Frankfurt

Frankfurt

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Frankfurt am Main (ˈfʁaŋkfʊɐt am ˈmaɪn, ˈfræŋkfərt), commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

 and the fifth-largest city in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area
Largest urban areas of the European Union
This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 750,000 inhabitants each in 2011.This list is an attempt to present a consistent list of population figures for urban areas in the European Union. All the figures here have been compiled by Demographia.-Important...

 had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010. The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region
Frankfurt Rhine-Main
The Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, often simply referred to as Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main area or Rhine-Main area is the second largest metropolitan region in Germany, with a total population exceeding 5.8 million...

 which has a population of 5,600,000 and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region
Metropolitan regions in Germany
The Metropolitan regions in Germany are eleven densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany. They comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political, commercial and cultural centers of the country...

.

Frankfurt is the financial
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

 and transportation
Transport in Germany
As a densely populated country in a central location in Europe and with a developed economy, Germany has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure....

 centre of Germany and the largest financial centre in continental Europe
Continental Europe
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands....

. It is seat of the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
The European Central Bank is the institution of the European Union that administers the monetary policy of the 17 EU Eurozone member states. It is thus one of the world's most important central banks. The bank was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1998, and is headquartered in Frankfurt,...

, the German Federal Bank
Deutsche Bundesbank
The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks . Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank are...

, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 12th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse, which also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and the clearing company...

 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair , with 448,000,000 Euros in sales and over 1,600 active employees, is one of the world's largest trade fair companies. The group has a global network of 28 subsidiaries, five branch offices, and 52 international sales partners. Thus, the Messe Frankfurt is present in over 150...

, as well as several large commercial banks. Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

 is one of the world's busiest international airports, Frankfurt Central Station
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
is the central station for Frankfurt am Main. In terms of railway traffic, it is the busiest railway station in Germany. With about 350,000 passengers per day the station is the second most frequented railway station in Germany and one of the most frequented in Europe.- Proto-history :In the late...

 is one of the largest terminal stations in Europe, and the Frankfurter Kreuz
Frankfurter Kreuz
The Frankfurter Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange in the city of Frankfurt in Hessen, Germany where the autobahns A3 and A5 meet. The interchange was originally to be built from 1931 to 1933, but due to World War II construction was not finished until 1957....

 is one of the most heavily used Autobahn interchanges in Europe. Frankfurt lies in the former American Occupation Zone
Allied Occupation Zones in Germany
The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War II divided the country west of the Oder-Neisse line into four occupation zones for administrative purposes during 1945–49. In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, US forces had pushed beyond the previously agreed boundaries for the...

 of Germany, and it was formerly the headquarters city of the U.S. Army in Germany.

Frankfurt is considered an alpha world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

 as listed by the Loughborough University
Loughborough University
Loughborough University is a research based campus university located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England...

 group's 2010 inventory, was ranked 20th among global cities by Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy is a bimonthly American magazine founded in 1970 by Samuel P. Huntington and Warren Demian Manshel.Originally, the magazine was a quarterly...

s 2010 Global Cities Index and was ranked 6th among global cities for economic and social innovation by the 2thinknow Innovation Cities Index in 2010.

Frankfurt is an international centre for commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

, finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, culture
Culture
Culture is a term that has many different inter-related meanings. For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions...

, transport
Transport
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, cattle, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations...

, education
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

, and tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

. According to the Mercer cost of living survey, Frankfurt is Germany’s second most expensive city, and the 48th most expensive in the world. Frankfurt also ranks among the top 10 most livable cities in the world
World's Most Livable Cities
The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. Two examples are the Mercer Quality of Living Survey and The Economists World's Most Livable Cities .Liveability rankings are designed for use by...

 according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting.

Overview


The three major pillars of Frankfurt's economy are finance, transport and trade fairs.

Frankfurt has been Germany's financial centre for centuries and it is the home of a number of major banks and brokerages. The Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 12th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse, which also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and the clearing company...

 (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse) is by far Germany's largest, and is one of the world's most important. Frankfurt is also the seat of the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
The European Central Bank is the institution of the European Union that administers the monetary policy of the 17 EU Eurozone member states. It is thus one of the world's most important central banks. The bank was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1998, and is headquartered in Frankfurt,...

 (
Europäische Zentralbank) which sets monetary policy for the Eurozone
Eurozone
The eurozone , officially called the euro area, is an economic and monetary union of seventeen European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their common currency and sole legal tender...

