Kütahya
    Kütahya
    Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 212,444 inhabitants , lying on the Porsuk river, at 969 metres above sea level. It is the capital of Kütahya Province, inhabited by some 517 804 people...

    , İzmir
    Izmir
    Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

    , Kayseri
    Kayseri
    Kayseri is a large and industrialized city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and...

    , Adana
    Adana
    Adana is a city in southern Turkey and a major agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated on the Seyhan River, 30 kilometres inland from the Mediterranean, in south-central Anatolia...

    , Kars
    Kars
    Kars is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. The population of the city is 73,826 as of 2010.-Etymology:As Chorzene, the town appears in Roman historiography as part of ancient Armenia...

    , Malatya
    Malatya
    Malatya ) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.-Overview:The city site has been occupied for thousands of years. The Assyrians called the city Meliddu. Following Roman expansion into the east, the city was renamed in Latin as Melitene...

    , Diyarbakır
    Diyarbakır
    Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

    , Karabük
    Karabük
    -Economy:Karabük has its own resources of dolomite and limestone, while coal and manganese is brought from Zonguldak and iron ore from Divriği. This allows a varied, yet basic industry in Karabük, including a coking plant, blast furnaces, a foundry and tube works. There are also chemical plants...

    , Zonguldak
    Zonguldak
    Zonguldak is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Its population, according to the 2009 census, was 108,792. It is an important port on the Black Sea because of the coal mining in Zonguldak Province...

     and Sivas. Commuter rail also services the station to Sincan and Kayaş. In 2009, the new Yüksek Hızlı Tren
    Yüksek Hızlı Tren
    The Yüksek Hızlı Tren or YHT is the Turkish State Railways high-speed rail service currently operating on two routes; Ankara to Eskişehir with construction under way to İstanbul and Ankara to Konya, which opened in August 2011. The YHT uses the HT65000 EMU sets with tilting technology built by CAF...

     high-speed rail
    High-speed rail
    High-speed rail is a type of passenger rail transport that operates significantly faster than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specific definitions by the European Union include for upgraded track and or faster for new track, whilst in the United States, the U.S...

     service began operation between Ankara and Eskişehir.

    The Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate (EGO) operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transport
    Public transport
    Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

    ation. Ankara is currently served by suburban rail and two subway
    Rapid transit
    A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

     lines with about 300,000 total daily commuters, and three additional subway lines are under construction.

    Sports



    As with all other cities of Turkey, football is the most popular sport in Ankara. The city has two football clubs
    Football team
    A football team is the collective name given to a group of players selected together in the various team sports known as football.Such teams could be selected to play in an against an opposing team, to represent a football club, group, state or nation, an All-star team or even selected as a...

     currently competing in the Turkcell Super League: Ankaragücü
    Ankaragücü
    MKE Ankaragücü is a professional Turkish football club located in the city of Ankara. The club wears a yellow and navy kit and play their home matches at Ankara 19 Mayis....

     founded in 1910 is the oldest club in Ankara and associated with Ankara's military arsenal manufacturing company MKE. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981. Their rival is Gençlerbirliği founded in 1923 known as Ankara Gale or the Poppies because of their colours: red and black. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001. All these three teams have their home at the Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium
    Ankara 19 Mayis Stadium
    Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium is the home venue for three of Ankara's Süper Lig football clubs: Ankaragücü, Gençlerbirliği and Hacettepe. It was built in 1935 and is part of the 19 Mayıs Sports Complex, which is located in the Ulus district. The stadium has a capacity of 19,209...

     in Ulus
    Ulus, Ankara
    Ulus is a quarter in Ankara, Turkey and is located at the center of the capital city. It was once the heart of old Ankara. The name means "nation" in Turkish....

    , which has a capacity of 21,250 (all-seater). Gençler's B team, Hacettepe SK
    Hacettepe Spor Kulübü
    Hacettepe Spor Kulübü , commonly know has Hacettepe is a Turkish football club located in Ankara.-History:Hacettepe Spor Kulübü was founded as Sanayi Barbarosspor in 1949. The club played in third division in the Turkish League System between the years 1968 and 1972. It was renamed as Asaşspor in...

