Sarawak

Sarawak

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Encyclopedia
Sarawak (saˈrawaʔ) is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

. Known as Bumi Kenyalang ("Land of the Hornbill
Hornbill
Hornbills are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family...

s"), Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

, the second largest state located to the North- East.

The administrative capital is Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

, which has a population of 579,900. Major cities and towns include Miri
Miri
Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It is the second largest city in Sarawak, with a population of about 300,000, and the government administrative centre of Miri District in Miri Division....

 (pop. 263,000), Sibu
Sibu, Sarawak
Sibu is an inland town, and the capital of Sibu District in Sibu Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia. It is located at the confluence of the Rajang and Igan Rivers, some 60 kilometres from the ocean and approximately east-north-east of the state capital Kuching...

 (pop. 254,000) and Bintulu
Bintulu
Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of Bintulu District in the Bintulu Division of Sarawak, Malaysia. It is about 650 kilometers from Kuching and about 215 kilometers from either Sibu or Miri....

 (pop. 176,800). As of last census (2010), the state population was 2,420,009.

History



The eastern seaboard of Borneo was charted, though not settled, by the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 in the early 16th century. The area of Sarawak was known to Portuguese cartographers as Cerava. During the 17th century, Sarawak was self-governed under Sultan Tengah. By the early 19th century, Sarawak had become a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

 Sultanate. During the reign of Pangeran Indera Mahkota in 19th century, Sarawak was facing chaos. Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Omar Ali Saifuddin II
Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddin was the son of Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam I and Raja Isteri Nor Alam. When his father died in 1804, he was still a minor. Therefore, his grandfather, Paduka Seri Begawan Muhammad Tajuddin ascended the throne for the second time...

 (1827–1852), the Sultan of Brunei, ordered Pangeran Muda Hashim in 1839 to restore order and it was during this time that James Brooke
James Brooke
James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB was the first White Rajah of Sarawak. His father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India; his mother, Anna Maria, born in Hertfordshire, was the illegitimate daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre,...

 arrived in Sarawak. Pangeran Muda Hashim initially requested assistance in the matter, but Brooke refused. In 1841, Brooke paid another visit to Sarawak and this time he agreed to provide assistance. Pangeran Muda Hashim signed a treaty in 1841 surrendering Sarawak and Sinian to Brooke. On 24 September 1841, Pangeran Muda Hashim bestowed the title Governor to James Brooke. He effectively became the Rajah of Sarawak and founded the White Rajah Dynasty of Sarawak, later extending his administration through an agreement with the Sultan of Brunei. Sarawak was thus an independent kingdom from 1841 until 1888, when the state was placed under British protection.

Brooke Dynasty


James Brooke
James Brooke
James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB was the first White Rajah of Sarawak. His father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India; his mother, Anna Maria, born in Hertfordshire, was the illegitimate daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre,...

 was appointed Raja
Raja
Raja is an Indian term for a monarch, or princely ruler of the Kshatriya varna...

h by the Sultan of Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

 on 18 August 1842. Originally Brooke ruled the territory across the western regions of Sarawak around Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

 until his death in 1868. His nephew Charles Anthony Johnson Brooke became Rajah after his death; he was succeeded on his death in 1917 by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke
Charles Vyner Brooke
Vyner, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG was the third and final White Rajah of Sarawak.-Early life:...

, with the condition that Charles should rule in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke
Bertram Willes Dayrell Brooke
Captain Bertram Willes Dayrell Brooke, Tuan Muda of Sarawak was a member of the family of White Rajahs who ruled Sarawak for a hundred years. He was the son of Charles, the second of these rajahs, and brother to Vyner of Sarawak, the third and final ruler of that family...

. The Sarawak territories were greatly expanded under the Brooke dynasty, mostly at the expense of areas nominally under the control of Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

. In practice Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

 had only controlled strategic river and coastal forts in much of the lost territory, so most of the gain was at the expense of Muslim warlords and of the de facto independence of local tribes.

The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the "White Rajahs
White Rajahs
White Rajahs refers to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, namely the Brookes, who came originally from England. A Rajah is a monarch in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.-Rulers:...

", accorded a status within the British Empire similar to that of the rulers of Indian princely state
Princely state
A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

s. In contrast to many other areas of the empire, however, the Brooke dynasty was intent on a policy of paternalism
Paternalism
Paternalism refers to attitudes or states of affairs that exemplify a traditional relationship between father and child. Two conditions of paternalism are usually identified: interference with liberty and a beneficent intention towards those whose liberty is interfered with...

 in order to protect the indigenous population against exploitation. They governed with the aid of the Muslim Malay and enlisted the Ibans and other "Dayak
Dayak people
The Dayak or Dyak are the native people of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily...

" as a contingent militia. The Brooke dynasty also encouraged the immigration of Chinese merchants but forbade the Chinese to settle outside of towns in order to minimise the impact on the Dayak way of life. Charles Brooke, the second White Rajah of Sarawak, established the Sarawak Museum, the oldest museum in Borneo.

In the early part of 1941 preparations were afoot to introduce a new constitution, designed to limit the power of the Rajah and give the people of Sarawak a greater say in government. Despite this democratic intention, the draft constitution contained irregularities, including a secret agreement drawn up between Charles Vyner Brooke
Charles Vyner Brooke
Vyner, Rajah of Sarawak, GCMG was the third and final White Rajah of Sarawak.-Early life:...

 and his top government officials, financially compensating him via treasury funds.

Second World War and Occupation


Japan invaded Sarawak
Battle of Borneo (1941–42)
For campaigns on eastern Borneo, see Battle of Tarakan and Battle of Balikpapan .The Battle of Borneo was a successful campaign by Japanese Imperial forces for control of Borneo island and concentrated mainly on the subjugation of the Kingdom of Sarawak, North Borneo, and the western part of...

 and occupied the island of Borneo in 1941, occupying Miri
Miri
Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It is the second largest city in Sarawak, with a population of about 300,000, and the government administrative centre of Miri District in Miri Division....

 on 16 December and Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

 on 24 December, holding both territories for the duration of World War II until the area was secured by Australian forces in 1945. Charles Vyner Brooke formally ceded sovereignty to the British Crown on 1 July 1946, under pressure from his wife among others. In addition the British Government offered a healthy pension to Brooke.

Anthony continued to claim sovereignty as Rajah of Sarawak. After the end of the Second World War, Anthony Brooke then opposed the cession of the Rajah's territory to the British Crown, and was associated with anti-secessionist groups in Sarawak. Anthony was banished from Sarawak.

Anthony Brooke was allowed to return only seventeen years later, when Sarawak became part of Malaysia. Sarawak became a British colony (formerly an independent state under British protection) in July 1946, but Brooke's campaign continued. The Malays in particular resisted the cession to Britain, dramatically assassinating the first British governor.

Independence


Sarawak was officially granted independence on 22 July 1963, and joined with Malaya
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957...

, Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

, and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, in the federation of Malaysia, formed on 16 September 1963, despite the initial opposition from parts of the population. Sarawak was also a flashpoint
Flashpoint (politics)
In international relations, a flashpoint is an area or dispute that has a strong possibility of developing into a war.-Current flashpoints:* the Taiwan straits* Korea peninsula* the Golan heights* Israeli-Lebanon border* Kashmir* the Spratly Islands...

 during the Indonesian Confrontation between 1962 and 1966.

Geography



Having land area of 124,450 km² spreading between latitude
Latitude
In geography, the latitude of a location on the Earth is the angular distance of that location south or north of the Equator. The latitude is an angle, and is usually measured in degrees . The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north , and the South pole has a...

 0° 50′ and 5°N and longitude
Longitude
Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda ....

 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E, it makes up 37.5% of the land of Malaysia. Sarawak also contains large tracts of tropical rain forest home to an abundance of plant and animal species.