, consisting of 17 European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 member states
Member State of the European Union
A member state of the European Union is a state that is party to treaties of the European Union and has thereby undertaken the privileges and obligations that EU membership entails. Unlike membership of an international organisation, being an EU member state places a country under binding laws in...

 that have adopted the euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

 (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender
Legal tender
Legal tender is a medium of payment allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Paper currency is a common form of legal tender in many countries....

, and of the German Federal Bank (
Deutsche Bundesbank). In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices here including the headquarters of the major German banks, notably Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank AG is a global financial service company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets...

 and Commerzbank
Commerzbank
Commerzbank AG is the second-largest bank in Germany, after Deutsche Bank, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main.-Activities:Commerzbank is mainly active in commercial bank, retail banking and mortgaging. It suffered reversals in investment banking in early 2000s and scaled back its Securities unit...

, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks.

Frankfurt has an excellent transportation infrastructure: Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

 (
Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) is the third busiest airport by passenger traffic
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 in Europe and is the main hub for Germanys flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

, the largest airline in Europe. The airport is close to the Frankfurter Kreuz
Frankfurter Kreuz
The Frankfurter Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange in the city of Frankfurt in Hessen, Germany where the autobahns A3 and A5 meet. The interchange was originally to be built from 1931 to 1933, but due to World War II construction was not finished until 1957....

 (Autobahn interchange) where two of the most heavily used motorways in Europe, Bundesautobahn 3 in west-east-direction and Bundesautobahn 5
Bundesautobahn 5
is a 445 km long Autobahn in Germany. Its northern end is the Hattenbach triangle intersection is a 445 km (277 mi) long Autobahn in Germany. Its northern end is the Hattenbach triangle intersection is a 445 km (277 mi) long Autobahn in Germany. Its northern end is the...

 in north-south-direction, meet. In addition, Frankfurt has three railway stations for high-speed ICE trains: Frankfurt Central Station
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
is the central station for Frankfurt am Main. In terms of railway traffic, it is the busiest railway station in Germany. With about 350,000 passengers per day the station is the second most frequented railway station in Germany and one of the most frequented in Europe.- Proto-history :In the late...

 (Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof), Frankfurt South Station (Frankfurt Südbahnhof) and Frankfurt Airport long-distance Station (Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof). Frankfurt is the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

, the German national railway company, with 342 daily trains to domestic and European destinations.

Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair , with 448,000,000 Euros in sales and over 1,600 active employees, is one of the world's largest trade fair companies. The group has a global network of 28 subsidiaries, five branch offices, and 52 international sales partners. Thus, the Messe Frankfurt is present in over 150...

 (
Messe Frankfurt) is the third largest trade fair
Trade fair
A trade fair is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities...

 in the world with a total area of 578,000 square metres (6,221,540 square feet). It has ten halls with a total of 321,754 square meters (3,463,331 square feet) of exhibition space and 96,078 square metres (1,034,175 square feet) of outdoor area more available. Many large trade fairs are held in Frankfurt each year, notably the Frankfurt Motor Show (
Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung - IAA), the world's largest motor show, the Frankfurt Book Fair
Frankfurt Book Fair
The Frankfurt Book Fair is the world's largest trade fair for books, based on the number of publishing companies represented. As to the number of visitors, the Turin Book Fair attracts about as many visitors, viz. some 300,000....

 (
Frankfurter Buchmesse), the world's largest book fair, and Musikmesse
Musikmesse
Musikmesse Frankfurt is a music fair held at the Frankfurt Trade Fair in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is the world's largest music fair and it has been held annually for over 25 years.The Frankfurter Musikpreis award is also handed out during the fair....

, the world's largest music fair.

Frankfurt is also home to many cultural
Culture of Germany
German culture began long before the rise of Germany as a nation-state and spanned the entire German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular...

 and educational
Education in Germany
The responsibility for the German education system lies primarily with the states while the federal government plays only a minor role. Optional Kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years of age, after which school attendance is compulsory, in most cases for...

 institutions including the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main
The Goethe University Frankfurt was founded in 1914 as a Citizens' University, which means that, while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt am Main, a unique feature in German university history...

 and the Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences
Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences
The Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences is a large public university in Frankfurt am Main in Germany....

, many museums (e.g. Städel
Städel
The Städel, officially the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, is an art museum in Frankfurt am Main, with one of the most important collections in Germany....

, Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Goethe House
Goethe House
The Goethe House in the old town of Frankfurt am Main was the family residence of the Goethe family, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, until 1795. Johann Wolfgang was himself born here in 1749 to his parents, Johann Caspar Goethe, a lawyer, and Katherine Elisabeth Textor, daughter of the...

), and two major botanical garden
Botanical garden
A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

s, the Palmengarten
Palmengarten
The Palmengarten is one of two botanical gardens in Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany, and is located in the city district Westend-Nord. It is the largest garden of its kind in Germany....

, which is Germany's largest, and the Botanical Garden of the Goethe University
Botanischer Garten der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
The Botanischer Garten der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main , also known as the Botanischer Garten Frankfurt am Main, is a botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main...

.

A unique feature of Frankfurt is its significant number of skyscraper
Skyscraper
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, often designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper...

s in the city center which form the Frankfurt skyline. Frankfurt is one of only a few cities in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 that have such a skyline, the others being London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

, Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

 and La Défense
La Défense
La Défense is a major business district of the Paris aire urbaine. With a population of 20,000, it is centered in an orbital motorway straddling the Hauts-de-Seine département municipalities of Nanterre, Courbevoie and Puteaux...

 in the outer Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 region. Because of the city's skyline, Germans sometimes humorously refer to Frankfurt am Main as "Mainhattan".


Name



Frankonovurd (in old high german
Old High German
The term Old High German refers to the earliest stage of the German language and it conventionally covers the period from around 500 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century, and some treat the period before 750 as 'prehistoric' and date the start of...

 language) or
Vadum Francorum (in latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 language) were the first names mentioned in written records from 794. It transformed to
Frankenfort during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 and then to
Franckfort and Franckfurth in Modern history
Modern history
Modern history, or the modern era, describes the historical timeline after the Middle Ages. Modern history can be further broken down into the early modern period and the late modern period after the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution...

. At the beginning of the 19th century the spelling of
Frankfurt was widely established. The name affix "am Main" is used regularly since the 14th century.

In English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, the city's full name of Frankfurt am Main translates to "Frankfurt on the Main" . Frankfurt is located on an ancient ford
Ford (crossing)
A ford is a shallow place with good footing where a river or stream may be crossed by wading or in a vehicle. A ford is mostly a natural phenomenon, in contrast to a low water crossing, which is an artificial bridge that allows crossing a river or stream when water is low.The names of many towns...

 (German:
Furt) on the Main river. As a part of early Franconia
Franconia
Franconia is a region of Germany comprising the northern parts of the modern state of Bavaria, a small part of southern Thuringia, and a region in northeastern Baden-Württemberg called Tauberfranken...

, the inhabitants were the early Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

, thus the city's name reveals its legacy as being "the ford of the Franks on the Main river".

Among English speakers, the city is commonly known simply as Frankfurt, though Germans occasionally call it by its full name when it is necessary to distinguish it from the other (significantly smaller) German city called Frankfurt in the federated state of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federal-states of Germany. It lies in the east of the country and is one of the new federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. The capital is Potsdam...

, Frankfurt (Oder)
Frankfurt (Oder)
Frankfurt is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice which was a part of Frankfurt until 1945. At the end of the 1980s it reached a population peak with more than 87,000 inhabitants...

 on the Polish border.

The common abbreviations for the city, which are primarily used in railway services and on road signs, are Frankfurt (Main), Frankfurt (M), Frankfurt a.M., Frankfurt/Main or Frankfurt/M. The common acronym for the city is Ffm or FFM.

The older English spelling of
Frankfort is now rarely seen.

History






In the area of the Römer, Roman settlements
Germania
Germania was the Greek and Roman geographical term for the geographical regions inhabited by mainly by peoples considered to be Germani. It was most often used to refer especially to the east of the Rhine and north of the Danube...

 were established, probably in the 1st century; some artifacts from that era are found even to this day. The city district
Bonames has a name probably dating back to Roman times—it is thought to be derived from bona me(n)sa. Nida (Heddernheim) was also a Roman civitas capital.

The name of Frankfurt on Main is derived from the
Franconofurd of the Germanic tribe
Germanic peoples
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.Originating about 1800 BCE from the Corded Ware Culture on the North...

 of the Franks
Franks
The Franks were a confederation of Germanic tribes first attested in the third century AD as living north and east of the Lower Rhine River. From the third to fifth centuries some Franks raided Roman territory while other Franks joined the Roman troops in Gaul. Only the Salian Franks formed a...

