and the state capital of New South Wales
. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea
. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people. Inhabitants of Sydney are called Sydneysiders, comprising a cosmopolitan and international population of people from numerous places around the world.
The site of the first British colony in Australia, Sydney was established in 1788 at Sydney Cove
by Arthur Phillip
, commodore of the First Fleet
as a penal colony
1788 The British First Fleet, led by Arthur Phillip, sails into Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) to establish Sydney, the first permanent European settlement on the continent. Commemorated as Australia Day
1813 In Australia, William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth lead an expedition westwards from Sydney. Their route opens up inland Australia for continued expansion throughout the 19th century.
1852 The University of Sydney, Australia's oldest university, is inaugurated in Sydney.
1899 The Australian Premiers' Conference held in Melbourne decides to locate Australia's capital city, Canberra, between Sydney and Melbourne.
1920 The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney.
1939 Sydney, Australia, swelters in 45 ˚C (113 ˚F) heat, a record for the city.
1942 World War II: Japanese imperial submarines I-21 and I-24 shell the Australian cities of Sydney and Newcastle.
1964 In Sydney, Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser sets a new world record in the 100-meter freestyle swimming competition (58.9 seconds).
1977 Australia's worst rail disaster occurs at Granville, Sydney killing 83.
1978 Hilton bombing: a bomb explodes in a refuse truck outside the Hilton Hotel in Sydney, Australia, killing two refuse collectors and a policeman.