Tokyo

Tokyo

Overview
toːkjoː, ˈtoʊki.oʊ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures
Prefectures of Japan
The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 subnational jurisdictions: one "metropolis" , Tokyo; one "circuit" , Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures , Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures . In Japanese, they are commonly referred to as...

 of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Tokyo is the capital of Japan
Capital of Japan
The capital of Japan, where the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor are located, is de facto. While this is generally not in dispute, the capital de jure is unclear. There is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital. Some state that it occurred when Tokyo...

, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
The Greater Tokyo Area is a large metropolitan area in Kantō region, Japan, consisting of most of the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Tokyo . In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, including the , , and others....

, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government
Government of Japan
The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the 1947 constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected...

 and the Imperial Palace
Kokyo
is the main residence of the Emperor of Japan. It is a large park-like area located in the Chiyoda area of Tokyo close to Tokyo Station and contains several buildings including the main palace , the emperor left Kyoto Imperial Palace for Tokyo...

, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family
Imperial House of Japan
The , also referred to as the Imperial Family or the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the emperor is the symbol of the state and unity of the people...

. Tokyo is located in the Kantō region
Kanto region
The is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. The region includes the Greater Tokyo Area and encompasses seven prefectures: Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, and Kanagawa. Within its boundaries, slightly more than 40 percent of the land area is the Kantō Plain....

 on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 and includes the Izu Islands
Izu Islands
The are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima....

 and Ogasawara Islands
Ogasawara Islands
The Bonin Islands, known in Japan as the are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, they are part of Ogasawara Municipality of Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo...

. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former and the .

The Tokyo Metropolitan government administers the twenty-three special wards of Tokyo
Special wards of Tokyo
The are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. Together, they occupy the land that was the city of Tokyo before it was abolished in 1943. The special wards' structure was established under the Japanese Local Autonomy Law and is unique to...

 (each governed as a city), which cover the area that was the city of Tokyo, as well as 39 municipalities
Municipalities of Japan
Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards...

 in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains.
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Timeline

1703   In Edo (now Tokyo), 46 of the Forty-seven Ronin commit seppuku (ritual suicide) as recompense for avenging their master's death.

1857   An earthquake in Tokyo, Japan kills over 100,000.

1909   Mayor of Tokyo Yukio Ozaki presents Washington, D.C. with 2,000 cherry trees, which President Taft decides to plant near the Potomac River.

1921   Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi is assassinated in Tokyo.

1923   The Great Kantō earthquake devastates Tokyo and Yokohama, killing about 105,000 people.

1934   "Fujifilm", the foundation of Fujifilm, the photographic and electronic industry in "Tokyo", "Japan".

1936   Sada Abe is arrested after wandering the streets of Tokyo for days with her dead lover's severed genitals in her hand. Her story soon becomes one of Japan's most notorious scandals.

1942   World War II: The Doolittle Raid on Japan. Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe and Nagoya bombed.

1943   Tokyo City merges with Tokyo Prefecture and is dissolved. Since then, no city in Japan has had the name "Tokyo" (present-day Tokyo is not officially a city).

1945   General Douglas MacArthur moves his command headquarters to Tokyo.

 
Encyclopedia
toːkjoː, ˈtoʊki.oʊ; officially , is one of the 47 prefectures
Prefectures of Japan
The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 subnational jurisdictions: one "metropolis" , Tokyo; one "circuit" , Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures , Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures . In Japanese, they are commonly referred to as...

 of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. Tokyo is the capital of Japan
Capital of Japan
The capital of Japan, where the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor are located, is de facto. While this is generally not in dispute, the capital de jure is unclear. There is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital. Some state that it occurred when Tokyo...

, the center of the Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
The Greater Tokyo Area is a large metropolitan area in Kantō region, Japan, consisting of most of the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Tokyo . In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, including the , , and others....

, and the largest metropolitan area of Japan. It is the seat of the Japanese government
Government of Japan
The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the 1947 constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected...

 and the Imperial Palace
Kokyo
is the main residence of the Emperor of Japan. It is a large park-like area located in the Chiyoda area of Tokyo close to Tokyo Station and contains several buildings including the main palace , the emperor left Kyoto Imperial Palace for Tokyo...

, and the home of the Japanese Imperial Family
Imperial House of Japan
The , also referred to as the Imperial Family or the Yamato Dynasty, comprises those members of the extended family of the reigning Emperor of Japan who undertake official and public duties. Under the present Constitution of Japan, the emperor is the symbol of the state and unity of the people...

. Tokyo is located in the Kantō region
Kanto region
The is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. The region includes the Greater Tokyo Area and encompasses seven prefectures: Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Tokyo, Chiba, and Kanagawa. Within its boundaries, slightly more than 40 percent of the land area is the Kantō Plain....

 on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu
Honshu
is the largest island of Japan. The nation's main island, it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait...

 and includes the Izu Islands
Izu Islands
The are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima....

 and Ogasawara Islands
Ogasawara Islands
The Bonin Islands, known in Japan as the are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, they are part of Ogasawara Municipality of Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo...

. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former and the .

The Tokyo Metropolitan government administers the twenty-three special wards of Tokyo
Special wards of Tokyo
The are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. Together, they occupy the land that was the city of Tokyo before it was abolished in 1943. The special wards' structure was established under the Japanese Local Autonomy Law and is unique to...

 (each governed as a city), which cover the area that was the city of Tokyo, as well as 39 municipalities
Municipalities of Japan
Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards...

 in the western part of the prefecture and the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is over 8 million people, with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 35 million people and the world's largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$1.479 trillion at purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity
In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

 in 2008, ahead of New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, which ranks second on the list.
The city hosts 47 of the Fortune Global 500
Fortune Global 500
The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. The list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine....

 companies, the highest amount of any city.

Tokyo has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy
World economy
The world economy, or global economy, generally refers to the economy, which is based on economies of all of the world's countries, national economies. Also global economy can be seen as the economy of global society and national economies – as economies of local societies, making the global one....

, along with New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 and London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

. This city is considered an alpha+ world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

, listed by the GaWC's 2008 inventory and ranked third among global cities by Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P. Huntington and Warren Demian Manshel.Originally, the magazine was a quarterly...

s 2010 Global Cities Index. In 2010 Tokyo was named the second most expensive city for expatriate employees, according to the Mercer
Mercer (consulting firm)
Mercer is a human resource and related financial services consulting firm, headquartered in New York City. The firm operates internationally in more than 40 countries, with more than 19,000 employees, and is the world's largest human resource consulting firm....

  and Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
The Economist Intelligence Unit is part of the Economist Group.It is a research and advisory company providing country, industry and management analysis worldwide and incorporates the former Business International Corporation, a U.S. company acquired by the parent organization in 1986...

 cost-of-living surveys, and named the fourth Most Liveable City and the World’s Most Livable Megalopolis by the magazine Monocle
Monocle (2007 magazine)
Monocle is a lifestyle magazine and website founded by Tyler Brûlé, a Canadian journalist and entrepreneur. Described by CBC News reporter Harry Forestell as a "meeting between Foreign Policy and Vanity Fair", the magazine provides a globalist perspective on issues as fashion, international...

. The Michelin Guide
Michelin Guide
The Michelin Guide is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. The term normally refers to the Michelin Red Guide, the oldest and best-known European hotel and restaurant guide, which awards the Michelin stars...

 has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

 and is currently bidding to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad, will be a major international sports and cultural festival, celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games....

.

Etymology


Tokyo was originally known as Edo
Edo
, also romanized as Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo, and was the seat of power for the Tokugawa shogunate which ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868...

, meaning "estuary". Its name was changed to Tokyo (Tōkyō: tō (east) + kyō (capital)) when it became the imperial capital in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital ('京') in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period
Meiji period
The , also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan.- Meiji Restoration and the emperor :...

, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same Chinese characters representing "Tokyo". Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei". However, this pronunciation is now obsolete.

History


Tokyo was originally a small fishing village named Edo, located in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province
Musashi Province
was a province of Japan, which today comprises Tokyo Prefecture, most of Saitama Prefecture and part of Kanagawa Prefecture. It was sometimes called . The province encompassed Kawasaki and Yokohama...

.

Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan
Edo clan
The Edo clan were a minor offshoot of the Taira clan, and first fortified the settlement known as Edo, which would later become Tokyo. The Imperial Palace now stands at this location.During the Azuchi-Momoyama period, the clan was renamed the Kitami....

, in the late 12th century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan
Ota Dokan
, also known as Ōta Sukenaga or Ōta Dōkan Sukenaga, was a Japanese samurai warrior-poet, military tactician and Buddhist monk. Ōta Sukenaga took the tonsure as a Buddhist priest in 1478, and he also adopted the Buddhist name, Dōkan, by which is known today...

 built Edo Castle
Edo Castle
, also known as , is a flatland castle that was built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is located in Chiyoda in Tokyo, then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate here. It was the residence of the shogun and location of the shogunate, and also...

. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
 was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan , which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara  in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shogun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but...

 made Edo his base and when he became shogun
Shogun
A was one of the hereditary military dictators of Japan from 1192 to 1867. In this period, the shoguns, or their shikken regents , were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor...

 in 1603, the town became the center of his nationwide military government. During the subsequent Edo period
Edo period
The , or , is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate....

, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.