;
Furt (cf.
Cf.
cf., an abbreviation for the Latin word confer , literally meaning "bring together", is used to refer to other material or ideas which may provide similar or different information or arguments. It is mainly used in scholarly contexts, such as in academic or legal texts...

 English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 
ford) where the river was shallow enough to be crossed by wading. Alemanni and Franks lived there and by 794 Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

 presided over an imperial assembly
Council of Frankfurt
The Council of Frankfurt in 794 was called by Charlemagne. This church council condemned the Adoptionist heresy and revoked decrees regarding the holy icons which were established in 787 at the Second Council of Nicaea...

 and church synod, at which
Franconofurd (-furt -vurd) was first mentioned.

Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the following Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

. From 855 the German kings and emperors were elected in Frankfurt and crowned in Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

. From 1562 the kings/emperors were also crowned in Frankfurt, Maximilian II
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian II was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1564 until his death...

 being the first. This tradition ended in 1792, when Franz II
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Empire after the disastrous defeat of the Third Coalition by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz...

 was elected. His coronation was deliberately held on Bastille Day
Bastille Day
Bastille Day is the name given in English-speaking countries to the French National Day, which is celebrated on 14 July of each year. In France, it is formally called La Fête Nationale and commonly le quatorze juillet...

, 14 July, the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
The storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris on the morning of 14 July 1789. The medieval fortress and prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the centre of Paris. While the prison only contained seven inmates at the time of its storming, its fall was the flashpoint...

. The elections and coronations took place in St. Bartholomäus cathedral
Frankfurt Cathedral
Saint Bartholomeus's Cathedral is a Gothic building located in Frankfurt, Germany.Frankfurt Cathedral is the main church of Frankfurt and was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time...

, known as the Kaiserdom (en: Emperor's Cathedral), or in its predecessors.

The
Frankfurter Messe (Frankfurt Trade Fair) was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II , was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous...

 granted an Imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the Empire. The fair became particularly important when similar fairs in French Beaucaire lost attraction around 1380. Book trade fairs have been held in Frankfurt since 1478.

In 1372 Frankfurt became a Reichsstadt (en:Imperial city), i.e. directly subordinate to the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 and not to a regional ruler or a local nobleman.

Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

, but suffered from the bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

 that was brought to the city by refugees. After the end of the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth.

In the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

 Frankfurt was occupied or bombarded several times by French troops. It nevertheless still remained a free city until the total collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805/6. In 1806 it become part of the principality of Aschaffenburg
Principality of Aschaffenburg
The Principality of Aschaffenburg was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine from 1803–10. Its capital was Aschaffenburg....

 under the Fürstprimas (Prince-Primate), Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg
Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg
Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg was Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, Arch-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Regensburg, primate of the Confederation of the Rhine and Grand-Duke of Frankfurt.-Biography:...

. This also meant that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
The Confederation of the Rhine was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon after he defeated Austria's Francis II and Russia's Alexander I in the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the...

. In 1810 Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Grand Duchy of Frankfurt
The Grand Duchy of Frankfurt was a German satellite state of Napoleonic creation. It came into existence in 1810 through the combination of the former territories of the Archbishops of Mainz along with the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt itself....

. Napoleon
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 intended to make his adopted son Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène de Beauharnais
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Prince Français, Prince of Venice, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg and 1st Prince of Eichstätt ad personam was the first child and only son of Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la...

, already
Prince de Venise ("prince of Venice", a newly established primogeniture in Italy), Grand Duke of Frankfurt after Dalberg's death (since the latter as a Catholic bishop had no legitimate heirs). The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from 1810 to 1813, when the military tide turned in favour of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies, which overturned the Napoleonic order of central Europe. Dalberg abdicated in favour of Eugène de Beauharnais, which of course was only a symbolic action, as the latter effectively never did rule after the ruin of the French armies and Frankfurt being taken by the allies.

After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September, 1814 to June, 1815. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars,...

 (1814–1815, redrawing the map of Europe) dissolved the grand-duchy, and Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...

 (till 1866) as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag, the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

 was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy".

After the ill-fated revolution of 1848, Frankfurt was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament
Frankfurt Parliament
The Frankfurt Assembly was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. Session was held from May 18, 1848 to May 31, 1849 in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main...