The state of Sarawak stretches for over 750 km along the north east coastline of Borneo, interrupted in the north by about 150 km of Brunei coast. Sarawak is separated from the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These get higher to the north and culminate near the source of the Baram River
Baram River
The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The river originates in the central Iran Mountains and flows westwards through tropical rainforest to the South China Sea....

 with the steep Mount Batu Lawi, Mount Mulu
Mount Mulu
Mount Mulu is a sandstone and shale mountain. At 2376 m, it is the second highest mountain in the state of Sarawak, after Mount Murud. It is located within the boundaries of Gunung Mulu National Park, which is named after it....

 in the Park of the same name and Mount Murud
Mount Murud
Mount Murud or Muru is a sandstone mountain located in the Malaysian part of Borneo. At 2,423 m , it is the highest mountain in the state of Sarawak....

 with the highest peak in Sarawak.

The major rivers from the south to the north include Sarawak River
Sarawak River
The Sarawak River is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia. It is an important source of water and transportation for the inhabitants in southwestern Sarawak...

, the Lupar River, the Saribas River, the Rajang River
Rajang River
The Rajang River is a river in Sarawak, Malaysia. The river is located in northwest of Borneo and it originates in the Iran Mountains. The river flows approximately 563 km to the South China Sea, making it the longest river in Malaysia....

 which is the longest river in Malaysia at 563 km long. The Baleh River branch, the Baram River
Baram River
The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The river originates in the central Iran Mountains and flows westwards through tropical rainforest to the South China Sea....

 and the Limbang River drains into the Brunei Bay as it divides the two parts of Brunei and the Trusan River. The Sarawak river 2459k2 in area and is the main river flowing through the capital Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

.

Sarawak can be divided into three natural regions. The coastal region is rather low lying flat country with large extents of swamps and other wet environments. The hill region provides most of the easily inhabited land and most of the larger cities and towns have been built in this region. The ports of Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

 and Sibu
Sibu
Sibu may refer to:*Sibu, Sarawak in Eastern Malaysia*Sibu Division*Sibu , an impact crater on Mars*Pulau Sibu, an island off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia*Sibu , name of a goddess in the Bribri tribe, in Costa Rica...

 have been built some distance from the coast on rivers. Bintulu
Bintulu
Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of Bintulu District in the Bintulu Division of Sarawak, Malaysia. It is about 650 kilometers from Kuching and about 215 kilometers from either Sibu or Miri....

 and Miri
Miri
Miri is a city in northern Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It is the second largest city in Sarawak, with a population of about 300,000, and the government administrative centre of Miri District in Miri Division....

 are close to the coast line where the hills stretch right to the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

. The third region is the mountain region along the border and with the Kelabit and Murut
Murut people
The Murut is the warrior tribe of indigenous ethnic groups inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. The Murut comprise several people groups that are scattered in parts of Borneo Island including Brunei, Kalimantan...

 highlands in the north.

Environment



Sarawak has vast areas of both lowland and highland rainforest. However, Sarawak has been hit hard by the logging industry and the expansion of monoculture tree plantations and oil palm plantations. Malaysia's deforestation rate is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. Statistics estimate Sarawak's forests have been depleted but thereis no definitive study to know how much. Malaysia's deforestation
Deforestation in Malaysia
Between 1990 and 2005 Malaysia lost 6.6% of its forest cover, or around 1,486,000 hectares.-Background:Malaysia declared its independence from Britain in 1957, and formed its current state in 1963. Since then, it has seen significant economic growth, a large part of which can be attributed to its...

 rates overall are among the highest in Asia, jumping almost 86 percent between the 1990–2000 period and 2000–2005. In total, Malaysia lost an average of 1,402 km² —0.65 percent of its forest area—per year since 2000. By comparison, South East Asian countries lost an average of 0.35% of their forest per annum during the 1990s.

Ethnic groups


Sarawak has more than 40 sub-ethnic groups, each with its own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, Indians
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and a smaller percentage of Iban
Iban people
The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. In Malaysia, most Ibans are located in Sarawak, a small portion in Sabah and some in west Malaysia. They were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks. Ibans were renowned for practising headhunting and...

s and Bidayuh
Bidayuh
Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, that are broadly similar in language and culture . The name "Bidayuh" means 'inhabitants of land'...

s who have migrated from their home-villages for employment reasons.

Dayak Iban


The Ibans comprise the largest percentage (almost 34%) of Sarawak's population. Formerly reputed to be the most formidable headhunters on the island of Borneo, the Ibans of today are a generous, hospitable and placid people. Because of their history as pirates and fishermen, Ibans were conventionally referred to as the "Sea Dayaks". The early Iban settlers migrated from Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo south of Sarawak, via the Kapuas River. They crossed over the Kelingkang range and set up home in the river valleys of Batang Ai, the Skrang River, Saribas, and the Rajang River. The Ibans dwell in longhouses, stilted structures with a large number of rooms housing a whole community of families.

An Iban longhouse may still display head trophies or antu pala. These suspended heads mark tribal victories and were a source of honour. The Dayak Iban ceased practising headhunting in the 1930s.

The Ibans are renowned for their Pua Kumbu
Pua Kumbu
Pua Kumbu is a traditional patterned multicolored ceremonial cotton cloth used by the Iban, made and used in Sarawak, Malaysia. Pua kumbu are woven by Dayak women and are considered to be sacred objects...

(traditional Iban weavings), silver craft, wooden carvings and bead work. Iban tattoos, which were originally symbols of bravery among Iban warriors, have become amongst the most distinctive in the world. The Ibans are also famous for a sweet rice wine called tuak, which is served during big celebrations and festive occasions.

The large majority of Ibans practise Christianity. However, like most other ethnic groups in Sarawak, they still observe many of their traditional rituals and beliefs. Sarawak celebrates colourful festivals such as the Gawai Dayak (harvest festival
Harvest festival
A Harvest Festival is an annual celebration which occurs around the time of the main harvest of a given region. Given the differences in climate and crops around the world, harvest festivals can be found at various times throughout the world...

), Gawai Kenyalang (hornbill, or the god of war festival), penuaian padi and Gawai Antu (festival of the dead
Festival of the Dead
Festival of the Dead is held by many cultures throughout the world in honor or recognition of deceased members of the community, generally occurring after the harvest in August, September, October, or November. In Japanese Buddhist custom the festival honoring the departed spirits of one's...

).

It is interesting to note that there is also a thriving Iban population of between 30,000 & 40, 000 in Johor
Johor
Johor is a Malaysian state, located in the southern portion of Peninsular Malaysia. It is one of the most developed states in Malaysia. The state capital city and royal city of Johor is Johor Bahru, formerly known as Tanjung Puteri...

, found mostly in the area between Pasir Gudang
Pasir Gudang
Pasir Gudang is an industrial town located 35 km east of Johor Bahru in Malaysia . It is the eastern end of the Johor Bahru metropolitan area. The population is around 100,000. It is connected by the 4 lane Pasir Gudang Highway, a trunk road, and a railway line to Johor Bahru...

 & Masai
Masai, Johor
Masai is a town located in east Johor Bahru District, Malaysia, and is the oldest part of Johor Bahru. It is located 25 kilometres from the Johor Bahru city centre. Masai is located on route J10 which leads to Kong Kong, a fishing village along Johor River...

 on the eastern end of the Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru
Johor Bahru is the capital city of Johor in southern Malaysia. Johor Bahru is the southernmost city of the Eurasian mainland...

 metropolitan area. Sizeable Iban communities are also present in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

 & Penang
Penang
Penang is a state in Malaysia and the name of its constituent island, located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia by the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang is the second smallest Malaysian state in area after Perlis, and the...

.

Chinese



Chinese people first came to Sarawak as traders and explorers in the 6th century. Today, they make up 26% of the population of Sarawak and consist of communities built from the economic migrants of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The first Chinese (Hakka
Hakka people
The Hakka , sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese who speak the Hakka language and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China....

) migrants worked as labourers in the gold mines at Bau or on plantations. Through their clan associations, business acumen and work ethic, the Chinese organised themselves economically and rapidly dominated commerce. Today, the Chinese are amongst Sarawak's most prosperous ethnic groups.