     (formerly known as Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ) played in the Super League for a while until being relegated. A fourth team, Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor, played in the Super League until 2010 when they were expelled, and currently are not a member of the Turkish league system. Their home is the Yenikent Asaş Stadium
    Yenikent Asas Stadium
    Yenikent Asaş Stadium is a football stadium, based in Ankara, Turkey. The stadium holds 19,626 people, and was built in 1974 and renovated in 2008.-External links:* *...

     in the Sincan district of Yenikent, outside the city center.

    Ankara has a large number of minor teams, playing at regional levels: Bugsaşspor
    ABB Bugsaş S.K.
    Bugsaş S.K. is a sports club in located in Sincan, the outer borough of Ankara, Turkey. The football club currently plays in the TFF Second League.- History :...

     in Sincan; Etimesgut Şekerspor
    Etimesgut Sekerspor
    Etimesgut Şeker SAŞ is a sports club in located in Ankara, Turkey. The football club plays in the TFF Second League.- External links :*...

     in Etimesgut; Türk Telekomspor
    Türk Telekomspor
    Türk Telekom GSK is a sports club located in Ankara, Turkey. The club mostly referred incorrectly as Türk Telekomspor. The football team plays their home games in Ankara Türk Telekom Stadı in Ankara. The club was founded in 1954 as Telspor and its previous name was PTT, and its colors were yellow...

     owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle; Ankara Demirspor
    Ankara Demirspor
    Ankara Demirspor is a Turkish football club which plays in TFF Third League. They were one of First League's founder members in 1958. They played 13 seasons in this league and relegated to Second League in 1971 and never returned.-History:...

     in Çankaya; Keçiörengücü
    Keçiörengücü
    Keçiörengücü is a sports club located in Ankara, Turkey. The football club plays in the Iddaa League B. Keçiörengücü was founded as Hacettepe with black-white colours in 1945. Hacettepe was one of Turkish First League's founder teams. They played in the First League between 1958-1960 and 1962-1968...

    , Keçiörenspor
    Keçiörenspor
    Keçiören Sportif AŞ. is a football club located in the urban district Keçiören of Ankara and is owned by the municipal administration.-History:...

    , Pursaklarspor, Bağlumspor
    Bağlumspor
    Bağlum Belediyespor is a football club located in the district Keçiören of Ankara and is owned by the municipal administration. Their colors are green and yellow....

     in Keçiören; and Petrol Ofisi Spor
    Petrol Ofisi Spor
    Petrol Ofisi, Sports Club , 1954, Ankara was founded in a sports club. Receives and carries the name of the Petrol Ofisi's in 2000, after the privatization of POAS 'la an organic bond survives. Petrol Ofisi withdrew due to financial difficulties and in 2010, the registration was revoked and the...

     owned by the oil company in Altındağ. Most of them, including Hacettepespor, play their matches at Cebeci İnönü Stadium
    Cebeci Inönü Stadium
    Cebeci İnönü Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Ankara, Turkey. It is currently used mostly for football matches and was the home stadium of Hacettepespor. The stadium holds 37,000 people and was built in 1967. It was named after the Turkish statesman İsmet İnönü.-External links:*...

     in the Cebeci district.

    In the Turkish Basketball League
    Turkish Basketball League
    The Turkish Basketball League is the top men’s professional basketball league in Turkey, which is also called Turkish Premier Basketball League . There is also a Turkish Second Basketball League consisting of 2 divisions .-History:The first basketball game played in Turkey was at the Robert...

    , Ankara is represented by Türk Telekom
    Türk Telekom
    Türk Telekom is the formerly state owned Turkish telecommunications company. Türk Telekom was being separated from the Post Office in 1995. In November 2005 it was privatized to Oger Telecom....

    , whose home is the Ankara Arena
    Ankara Arena
    Ankara Arena is an indoor sporting arena that is located in Ankara, Turkey that opened in April 2010.The seating capacity of the arena is 10,400 spectators...

    , and CASA TED Kolejliler, whose home is the TOBB Sports Hall.

    Ankara Buz Pateni Sarayı
    Ankara Ice Palace
    Ankara Ice Palace is an indoor ice skating and ice hockey arena located in the Bahçelievler neighborhood of Ankara, Turkey. It was opened in 1989 and has a capacity of about 1,150 people....

     is where the ice skating
    Ice skating
    Ice skating is moving on ice by using ice skates. It can be done for a variety of reasons, including leisure, traveling, and various sports. Ice skating occurs both on specially prepared indoor and outdoor tracks, as well as on naturally occurring bodies of frozen water, such as lakes and...

     and ice hockey
    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

     competitions take place in the city.