, which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche (St. Paul's Church) and was opened on 18 May 1848. The institution failed in 1849 when the Prussian
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

 king declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
The Austro-Prussian War was a war fought in 1866 between the German Confederation under the leadership of the Austrian Empire and its German allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia with its German allies and Italy on the...

 as Prussia in 1866 annexed several smaller states, among them the Free City of Frankfurt
Free City of Frankfurt
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt am Main was a city-state within two major Germanic states:*The Holy Roman Empire as the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt...

. The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in 1890.

In 1914 the citizens of Frankfurt founded the University of Frankfurt, later called Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. This is the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest universities.

From April 6 to May 17, 1920, following military intervention to put down the Ruhr Uprising
Ruhr Uprising
The Ruhr uprising was a left-wing workers' revolt in the Ruhr in March 1920. The uprising took place initially on the occasion of the call for a general strike issued by the Social Democrat members of the German government in response to the Kapp Putsch of 13 March 1920:The first demonstrations...

, Frankfurt was occupied by French troops. The French claimed that Articles 42 to 44 of the peace treaty of Versailles concerning the demilitarisation of the Rhineland
Rhine Province
The Rhine Province , also known as Rhenish Prussia or synonymous to the Rhineland , was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822-1946. It was created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg...

 had been broken. In 1924 Ludwig Landmann
Ludwig Landmann
Dr. Ludwig Landmann was a liberal German politician of the Weimar Republic...

 became the first Jewish
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 Mayor of the city, and led a significant expansion during the following years. However, during the Nazi era
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

, the synagogue
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

s of Frankfurt were destroyed.

The city of Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II
Bombing of Frankfurt am Main in World War II
Bombing of Frankfurt am Main by the Allies of World War II killed about 5,500 residents and destroyed the largest medieval city centre in Germany . Post-war reconstruction generally used modern architecture, and a few landmark buildings were rebuilt in a simple historical style...

 (1939–1945). About 5,500 residents were killed during the raids, and the once famous medieval city centre, by that time the largest in Germany, was destroyed. Post-war reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple modern style, thus irrevocably changing the architectural face of Frankfurt. Only very few landmark buildings have been reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner. The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah documents of the Municipal Library was destroyed when the city was bombed. According to Arabist
Arabist
This is an article about the western scholars known as Arabists, not the political movement Pan-Arabism.An Arabist is someone normally from outside the Arab World who specialises in the study of the Arabic language and Arab culture, and often Arabic literature.-Origins:Arabists began in medieval...

 and Genizah scholar S.D. Goitein, "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived."

Frankfurt became a ground battlefield commencing 26 March 1945, when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault. The US 5th Infantry Division and US 6th Armored Division captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March 1945. More details of this battle are provided at History of Frankfurt am Main
History of Frankfurt am Main
The history of the city of Frankfurt am Main is the story of a hill at a ford in the Main that developed into a European banking metropolis, becoming the smallest metropolis in the world...

.

After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse-(Darmstadt) and the Prussian Hesse
Province of Kurhessen
The Province of Kurhessen was a province of Prussia within Nazi Germany from 1944-45.Although all German states, including Prussia, had been de facto dissolved since 1933, the Nazi government formally dissolved the Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau into two provinces on 1 April 1944: Kurhessen and...

 provinces. The city was part of the American Zone of Occupation of Germany. The Military Governor for the United States Zone (1945–1949) and the United States High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG) (1949–1952) had their headquarters in the IG Farben Building
IG Farben Building
The IG Farben Building or the Poelzig Building was built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters of the IG Farben conglomerate in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is also known as the Poelzig Ensemble or Poelzig Complex, and previously as the IG Farben Complex, and the General Creighton W....

, intentionally left undamaged by the Allies' wartime bombardment. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital of West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

—they even went as far as constructing a new parliament building that has never been used for its intended purpose. Since 1949 it is used to house the radio studios of Hessischer Rundfunk
Hessischer Rundfunk
Hessischer Rundfunk is the public broadcaster for the German state of Hesse. The main offices of HR are in Frankfurt am Main. HR is a member of the ARD.- Studios :...

. In the end, Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

 (the first post-war Chancellor) preferred the tiny city of Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

, for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also for another reason; many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt, one of the largest German cities and a former centre of the old German-dominated Holy Roman Empire, would be accepted as a "permanent" capital of Germany, thereby weakening the West German population's support for reunification
German reunification
German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany , and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23. The start of this process is commonly referred by Germans as die...

 and the eventual return of the Government to Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

.