The Sarawak Chinese belong to a wide range of dialect groups, the most significant being:
  • Hakka
  • Hokkien
    Hokkien
    Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

  • Teochew
  • Hainanese
  • Foochow
    Fuzhou dialect
    Fuzhou dialect , also known as Foochow dialect, Foochow, Foochowese, Fuzhounese, or Fuzhouhua, is considered the standard dialect of Min Dong, which is a branch of Min Chinese mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province. Native speakers also call it ' , meaning the language spoken in...

  • Puxian Min
    Puxian Min
    Pu–Xian or Puxian Min , also known as Xinghua, is a branch of Min Chinese.Puxian is a word combination of two place names of Putian City and Xianyou County ....



Whereas Hakka is spoken predominantly by the farmers in the interior, Hokkien and Teochew are the dominant dialects spoken within the major trading towns and among early traders and businessmen. Hainanese (a.k.a. Hailam) were well known as coffee-shop operators, the Henghua are famous as fishermen. The notable difference between those who presided in West Malaysia is the common use of Cantonese. Mandarin however was and still is the unifying language spoken by all the different dialectic groups in both East and West Malaysia. The Chinese maintain their ethnic heritage and culture and celebrate all the major cultural festivals, most notably Chinese New Year and the Hungry Ghost Festival. The Sarawak Chinese are predominantly Buddhists and Christians.

Malay


The Malays make up 21% of the population in Sarawak. Traditionally fishermen, these seafaring people chose to form settlements on the banks of the many rivers of Sarawak. Today, many Malays have migrated to the cities where they are heavily involved in the public and private sectors and taken up various professions.

Malay villages, known as Kampungs, are a cluster of wooden houses on stilts, many of which are still located by rivers on the outskirts of major towns and cities, play home to traditional cottage industries. The Malays are famed for their wood carvings, silver and brass craftings as well as traditional Malay textile weaving with silver and gold thread (kain songket).

Malays are Muslim by religion, having been converted to the faith some 600 years ago with the Islamification of the native region. Their religion is reflected in their culture and art and Islamic symbolism is evident in local architecture – from homes to government buildings.

Melanau



The Melanaus have been thought to be amongst the original settlers of Sarawak.

Originally from Mukah (the 10th Administrative Division as launched in March 2002), the Melanaus traditionally lived in tall houses. Nowadays, they have adopted a Malay lifestyle, living in kampong-type settlements. Traditionally, Melanaus were fishermen and still today, they are reputed as some of the finest boat-builders and craftsmen.

While the Melanaus are ethnically different from the Malays, their lifestyles and practices are quite similar. This is especially the case in the larger towns and cities where most Melanau have adopted the Islamic faith.

The Melanaus were believed to originally summon spirits in a practice verging on paganism
Paganism
Paganism is a blanket term, typically used to refer to non-Abrahamic, indigenous polytheistic religious traditions....

. Today most of the Melanaus community is Muslim whilst some remained Christians, though they still celebrate traditional animist festivals such as the annual Kaul Festival.

Dayak Bidayuh



Concentrated mainly on the West end of Borneo, the Bidayuhs make up 10% of the population in Sarawak are now most numerous in the hill counties of Lundu
Lundu, Sarawak
Lundu is a town located in the Northwest of Kuching Division of Sarawak, Malaysia,and borders with Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan.-History:...

, Bau
Bau, Sarawak
Bau is a gold mining town in the Kuching Division of Sarawak, Malaysia. Smuggling with Kalimantan is also important to the local economy.-History:...

, Penrissen, Padawan
Padawan, Sarawak
Padawan is a sub-district of the city of Kuching, in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. The name is also used to refer to the local government in Sarawak, the Padawan Municipal Council , and to Bidayuh Village, which is also known as Kampung Padawan. The Jalan Padawan is the name of a road near mile...

, Siburan and Serian
Serian, Sarawak
Serian is a town, and the capital of the Serian District in Samarahan Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia. It is located about 40 miles from Kuching....

, within an hour's drive from Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

.

Historically, as other tribes were migrating into Sarawak and forming settlements including the Malays from the neighbouring archipelagos, the Bidayuhs retreated further inland, hence earning them the name of "Land Dayaks" or "land owners". The word Bidayuh in itself literally means "land people" in Biatah
Biatah
The Biatah language is spoken in the Malaysian state of Sarawak and the Indonesian province of Kalimantan Barat. It belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family....

 dialect. In Bau-Jagoi/Singai dialect, the pronunciation is "Bidoyoh" which also carry the same meaning.


The traditional community construction of the Bidayuh is the "baruk", a roundhouse that rises about 1.5 metres off the ground. It serves as the granary and the meeting house for the settlement's community. Longhouses were typical in the olden days, similar to that of the Ibans.


Typical of the Sarawak indigenous groups, the Bidayuhs are well known for their hospitality, and are reputed to be the best makers of tuak, or rice wine. Bidayuhs also use distilling methods to make “arak tonok”, a kind of moonshine
Moonshine
Moonshine is an illegally produced distilled beverage...

.


The Bidayuhs speak a number of different but related dialects. Some Bidayuhs speak either English or Sarawak Malay as their main language. While some of them still practise traditional religions, the majority of modern-day Bidayuhs have adopted the Christian faith with a few villages embracing the Islamic faith as a minority group within the Bidayuh community.

Dayak Salako & Lara



This ethnic group forms a small minority with very little or no comprehensive studies done by any party on their dialect, culture/customs and history. Although classified as Bidayuh
Bidayuh
Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, that are broadly similar in language and culture . The name "Bidayuh" means 'inhabitants of land'...

 by the Malaysian government for political convenience, the Salako and Lara culture have nothing in common with the other Bidayuh groups and their oral tradition claim different descent and migration histories. It is understandable that since this group is living within Bidayuh-majority areas and the fact that they also prefer to stay in one permanent inland area, most probably for agricultural reasons instead of branching out to other locations as opposed to the other races, they are grouped together as Land Dayaks.

This tribal community is believed to have originated from Gajing Mountain, at the source of Salakau River, near Singkawang
Singkawang
Singkawang is located at the province of West Kalimantan or Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. It is located at about 145 km north of Pontianak, the provincial capital, and is surrounded by the Pasi, Poteng, and Sakok mountain...

 in West Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
West Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator....

, Indonesia. Their language is completely different and not intelligible with the other spoken Bidayuh dialects in the other districts. They are mainly found concentrated in the Lundu
Lundu
The Lundu is a dance-song with its origins in the African Bantu and Portuguese people. It relates to Kilindu, a deity responsible for the fate of each person....

 area. In August 2001, the Salako and Lara community set up the Salako-Lara Association to safe guard and preserve their culture and custom for the future generations.

Indian



The Indians in Sarawak are a small community, estimated to be between 5000 & 7000 people (figure also includes those of mixed parentage & professionals/students/residents from other parts of Malaysia), found mainly in the urban exteriors of Kuching & Miri division. The Indians encompass a wide spectrum of religions, being represented in the Hindu, Muslim (from Tamil Naidu, Malabari & Andhra Pradesh subethnic groups), Christian, Sikh, Buddhist & Baha'i faiths.

The Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s were among the earliest Indians to set foot on Sarawak's soil, recruited by the first White Rajah, Sir James Brooke
James Brooke
James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB was the first White Rajah of Sarawak. His father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India; his mother, Anna Maria, born in Hertfordshire, was the illegitimate daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre,...

 in Singapore as police officers to bring peace, law and order during the 1857 Chinese uprising in Bau
Bau, Sarawak
Bau is a gold mining town in the Kuching Division of Sarawak, Malaysia. Smuggling with Kalimantan is also important to the local economy.-History:...

. At a much later stage, the Sikhs were employed as security personnel for the Sarawak Shell Company in Miri & also as government-appointed prison wardens. It is also believed that there were a few Sikhs in the Sarawak Rangers, which was formed in 1872. As for the Tamil
Tamil people
Tamil people , also called Tamils or Tamilians, are an ethnic group native to Tamil Nadu, India and the north-eastern region of Sri Lanka. Historic and post 15th century emigrant communities are also found across the world, notably Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, South Africa, Australia, Canada,...

