Greece has land borders with Albania
, FYROM and Bulgaria
to the north, and Turkey
to the east. The Aegean Sea
lies to the east of mainland Greece, the Ionian Sea
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea
to the south.
338 BC A Macedonian army led by Philip II defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean.
1311 Battle of Halmyros: The Catalan Company defeats Walter V of Brienne to take control of the Duchy of Athens, a Crusader state in Greece.
1770 The Orlov Revolt, an attempt to revolt against the Ottoman Empire before the Greek War of Independence, ends in disaster for the Greeks.
1820 Alexander Ypsilantis is declared leader of Filiki Eteria, a secret organization to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece.
1821 (Julian Calendar) Greece revolts against the Ottoman Empire, beginning the Greek War of Independence.
1821 Tripolitsa, Greece, falls and 30,000 Turks are massacred.
1822 The massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following a rebellion attempt, depicted by the French artist Eugène Delacroix.
1822 Greek War of Independence: The Turks capture the Greek town of Souli.
1824 The Battle of Kos is fought between Turk and Greek forces.
1826 The 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town Messolonghi start leaving the town after a year's siege by Turkish forces. Very few of them survive.
1829 The three protecting powers (Britain, France and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.