It became the de facto capital of Japan
Capital of Japan
The capital of Japan, where the seat of the Government of Japan and home of the Emperor are located, is de facto. While this is generally not in dispute, the capital de jure is unclear. There is a dispute as to exactly when Tokyo became the capital. Some state that it occurred when Tokyo...

 even while the emperor lived in Kyoto
Kyoto
is a city in the central part of the island of Honshū, Japan. It has a population close to 1.5 million. Formerly the imperial capital of Japan, it is now the capital of Kyoto Prefecture, as well as a major part of the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area.-History:...

, the imperial capital.
After about 263 years, the shogunate was overthrown under the banner of restoring imperial rule
Meiji Restoration
The , also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868...

. In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
The or was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 3 February 1867 until his death...

 moved to Edo. Tokyo was already the nation's political and cultural center, and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace
Kokyo
is the main residence of the Emperor of Japan. It is a large park-like area located in the Chiyoda area of Tokyo close to Tokyo Station and contains several buildings including the main palace , the emperor left Kyoto Imperial Palace for Tokyo...

. The city of Tokyo
Tokyo City
was a municipality in Japan and part of Tokyo-Fu which existed from May 1, 1889 until its merger with its prefecture on July 1, 1943. The historical boundaries of Tokyo City are now occupied by independent special wards...

 was established, and continued to be the capital until it was abolished as a municipality in 1943 and merged with the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo.

Central Tokyo, like Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. This differs from many cities in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 that are low-density and automobile-centric. Though expressways
Shuto Expressway
is a network of toll expressways in the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan. It is operated and maintained by the .Most routes consist of elevated roadway above other roads or over water, and have many sharp curves which require caution to drive safely...

 have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.

Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century, but it recovered from both. One was the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
1923 Great Kanto earthquake
The struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 am JST on September 1, 1923. Varied accounts hold that the duration of the earthquake was between 4 and 10 minutes...

, which left 140,000 dead or missing, and the other was World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. The Bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945, with 75,000 to 200,000 killed and half of the city destroyed, was almost as devastating as the atomic bombs of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan. It became best known as the first city in history to be destroyed by a nuclear weapon when the United States Army Air Forces dropped an atomic bomb on it at 8:15 A.M...

 and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. Nagasaki was founded by the Portuguese in the second half of the 16th century on the site of a small fishing village, formerly part of Nishisonogi District...

 combined.

After the war, Tokyo was completely rebuilt, and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60
Sunshine 60
is a 60-story, mixed-use skyscraper located in Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo, adjoining the Sunshine City complex. At the time of its completion in 1978, the 239.7 m building was the tallest in Asia, a title it held until 1985 when it was surpassed by the 63 Building in Seoul...

, a new and controversial airport
Narita International Airport
is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan. It is located east of Tokyo Station and east-southeast of Narita Station in the city of Narita, and the adjacent town of Shibayama....

 at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area).

Tokyo's subway
Tokyo Subway
The is an integral part of the world's most extensive rapid transit system in a single metropolitan area, Greater Tokyo. While the subway system itself is largely within the city center, the lines extend far out via extensive through services onto suburban railway lines.- Networks :As of June...

 and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble
Japanese asset price bubble
The was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991, in which real estate and stock prices were greatly inflated. The bubble's collapse lasted for more than a decade with stock prices initially bottoming in 2003, although they would descend even further amidst the global crisis in 2008. The...

. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade
Lost Decade (Japan)
The is the time after the Japanese asset price bubble's collapse within the Japanese economy, which occurred gradually rather than catastrophically...

" from which it is now slowly recovering.

Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu
Ebisu, Tokyo
is a neighborhood in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Conveniently near Roppongi and central Shibuya, Ebisu is easily accessed by the JR Yamanote and Hibiya lines via Ebisu Station...

 Garden Place, Tennozu Isle, Shiodome
Shiodome
Shiodome is an area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, located adjacent to Shinbashi and Ginza, near Tokyo Bay and the Hamarikyu Gardens. Formerly a railway terminal, Shiodome has been transformed into one of Tokyo's most modern areas...

, Roppongi Hills
Roppongi Hills
is a New Urban Centre and one of Japan's largest integrated property developments, located in the Roppongi district of Minato, Tokyo.Constructed by building tycoon Minoru Mori, the mega-complex incorporates office space, apartments, shops, restaurants, cafés, movie theaters, a museum, a hotel, a...

, Shinagawa
Shinagawa, Tokyo
is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it is called Shinagawa City. The ward is home to nine embassies.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 344,461 and a density of 15,740 persons per km². The total area is 22.72 km²....

 (now also a Shinkansen
Shinkansen
The , also known as THE BULLET TRAIN, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies. Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen in 1964, the network has expanded to currently consist of of lines with maximum speeds of , of Mini-shinkansen with a...

 station), and the Marunouchi
Marunouchi
Marunouchi is a commercial district of Tokyo located in Chiyoda between Tokyo Station and the Imperial Palace. The name, meaning "inside the circle", derives from its location within the palace's outer moat...

 side of Tokyo Station
Tokyo Station
is a train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the Ginza commercial district....

. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills
Omotesando Hills
Omotesando Hills was built in 2005, in a series of Tokyo urban developments by Mori Building. It occupies a two hundred and fifty meter stretch of Omotesandō, a famous shopping and residential road in Aoyama sometimes termed Tokyo's Champs-Élysées...

.

Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba
Odaiba
is a large artificial island in Tokyo Bay, Japan, across the Rainbow Bridge from central Tokyo. It was initially built for defensive purposes in the 1850s, dramatically expanded during the late 20th century as a seaport district, and has developed since the 1990s as a major commercial, residential...

 area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial within Japan and have yet to be realized.

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, also known as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, or the Great East Japan Earthquake, was a magnitude 9.0 undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately east...

 that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-proof infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami, although activity in the city was largely halted. The subsequent nuclear crisis
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
The is a series of equipment failures, nuclear meltdowns, and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The plant comprises six separate boiling water reactors originally designed by General Electric ,...

 caused by the tsunami has also largely unaffected Tokyo, despite occasional spikes in radiation
Radiation
In physics, radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiation; ionizing and non-ionizing...

 levels.

Geography and administrative divisions


The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. Its old name was .-Geography:Tokyo Bay is surrounded by the Bōsō Peninsula to the east and the Miura Peninsula to the west. In a narrow sense, Tokyo Bay is the area north of the straight line formed by the on the Miura Peninsula on one end and on...

 and measures about 90 km east to west and 25 km north to south. Chiba Prefecture
Chiba Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region and the Greater Tokyo Area. Its capital is Chiba City.- History :Chiba Prefecture was established on June 15, 1873 with the merger of Kisarazu Prefecture and Inba Prefecture...

 borders it to the east, Yamanashi
Yamanashi Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of the island of Honshū. The capital is the city of Kōfu.-Pre-history to the 14th century:People have been living in the Yamanashi area for about 30,000 years...

 to the west, Kanagawa
Kanagawa Prefecture
is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of Japan. The capital is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area.-History:The prefecture has some archaeological sites going back to the Jōmon period...

 to the south, and Saitama
Saitama Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of the island of Honshu. The capital is the city of Saitama.This prefecture is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, and most of Saitama's cities can be described as suburbs of Tokyo, to which a large amount of residents commute each day.- History...

 to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area stretching westwards.

Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 directly south: the Izu Islands
Izu Islands
The are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima....

, and the Ogasawara Islands
Ogasawara Islands
The Bonin Islands, known in Japan as the are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical and tropical islands, some directly south of Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, they are part of Ogasawara Municipality of Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo...

, which stretch more than 1,000 km away from the mainland. Because of these islands and mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far underrepresent the real figures for urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.

Under Japanese law
Japanese law
-Historical Developments:Pre-Modern History The early law of Japan was heavily influenced by Chinese law. Little is known about Japanese law prior to the seventh century, when the Ritsuryō was developed and codified. Before Chinese characters were transplanted and adopted by the Japanese, the...

, Tokyo is designated as a to , translated as metropolis
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures
Prefectures of Japan
The prefectures of Japan are the country's 47 subnational jurisdictions: one "metropolis" , Tokyo; one "circuit" , Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures , Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures . In Japanese, they are commonly referred to as...

. Within Tokyo lie dozens of smaller entities, including many cities, the twenty-three special wards, districts, towns, villages, a quasi-national park, and a national park. The twenty-three special wards
Special wards of Tokyo
The are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. Together, they occupy the land that was the city of Tokyo before it was abolished in 1943. The special wards' structure was established under the Japanese Local Autonomy Law and is unique to...

 ( -ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo
Tokyo City
was a municipality in Japan and part of Tokyo-Fu which existed from May 1, 1889 until its merger with its prefecture on July 1, 1943. The historical boundaries of Tokyo City are now occupied by independent special wards...

, are now separate, self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.

In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities (市 -shi), five towns ( -chō or machi), and eight villages ( -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building
The , also referred to as Tokyo City Hall or Tochō for short, houses the headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, which governs not only the 23 wards, but also the cities, towns and villages that make up Tokyo as a whole....

 are in the ward of Shinjuku
Shinjuku, Tokyo
is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It is a major commercial and administrative center, housing the busiest train station in the world and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, the administration center for the government of Tokyo.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population...

. They govern all of Tokyo, including lakes, rivers, dams, farms, remote islands, and national parks in addition to its neon jungles, skyscrapers and crowded subways.