, Malayali
Malayali
Malayali is the term used to refer to the native speakers of Malayalam, originating from the Indian state of Kerala...

, Sindh
Sindh
Sindh historically referred to as Ba'ab-ul-Islam , is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhi people. It is also locally known as the "Mehran". Though Muslims form the largest religious group in Sindh, a good number of Christians, Zoroastrians and Hindus can...

 & other Indian ethnic groups, their history in the state began during the 1860s, when they were brought in from South India
South India
South India is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area...

 by the second White Rajah Charles Brooke
Charles Brooke
Charles Brooke may refer to:* Charles Brooke , surgeon and inventor* Charles Brooke, Rajah of Sarawak , head of state of Sarawak, Borneo*Charles Brooke -See also:* Charles Brook...

 to work in the tea & coffee plantations in the Matang Hills. There were also traders & travellers visiting the state for religious, educational or business opportunities. After many years, the Indian community is extended to include newer immigrants from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

 & other areas in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. The Indian Muslims were prominent in the restaurant business, textile trade & Indian food production. They were also instrumentally significant in their contribution to the Islamic fellowship & religious welfare in the state with their Muslim Malay brethren.

Many of the present-day Sarawak Indians are from mixed marriages with the Malays, Chinese & other Sarawak native ethnic groups, with many of the younger generation using English, Sarawak Malay or one of the native or Chinese dialects to communicate with everybody else. They have assimilated well within the state's general population as a culturally distinct group in Sarawak that is rather unique as opposed to the Indian diaspora of Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia , also known as West Malaysia , is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula. Its area is . It shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra...

 & the Asian region in general. A number of Sarawak Indians can be found working as doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers & other professional careers in the government & private sectors.

Eurasian



Mixed marriages/unions between Europeans and local spouses have been going on for centuries, since the time European traders, sailors and colonists first set foot on Sarawak's soils.

The Eurasians in Sarawak continues to be the smallest of minorities, with many of them rather identifying themselves with the major racial denomination of their local parent rather than that of their European, Australian or American parent, as the local state government does not formally classify them as an official ethnicity. At the moment, the exact number of people in the local Eurasian community is not known, as many of them registered themselves (for administrative and social ease) as Iban, Bidayuh, Chinese, Malay, Melanau, Orang Ulu, Indian or simply under "others". Besides assimilating themselves into the general populace, many of them had also migrated to Peninsular Malaysia or their foreign parents' countries of origin.

The local Eurasians established the Sarawak Eurasian Association(SEA) in the year 2000 to foster closer ties among members of this community and also to raise awareness on the existence of this distinct group. Their association is quite unique, if compared to the Eurasian associations of Peninsular Malaysia, as it is composed by members of different religious faiths.

Javanese



The present generation are descended from the original ethnic Javanese people, the majority from the province of Central Java
Central Java
Central Java is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of six provinces on the island of Java.This province is the province of high Human Development in Indonesia and its Points Development Index countries is equivalent to Lebanon. The province of Central Java...

, who arrived in Sarawak as "kuli kontrak", indentured servants who were brought in by the Dutch via Batavia
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

 (modern-day Jakarta) during the late 1800s to the 1940s & transferred to a British company to work in the rubber plantations. After the end of their contracts, some of them had decided to settle down & work on land no longer producing rubber. Over the years, these labourers were prosperous & were later given the right of ownership to several hectares of land.

An estimated 50,000 Javanese people are found all over the state, establishing their own villages, with the majority concentrated in Kuching & its surrounding areas. Some of the younger generation still carry traditional Javanese names & are identified as ethnic Javanese in their birth certificates. They are proud of their heritage; the current population still speak the language of their parents & retaining their age-old traditions & practices of their forefathers.

The friendly Javanese are traditionally Muslims, so they have a strong affinity with the Malays, with many of them intermarrying & living within Malay-majority areas & also other communities. They use Sarawak Malay or English as a common lingua franca
Lingua franca
A lingua franca is a language systematically used to make communication possible between people not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both mother tongues.-Characteristics:"Lingua franca" is a functionally defined term, independent of the linguistic...

 to communicate with the other ethnic groups.

Bugis



The Bugis are an ethnic group which had originated from the southwestern province of Sulawesi, Indonesia. They are renowned around the archipelago as adventurous seafarers and merchants, establishing trading routes with other ports along Sarawak's coastal areas over the past few centuries, eventually settling down with their families or taking up local spouses. The Bugis artisans are noted for their expertise in building tongkang
Tongkang
Tongkang or "Tong'kang" was a type of light wooden boat used commonly in the early 19th century to carry goods along rivers in the Malay Archipelago.-Description:...

s & proa
Proa
A proa, also seen as prau, perahu, and prahu, is a type of multihull sailing vessel.While the word perahu and proa are generic terms meaning boat their native language, proa in Western languages has come to describe a vessel consisting of two unequal length parallel hulls...

s, plying their skills at the fishing villages and local dockyards. They are also skilled farmers, construction workers, traders and fishermen.

The Bugis population in Sarawak is scattered throughout the state. Many can be found living along the coast alongside or within other communities and also opening up small agricultural settlements further inland, especially in the Sarikei
Sarikei
Sarikei is a town, and the capital of the Sarikei District in Sarikei Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia. It is located on the Rajang River, near where the river empties into the South China Sea. The district population was 56,798...

 district. They are predominantly Muslims and many have amalgamated with the local Muslim society through marriage.

Bisaya



The Bisaya are an indigenous people, concentrated around the Limbang river in northern Sarawak state. Most Sarawakian Bisaya are Christians. They are distantly related to the Visayan of the Philippines, most of which are more related to Bahasa Malaysia than Philippine Visaya. Such similarities may be due to the standardising effect and influence Bahasa Melayu had over not just the Borneon Bisaya but also all other ethnic languages spoken in Malaysia.

Bisaya’s indigenous people settled in Borneo thousand of years ago. The Bisaya were a people who were loved, feared and respected by the others. They are skilled in agriculture such as paddy planting, ginger, sago, local ginger, tapioca, banana, yam, pepper, coconut, and so on. They also hunt animals and breed others such as chicken, duck, goose, goat, buffalo, cow and many more. Bisaya people are also skilled in catching fish in the river or sea, and they can hold their breath under water without drowning.

Kedayan



The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in parts of Sarawak. They are also known as Kadayan, Kadaian or simply badly spelled as Kadyan by the British. The Kedayan language is spoken by more than 37,000 people in Sarawak, with most of the members of the Kedayan community residing in Lawas, Limbang, Miri and Sibuti areas.
The origins of Kedayans are somewhat uncertain, with some Kedayans claiming to have Javanese origins. However, most researchers consider them indigenous to Borneo, having accepted Islam and influenced by Malay culture.
Kedayan are mainly padi farmers or fishermen. They have a reputation for knowledge of medicinal plants, which they grow to treat a wide range of ailments or to make tonics. The Kedayan tend to settle inland in a cluster pattern, with houses built in the center and with fields radiating outwards. The Kedayans traditionally tended to be a rather closed community, discouraging contact with outsiders. Intermarriage among relatives was encouraged for economic and social reasons.

Dayak Orang Ulu


The phrase Orang Ulu means upriver people and is a term used to collectively describe the numerous tribes that live upriver in Sarawak's vast interior. Such groups include the major Kayan and Kenyah tribes, and the smaller neighbouring groups of the Kajang, Kejaman, Punan, Ukit, and Penan. Nowadays, the definition also includes the down-river tribes of the Lun Bawang
Lun Bawang
The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei , southwest of Sabah and northern region of Sarawak...

, Lun Dayeh, "mean upriver" or "far upstream", Berawan, Saban as well as the plateau-dwelling Kelabits. The various Orang Ulu groups together make up roughly 5.5% of Sarawak's population.