During the 1970s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems. That system includes a suburban rail system (S-Bahn) capable of reaching outlying communities as well as the city centre, and a deep underground light rail system with smaller coaches (U-Bahn
Frankfurt U-Bahn
The Frankfurt U-Bahn, together with the Frankfurt S-Bahn and the Frankfurt Straßenbahn, is the backbone of the public transport system of Frankfurt, Germany. Its name derives from the German term for underground, Untergrundbahn. The U-Bahn opened in 1968 and now consists of 87 stations on nine...

) also capable of travelling above ground on street rails.

Since the postwar period Frankfurt has emerged once again as the financial and transportation centre of Germany.

Geographic location


Frankfurt is located on both sides of the Main river south-east of the Taunus
Taunus
The Taunus is a low mountain range in Hesse, Germany that composes part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains. It is bounded by the river valleys of Rhine, Main and Lahn. On the opposite side of the Rhine, the mountains are continued by the Hunsrück...

 mountain range. It is the largest city in the federated state (Bundesland) of Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

 (
Hessen) in the south-western part of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (
Bundesrepublik Deutschland). The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest
Frankfurt City Forest
The Frankfurt City Forest or Frankfurter Stadtwald is a forest district in the south of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. There are also other forest areas spread out through the city.-Basic Facts:...

 (
Frankfurter Stadtwald), Germany's largest forest within a city. The city area is 248.31 km² (95.87 sq mi) and extends over 23.4 km (14.54 mi) in east-west-direction and 23.3 km (14.48 mi) in north-south-direction. The city centre of Frankfurt is located on the north side of the Main river in the city district of Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 (the historical center) and the surrounding Innenstadt
Innenstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
The Innenstadt is the central district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke. It stretches in the north and east round the district of Altstadt...

 district. The geographical center is located in the city district of Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

 near Frankfurt West Station
Frankfurt West station
Frankfurt West station is a regional and S-Bahn station in western Frankfurt am Main, Germany on the Main-Weser Railway, in the district of Bockenheim, near the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds and the Bockenheim campus of the Goethe University Frankfurt....

.

Frankfurt is the center of the densely populated Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region
Frankfurt Rhine-Main
The Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, often simply referred to as Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main area or Rhine-Main area is the second largest metropolitan region in Germany, with a total population exceeding 5.8 million...

 (Rhein-Main-Gebiet) with a population of 5.6 million. Other important cities in the region are Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 275,400 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens...

 (the capital of Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

), Mainz
Mainz
Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

 (the capital of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has an area of and about four million inhabitants. The capital is Mainz. English speakers also commonly refer to the state by its German name, Rheinland-Pfalz ....

), Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area.The sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation, prevented any larger settlement from developing, until the city became the seat...

, Offenbach am Main, Hanau
Hanau
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction.- Geography :...

, Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg
Aschaffenburg is a city in northwest Bavaria, Germany. The town of Aschaffenburg is not considered part of the district of Aschaffenburg, but is the administrative seat.Aschaffenburg is known as the Tor zum Spessart or "gate to the Spessart"...

, Bad Homburg vor der Höhe and Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim is the largest town in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany. It is one of seven special status towns in Hesse and is located on the Main, only a few kilometres from its mouth in Mainz. The suburbs of Bauschheim and Königstädten are included in Rüsselsheim...

.

Climate


Frankfurt has a temperate-oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 with relatively cold winters and warm summers. Its average annual temperature is 10.1 °C (50.2 °F), with monthly mean temperatures ranging from 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) in January to 20.3 °C (68.5 °F) in July.

Neighbouring districts and cities


To the west, Frankfurt borders the administrative district
Districts of Germany
The districts of Germany are known as , except in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein where they are known simply as ....

 (Landkreis) of Main-Taunus-Kreis
Main-Taunus-Kreis
Main-Taunus is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany and is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region as well as the Frankfurt urban area...

 with cities such as Hattersheim am Main
Hattersheim am Main
Hattersheim am Main is a town in the Main-Taunus district, Hesse .-Neighbouring towns:Hattersheim borders the city of Frankfurt in the northeast, in the southeast with Kelsterbach, in the southwest with Raunheim...

, Kriftel
Kriftel
Kriftel is a municipality in the Main-Taunus district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated 16 km west of Frankfurt .It has about 10,000 inhabitants....