Special wards



The special wards
Special wards of Tokyo
The are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. Together, they occupy the land that was the city of Tokyo before it was abolished in 1943. The special wards' structure was established under the Japanese Local Autonomy Law and is unique to...

 (tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City was merged with forming the current "metropolitan prefecture". As a result, unlike other city wards
Wards of Japan
A is a subdivision of one of the cities of Japan that is large enough to have been designated by government ordinance. Wards are used to subdivide each city designated by government ordinance...

 in Japan, these wards are not part of any larger incorporated city.
Each ward is a municipality
Municipalities of Japan
Japan has three levels of government: national, prefectural, and municipal. The nation is divided into 47 prefectures. Each prefecture consists of numerous municipalities. There are four types of municipalities in Japan: cities, towns, villages and special wards...

 with its own elected mayor and assembly like the other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City).

The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.

The special wards of Tokyo are:
  • Adachi
    Adachi, Tokyo
    is one of the Special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It is located north of the heart of Tokyo. The ward consists of two separate areas: a small strip of land between the Sumida River and Arakawa River and a larger area north of the Arakawa River...

  • Arakawa
    Arakawa, Tokyo
    is a special ward located in Tokyo, Japan. The ward takes its name from the river, the Arakawa, though the Arakawa River does not run through or touch the ward. Its neighbors are the wards of Adachi, Kita, Bunkyo, Taito and Sumida. In English, the ward calls itself Arakawa City.Arakawa has...

  • Bunkyō
    Bunkyo, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. Situated in the middle of the ward area, Bunkyō is a residential and educational center. Beginning in the Meiji period, literati like Natsume Sōseki, as well as scholars and politicians have lived there...

  • Chiyoda
    Chiyoda, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards in central Tokyo, Japan. In English, it is called Chiyoda ward. As of October 2007, the ward has an estimated population of 45,543 and a population density of 3,912 people per km², making it by far the least populated of the special wards...

  • Chūō
    Chuo, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards that form the heart of Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself as Chūō City in English.Its Japanese name literally means "Central Ward," and it is historically the main commercial center of Tokyo, although Shinjuku has risen to challenge it since the end of World War II...

  • Edogawa
    Edogawa, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It takes its name from the river that runs from north to south along the eastern edge of the ward. In English, it uses the name Edogawa City....

  • Itabashi
    Itabashi, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself Itabashi City. Itabashi has sister-city relations with Burlington, Ontario in Canada; Shijingshan District in Beijing, People's Republic of China; and Bologna in Italy....

  • Katsushika
    Katsushika, Tokyo
    is one of the special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It lies in the northeast of the ward area. The ward calls itself Katsushika City in English.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 429,289 and a density of 12,600 people per km²...

  • Kita
    Kita, Tokyo
    is one of the special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself the City of Kita .As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 332,140 and a population density of 16,140 persons per km². The total area is 20.59 km².-Geography:...

  • Kōtō
    Koto, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 442,271 and a population density of 11,070 persons per km². The total area is 39.48 km². The ward refers to itself as Kōtō City in English....

  • Meguro
    Meguro, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It calls itself Meguro City in English.Meguro hosts fifteen foreign embassies and consulates. One of Tokyo's most exclusive residential neighborhoods is located in Meguro....

  • Minato
    Minato, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 1 March 2008, it had an official population of 217,335 and a population density of 10,865 persons per km². The total area is 20.34 km².Minato hosts 49 embassies...

  • Nakano
    Nakano, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself Nakano City .As of April 1, 2011, the ward has an estimated population of 311,690 with a household number of 176,936 and a density of 19,992.94 persons per km². The total area is 15.59 km².-Geography:Five special wards...

  • Nerima
    Nerima, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself Nerima City.As of August 1, 2007, the ward has an estimated population of 703,005 , and a density of 14,443 persons per km². 12,897 foreign residents are registered in the ward. 18.4% of the ward's population is over the...

  • Ōta
    Ota, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 Special wards of Tokyo, Japan.As of May 1, 2011, the ward has an estimated population of 676,458, with 348,492 households, and a population density of 11,376.69 persons per km²...

  • Setagaya
    Setagaya, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo in Japan. It is also the name of a neighborhood within the ward. The ward calls itself the City of Setagaya in English...

  • Shibuya
    Shibuya, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 2008, it has an estimated population of 208,371 and a population density of 13,540 persons per km². The total area is 15.11 km²....

  • Shinagawa
    Shinagawa, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it is called Shinagawa City. The ward is home to nine embassies.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 344,461 and a density of 15,740 persons per km². The total area is 22.72 km²....

  • Shinjuku
    Shinjuku, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It is a major commercial and administrative center, housing the busiest train station in the world and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building, the administration center for the government of Tokyo.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population...

  • Suginami
    Suginami, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself Suginami City.As of April 1, 2011, the ward has an estimated population of 538,703, with 301,277 households, and a density of 15,834.39 persons per km². The total area is 34.02 km².-Geography:Suginami occupies the...

  • Sumida
    Sumida, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It calls itself Sumida City in English.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 240,296 and a density of 17,480 persons per km²...

  • Taitō
    Taito, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. In English, it calls itself Taito City.As of April 1, 2011, the ward has an estimated population of 168,909, with 94,908 households, and a population density of 16,745.86 persons per km². The total area is 10.08 km².-History:The ward was founded...

  • Toshima


  • The "three core wards" of Tokyo are Chiyoda
    Chiyoda, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards in central Tokyo, Japan. In English, it is called Chiyoda ward. As of October 2007, the ward has an estimated population of 45,543 and a population density of 3,912 people per km², making it by far the least populated of the special wards...

    , Chūō
    Chuo, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards that form the heart of Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself as Chūō City in English.Its Japanese name literally means "Central Ward," and it is historically the main commercial center of Tokyo, although Shinjuku has risen to challenge it since the end of World War II...

     and Minato
    Minato, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 1 March 2008, it had an official population of 217,335 and a population density of 10,865 persons per km². The total area is 20.34 km².Minato hosts 49 embassies...

    .

    Western Tokyo



    To the west of the special wards, Tokyo Metropolis consists of cities, towns and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan.

    While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of these also have a local commercial and industrial base. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama Area or Western Tokyo
    Western Tokyo
    Western Tokyo, also known as the , or , consists of the part of Tokyo Prefecture to the west of the 23 special wards.-Overview:Whereas the special wards occupy the space that was formerly the city of Tokyo, western Tokyo consists of the 26 cities, three towns, and one village that were not part of...

    .

    Cities


    Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:
    • Akiruno
      Akiruno, Tokyo
      is a city located in the western end of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 80,621 and a population density of 1,100 persons per km². The total area was 73.34 km².-Geography:...

    • Akishima
      Akishima, Tokyo
      is a city located in the western end of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 112,521 and a population density of 6,490 persons per km²...

    • Chōfu
      Chofu, Tokyo
      is a city located in the western end of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 224,878 and a population density of 10,440 persons per km². The total area was 21.53 km². Tokyo Stadium in Chōfu hosts soccer games for two J. League teams: F.C...

    • Fuchū
      Fuchu, Tokyo
      is a city located in western Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 255,394 and a population density of 8,700 persons per km². The total area was 29.34 km²...

    • Fussa
      Fussa, Tokyo
      is a city located in western Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 59,761 and a population density of 5,840 persons per km². The total area was 10.24 km²...

    • Hachiōji
      Hachioji, Tokyo
      is a city located in Tokyo, Japan, about 40 kilometers west of the center of the special wards of Tokyo.As of January 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 551,901 and a population density of 2,962.27/km². The total area is 186.31 km². It is the eighth largest city in the...

    • Hamura
      Hamura, Tokyo
      is a city located in the western end of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 57,145 and a population density of 5,770 persons per km². The total area was 9.91 km². The J-Pop singing duet Cazacy calls Hamura home....

    • Higashikurume
      Higashikurume, Tokyo
      is a city located in western Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 116,006 and a population density of 8,980 persons per km²...

    • Higashimurayama
      Higashimurayama, Tokyo
      is a city located in the western end of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 151,279 and a population density of 8,810 persons per km²...

  • Higashiyamato
  • Hino
    Hino, Tokyo
    is a city located in central Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 182,092 and a population density of 6,610 persons per km². The total area was 27.53 km².-Geography:...

  • Inagi
    Inagi, Tokyo
    is a city located in Tokyo, Japan.As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 81,134 and the density of 4,096.33 persons per km². The total area is 17.97 km².The city was founded on November 1, 1971.-History:...

  • Kiyose
    Kiyose, Tokyo
    is a city in Tokyo, Japan.-Demography:As of April 1, 2011, the city has an estimated population of 73,974 , the density of 7,222.87 persons per km² and there are 32,741 households in the city.-Geography:...

  • Kodaira
    Kodaira, Tokyo
    Kodaira redirects here. For the mathematician, see Kunihiko Kodaira. is a city located in the western region of Tokyo, Japan.The city has an estimated population of 180,049 with 82,179 households and a population density of 8,800.05 persons per km² as of July 1, 2011...

  • Koganei
    Koganei, Tokyo
    is a city located in Tokyo, Japan. As of July 1, 2011, the city has an officially registered population of 116,055 with 56,296 households and a population density of 10,243.16 persons per km²...

  • Kokubunji
    Kokubunji, Tokyo
    is a city in Tokyo, Japan.As of 1 June 2008, the city has an estimated population of 117,335 . The total area is 11.48 km²...