The Orang Ulu are artistic people with longhouses elaborately decorated with murals and woodcarvings. They are also well known for their intricate beadwork and detailed tattoos. The Orang Ulu tribe can also be identified by theirunique musical sound made by a sapeh, a stringed instrument similar to a mandolin
Mandolin
A mandolin is a musical instrument in the lute family . It descends from the mandore, a soprano member of the lute family. The mandolin soundboard comes in many shapes—but generally round or teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections. A mandolin may have f-holes, or a single...

.

A vast majority of the Orang Ulu tribe are Christians but traditional religions are still practised in some areas.

Some of the major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group include:
  • Kayan
    Kayan
    The Kayan are an indigenous tribe from the island of Borneo. The Kayan people are categorized as a part of the Dayak people of Borneo.Being an indigenous tribe in central Borneo, Kayans are similar to their neighbors, the Kenyah tribe, with which they are grouped together under the Bahau ethnic...



There are approximately 15,000 Kayans in Sarawak. The Kayan tribe built their longhouses in the northern interiors of Sarawak midway on the Baram River
Baram River
The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The river originates in the central Iran Mountains and flows westwards through tropical rainforest to the South China Sea....

, the upper Rejang River and the lower Tubau River, and were traditionally headhunters.

They are well known for their boat making skills. The Kayan people carve from a single block of belian, the strongest of the tropical hardwoods.

Although many Kayan have become Christians, some still practise paganistic beliefs, but this is becoming more rare.
  • Lun Bawang
    Lun Bawang
    The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei , southwest of Sabah and northern region of Sarawak...



The Lun Bawang are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei (Temburong District), southwest of Sabah (Interior Division) and northern region of Sarawak (Limbang Division). Lun Bawang people are traditionally agriculturalists and rear poultry, pigs and buffalo.

Lun Bawangs are also known to be hunters and fishermen.Alternatively, they are also collectively called the Murut of Sarawak and are closely related to the Lun Dayeh of Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

 and Kalimantan
Kalimantan
In English, the term Kalimantan refers to the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo, while in Indonesian, the term "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo....

.
  • Kelabit
    Kelabit
    The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous people of the Sarawak highlands in Borneo with a minority in the neighbouring state of Brunei. The elevation there is slightly over 1,200 meters...



With a population of approximately 3000, the Kelabit are inhabitants of Bario – a remote plateau in the Sarawak Highlands, slightly over 1,200 meters above sea level. The Kelabits form a tight-knit community and practise and practice agriculture methods used for generations. Famous for their rice-farming, they also cultivate a variety of other crops which are suited to the cooler climate of the Highlands of Bario. The Kelabits are closely related to the Lun Bawang
Lun Bawang
The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei , southwest of Sabah and northern region of Sarawak...

.

The Kelabit are predominantly Christian, the Bario Highlands having been visited by Christian missionaries many years ago.
  • Kenyah
    Kenyah
    The Kenyah people are an indigenous, Austronesian-speaking people of Borneo, living in the remote Baram , Data Kakus, Data Surau, Sg...



With the population about ~22,000, the Kenyah inhabit the Upper Belaga and upper Baram. There is little historical evidence regarding the exact origin of the Kenyah tribe. Their heartland however, is Long San, along the Baram River and Belaga along Rajang River. Their culture is very similar to that of the Kayan tribe with whom they live in close association.

The typical Kenyah village consists of only one longhouse. Most inhabitants are farmers, planting rice in burnt jungle clearings. With the rapid economic development, especially in timber industry, many of them work in timber camps.
  • Penan
    Penan
    The Penan are a nomadic aboriginal people living in Sarawak and Brunei. They are one of the last such peoples remaining. The Penan are noted for their practice of 'molong' which means never taking more than necessary...



The Penan
Penan
The Penan are a nomadic aboriginal people living in Sarawak and Brunei. They are one of the last such peoples remaining. The Penan are noted for their practice of 'molong' which means never taking more than necessary...

 are the only true nomadic people in Sarawak and are amongst the last of the world's hunter-gatherers.http://www.kent.ac.uk/anthropology/department/staff/darioN/Penan_monkey.jpg The Penan make their home under the rainforest canopy, deep within the vast expanse of Sarawak's jungles. Even today, the Penan continue to roam the rainforest hunting wild boar and deer with blowpipes.

The Penan are skilled weavers and make high-quality rattan baskets and mats. The traditional Penan religion worships a supreme god called Bungan. However, the increasing number who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle for settlement in longhouses have converted to Christianity.
  • Sebob/Chebob


One of the least known tribes in Sarawak and can be found in upper Tinjar river. Sebob are the first Tinjar settlers along the Tinjar river and it is said that others migrated at a later date. The Sebob/Chebob tribes occupies up to six longhouse in Tinjar including Long Loyang, Long Batan, Long Selapun, Long Pejawai and Long Subeng. Amongst the longhouses, Long Luyang is the longest and most populated Sebob/Chebob settlement. It comprises almost 100 units. Most of these people have migrated and found work in the cities.

Religions


Sarawakians practice a variety of religions, including Islam, Christianity, Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion or Shenism , which is a term of considerable debate, are labels used to describe the collection of ethnic religious traditions which have been a main belief system in China and among Han Chinese ethnic groups for most of the civilization's history until today...

 (a fusion of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

, Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

 and ancestor worship) and animism
Animism
Animism refers to the belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or at least embody some kind of life-principle....

. Christianity is the largest religion in culturally and religiously diverse Sarawak. Religion plays a significant role in nurturing the culture of decency and modesty among Sarawakians. It also reflects and strengthens the identity among various ethnics. For example, Islam reflects the identity of Malay, Chinese
Culture of China
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest and most complex. The area in which the culture is dominant covers a large geographical region in eastern Asia with customs and traditions varying greatly between towns, cities and provinces...

 religions and Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 reflects the identity of Chinese and Christianity reflects the identity of most Dayaks, while some still practising animism.

Christianity


Christianity is the most popular religion in Sarawak. Sarawak is the state with the highest percentage of Christians in Malaysia with a 43%-majority according to the 2000 census. Major Christian denominations in Sarawak are the Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Methodists, Borneo Evangelical Church (or Sidang Injil Borneo, S.I.B.) and Baptists. Many Sarawakian Christians are non-Malay Bumiputera, ranging from Iban
Iban people
The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. In Malaysia, most Ibans are located in Sarawak, a small portion in Sabah and some in west Malaysia. They were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks. Ibans were renowned for practising headhunting and...

, Bidayuh
Bidayuh
Bidayuh is the collective name for several indigenous groups found in southern Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, that are broadly similar in language and culture . The name "Bidayuh" means 'inhabitants of land'...

, Orang Ulu
Orang Ulu
Orang Ulu is an ethnic designation politically coined to group together roughly 27 very small but ethnically diverse tribal groups in Sarawak, with a population ranging from less than 300 persons to over 25,000 persons. Orang Ulu is not a legal term and no such racial group exist or listed in the...

 and Melanau.

Denomination of Christians in Sarawak may vary according to their race, although this is not necessarily true. For example, most Chinese Christians are Methodists, most Ibans and Bidayuhs are either Roman Catholics or Anglicans, whilst most Orang Ulu are S.I.B.s. Church plays an important part in shaping morality of the communities, while some Christians view the church as a religious place. Professing Christianity has led to abolishing of some previous rituals by indigenous ethnics such as headhunting, improper disposal of dead bodies. Christians among indigenous ethnics have also embraced many Christian values such as preserving modesty and dedication to God.

Official statistics show that the number of Christians living in Sarawak has increased faster than that of Muslims in Sarawak. In 1960, Muslims outnumbered Christians in Sarawak; over the past half-century, the number of Christians has grown tremendously, due to foreign missionary efforts.