    There are many popular spots for skateboarding
    Skateboarding
    Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard.Skateboarding can be a recreational activity, an art form, a job, or a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2002 report...

     which is active in the city since the 1980s. Skaters in Ankara usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
    Grand National Assembly of Turkey
    The Grand National Assembly of Turkey , usually referred to simply as the Meclis , is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence...

    .

    Angora cat


    Ankara is home to a world famous cat breed — the Turkish Angora
    Turkish Angora
    The Turkish Angora is a breed of domestic cat. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally occurring cat breeds, having originated in central Turkey, in the Ankara region...

    , called Ankara kedisi (Ankara cat) in Turkish. It is a breed of domestic cat
    Cat
    The cat , also known as the domestic cat or housecat to distinguish it from other felids and felines, is a small, usually furry, domesticated, carnivorous mammal that is valued by humans for its companionship and for its ability to hunt vermin and household pests...

    . Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally-occurring cat breeds, having originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.

    They mostly have a white, silky, medium to long length coat, no undercoat and a fine bone structure. There seems to be a connection between the Angora Cats and Persians, and the Turkish Angora is also a distant cousin of the Turkish Van
    Turkish Van
    The Turkish Van is a recognized cat breed that is known for its unusual love of water and swimming. They were created from the cats native to the Lake Van area of Turkey. The cats of this type are named in Turkish Van Kedisi , in Armenian vana katou or vana gadou and in Kurdish...

    . Although they are known for their shimmery white coat, currently there are more than twenty varieties including black, blue and reddish fur. They come in tabby
    Tabby cat
    A tabby is any cat that has a distinctive coat that features stripes, dots, lines or swirling patterns, usually together with an "M" mark on its forehead. Tabbies are sometimes erroneously assumed to be a cat breed. In fact, the tabby pattern is found in many breeds of cat, as well as among the...

     and tabby-white, along with smoke varieties, and are in every color other than pointed, lavender, and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross.)

    Eyes may be blue, green, or amber, or even one blue and one amber or green. The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability, and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located. However, a great many blue and odd-eyed
    Odd-eyed cat
    An odd-eyed cat is a cat with one blue eye and one green, yellow or brown eye. It is a feline form of complete heterochromia, a condition which occurs in some other animals...

     white cats have normal hearing, and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors.

    Ears are pointed and large, eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile. Another characteristic is the tail, which is often kept parallel to the back.

    Angora rabbit


    The Angora rabbit
    Angora rabbit
    The Angora rabbit is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft wool. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara , Turkey, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid 18th century, and spread...

      is a variety of domestic rabbit
    Rabbit
    Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world...

     bred for its long, soft hair. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia, along with the Angora cat
    Turkish Angora
    The Turkish Angora is a breed of domestic cat. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally occurring cat breeds, having originated in central Turkey, in the Ankara region...

     and Angora goat
    Angora goat
    The Angora goat is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara , Turkey and its surrounding region in central Anatolia...

    . The rabbits were popular pets with French
    France
    The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

     royalty in the mid 18th century, and spread to other parts of Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

     by the end of the century. They first appeared in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

     in the early 20th century. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool
    Angora wool
    Angora wool or Angora fibre refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. While their names are similar, Angora fibre is distinct from mohair, which comes from the Angora goat. Angora is known for its softness, thin fibres, and what knitters refer to as a halo...

    , which may be removed by shear
    Sheep shearing
    Sheep shearing, shearing or clipping is the process by which the woollen fleece of a sheep is cut off. The person who removes the sheep's wool is called a shearer. Typically each adult sheep is shorn once each year...

    ing, combing, or pluck
    Plucking (hair removal)
    Plucking or tweezing can mean the process of removing human hair, animal hair or a bird's feathers by mechanically pulling the item from the owner's body.In humans, this is done for personal grooming purposes, usually with tweezers...

    ing (gently pulling loose wool.)

    Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft. They have a humorous appearance, as they oddly resemble a fur ball. Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully. Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit. A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly. Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat.

    Angora goat


    The Angora goat
    Angora goat
    The Angora goat is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara , Turkey and its surrounding region in central Anatolia...

      is a breed of domestic goat
    Goat
    The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

     that originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.