  • Komae
    Komae, Tokyo
    is a municipality administered as a city, in Tokyo, Japan. It is one of 30 municipalities in the western portion of Tokyo metropolis known as the Tama Area....

  • Kunitachi
    Kunitachi, Tokyo
    is a city located in the western part of the metropolitan area of Tokyo, Japan. As of October 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 74,623.- History :Kunitachi was founded on January 1, 1967...

  • Machida
    Machida, Tokyo
    is a city located in the western part of the greater metropolis of Tokyo, Japan. The city was founded on February 1, 1958.As of October 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 424,669 and a population density of 5,928.65 persons per km². The total area is 71.63 km²...

  • Mitaka
    Mitaka, Tokyo
    is a city located in Tokyo, Japan. As of 1 November 2010, the city has an estimated population of 176,737. The total area is 16.50 km² and is about 50 – 55 meters above sea level...

  • Musashimurayama
    Musashimurayama, Tokyo
    is a city located in Tokyo, Japan.As of 2003, the city has an estimated population of 66,150 and the density of 4,303.84 persons per km². The total area is 15.37 km².The city was founded on November 3, 1970....

  • Musashino
    Musashino, Tokyo
    is a city located in Tokyo, Japan.As of October 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 137,222 and a population density of 12,788.63 persons per km². The total area is 10.73 km².The city was founded on November 3, 1947...

  • Nishitōkyō
  • Ōme
    Ome, Tokyo
    is a city located in Tokyo, Japan.As of October 1, 2010, the city has an estimated population of 139,932 and a density of 1,355.14 persons per km². The total area is 103.26 km².The characters 青梅 literally mean blue ume, or Japanese apricot....

  • Tachikawa
  • Tama
    Tama, Tokyo
    is a municipality classified as a city, located in Tokyo, Japan.Its southern half forms part of the Tama New Town project, Japan's largest residential development, constructed in the 1970s....



  • The Tokyo Metropolitan Government has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area, as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo.

    Nishitama District


    The far west is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishitama
    Nishitama, Tokyo
    is a district in Tokyo, Japan. It comprises the following three towns and a village:*Hinohara*Hinode*Mizuho*OkutamaHistorically, the cities of Ōme, Fussa, Hamura, and Akiruno were part of Nishitama District but these are now cities and currently broke off from the District after they gained city...

    . Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori
    Mount Kumotori
    stands at the boundary of Tokyo, Saitama, and Yamanashi Prefectures on the island of Honshū, Japan. With an elevation of , its summit is the highest point in Tokyo. It separates the Okutama Mountains and the Okuchichibu Mountains...

    , is 2,017 m high; other mountains in Tokyo include Takasu (1737 m), Odake (1266 m), and Mitake
    Mount Mitake
    is a mountain in the Chichibu Tama Kai National Park near Tokyo, Japan. It stands tall. On the mountain is a Shinto shrine.It is one of the many highlights of the Chichibu Tama Kai National Park, which covers more than of forested mountains, hills, gorges and some rural towns in the prefectures...

     (929 m). Lake Okutama
    Lake Okutama
    is in Tokyo and Yamanashi Prefectures in Japan. Lying above the Ogōchi Dam, it is also known as the Ogōchi Reservoir. The lake occupies part of the town of Okutama in Nishitama District, Tokyo and the village of Tabayama in Kitatsuru District, Yamanashi...

    , on the Tama River
    Tama River
    The is a major river in Yamanashi, Kanagawa and Tokyo Prefectures on Honshū, Japan. It is officially classified as a Class 1 river by the Japanese government....

     near Yamanashi Prefecture
    Yamanashi Prefecture
    is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūbu region of the island of Honshū. The capital is the city of Kōfu.-Pre-history to the 14th century:People have been living in the Yamanashi area for about 30,000 years...

    , is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns and one village.

    Towns
    • Hinode
      Hinode, Tokyo
      is a town in Nishitama District, Tokyo, Japan. As of 2005, it had a population of 16,023 and an area of 28.08 km², with a population density of 570.6/km².-Geography:The highest mountain is Mount Hinode at 902 m. The Hirai and Ōguno Rivers drain the town...

    • Mizuho
      Mizuho, Tokyo
      is a town in Nishitama District, Tokyo, Japan. It was established on November 10, 1940, resulting from the merger of four villages and acquired additional land in 1958....

    • Okutama
      Okutama, Tokyo
      is a town in Nishitama District, Tokyo. As of August 1, 2007, the town had a population of 6712 people, of which 3280 were men and 3432 were women. With an area of 225.63 km², it is the largest community in Tokyo. Mount Kumotori, Tokyo's highest peak at 2017 m, divides Okutama from the...



    Village
    • Hinohara
      Hinohara, Tokyo
      is a municipality in Nishitama District, Tokyo, Japan. It is the only administrative unit left in the non-insular area of Tokyo that is still classified as a village...


    Islands



    Tokyo has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1850 km from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the metropolitan government in Shinjuku, local offices administer them.

    The Izu Islands
    Izu Islands
    The are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima....

     are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park
    Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park
    is a national park in Yamanashi, Shizuoka, and Kanagawa Prefectures, and western Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. It consists of Mount Fuji, Fuji Five Lakes, Hakone, the Izu Peninsula, and the Izu Islands....

    . The islands in order from closest to Tokyo are Izu Ōshima
    Izu Oshima
    is a volcanic island in the Izu Islands and administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, Japan, lies about 100 km south of Tokyo, 22 km east of the Izu Peninsula and 36 km southwest of Bōsō Peninsula. serves as the local government of the island...

    , Toshima
    Toshima Island
    , a volcanic island in the Izu Islands and administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, Japan, lies south of Tokyo and east of the Izu Peninsula, Shizuoka prefecture. Toshima forms part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. serves as the local government of the island.The island, at...

    , Niijima, Shikinejima
    Shikinejima
    is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō and located approximately south of Tōkyō and south of Shimoda Shizuoka Prefecture. It is one of the of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago...

    , Kozushima
    Kozushima
    is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō and located approximately northwest of the Miyakejima and southwest of the Niijima. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago....

    , Miyakejima
    Miyakejima
    is an island in the Izu group, southeast of Honshū, Japan, administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, with an area of 55.50 km². The island, 180 km south of Tokyo, is located at 34.5N and 139.34E. As of January 1, 2006, the population of the island is 2884...

    , Mikurajima
    Mikurajima
    is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō Metropolis and located approximately south of Tokyo and south-southeast of Miyakejima. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago....

    , Hachijojima
    Hachijojima
    is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō and located approximately south of the Special Wards of Tōkyō. It is the southernmost and most isolated of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago...

    , and Aogashima
    Aogashima
    is a village located in Hachijō Subprefecture, Tokyo, Japan.-Geography:Aogashima Village covers the island of Aogashima, the southernmost and most isolated populated island in the Izu archipelago in the Philippine Sea, south of central Tokyo, and south of Hachijōjima, its nearest populated...

    . The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village
    Niijima, Tokyo
    is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tokyo Metropolitan Government. It is one of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago, and is located approximately south of Tōkyō and south of Shimoda Shizuoka Prefecture...

    .

    The Ogasawara
    Ogasawara, Tokyo
    is a village in Ogasawara Subprefecture, Tokyo, Japan, that governs the Bonin Islands, Volcano Islands and three remote islands .-Geography:...

     Islands include, from north to south, Chichi-jima
    Chichi-jima
    , formerly known as Peel Island and in the 19th century known to the English as part of the Bonin Islands, is the largest island in the Ogasawara archipelago. Chichi-jima is approximately 150 miles north of Iwo Jima. The island is within the political boundaries of Ogasawara Town, Ogasawara...

    , Nishinoshima, Haha-jima
    Haha-jima
    is the second-largest island of the Ogasawara Islands or Bonin Islands south of the Japanese main island chain. It is about 21 km² in area.The highest points are Mt. Chibusa , approximately 462m, and Mt. Sakaigatake , 443m. The largest island of the group, Chichi-jima is approximately...

    , Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima
    Iwo Jima
    Iwo Jima, officially , is an island of the Japanese Volcano Islands chain, which lie south of the Ogasawara Islands and together with them form the Ogasawara Archipelago. The island is located south of mainland Tokyo and administered as part of Ogasawara, one of eight villages of Tokyo...

    , and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima
    Minami Torishima
    or Marcus Island is an isolated Japanese coral atoll in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located some SE of Tokyo and east of the closest Japanese island, South Iwo Jima of the Ogasawara Islands, and nearly on a straight line between Tokyo and Wake Island, which is east southeast...

    , the easternmost point in Japan and at 1,850 km the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okino Torishima, the southernmost point in Japan. The last island is contested by the People's Republic of China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

     as being only uninhabited rocks. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but host Japanese Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-jima
    Chichi-jima
    , formerly known as Peel Island and in the 19th century known to the English as part of the Bonin Islands, is the largest island in the Ogasawara archipelago. Chichi-jima is approximately 150 miles north of Iwo Jima. The island is within the political boundaries of Ogasawara Town, Ogasawara...

     and Haha-jima
    Haha-jima
    is the second-largest island of the Ogasawara Islands or Bonin Islands south of the Japanese main island chain. It is about 21 km² in area.The highest points are Mt. Chibusa , approximately 462m, and Mt. Sakaigatake , 443m. The largest island of the group, Chichi-jima is approximately...