Christianity has also contributed to the betterment of the education system in Sarawak. There were a lot of missionary schools built during 1950s to early 1980s. Christianity has gained popularity throughout Sarawak, transcending race and religion. Due to federalisation of the education system, most of these missionary schools have been converted into government national schools. Participation of the church in these schools has been reduced. The Malaysian government has allowed the schools to continue using religious symbols on school buildings and teaching Christian values to non-Muslim students.

Christians in Sarawak observe Christian festivals just like their counterparts in other part of the world, namely Christmas, Good Friday
Good Friday
Good Friday , is a religious holiday observed primarily by Christians commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of...

, Easter Monday
Easter Monday
Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox cultures...

 and Ascension Day. However, only Christmas and Good Friday
Good Friday
Good Friday , is a religious holiday observed primarily by Christians commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of...

 are public holidays in Sarawak.

Islam


Islam is the second largest religion in Sarawak. 26% of Sarawak population are Muslim by religion. Many Muslims in Sarawak are ethnic Malays. All Malays are designated Muslim by the Malaysian Constitution. Malay culture contributes significantly to Sarawakian Muslim tradition as a whole especially for weddings, circumcision (coming of age ritual), 'majlis doa selamat', etc.

Other ethnic groups which have strong Islamic influence in their traditions are Melanau and Kedayan. Melanaus, depending on region or kampung they live in, are normally either Muslim or Christian (while very little practising pagan). Most of them live in Kuching, Matu, Mukah, Igan and Bintulu. The majority of Melanau people are of Muslim faith.

Kedayan, is another distinct ethnic from Malay and Melanau, but traditionally Muslim. Although small in number, they contribute to a majority of Muslim population in Sibuti and Bekenu district in Miri. Penan, on the other hand, which is part of Orang Ulu tribes, has gradually contributed to the rising Muslim population in Sarawak.

Administratively, Islam is under the authority of the state of Islamic Council, which is Majlis Islam Sarawak (MIS), a state government agency. Under MIS, there are various agencies dealing with various aspects of Islam such as Jabatan Agama Islam Sarawak (JAIS), Majlis Fatwa, Baitulmal Sarawak etc.

Although the population of Muslims has increased over the past 40 years, their rate of growth has not matched that of the Christians. In 1960, Islam was the largest religion in Sarawak. Despite being the state with highest growth of Muslim population in Malaysia, Sarawak may have the highest growth of apostasy among Muslim converts in Malaysia.

Muslims in Sarawak observe all Islamic festivals, such as Hari Raya Aidilfitri (Puasa), Hari Raya Aidiladha (Haji), Awal Muharram and Maulidur Rasul. All these celebrations have been commenced as public holidays in Sarawak. However, Israk Mikraj, Awal Ramadhan and Nuzul Quran, although observed, are not public holidays.

Buddhism/Taoism


Buddhism is regarded as the main religion of the ethnic Chinese in Sarawak. Many of the Sarawakian Chinese community, which comprises the bulk of the Buddhist population, actually practise a mixture of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

 and Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion or Shenism , which is a term of considerable debate, are labels used to describe the collection of ethnic religious traditions which have been a main belief system in China and among Han Chinese ethnic groups for most of the civilization's history until today...

. As there is no official name for this particular set of beliefs, many followers instead list down their religion as Buddhism, mainly for bureaucratic convenience. Buddhists from other ethnic especially Bumiputera are rare and almost insignificant to be related with.

Buddhists in Sarawak observe Wesak Day. It is a public holiday in Sarawak.

Hinduism



Unlike their fellow Peninsular Malaysians, Sarawak Hindus are very small in number. Almost all Hindus in Sarawak are Indians, while some are Chinese. There are less than 10 Hindu temples throughout Sarawak, most of them are located in Kuching and Miri.

Hindus in Sarawak observe Deepavali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

 and Thaipusam
Thaipusam
Thaipusam is a Hindu festival celebrated mostly by the Tamil community on the full moon in the Tamil month of Thai . It is celebrated not only in countries where the Tamil community constitutes a majority, but also in countries where Tamil communities are smaller, such as Singapore and Malaysia...

. However, none of these festivals are public holidays in Sarawak.

Sikhism



The first Gurdwara
Gurdwara
A Gurdwara , meaning the Gateway to the Guru, is the place of worship for Sikhs, the followers of Sikhism. A Gurdwara can be identified from a distance by tall flagpoles bearing the Nishan Sahib ....

 was built in 1911 in Kuching, built by the Sikh community of pioneers in the state, comprising mainly of police & security personnel. At the present, there are four known Gurdwaras in the state, with one each located in Kuching, Miri, Sibu and Bau, with the latter no longer in existence since the late 1950s, due to the fact that there were no longer any Sikhs in that area.

Besides being used as places of worship, the Gurdwaras also hold weekly Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi script
Gurmukhi is the most common script used for writing the Punjabi language. An abugida derived from the Laṇḍā script and ultimately descended from Brahmi, Gurmukhi was standardized by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji, in the 16th century. The whole of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji's 1430...

 classes and also serve as community centres for the thriving Sikh community.

Baha'i



Baha'i is one of the recognised religions in Sarawak. Various races embraced the Baha'i Faith, from Chinese to Iban and Bidayuh, Bisayahs, Penans, Indians but not the Malays or other Muslims. In towns, the majority Baha'i community is often Chinese, but in rural communities, they are of all races, Ibans, Bidayuhs, etc. In some schools, Baha'i associations or clubs for students exist.
Baha'i communities are now found in all the various divisions of Sarawak. However, these communities do not accept assistance from government or other organisations for activities which are strictly for Baha'is. If, however, these services extend to include non-Baha'is also, e.g. education for children's classes adult literacy, then sometimes the community does accept assistance.
The administration of the Baha'i Faith is through local spiritual assemblies. There is no priesthood among the Baha'is. Election is held annually without nomination or electioneering. The Baha'is should study the community and seek those members who display mature experience, loyalty, are knowledgeable in the Faith.
There are more than 40,000 Baha'is in more than 250 localities in Sarawak.

Animism



Many Dayak especially Iban continue to practice traditional ceremonies, particularly with dual marriage rites and during the important harvest and ancestral festivals such as Gawai Dayak
Gawai Dayak
Gawai Day or Gawai Dayak is a festival celebrated in Sarawak on 1 June every year. It is both a religious and social occasion. The word Gawai means a ritual or festival whereas Dayak is a collective name for the native ethnic groups of Sarawak : the Iban, also known as Sea Dayak and the Bidayuh...

, Gawai Kenyalang and Gawai Antu.

Other ethnics who still have trace number of animism followers are Melanau and Bidayuh.

Government


Unlike other states in Malaysia, Sarawak is divided into divisions rather than districts. Each division is headed by one Resident. Divisions are further divided into districts, each of which is headed by a District Officer; and each district is divided into sub-districts, each headed by an Administrative Officer.

Sarawak State Government Structure


Similar to its counterpart Sabah, Sarawak is regulated under the State Constitution and the Constitution of Malaysia. Matters on which the Federal and State Governments can legislate are set out in the Federal and State List respectively under the Ninth Schedule of the Federation of Malaya Constitution (1957). In addition, there is also a concurrent list of matters which come under the purview of both the State and Federal Governments. Federal Law
Constitution of Malaysia
The Federal Constitution of Malaysia, which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the States of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore joined the Federation...

 prevails in the event of inconsistency.

State Government Ministries


The State Government Ministries formulate policies decided by the State Cabinet, and oversee their implementation by the relevant agencies. There are eleven Ministries in Sarawak. These are:
  • Chief Minister Department
  • Ministry of Planning and Resource Management
  • Ministry of Finance and Public Utilities
  • Ministry of Rural and Land Development
  • Ministry of Environment and Public Health
  • Ministry of Tourism
  • Ministry of Housing
  • Ministry of Industrial Development
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry
  • Ministry of Social Development
  • Ministry of infrastructure Development and Communications

Administrative Divisions


Sarawak is divided into 11 Divisions:
  • Betong Division
    Betong Division
    Betong Division, formed on March 26, 2002, is the 11th and newest of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Formerly part of Sri Aman Division, Betong is in the Saribas area...