    This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses
    Moses
    Moses was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur'an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed...

    , roughly in 1500 BC. The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
    Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
    Charles V was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556.As...

    , about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful. Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis. Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I
    Abdülmecid I
    Sultan Abdülmecid I, Abdul Mejid I, Abd-ul-Mejid I or Abd Al-Majid I Ghazi was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on July 2, 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories...

     in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton.

    The fleece
    Pile (textile)
    In textiles, pile is the raised surface or nap of a fabric, which is made of upright loops or strands of yarn. Examples of pile textiles are carpets, corduroy, velvet, plush, and Turkish towels.. The word is derived from Latin pilus for "hair"...

     taken from an Angora goat is called mohair
    Mohair
    Mohair usually refers to a silk-like fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. The word "mohair" was adopted into English before 1570 from the Arabic: mukhayyar, a type of haircloth, literally 'choice', from khayyara, 'he chose'. Mohair fiber is approximately 25-45 microns in...

    . A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms of hair per year. Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep
    Domestic sheep
    Sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries...

    , which are shorn only once. Angoras have high nutrition
    Nutrition
    Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet....

    al requirements due to their rapid hair growth. A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development. The United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    , Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    , and South Africa
    South Africa
    The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

     are the top producers of mohair.

    For a long period of time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat. In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Today, Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber.

    Angora goats were depicted on the reverse
    Obverse and reverse
    Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags , seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics. In this usage, obverse means the front face of the object and reverse...

     of the Turkish 50 lira
    Turkish lira
    The Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and the de facto independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The lira is subdivided into 100 kuruş...

     banknotes of 1938–1952.

    Twin towns — Sister cities


    Ankara is twinned with:


    Africa
    Africa
    Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

     Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

    , Egypt, since 2004 Khartoum
    Khartoum
    Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan and of Khartoum State. It is located at the confluence of the White Nile flowing north from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile flowing west from Ethiopia. The location where the two Niles meet is known as "al-Mogran"...

    , Sudan, since 1992 Mogadishu
    Mogadishu
    Mogadishu , popularly known as Xamar, is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital. Located in the coastal Benadir region on the Indian Ocean, the city has served as an important port for centuries....

    , Somalia, since 1959

    Americas
    Americas
    The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

     Havana
    Havana
    Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

    , Cuba, since 1993 Santiago
    Santiago
    Santiago is the capital city of Chile. Santiago may also refer to:*Santiago *Santiago , a Spanish given name*Santiago!, a shortened form of the Reconquista battle cry "Santiago y cierra, España"...

    , Chile, since 2000 Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

    , United States, since 2011

    Asia
    Asia
    Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

     Bangkok
    Bangkok
    Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

    , Thailand, since 2006 Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, since 1994 Astana
    Astana
    Astana , formerly known as Akmola , Tselinograd and Akmolinsk , is the capital and second largest city of Kazakhstan, with an officially estimated population of 708,794 as of 1 August 2010...

    , Kazakhstan, since 2001 Beijing
    Beijing
    Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

    , People's Republic of China, since 1990 Hanoi
    Hanoi
    Hanoi , is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam...

    , Vietnam, since 1998 Islamabad
    Islamabad
    Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

    , Pakistan, since 1982 Shiraz
    Shiraz
    Shiraz may refer to:* Shiraz, Iran, a city in Iran* Shiraz County, an administrative subdivision of Iran* Vosketap, Armenia, formerly called ShirazPeople:* Hovhannes Shiraz, Armenian poet* Ara Shiraz, Armenian sculptor...

    , Iran Kuala Lumpur
    Kuala Lumpur
    Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

    , Malaysia, since 1984 Kuwait City
    Kuwait City
    -Suburbs:Although the districts below are not usually recognized as suburbs, the following is a list of a few areas surrounding Kuwait city:Al-Salam ""السلام"" -Economy:...

    , Kuwait, since 1994 Manama
    Manama
    Manama is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 155,000 people.Long an important trading center in the Persian Gulf, Manama is home to a very diverse population...

    , Bahrain, since 2000 Seoul
    Seoul
    Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

    , South Korea, since 1971



    Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

     Bourg en Bresse, France Baku
    Baku
    Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

    , Azerbaijan Skopje
    Skopje
    Skopje is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia with about a third of the total population. It is the country's political, cultural, economic, and academic centre...