    . The islands form both the subprefecture of Ogasawara and the village of Ogasawara.

    National parks


    There are several national parks within Tokyo, among them:
    • Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park
      Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park
      is located around Mount Takao in Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan.The park centers around Mount Takao and encompassing the area of 7.77 km², the smallest Quasi-National Park. The park is visited by 2.2 million people a year...

      , around Mount Takao
      Mount Takao
      is a mountain in the city of Hachiōji, Tokyo, Japan. It is protected within Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park.Standing tall and located within an hour of downtown Tokyo, it is a popular hiking spot, with eight hiking courses and more than 2.5 million annual visitors...

       to the south of Hachiōji
    • Ogasawara National Park. As of 2006, efforts were being made to make Ogasawara National Park a UNESCO
      UNESCO
      The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

       natural World Heritage Site
      World Heritage Site
      A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

      .
    • Ueno Park
      Ueno Park
      is a spacious public park located in the Ueno section of Taitō, Tokyo, Japan. It occupies the site of the former Kan'ei-ji, a temple closely associated with the Tokugawa shoguns, who had built the temple to guard Edo Castle against the north-east, then considered an unlucky direction...

      , well known for its museums: Tokyo National Museum
      Tokyo National Museum
      Established 1872, the , or TNM, is the oldest and largest museum in Japan. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia, focusing on Japan. The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure...

      , National Science Museum
      National Science Museum of Japan
      The is located in the northeast corner of Ueno park in Tokyo. Opened in 1871, the museum has had several names, including Ministry of Education Museum, Tokyo Museum, Tokyo Science Museum, the National Science Museum of Japan, and currently the National Museum of Nature and Science as of 2007...

      , Shitamachi Museum
      Shitamachi Museum
      The is a museum in Ueno, Taito, Tokyo, Japan. Located on the shores of Shinobazu Pond within Ueno Park, it's dedicated to the traditional culture of Tokyo's Shitamachi.-Historical background:...

       and National Museum for Western Art
      The National Museum of Western Art
      The is the premier public art gallery in Japan specializing in art from the Western tradition.The Museum is located in the museum and zoo complex in Ueno Park in Taito, central Tokyo. This popular Tokyo museum is also known by the English acronym NMWA .-NMWA history:The NMWA was established on...

      , among others. There are also art works and statues at several places in the park.


    Seismicity


    Tokyo was hit by powerful earthquake
    Earthquake
    An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

    s in 1703
    1703 Genroku earthquake
    The occurred at 02:00 local time on December 31 . The epicenter was near Edo, the forerunner of present-day Tokyo, in the southern part of the Kantō Region, Japan. It shook Edo and an estimated 2,300 people were killed by the shaking and subsequent fires...

    , 1782, 1812, 1855
    1855 Ansei Edo earthquake
    The , also known as the Great Ansei Earthquake, was one of the major disasters of the late-Edo period. The earthquake occurred at 22:00 local time on 11 November. It had an epicenter close to Edo , causing considerable damage in the Kantō region from the shaking and subsequent fires, with a death...

    , and 1923. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people. Tokyo is located near the boundary of three plates
    Boso Triple Junction
    Boso Triple Junction is a triple junction off the coast of Japan; it is the only example of a Triple Trench Junction on earth.- Formation :...

    .

    Climate


    The former city of Tokyo and the majority of mainland Tokyo lie in the humid subtropical climate
    Humid subtropical climate
    A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

     zone (Köppen climate classification
    Köppen climate classification
    The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

     Cfa), with hot humid summers and generally mild winters with cool spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 27.5 °C (81.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 6 °C (42.8 °F). Annual rainfall averages nearly 1530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually. Tokyo also often sees typhoons each year, though few are strong. The last one to hit was Fitow
    Typhoon Fitow (2007)
    Typhoon Fitow was the ninth named tropical storm of the 2007 Pacific typhoon season that made landfall in Japan....

     in 2007, whilst the wettest month since records began in 1876 has been October 2004 with 780 millimetres (30.7 in) including 270.5 millimetres (10.6 in) on the ninth of that month.

    Environment


    Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara
    Shintaro Ishihara
    is a Japanese author, actor, politician and the governor of Tokyo since 1999.- Early life and artistic career :Shintarō was born in Suma-ku, Kobe. His father Kiyoshi was an employee, later a general manager, of a shipping company. Shintarō grew up in Zushi...

     created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas
    Greenhouse gas
    A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

     emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.

    Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island
    Urban heat island
    An urban heat island is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. The phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon. The temperature difference usually is larger at night...

    , and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards. According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 C-change over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate."

    Demographics

    Population of Tokyo
    By area1
    Tokyo

    Special wards

    Tama Area

    Islands

    12.79 million

    8.653 million

    4.109 million

    28,000
    By age²
    Juveniles (age 0-14)

    Working (age 15-64)

    Retired (age 65+)

    1.461 million (11.8%)

    8.546 million (69.3%)

    2.332 million (18.9%)
    By hours³
    Day

    Night

    14.978 million

    12.416 million
    By nationality
    Foreign residents

    364,6534
    e >
    1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007.

    ² as of January 1, 2007.
    ³ as of 2005 National Census.

    4 as of January 1, 2006.

    As of October 2007, the official intercensal estimate
    Intercensal estimate
    Intercensal estimate in the field of demographics is an estimate of population between official census dates. Some nations produce regular intercensal estimates while others do not...

     showed 12.79 million people in Tokyo with 8.653 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards. During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda
    Chiyoda, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards in central Tokyo, Japan. In English, it is called Chiyoda ward. As of October 2007, the ward has an estimated population of 45,543 and a population density of 3,912 people per km², making it by far the least populated of the special wards...

    , Chūō
    Chuo, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards that form the heart of Tokyo, Japan. The ward refers to itself as Chūō City in English.Its Japanese name literally means "Central Ward," and it is historically the main commercial center of Tokyo, although Shinjuku has risen to challenge it since the end of World War II...

    , and Minato
    Minato, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 1 March 2008, it had an official population of 217,335 and a population density of 10,865 persons per km². The total area is 20.34 km².Minato hosts 49 embassies...

    , whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.

    The entire prefecture had 12,790,000 residents in October 2007 (8,653,000 in 23 wards), with an increase of over 3 million in the day. Tokyo is at its highest population ever, while that of the 23 wards peak official count was 8,893,094 in the 1965 Census, with the count dipping below 8 million in the 1995 Census. People continue to move back into the core city as land prices have fallen dramatically.

    As of 2005, the most common foreign nationalities found in Tokyo are Chinese (123,661), Korean (106,697), Filipino (31,077), American (18,848), British (7,696), Brazilian (5,300) and French (3,000).

    The 1889 Census recorded 1,389,600 people in Tokyo City
    Tokyo City
    was a municipality in Japan and part of Tokyo-Fu which existed from May 1, 1889 until its merger with its prefecture on July 1, 1943. The historical boundaries of Tokyo City are now occupied by independent special wards...

    , Japan's largest city at the time.

    Economy


    Tokyo has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers
    PricewaterhouseCoopers
    PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

    , the Tokyo urban area
    Urban area
    An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

     (35.2 million people) had a total GDP of US$1.479 trillion in 2008 (at purchasing power parity
    Purchasing power parity
    In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

    ), which topped the list. As of 2009, 51 of the companies listed on the Global 500
    Fortune Global 500
    The Fortune Global 500 is a ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue. The list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine....

     are based in Tokyo, almost twice that of the second-placed city (Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    ).

    Tokyo is a major international finance center, houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance
    Insurance
    In law and economics, insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment. An insurer is a company selling the...

     companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing
    Publishing
    Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

    , and broadcasting
    Broadcasting
    Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

     industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

    , many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka
    Osaka
    is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

     (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

    Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit
    The Economist
    The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

     as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living
    Cost-of-living index
    Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living. Changes in the cost of living over time are often operationalized in a cost of living index. Cost of living calculations are also used to compare the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living in different geographic areas...

    ) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006. This analysis is for living a corporate executive lifestyle, with items like a detached house and several automobiles.

    The Tokyo Stock Exchange
    Tokyo Stock Exchange
    The , called or TSE for short, is located in Tokyo, Japan and is the third largest stock exchange in the world by aggregate market capitalization of its listed companies...

     is Japan's largest stock exchange
    Stock exchange
    A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and...

    , and third largest in the world by market capitalization
    Market capitalization
    Market capitalization is a measurement of the value of the ownership interest that shareholders hold in a business enterprise. It is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding of a publicly traded company...

     and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble
    Japanese asset price bubble
    The was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991, in which real estate and stock prices were greatly inflated. The bubble's collapse lasted for more than a decade with stock prices initially bottoming in 2003, although they would descend even further amidst the global crisis in 2008. The...

    , it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.
    Tokyo had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
    Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)
    The ' a cabinet ministry in the government of Japan responsible for oversight of the agriculture, forestry and fishing industries. Its acronym is MAFF.-History:...

    , placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna
    Komatsuna
    Komatsuna is a type of leaf vegetable. It is a variant of the same species as the common turnip. It is grown commercially in Japan, Taiwan and Korea; the name is from Japanese . It is also known as Japanese Mustard Spinach and is usually stir-fried, pickled, boiled and added to soups or used fresh...

     and spinach
    Spinach
    Spinach is an edible flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. It is native to central and southwestern Asia. It is an annual plant , which grows to a height of up to 30 cm. Spinach may survive over winter in temperate regions...

     are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.