  • Bintulu Division
    Bintulu Division
    Bintulu Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has a total area of 12,166.2 square kilometers, and is the third largest division after Kapit Division and Miri Division. Bintulu Division consists of two districts which is Bintulu...

  • Kapit Division
    Kapit Division
    Kapit Division, formed on April 2, 1973, is the seventh of eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has a total area of 38,934 square kilometers, and is the largest of the administrative divisions of Sarawak....

  • Kuching Division
    Kuching Division
    Kuching Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Formerly called the "First Division", it is the center and the starting point of modern Sarawak...

  • Limbang Division
    Limbang Division
    Limbang Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has a total area of 7,788.50 square kilometers, and is the fourth largest division after Kapit Division, Miri Division and Bintulu Division. Limbang Division consists of two...

  • Miri Division
    Miri Division
    Miri Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has a total area of 26,777.1 square kilometers, and is the second largest division after Kapit Division....

  • Mukah Division
    Mukah Division
    Mukah Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It was established on March 1, 2002 and it has a total area of 6,997.61 square kilometers....

  • Samarahan Division
    Samarahan Division
    Samarahan Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Formerly part of the First Division, which included Kuching, it became a separate Division in 1985. Samarahan Division has a total area of 4,967.4 square kilometers.Samarahan...

  • Sarikei Division
    Sarikei Division
    Sarikei Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, located on the island of Borneo. Formerly part of the Third Division, which included Sibu and Kapit, Sarikei Division has a total area of 4,332.4 square kilometers, and is the second smallest of the...

  • Sibu Division
    Sibu Division
    Sibu Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. It has a total area of 8,278.3 square kilometers, and is the third largest division after Kuching Division and Miri Division....

  • Sri Aman Division
    Sri Aman Division
    Sri Aman Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. Formerly part of the First Division, which included Kuching, Sri Aman Division has a total area of 5,466.7 square kilometers. It was formerly known as Simanggang District.Sri Aman...


Administrative Districts


Each division is further divided into districts. There are 33 districts throughout Sarawak.
Division District Subdistrict
Kuching



Kuching

Bau
Lundu
Siburan
Padawan

Sematan
Samarahan



Samarahan
Asajaya
Simunjan
Serian


Sebuyau
Tebedu
Sri Aman


Sri Aman

Lubok Antu
Lingga
Pantu
Engkilili
Betong






Betong



Saratok


Pusa
Spaoh
Debak
Maludam
Roban
Kabong
Budu
Sibu


Sibu
Kanowit
Selangau
Mukah



Mukah
Dalat
Daro
Matu
Balingian
Oya
Belawai
Igan
Miri



Miri

Marudi

Subis
Niah-Suai
Beluru
Long Lama
Bintulu

Bintulu
Tatau
Sebauh

Limbang


Limbang
Lawas

Ng. Medamit
Sundar
Trusan
Sarikei



Sarikei
Meradong
Julau
Pakan
Kapit


Kapit
Song
Belaga
Nanga Merit

Sungai Asap

Energy


The state of Sarawak has introduced the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy
Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy
The Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy or SCORE is a new development corridor in central Sarawak state, Malaysia. SCORE was launched on 11 February 2008. It is one of the five regional development corridors being developed throughout the country...

 (SCORE), a new development corridor in the central Sarawak state of Malaysia.
The initiative was launched on 11 February 2008 and is one of the five regional development corridors throughout Malaysia that will transform Sarawak into a developed state by the year 2020. It aims to accelerate the state's economic growth, as well as improve the quality of life for the people of Sarawak.

Overseas interest is key to the development of SCORE with investment now totalling about US$30 billion in the aluminium, the polysilicon, and minerals-based industries as well as agriculture including aquaculture and the halal hub. In addition Chinese investors have recently pledged US$11 billion and Arab investors US$7 billion in the energy and aluminium clusters.

Focusing on five major growth nodes, Tanjung Manis, Samalaju, Mukah, Baram and Tunoh, SCORE singles out 10 key industries for development. These include tourism, oil, aluminium, metals, glass, fishing, aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

, livestock, forestry
Forestry
Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

, ship building and palm oil
Palm oil
Palm oil, coconut oil and palm kernel oil are edible plant oils derived from the fruits of palm trees. Palm oil is extracted from the pulp of the fruit of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis; palm kernel oil is derived from the kernel of the oil palm and coconut oil is derived from the kernel of the...

. Investors are being drawn to the region because it is rich in energy resources, with an energy potential of 28,000 MW of which 20,000 MW are in hydropower
Hydropower
Hydropower, hydraulic power, hydrokinetic power or water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of falling water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as...

 and 5,000 MW in coal-fired plants and the remaining 3,000 MW in other energy sources including biofuel
Biofuel
Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases...

. This allows Sarawak to price its energy competitively and encourage investments in power generation and energy-intensive industries that will stimulate strong industrial development in the corridor.

SCORE is developing a vast area that stretches 320 kilometres along Sarawak’s coast from Tanjung Manis to Samalaju and extends all the way into the extensive and remote hinterlands where two rural growth nodes, Baram and Tunoh, will also be developed. In order to connect urban centres across the central region with the rest of Sarawak, new roads will be created to provide more efficient transport of goods, access to resources and human capital.

Sarawak’s industrial sector is currently undergoing a transformation and the opportunities for investment are immense. Value-added industries are taking an increasingly dominant role in the development of the state and the days when Sarawak exported raw materials that were finished elsewhere are long over, with the new clusters set to put “Made in Sarawak” stamps on more goods and services in the years to come.

Economy



Sarawak has an abundance of natural resources. LNG and petroleum have provided the mainstay of the Malaysia federal government's economy for decades while State of Sarawak only get a 5% royalty from it. Sarawak is also one of the world's largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber and is the major contributor to Malaysian exports. The last UN statistics estimated Sarawak's sawlog exports at an average of 14,109,000 m³ between 1996 and 2000.

With such vast land expanse, Sarawak has large tracts of land suitable for commercial agricultural development. Approximately 32% or about 40,000 km² of the state's total land area has been identified as suitable agricultural land. Nevertheless, less than 9% of this is planted with productive permanent crops, while the balance is still under shifting cultivation for hill paddy (rice) which is estimated at more than 16,000 km². The main commercial crops are oil palm
Oil palm
The oil palms comprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil. The African Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis is native to West Africa, occurring between Angola and Gambia, while the American Oil Palm Elaeis oleifera is native to...

, which has been increasing steadily over the years, sago
Sago
Sago is a starch extracted in the spongy center or pith, of various tropical palm stems, Metroxylon sagu. It is a major staple food for the lowland peoples of New Guinea and the Moluccas, where it is called saksak and sagu. A type of flour, called sago flour, is made from sago. The largest supply...

, and pepper
Black pepper
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed...

.

Since the 1980s, Sarawak has started to diversify and transform its economy into a more industrialised one. This endeavour has been seeing continuing success, with manufacturing and high-tech industries now playing a significant role in shaping the economic expansion of the state.

As the largest state in Malaysia, Sarawak aims to be a fully developed state along with the rest of the country by 2020. Sarawak has identified four sectors as key sources of growth:
  • manufacturing
    Manufacturing
    Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

  • commercial agriculture
  • construction
  • services sectors


The availability of vast competitively-priced land and rich reserves of natural resources has made Sarawak an attractive choice for manufacturing operations among investors.