    , Macedonia, since 1995 Bucharest
    Bucharest
    Bucharest is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country, at , and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River....

    , Romania, since 1998 Kiev
    Kiev
    Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

    , Ukraine, since 1993 Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

    , Russia, since 1992 Pristina
    Pristina
    Pristina, also spelled Prishtina and Priština is the capital and largest city of Kosovo. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous municipality and district....

    , Kosovo, since 2005 Sarajevo
    Sarajevo
    Sarajevo |Bosnia]], surrounded by the Dinaric Alps and situated along the Miljacka River in the heart of Southeastern Europe and the Balkans....

    , Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994) Sofia
    Sofia
    Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the 12th largest city in the European Union with a population of 1.27 million people. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of Mount Vitosha and approximately at the centre of the Balkan Peninsula.Prehistoric settlements were excavated...

    , Bulgaria, since 1992 Tbilisi
    Tbilisi
    Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

    , Georgia, since 1996 Tirana
    Tirana
    Tirana is the capital and the largest city of Albania. Modern Tirana was founded as an Ottoman town in 1614 by Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler from Mullet, although the area has been continuously inhabited since antiquity. Tirana became Albania's capital city in 1920 and has a population of over...

    , Albania, since 1995


    Notable people from Ankara

    • Filiz Akın, actress
    • Mazhar Alanson
      Mazhar Alanson
      Mahmut Mazhar Alanson is a Turkish musician, guitarist, member of the popular Turkish pop music band MFÖ and an actor.- Early life :...

      , musician
    • Huseyin Bahri Alptekin
      Huseyin Bahri Alptekin
      Hüseyin Bahri Alptekin was an artist, writer, educator and curator. He studied aesthetics and the philosophy of art and sociology in Istanbul and Paris-I Sorbonne. Alptekin worked as a press photographer and an art, media and design critic...

      , artist, writer, educator and curator
    • Emre Araci
      Emre Araci
      Emre Aracı, Turkish music historian, conductor, composer.- Life :Dr Emre Aracı is a Turkish music historian, composer and conductor who has been living in the United Kingdom since 1987...

      , music historian, composer, conductor
    • Funda Arar
      Funda Arar
      -External links:****-References:...

      , musician
    • Bülent Atalay
      Bulent Atalay
      Bülent Atalay is a Turkish-American author, scientist, and artist.Born in Ankara, Turkey in 1940, Atalay is the author of the best selling book, , initially published in English by Smithsonian Books in 2004, and subsequently in eleven foreign languages...

      , author, scientist and artist
    • Bedri Baykam
      Bedri Baykam
      -Life:Baykam's father Dr. Suphi Baykam was a deputy in the Turkish parliament and his mother Mutahhar Baykam an architect-engineer. Baykam claims that he started to paint when he was only two years old, and has had several exhibitions since the age of six in Bern, Geneva, New York, Washington,...

      , artist
    • Bülent Bezdüz
      Bülent Bezdüz
      Bülent Bezdüz, born in Ankara, Turkey, is a Grammy Award winning Turkish tenor.Bezdüz graduated from Gazi University’s Department of Music and started his vocal studies with Polish tenor Roman Werlinski. He was helped by Hüseyin Akbulut, director-general of the Turkish State Opera and Ballet...

      , tenor
    • İdil Biret
      Idil Biret
      İdil Biret is a Turkish concert pianist, renowned for her interpretations of the Romantic repertoire.-Education:...

      , concert pianist, recording artist
    • Taner Tekin, musician, composer, poet
    • André Couteaux
      André Couteaux
      André Couteaux was a French writer and a scenarist married to Béatrice de Cambronne with whom he had a son, Stanislas Couteaux. He is also the father of Paul-Marie Couteaux.-Books:* Un monsieur de compagnie, 1961,...

      , writer and scenarist
    • Emin Çölaşan
      Emin Çölasan
      Emin Çölaşan is a Turkish investigative journalist, whose daily column appeared in the country's internationally best-known and most influential mass-circulation newspaper, Istanbul-based Hürriyet, for 22 years, from 1985 to 2007...

      , journalist
    • Hande Dalkılıç
      Hande Dalkiliç
      Hande Dalkılıç is a Turkish concert pianist.-Biography:She started her piano lessons with Prof. Güherdal Karamanoğlu Çakırsoy. She enrolled in the Bilkent University Faculty of Music and Performing Arts in 1989 and studied under Prof. Ersin Onay. She graduated from the Music Department in 1996...