    With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria
    Cryptomeria
    Cryptomeria is a monotypic genus of conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae formerly belonging to the family Taxodiaceae; it includes only one species, Cryptomeria japonica . It is endemic to Japan, where it is known as Sugi...

     and Japanese cypress
    Chamaecyparis obtusa
    Chamaecyparis obtusa is a species of cypress native to central Japan.It is a slow-growing tree which grows to 35 m tall with a trunk up to 1 m in diameter. The bark is dark red-brown...

    , especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of lumber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers.

    Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Presently, most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijōjima. Skipjack tuna
    Skipjack tuna
    The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonito, mushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish...

    , nori
    Nori
    is the Japanese name for various edible seaweed species of the red alga Porphyra including most notably P. yezoensis and P. tenera, sometimes called laver. Finished products are made by a shredding and rack-drying process that resembles papermaking...

    , and aji
    Carangidae
    Carangidae is a family of fish which includes the jacks, pompanos, jack mackerels, and scads.They are marine fish found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans...

     are among the ocean products.

    Tourism in Tokyo
    Tourism in Tokyo
    Tourism in Tokyo is a major industry. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the government of Tokyo...

     is also a contributor to the economy.

    Transportation


    Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo Area
    Greater Tokyo Area
    The Greater Tokyo Area is a large metropolitan area in Kantō region, Japan, consisting of most of the prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Tokyo . In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, including the , , and others....

    , is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role.

    Within Ōta
    Ota, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 Special wards of Tokyo, Japan.As of May 1, 2011, the ward has an estimated population of 676,458, with 348,492 households, and a population density of 11,376.69 persons per km²...

    , one of the 23 special wards, Haneda Airport offers domestic and international flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport
    Narita International Airport
    is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan. It is located east of Tokyo Station and east-southeast of Narita Station in the city of Narita, and the adjacent town of Shibayama....

    , in Chiba Prefecture
    Chiba Prefecture
    is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region and the Greater Tokyo Area. Its capital is Chiba City.- History :Chiba Prefecture was established on June 15, 1873 with the merger of Kisarazu Prefecture and Inba Prefecture...

    , is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan and Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines
    Japan Airlines
    is an airline headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan. It is the flag carrier of Japan and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport , as well as Nagoya's Chūbu Centrair International Airport and Osaka's Kansai International Airport...

    , All Nippon Airways
    All Nippon Airways
    , also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

    , Delta Air Lines
    Delta Air Lines
    Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

    , and United Airlines
    United Airlines
    United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

     all have a hub at this airport.

    Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijōjima
    Hachijojima
    is a volcanic Japanese island in the Philippine Sea, administered by Tōkyō and located approximately south of the Special Wards of Tōkyō. It is the southernmost and most isolated of the Izu Seven Islands group of the seven northern islands of the Izu archipelago...

     (Hachijojima Airport
    Hachijojima Airport
    is a regional airport serving Hachijōjima in the southern Izu Islands, Tokyo, Japan.-History:An air field was established on the island of Hachijōjima in 1926 by the Imperial Japanese Navy. In 1954, it was turned over to civilian control and managed by the local authorities on the island...

    ), Miyakejima
    Miyakejima
    is an island in the Izu group, southeast of Honshū, Japan, administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, with an area of 55.50 km². The island, 180 km south of Tokyo, is located at 34.5N and 139.34E. As of January 1, 2006, the population of the island is 2884...

     (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima
    Izu Oshima
    is a volcanic island in the Izu Islands and administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government, Japan, lies about 100 km south of Tokyo, 22 km east of the Izu Peninsula and 36 km southwest of Bōsō Peninsula. serves as the local government of the island...

     (Oshima Airport
    Oshima Airport
    -External links:* - Tokyo District Meteorological Observatory*...

    ) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

    Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East
    East Japan Railway Company
    is the largest passenger railway company in the world and one of the seven Japan Railways Group companies. The company name is officially abbreviated as JR East in English, and as in Japanese. The company's headquarters are in Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo....

     operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line
    Yamanote Line
    The is commuter rail loop line in Tokyo, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company . It is one of Tokyo's busiest and most important lines, connecting most of Tokyo's major stations and urban centres, including the Yūrakuchō/Ginza area, Shibuya, Shinjuku, and Ikebukuro, with all but two of its...

     loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro
    Tokyo Metro
    is one of two rapid transit systems making up the Tokyo subway system, the other being Toei. It is the most used subway system in the world in terms of annual passenger rides.-Organization:...

     and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation
    Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation
    The is Tokyo's public transportation authority. Its subway lines are commonly described as 都営 Toei, meaning "operated by the metropolitan government ." It is one of two rapid transit systems making up the Tokyo subway system, the other being Tokyo Metro.-Toei Subway:The lines were originally...

    . The metropolitan government and private carriers operate bus routes. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo
    Tokyo Station
    is a train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the Ginza commercial district....

    , Shinagawa
    Shinagawa Station
    is the first major station south ofTokyo Station and is a major interchange for trains operated by JR East, JR Central, and Keikyu. The Tōkaidō Shinkansen and other trains to the Miura Peninsula, Izu Peninsula and the Tōkai region pass through here...

    , and Shinjuku
    Shinjuku Station
    is a train station located in Shinjuku and Shibuya wards in Tokyo, Japan.Serving as the main connecting hub for rail traffic between central Tokyo and its western suburbs on inter-city rail, commuter rail and metro lines, the station was used by an average of 3.64 million people per day in 2007,...

    .

    Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyūshū
    Kyushu
    is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternate ancient names include , , and . The historical regional name is referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands....

     and Shikoku
    Shikoku
    is the smallest and least populous of the four main islands of Japan, located south of Honshū and east of the island of Kyūshū. Its ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima , Iyo-shima , and Futana-shima...

    .

    Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.

    Education




    Tokyo has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo
    University of Tokyo
    , abbreviated as , is a major research university located in Tokyo, Japan. The University has 10 faculties with a total of around 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are foreign. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Komaba, Kashiwa, Shirokane and Nakano. It is considered to be the most prestigious university...

    , Hitotsubashi University
    Hitotsubashi University
    is a national university specialised in the social sciences in Tokyo, Japan. The University has campuses in Kunitachi, Kodaira, and Kanda.Hitotsubashi is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. It is ranked 25th in the world in 2011 by École des Mines de Paris.Hitotsubashi...

    , Tokyo Institute of Technology
    Tokyo Institute of Technology
    The Tokyo Institute of Technology is a public research university located in Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. Tokyo Tech is the largest institution for higher education in Japan dedicated to science and technology. Tokyo Tech enrolled 4,850 undergaraduates and 5006 graduate students for 2009-2010...

    , Keio University
    Keio University
    ,abbreviated as Keio or Keidai , is a Japanese university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo . It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa...

    ,and Waseda University
    Waseda University
    , abbreviated as , is one of the most prestigious private universities in Japan and Asia. Its main campuses are located in the northern part of Shinjuku, Tokyo. Founded in 1882 as Tokyo Senmon Gakko, the institution was renamed "Waseda University" in 1902. It is known for its liberal climate...

    , . Some of the biggest national universities located in Tokyo are:
    • Ochanomizu University
      Ochanomizu University
      is one of only two national women's universities in Japan. The other one is the Nara Women's University.-History:Ochanomizu University was founded in 1875 as a teacher training institute for women located in Tokyo's Ochanomizu neighborhood. On September 1, 1923, the campus was destroyed in the...

    • University of Electro-Communications
      University of Electro-Communications
      The is a national university in the city of Chōfu, Tokyo, Japan. It specialises in the disciplines of computer science, the physical sciences, engineering and technology. It was founded in 1918 .-Graduate schools:*Graduate School of Electro-Communications...

    • National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
      National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies
      , or GRIPS, is a national university in Minato, Tokyo, Japan, founded in 1997.The National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies is a stand-alone graduate school focused on policy studies...

    • University of Tokyo
      University of Tokyo
      , abbreviated as , is a major research university located in Tokyo, Japan. The University has 10 faculties with a total of around 30,000 students, 2,100 of whom are foreign. Its five campuses are in Hongō, Komaba, Kashiwa, Shirokane and Nakano. It is considered to be the most prestigious university...

    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      is part of Japan's national university system. Tokyo Medical and Dental University offers baccalaureate and graduate degrees in medicine, dentistry, and related fields.- History :...

    • Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
      Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
      TUFS is a specialized institution only in foreign language, international affairs and foreign studies, thus it is not as well-known as other big universities such as University of Tokyo and Kyoto University...

    • Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
      Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
      is a national university in Japan. The main campus is located in Minato, Tokyo and another campus is in Koto, Tokyo.- History :...

    • Tokyo Gakugei University
      Tokyo Gakugei University
      Tokyo Gakugei University or Gakudai , for short, is a national university in Koganei, Tokyo. While its history may be traced to 1873, it was formally chartered as a university in 1949 through the merging of four teacher-training institutions....

    • Tokyo University of the Arts
    • Tokyo Institute of Technology
      Tokyo Institute of Technology
      The Tokyo Institute of Technology is a public research university located in Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. Tokyo Tech is the largest institution for higher education in Japan dedicated to science and technology. Tokyo Tech enrolled 4,850 undergaraduates and 5006 graduate students for 2009-2010...

    • Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
      Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
      Established in 1949 as a national university, , nicknamed "Nōkōdai" or "TUAT", is a research-oriented national university with two campuses, one each located in the cities of Fuchū and Koganei, Tokyo....

    • Hitotsubashi University
      Hitotsubashi University
      is a national university specialised in the social sciences in Tokyo, Japan. The University has campuses in Kunitachi, Kodaira, and Kanda.Hitotsubashi is considered as one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. It is ranked 25th in the world in 2011 by École des Mines de Paris.Hitotsubashi...

      .


    There is only one non-national public university
    Public university
    A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

    : Tokyo Metropolitan University
    Tokyo Metropolitan University
    Tokyo Metropolitan University is one of the largest public universities in Japan...

    .

    There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language. They include:
    • International Christian University
      International Christian University
      There are several rankings related to ICU, shown below.-Alumni rankings:According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 2006/10/16, graduates from ICU have the 24th best employment rate in 400 major companies, and their average graduate salary is the 4th best in...

    • Sophia University
      Sophia University
      There are several rankings below related to Sophia University.-General Rankings:The university was ranked 61st in 2010 in the ranking Truly Strong Universities by Toyo Keizai...

    • Waseda University
      Waseda University
      , abbreviated as , is one of the most prestigious private universities in Japan and Asia. Its main campuses are located in the northern part of Shinjuku, Tokyo. Founded in 1882 as Tokyo Senmon Gakko, the institution was renamed "Waseda University" in 1902. It is known for its liberal climate...

    • Temple University Japan


    For an extensive list, see List of universities in Tokyo.

    Publicly-run kindergartens, elementary school
    Elementary school
    An elementary school or primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as elementary or primary education. Elementary school is the preferred term in some countries, particularly those in North America, where the terms grade school and grammar...

    s (years 1 through 6), and junior high schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public high school
    High school
    High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

    s in Tokyo are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education
    Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education
    The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education is the board of education in Tokyo, Japan. The board manages the individual school systems within the metropolis. The board also directly manages all of the public high schools in Tokyo...

     and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school.

    Culture



    Tokyo has many museums. In Ueno Park
    Ueno Park
    is a spacious public park located in the Ueno section of Taitō, Tokyo, Japan. It occupies the site of the former Kan'ei-ji, a temple closely associated with the Tokugawa shoguns, who had built the temple to guard Edo Castle against the north-east, then considered an unlucky direction...

    , there is the Tokyo National Museum
    Tokyo National Museum
    Established 1872, the , or TNM, is the oldest and largest museum in Japan. The museum collects, houses, and preserves a comprehensive collection of art works and archaeological objects of Asia, focusing on Japan. The museum holds over 110,000 objects, which includes 87 Japanese National Treasure...

    , the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art
    Japanese art
    Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper and more recently manga, cartoon, along with a myriad of other types of works of art...

    ; the National Museum of Western Art
    The National Museum of Western Art
    The is the premier public art gallery in Japan specializing in art from the Western tradition.The Museum is located in the museum and zoo complex in Ueno Park in Taito, central Tokyo. This popular Tokyo museum is also known by the English acronym NMWA .-NMWA history:The NMWA was established on...

    ; the National Museum of Science and Ueno Zoo
    Ueno Zoo
    The is a zoo, managed by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, and located in Taitō, Tokyo, Japan. It is Japan's oldest zoo, opening on March 20, 1882. It is a five-minute walk from the Park Exit of Ueno Station, with convenient access from Tokyo's public-transportation network...

    . Other museums include the Nezu Art Museum
    Nezu Art Museum
    The Nezu Museum , located in the Minato district of Tokyo, Japan, houses the private collection of Nezu Kaichirō . The museum opened to the public in 1940 and escaped the destruction suffered by the estate property in the bombing of May 1945...

     in Aoyama
    Aoyama, Tokyo
    is a neighborhood of Tokyo, located in the northeastern Minato Ward. During the Edo Period, Aoyama was home to various temples, shrines, and samurai residences. The name Aoyama derived from a samurai named Aoyama Tadanari who served the Tokugawa Shogunate and held his mansion in this area...

    ; the Edo-Tokyo Museum
    Edo-Tokyo Museum
    The is a museum of the history of Tokyo, established in 1993. The main features of the permanent exhibitions are the life-size replica of the Nihonbashi, which was the bridge leading into Edo; the Nakamuraza theatre; scale models of town; and buildings from the Edo, Meiji and Shōwa periods.The...

     in Sumida
    Sumida, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. It calls itself Sumida City in English.As of 2008, the ward has an estimated population of 240,296 and a density of 17,480 persons per km²...

    , across the Sumida River
    Sumida River
    The is a river which flows through Tokyo, Japan. It branches from the Arakawa River at Iwabuchi and flows into Tokyo Bay. Its tributaries include the Kanda and Shakujii rivers....

     from the center of Tokyo; and the National Diet Library
    National Diet Library
    The is the only national library in Japan. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the in researching matters of public policy. The library is similar in purpose and scope to the U.S...

    , National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

    Tokyo has many theaters for performing arts. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama (such as noh
    Noh
    , or - derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent" - is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama that has been performed since the 14th century. Many characters are masked, with men playing male and female roles. Traditionally, a Noh "performance day" lasts all day and...

     and kabuki
    Kabuki
    is classical Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for the stylization of its drama and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers.The individual kanji characters, from left to right, mean sing , dance , and skill...

    ) as well as modern drama. Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop
    Pop music
    Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

     and rock music
    Rock music
    Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music...

     at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally-known arenas such as the Nippon Budokan
    Nippon Budokan
    The , often shortened to simply Budokan, is an indoor arena in central Tokyo, Japan.This is the location where many "Live at the Budokan" albums were recorded...

    .

    Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo
    Festivals in Tokyo
    Tokyo holds many festivals throughout the year. Major festivals include the Sanno Festival at Hie Shrine, and the Sanja Festival at Asakusa Shrine. The Kanda Matsuri in Tokyo is held every two years in May. The festival features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people...

    . Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine
    Hie Shrine
    The is a Shinto shrine in Nagatachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. Its June 15 Sannō Matsuri is one of the three great Japanese festivals of Edo...

    , the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine
    Asakusa Shrine
    , also known as Sanja-sama , is one of the most famous Shinto shrines in Tokyo, Japan. Located in Asakusa, the shrine honors the three men who founded the Sensō-ji. Asakusa Shrine is part of a larger grouping of sacred buildings in the area...

    , and the biennial Kanda
    Kanda Matsuri
    or the Kanda Festival, is one of the three great Shinto festivals of Tokyo, along with the Sanja Matsuri and Sannō Matsuri. The festival started in the early 17th century as a celebration of Tokugawa Ieyasu's decisive victory at the battle of Sekigahara and was continued as a display of the...

     Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks
    Fireworks
    Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event is a display of the effects produced by firework devices...

     display over the Sumida River
    Sumida River
    The is a river which flows through Tokyo, Japan. It branches from the Arakawa River at Iwabuchi and flows into Tokyo Bay. Its tributaries include the Kanda and Shakujii rivers....

     attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms, or sakura
    Sakura
    A cherry blossom is the flower of any of several trees of genus Prunus, particularly the Japanese Cherry, Prunus serrulata, which is sometimes called sakura after the Japanese . Many of the varieties that have been cultivated for ornamental use do not produce fruit...

    , bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park
    Inokashira Park
    straddles Musashino and Mitaka in western Tokyo, Japan.Inokashira Pond and the , established during the Edo period, are the primary sources of the Kanda River....

    , and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden
    Shinjuku Gyoen
    is a large park with an eminent garden in Shinjuku and Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. It was originally a residence of the Naitō family in the Edo period. Afterwards, it became a garden under the management of the Imperial Household Agency of Japan...

     for picnics under the blossoms.

    Harajuku
    Harajuku
    Harajuku is the common name for the area around Harajuku Station on the Yamanote Line in the Shibuya ward of Tokyo, Japan....

    , a neighborhood in Shibuya
    Shibuya, Tokyo
    is one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo, Japan. As of 2008, it has an estimated population of 208,371 and a population density of 13,540 persons per km². The total area is 15.11 km²....

    , is known internationally for its youth style, fashion and cosplay
    Cosplay
    , short for "costume play", is a type of performance art in which participants don costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea. Characters are often drawn from popular fiction in Japan, but recent trends have included American cartoons and science fiction...

    .

    Cuisine in Tokyo is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin
    Michelin Guide
    The Michelin Guide is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. The term normally refers to the Michelin Red Guide, the oldest and best-known European hotel and restaurant guide, which awards the Michelin stars...

     released their guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    . Eight establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 25 received two stars, and 117 earned one star. Of the eight top-rated restaurants, three offer traditional Japanese fine dining, two are sushi
    Sushi
    is a Japanese food consisting of cooked vinegared rice combined with other ingredients . Neta and forms of sushi presentation vary, but the ingredient which all sushi have in common is shari...

     houses and three serve French cuisine.