Agriculture, logging and land usage


Sarawak's rainforests have been gradually depleted by the demand driven by the logging industry and the following introduction of palm oil plantations. Many of Sarawak's rural communities have felt changes affected by the economic activity of these industries. Peaceful protests and timber blockades between native communities and logging companies are common, often resulting in preventive police action. The Penan, Borneo's nomadic hunter gatherers have been most affected by these changes, complaining of illness through polluted rivers, game depletion resulting in widespread hunger and loss of traditional medicines and forest products. Their resistance to logging companies culminated in a series of protests and timber blockades in the 1990s, of which many were dismantled by the Police, within the remit of the Law. The Penan claim that their rights are not respected by the State nor by logging companies. Another example, the native customary rights court case of Rumah Nor in the Kemena Basin gave rural communities engaged in subsistence farming hope for continued communal use of land reserves. Although the Court of Appeal ruled against Rumah Nor on the grounds that they had not produced sufficient evidence for their claim, it nevertheless upheld the principles stated by the lower court. These principles are the basis of not only Rumah Nor's claim, but of the claims of all Sarawak's native communities, namely, (i) that native customary rights are NOT created by legislation, although they can be extinguished by legislation, on condition of adequate compensation, and (ii) that these communities have a territory including forest reserves and rivers, and farmland, including land under fallow. Thus although the Court of Appeal ruled against Rumah Nor's specific claims, it upheld the lower court's ruling in favour of Rumah Nor with regard to the general principles. In this sense, it represents a significant blow to the state's claims that native customary rights comprise only those rights recognised by the state through its legislation.

Conservation


In February 2011, the Government of Sarawak announced that it is intensifying wildlife conservation and protection activities as part of its commitment to sustainable development. Chief Minister Taib Mahmud said: "We must plan our development in a sustainable manner, to ensure that the prosperity of the State will not only be sustained but can be handed down to our children and grand-children."

A programme has been put in place to save the flora and fauna affected by the construction of the Bakun Hydro Electric Dam. A total of 349 species of flora, 65 species of fauna, 27 mammals and 38 bird species were identified and relocated to higher ground. There is now a conservation programme in place in the Bakun Dam catchment area and it is anticipated that the growth in eco-tourism will provide economic opportunities for local communities.

Other programmes include the Heart 2 Heart orangutan campaign which invites the public to get involved with orangutan conservation; orang-utan and turtle adoption; protection of the dugong (a large marine mammal) and the Irrawaddy dolphin, which are both endangered species; and the Reef Ball project that will rehabilitate Sarawak's ocean ecosystem by placing artificial reef modules in the sea to form new habitats. Reef balls have also proven their effectiveness in protecting turtles in Sarawak. In the early 1990s, between 70 to 100 turtle deaths were reported every year. Now, the number of deaths has been reduced significantly to less than 15 reported cases. Reef balls also protect traditional fishing areas and are used to create recreational diving sites.

Sanctuaries


In March 2011, the Chief Minister spoke at a gala welcome dinner held in conjunction with the Tomorrow’s Leaders Summit at the Borneo Convention Centre Kuching attended, where he outlined the State's commitment to reserving two million hectares of land for national parks and animal sanctuaries. The event was attended by Nobel Laureate Professor Douglas Osheroff, the leading American physicist.

Tourism


Tourism also plays a major part in the state's economy. In 2010, Sarawak was visited by 3,270,655 tourists (international and domestic tourists). As for 2011, the state is targeting 4 million visitors. This is in-line with more direct flights from countries such as Japan and South Korea. The Sarawak Hornbill Tourism Award is held each year to appreciate the best in the tourism sector of the state. Some of the most popular tourist attractions are Kuching
Kuching
Kuching , officially the City of Kuching, and formerly the City of Sarawak, is the capital and most populous city of the East Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is the largest city on the island of Borneo, and the fourth largest city in Malaysia....

 city, Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that encompasses incredible caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting...

, the Rainforest World Music Festival
Rainforest World Music Festival
The Rainforest World Music Festival is an annual 3-day music festival celebrating the diversity of world music, held in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, with daytime music workshops, cultural displays, craft displays, food stalls, and main-stage evening concerts...

 (RWMF) and many more. The RWMF is the region's premier "world music" event, attracting more than 20,000 music fans.

See also


  • Malaysia Agreement
    Malaysia Agreement
    The Malaysia Agreement or the Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore is the name used for the decolonization of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore which it was union in 1963 with...

  • Manila Accord
    Manila Accord
    The Manila Accord of the Diosdado Macapagal initiative was signed on 31 July 1963 by the Federation of Malaya, the Republic of Indonesia and the Republic of the Philippines, after a meeting of from 7 to 11 June 1963 at Manila The countries have agreed to the wishes of the people of Sabah and...

  • Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
    Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
    The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization , formed in 11 February 1991, in The Hague, is an international organization of political organisations and governments representing self-proclaimed "indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognised or occupied territories". The organization...

  • United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
    United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories
    The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of countries that, according to the United Nations, are non-decolonized. The list was initially prepared in 1946 pursuant to Chapter XI of the United Nations Charter, and has been updated by the General Assembly on recommendation...

  • Kingdom of Sarawak
    Kingdom of Sarawak
    The Kingdom of Sarawak was a state in Borneo established by Sir James Brooke in 1842 by receiving independent kingdom status from the Sultanate of Brunei as a reward for helping fight piracy and insurgency...

  • Flag of Sarawak
    Flag of Sarawak
    The flag of the Malaysian state of Sarawak is based on the flag of the Kingdom of Sarawak of the White Rajah.-History:James Brooke, who was the first Rajah of Sarawak, originally used the St George's Cross as the state's flag. The decision for Sarawak to have its own flag was made in 1845, but it...

  • Sarawak dollar
    Sarawak dollar
    The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953. It was subdivided into 100 cents. The dollar remained at par with the Straits dollar and its successor the Malayan dollar, the currency of Malaya and Singapore, from its introduction until both currencies were replaced by the Malaya and...

  • Sarawak Stadium
    Sarawak Stadium
    Sarawak Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Kuching, Malaysia. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity of 40,000 spectators. It was built in 1995 for the 1997 FIFA World Youth Championship...

  • Gunung Mulu National Park
    Gunung Mulu National Park
    Gunung Mulu National Park near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site that encompasses incredible caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting...


Further reading

  • Gudgeon, L. W. W. (1913), British North Borneo. London, Adam and Charles Black.
  • Runciman, Steven
    Steven Runciman
    The Hon. Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman CH — known as Steven Runciman — was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages...

     (1960). The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    .
  • Chin, Ung Ho (1997), Chinese Politics in Sarawak: A Study of the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), (Kuala Lumpur
    Kuala Lumpur
    Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

    , New York: Oxford University Press
    Oxford University Press
    Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as...

    , 1997) (ISBN 983-56-0039-2).
  • Barley, Nigel (2002), White Rajah, London, Brown Little/Abacus.
  • Cramb, R. A. (2007), Land and Longhouse: Agrarian Transformation in the Uplands of Sarawak, Hawaii University Press
  • Julitta Lim Shau Hua: „Pussy's in the well“ : Japanese occupation of Sarawak, 1941–1945. Research and Resource Centre SUPP Headquarters, Kuching 2006, ISBN 983-41998-2-1
  • Brooke, Sylvia (The last Ranee of Sarawak), (1970), Queen of the Headhunters. William Morrow Co.
  • Palmer, Gladys, (1929) Relations & Complications. Being the Recollections of H.H. The Dayang Muda of Sarawak. Foreword by T.P. O'Connor. Ghost-written by Kay Boyle
    Kay Boyle
    Kay Boyle was an American writer, educator, and political activist.- Early years :The granddaughter of a publisher, Kay Boyle was born in St. Paul, Minnesota, and grew up in several cities but principally in Cincinnati, Ohio...

    . London, John Lane Co.
  • Urmenyhazi, Attila (2007) DISCOVERING NORTH BORNEO, A travelogue on Sarawak & Sabah by the author-graphic designer-publisher. National Library of Australia, Canberra, record ID: 4272798.
  • James Chin. “The More Things Change, The More They Remain The Same”, in Chin Kin Wah & D. Singh (eds.) South East Asian Affairs 2004 (Singapore: Institute of South East Asian Studies, 2004)
  • James Chin. “Autonomy: Politics in Sarawak” in Bridget Welsh (ed) Reflections: The Mahathir Years, (Washington DC: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004) (ISBN 9790615 124871) pp 240–251

External links




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