      , musician
    • Yasemin Dalkılıç
      Yasemin Dalkiliç
      Yasemin Dalkılıç is a Turkish female free diver. She holds numerous world records in different categories of free diving. Though still in the middle of her career, she is already considered to be one of the all time greats in the sport....

      , free diver
    • Vedat Dalokay
      Vedat Dalokay
      Vedat Ali Dalokay was a renowned Turkish architect and a former mayor of Ankara.-Early life:He was born in Elazığ, Turkey in 1927 to İbrahim Bey from Pertek. He completed his elementary and secondary education in the same city...

      , architect
    • Ordal Demokan
      Ordal Demokan
      Ordal Demokan was a Turkish physicist.- Biography :Born in Istanbul, Turkey, Demokan graduated from TED Ankara Koleji in 1962, and received his BSc and MSc degrees on Electrical Engineering in 1966 and 1967 from Middle East Technical University in Ankara. He received TUBITAK scholarship between...

      , physicist
    • Can Dündar
      Can Dündar
      Can Dündar is a Turkish journalist, columnist and documentarian. He is one of the best known figures in Turkish media, described as possessing "impeccable republican credentials".-Biography:...

      , journalist
    • Barış Erdemir, computer scientist
    • Moris Farhi
      Moris Farhi
      Moris Farhi MBE is an author who has been vice-president of International PEN since 2001.-Background:Farhi was born in Ankara, Turkey, in 1935. Farhi received B.A. in Humanities from Robert Academy, Istanbul, in 1954. He came to the UK the same year and trained at The Royal Academy of Dramatic...

      , writer
    • Gizem Girişmen
      Gizem Girismen
      Gizem Girişmen , is a Turkish disabled female archer.In 1992, at the age of eleven, she was paralyzed following a traffic accident. After all, she completed her education with honors in business administration from the Bilkent University in 2004...

      , archer
    • Erdal İnönü
      Erdal Inönü
      Erdal İnönü was a Turkish physicist and politician. He was the son of Turkey's second president İsmet İnönü...

      , politician and physicist
    • Nil Karaibrahimgil
      Nil Karaibrahimgil
      Nil Karaibrahimgil , also popularly known simply as Nil , is a well known Turkish singer and songwriter mostly noted for her distinct lyrics...

      , musician
    • Vehbi Koç
      Vehbi Koç
      Vehbi Koç , born in Çoraklı, Ankara, Ottoman Empire, was a Turkish entrepreneur and philanthropist. He founded the Koç Group, one of Turkey’s largest and most prestigious group of companies...

      , pioneer industrialist
    • Yasemin Mori
      Yasemin Mori
      -Biography:Although her original last name was Savgı, she chooses to go by the scene alias Mori, which means girl in various ethnic Balkan Turkic languages, and which was a name she was called by many of her friends as a young girl. She composed her first song when she was a teenager. Her first...

      , musician
    • Aydın Örs
      Aydin Örs
      Aydın Örs is a Turkish former basketball coach and current general manager of Fenerbahçe Ülker. He started to play basketball on 1963. He played for DSİ Spor and Sekerspor also played for 35 times with national basketball team....

      , basketball coach
    • Yeliz Özel
      Yeliz Özel
      Yeliz Özel Yeliz Özel Yeliz Özel (born 6 March 1980, in Ankara is a Turkish handballer playing for CS Oltchim Râmnicu Vâlcea and the Turkish national team. She is considered to be one of the best playmakers from women's handball.- Biography :...

      , famous handball player
    • Zerrin Özer
      Zerrin Özer
      Zerrin Özer is a famous Turkish pop singer. She is called as Turkey's Janis Joplin by several fans. She has very famous hits such as "Gönül" , "Dayanamıyorum" , "Dünya Tatlısı" and "Paşa Gönlüm" -Biography:She was born in 1957 in Ankara, Turkey...

      , musician
    • Eren Ozker
      Eren Ozker
      Eren Ozker was a Turkish American Puppeteer. She was one of the original performers during the first season of Jim Henson's popular television series, The Muppet Show....