    Sports




    Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball
    Baseball
    Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...

     clubs, the Yomiuri Giants
    Yomiuri Giants
    The are a professional baseball team based in Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan. The team competes in the Central League in Nippon Professional Baseball, the top level of professional play in Japan. They play their home games in the Tokyo Dome, opened in 1988. The English-language press occasionally calls the...

     who play at the Tokyo Dome
    Tokyo Dome
    Tokyo Dome is a 55,000-seat baseball stadium located in Bunkyo Ward of Tokyo, Japan.The stadium opened for business on March 17, 1988. It was built on the site of the Velodrome which was next door to the site of the predecessor ballpark, Kōrakuen Stadium...

     and Tokyo Yakult Swallows
    Tokyo Yakult Swallows
    is a professional baseball team in Japan's Central League.The Swallows are named after their corporate owners, the Yakult Corporation. From 1950 to 1965, the team was owned by the former Japanese National Railways and called the Kokutetsu Swallows; the team was then owned by the newspaper Sankei...

     at Meiji-Jingu Stadium.
    The Japan Sumo Association
    Japan Sumo Association
    The is the body that operates and controls professional sumo wrestling in Japan under the jurisdiction of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Rikishi , gyōji , tokoyama , and yobidashi , are all on the Association's payroll, but the organisation is run...

     is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan
    Ryogoku Kokugikan
    , also known as Sumo Hall, is an indoor sporting arena located in the Ryōgoku neighborhood of Sumida, one of the 23 wards of Tokyo in Japan, next to the Edo-Tokyo Museum. It is the third building built in Tokyo associated with the name kokugikan. The current building was opened in 1985 and has a...

     sumo arena where three official sumo
    Sumo
    is a competitive full-contact sport where a wrestler attempts to force another wrestler out of a circular ring or to touch the ground with anything other than the soles of the feet. The sport originated in Japan, the only country where it is practiced professionally...

     tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football (soccer)
    Football (soccer)
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

     clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969
    Tokyo Verdy 1969
    , is a Japanese professional football club, based in Tokyo, Japan, that plays in J. League Division 2.Founded as Yomiuri F.C. in 1969, Tokyo Verdy is one of the most decorated teams in the J. League, with honours including 7 league titles , 5 Emperor's Cups, 6 JSL Cup / J...

    , both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu
    Chofu, Tokyo
    is a city located in the western end of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 2010, the city has an estimated population of 224,878 and a population density of 10,440 persons per km². The total area was 21.53 km². Tokyo Stadium in Chōfu hosts soccer games for two J. League teams: F.C...

    .

    Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics
    1964 Summer Olympics
    The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan in 1964. Tokyo had been awarded with the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honor was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's...

    . The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium is host to a number of international sporting events. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, American football exhibition games, judo
    Judo
    is a modern martial art and combat sport created in Japan in 1882 by Jigoro Kano. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw or takedown one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling maneuver, or force an...

    , and karate
    Karate
    is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands in what is now Okinawa, Japan. It was developed from indigenous fighting methods called and Chinese kenpō. Karate is a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes, and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands. Grappling, locks,...

    . Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium
    Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium
    is a world-class sporting complex in Sendagaya, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Built in 1954 for the World Wrestling Championship, it was also used as the venue for gymnastics events at the 1964 Summer Olympics...

    , in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium will play host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami. Tokyo is currently bidding
    Tokyo bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics
    Tokyo 2020 is a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics launched by the city of Tokyo and the Japanese Olympic Committee. The IOC will announce the official candidate cities on May 23, 2012. The winning bid will be announced on September 7, 2013 at the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires...

     to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
    2020 Summer Olympics
    The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad, will be a major international sports and cultural festival, celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games....

    .

    In popular culture



    As the largest population center in Japan and the location of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime
    Anime
    is the Japanese abbreviated pronunciation of "animation". The definition sometimes changes depending on the context. In English-speaking countries, the term most commonly refers to Japanese animated cartoons....

    ), web comics, and comic books (manga
    Manga
    Manga is the Japanese word for "comics" and consists of comics and print cartoons . In the West, the term "manga" has been appropriated to refer specifically to comics created in Japan, or by Japanese authors, in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th...

    ). In the kaiju
    Kaiju
    is a Japanese word that means "strange beast," but often translated in English as "monster". Specifically, it is used to refer to a genre of tokusatsu entertainment....

     (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are routinely destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla
    Godzilla
    is a daikaijū, a Japanese movie monster, first appearing in Ishirō Honda's 1954 film Godzilla. Since then, Godzilla has gone on to become a worldwide pop culture icon starring in 28 films produced by Toho Co., Ltd. The monster has appeared in numerous other media incarnations including video games,...

    .

    Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a filming location for movies set in Tokyo. Well-known examples from the postwar era include Tokyo Joe
    Tokyo Joe
    Tokyo Joe is a 1949 film directed by Stuart Heisler from a story by Steve Fisher, adapted by Walter Doniger and starring Humphrey Bogart, Florence Marly and Sessue Hayakawa...

    , My Geisha
    My Geisha
    My Geisha is a 1962 American comedy film directed by Jack Cardiff, starring Yves Montand, Shirley MacLaine, and Edward G. Robinson, and released by Paramount Pictures...

    , and the James Bond
    James Bond
    James Bond, code name 007, is a fictional character created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short story collections. There have been a six other authors who wrote authorised Bond novels or novelizations after Fleming's death in 1964: Kingsley Amis,...

     film You Only Live Twice
    You Only Live Twice (film)
    You Only Live Twice is the fifth spy film in the James Bond series, and the fifth to star Sean Connery as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film's screenplay was written by Roald Dahl, and loosely based on Ian Fleming's 1964 novel of the same name...

    ; well-known contemporary examples include Kill Bill
    Kill Bill
    Kill Bill Volume 1 is a 2003 action thriller film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino. It is the first of two volumes that were theatrically released several months apart, the second volume being Kill Bill Volume 2....

    , The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift
    The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift
    The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift is a 2006 street racing action film directed by Justin Lin. It is the third installment in the The Fast and the Furious film series and currently the sixth in terms of series chronology...

     and Lost in Translation
    Lost in Translation (film)
    Lost in Translation is a 2003 American film written and directed by Sofia Coppola; her second feature film after The Virgin Suicides and it stars Bill Murray and Scarlett Johansson...

    .

    Cityscape


    Architecture in Tokyo
    Architecture in Tokyo
    Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II...

     has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
    1923 Great Kanto earthquake
    The struck the Kantō plain on the Japanese main island of Honshū at 11:58:44 am JST on September 1, 1923. Varied accounts hold that the duration of the earthquake was between 4 and 10 minutes...

     and later after extensive firebombing in World War II
    Bombing of Tokyo in World War II
    The bombing of Tokyo, often referred to as a "firebombing", was conducted by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II. The U.S. mounted a small-scale raid on Tokyo in April 1942, with large morale effects...

    . Because of this, Tokyo's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce. Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum
    Tokyo International Forum
    The is a multi-purpose center in Tokyo, Japan.One of its halls seats 5,000. In addition to seven other halls, it includes exhibition space, a lobby, restaurants, shops, and other facilities....

    , Asahi Beer Hall
    Asahi Beer Hall
    The Asahi Beer Hall is one of the buildings of the Asahi Breweries headquarters located on the east bank of the Sumida River in Sumida, Tokyo, Japan. It was designed by French designer Philippe Starck and was completed in 1989...

    , Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower
    Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower
    is a 204-metre , 50-story educational facility located in the Nishi-Shinjuku district in Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan. The building is home to three educational institutions: Tokyo Mode Gakuen , HAL Tokyo , and Shuto Ikō...

     and Rainbow Bridge
    Rainbow Bridge
    Rainbow Bridge may refer to:Bridges :* Rainbow Bridge National Monument, a natural rock formation located in Utah, USA* Rainbow Bridge , in Kansas* Rainbow Bridge , on the United States – Canada border...

    . Tokyo also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower
    Tokyo Tower
    is a communications and observation tower located in Shiba Park, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. At , it is the second tallest artificial structure in Japan. The structure is an Eiffel Tower-inspired lattice tower that is painted white and international orange to comply with air safety regulations.Built in...

     and the new Tokyo Sky Tree which is the tallest tower in Japan
    Japan
    Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

     and the second tallest structure in the world.

    Tokyo also contains numerous parks and gardens
    Parks and gardens in Tokyo
    -Urban parks and gardens:-Flowers:-National parks:There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture:* Chichibu Tama Kai National Park, in Nishitama and spilling over into Yamanashi and Saitama Prefectures...

    .



    Twin towns – Sister cities


    Tokyo is twinned
    Town twinning
    Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

     with the following cities and states:

    Beijing
    Beijing
    Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

    , China Berlin
    Berlin
    Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

    , Germany Cairo
    Cairo
    Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

    , Egypt Jakarta
    Jakarta
    Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

    , Indonesia Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

    , Russia New South Wales
    New South Wales
    New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

    , Australia New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

    , United States Paris
    Paris
    Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

    , France Rome
    Rome
    Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

    , Italy São Paulo State
    São Paulo (state)
    São Paulo is a state in Brazil. It is the major industrial and economic powerhouse of the Brazilian economy. Named after Saint Paul, São Paulo has the largest population, industrial complex, and economic production in the country. It is the richest state in Brazil...

    , Brazil Seoul
    Seoul
    Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

    , South Korea

    See also


    • 1703 Genroku earthquake
      1703 Genroku earthquake
      The occurred at 02:00 local time on December 31 . The epicenter was near Edo, the forerunner of present-day Tokyo, in the southern part of the Kantō Region, Japan. It shook Edo and an estimated 2,300 people were killed by the shaking and subsequent fires...

    • List of development projects in Tokyo


    External links