      , Puppeteer (Jim Henson's Muppets), Actress and founder of SAG Puppeteers' Caucus
    • Yağmur Sarıgül
      Yagmur Sarigül
      Yağmur Sarıgül is a Turkish songwriter and the electric guitarist of the rock band maNga. He writes both lyrics and music.Yağmur “yamyam” Sarıgül was born in Antalya, Turkey on August 26th 1979 but grew up, caused chaos and discovered music in Ankara...

      , musician
    • Fazil Say
      Fazil Say
      Fazıl Say , is a Turkish pianist and composer born in Ankara, Turkey.-Biography:Born in 1970 in Ankara, Turkey, Fazıl Say started playing the piano at the age of four. He continued his music training in Ankara State Conservatory as a student of Special Status for Highly Talented Children and...

      , concert pianist, composer
    • Joe Strummer
      Joe Strummer
      John Graham Mellor , best remembered by his stage name Joe Strummer, was the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead vocalist of the British punk rock band The Clash. His musical experience included his membership in The 101ers, Latino Rockabilly War, The Mescaleros and The Pogues, in...

      , lead singer, guitarist and lyricist of the English band The Clash
      The Clash
      The Clash were an English punk rock band that formed in 1976 as part of the original wave of British punk. Along with punk, their music incorporated elements of reggae, ska, dub, funk, rap, dance, and rockabilly...

    • Özlem Tekin
      Özlem Tekin
      Özlem Tekin is a Turkish singer, TV show host and occasional actress, primarily known for her music. Though she started out in the hard rock genre, her music has progressed to incorporate different styles such as house, punk, pop and Turkish folk music.-Life and career:Özlem Tekin was born in...

      , musician
    • Kartal Tibet
      Kartal Tibet
      Kartal Tibet is a Turkish actor and film director. Some of his famous films include Ölmeyen Aşk, Dağlar Kızı, Senede Bir Gün, Sultan, Zübük, Gol Kralı, Gol Krale and Şalvar Davası. Tibet is also known for his action roles, especially that of the title character in the Karaoğlan and Tarkan film...

      , actor
    • Buket Uzuner
      Buket Uzuner
      Buket Uzener is a writer, author of novels, short stories and travelogues. She trained as a biologist and environmental scientist and has worked at universities in Turkey, Norway, the United States, and Finland. Her fiction has been translated into seven languagesand has been on the Turkish...

      , writer

    Religious figures

    • Haji Bektash Veli, Islamic mystic, humanist and philosopher
    • St. Theodotus of Ancyra
      Theodotus of Ancyra (martyr)
      -Hagiography:On 18 May the Roman Martyrology says: "At Ancyra, in Galatia, the martyr Saint Theodotus and the saintly virgins Thecusa, his aunt, Alexandra, Claudia, Faina, Euphrasia, Matrona and Julitta", etc...

      , Christian martyr and saint
    • St. Nilus of Ancyra
      Nilus of Sinai
      Saint Nilus the Elder, of Sinai , was one of the many disciples and fervent defenders of St. John Chrysostom.-Life:We know him first as a layman, married, with two sons...

      , Christian saint
    • Clement of Ancyra
      Clement of Ancyra
      Hieromartyr Clement, Bishop of Ancyra or simply Clement of Ancyra was a bishop who served during the rule of Roman emperor Diocletian. He was arrested by Roman authorities and tried by Diocletian. Emperor Diocletian attempted to convert Clement to Paganism but Clement refused and withstood...

      , Christian hieromartyr and bishop
    • Theodotus of Ancyra
      Theodotus of Ancyra (bishop)
      Saint Theodotus of Ancyra was a fifth-century bishop and theologian of Ancyra . He was a theologian who attended the Council of Ephesus in 431, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II...

      , Christian saint and bishop
    • Marcellus of Ancyra
      Marcellus of Ancyra
      Marcellus of Ancyra was one of the bishops present at the Councils of Ancyra and of Nicaea. He was a strong opponent of Arianism, but was accused of adopting the opposite extreme of modified Sabellianism...

      , Christian bishop
    • Basil of Ancyra
      Basil of Ancyra
      Basil of Ancyra, was a Christian priest in Ancyra, Galatia during the fourth century. Very meager information about his life is preserved in a metaphrastic work: “Life and Deeds of the Martyred Priest Basil.” He fought against the pagans and the Arians...

      , Christian priest

    External links