, Hofheim am Taunus, Kelkheim (Taunus), Liederbach am Taunus
Liederbach am Taunus
Liederbach am Taunus is a town in Hesse, Germany with 8500 inhabitants. It is situated 20 km west of downtown Frankfurt am Main.-Twin towns: Saldus in the Courland region of Latvia Verwood in East Dorset, England. Villebon-sur-Yvette in the Essonne département of France-External links:*...

, Sulzbach (Taunus), Schwalbach am Taunus
Schwalbach am Taunus
Schwalbach am Taunus is a town in the Main-Taunus-Kreis district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated approx. 11 km west of Frankfurt .-History:In the years 1961 to 1963 were archaeological discoveries made in the area of the today’s town centre...

 and Eschborn
Eschborn
Eschborn is a town near Frankfurt am Main in the Main-Taunus district, Hesse, Germany. As of 2009, it had a population of 20,789, but boasts fulltime employment of over 30,000 people...

; to the northwest the Hochtaunuskreis
Hochtaunuskreis
The Hochtaunuskreis is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany and is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Neighbouring districts are Lahn-Dill, Wetteraukreis, district-free Frankfurt, Main-Taunus, Rheingau-Taunus, Limburg-Weilburg.The Hochtaunuskreis and the Landkreis Starnberg...

 with Steinbach (Taunus)
Steinbach (Taunus)
Steinbach is a town in the Hochtaunuskreis that borders in the east on Frankfurt am Main. Other neighbouring towns are Oberursel, Kronberg im Taunus and Eschborn. It is in the German state of Hesse.-Location:...

, Oberursel (Taunus) and Bad Homburg vor der Höhe; to the north the Wetteraukreis
Wetteraukreis
The Wetteraukreis is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany. Neighbouring districts are Landkreis Gießen, Vogelsbergkreis, Main-Kinzig-Kreis, district-free Stadt Frankfurt, Hochtaunuskreis, Lahn-Dill-Kreis.-History:...

 with Karben
Karben
Karben is a town in the Wetteraukreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated on the banks of the river Nidda in the Rhein-Main-Gebiet , approx...

 and Bad Vilbel
Bad Vilbel
Bad Vilbel is a spa town with many mineral waters. Bad Vilbel is the town with the most inhabitants in the Wetteraukreis district in Hessen, Germany. The city center of Bad Vilbel is located 8 km northeast of the center of Frankfurt am Main...

; to the northeast the Main-Kinzig-Kreis
Main-Kinzig-Kreis
Main-Kinzig is a Kreis in the east of Hesse, Germany. Neighboring districts are Wetteraukreis, Vogelsbergkreis, Fulda, Bad Kissingen, Main-Spessart, Aschaffenburg, Offenbach and the district-free cities of Offenbach and Frankfurt.-History:...

 with Niederdorfelden
Niederdorfelden
Niederdorfelden is a municipality in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany.-Twin towns:Saint-Sever-Calvados, France...

 and Maintal
Maintal
Maintal is the second largest town of the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated on the river Main, between Frankfurt am Main and Hanau.-Neighbouring places:...

; to the southeast the city of Offenbach am Main; to the south the Kreis Offenbach
Offenbach (district)
Offenbach is a Kreis in the south of Hesse, Germany and is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Neighbourhood districts are Main-Kinzig, Aschaffenburg, Darmstadt-Dieburg, Groß-Gerau and the cities of Darmstadt, Frankfurt and Offenbach.-History:The district Offenbach was first...

 with Neu-Isenburg
Neu-Isenburg
The “Huguenot Town” of Neu-Isenburg with its outlying centres of Gravenbruch and Zeppelinheim is found in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany, right near Frankfurt am Main...

 and to the southwest the Kreis Groß-Gerau
Groß-Gerau (district)
Groß-Gerau is a Kreis in the south of Hesse , Germany. Neighboring districts are Main-Taunus, district-free Frankfurt, Darmstadt-Dieburg, Bergstraße, Alzey-Worms, Mainz-Bingen, and the district-free cities Mainz and Wiesbaden....

 with Mörfelden-Walldorf
Mörfelden-Walldorf
Mörfelden-Walldorf is a town in the Groß-Gerau district, situated in the Frankfurt Rhein-Main Region in Hessen, Germany.- Location :Mörfelden-Walldorf is situated within a triangle formed by the South Hessian cities of Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt and Wiesbaden, near Frankfurt International...

, Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim is the largest town in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany. It is one of seven special status towns in Hesse and is located on the Main, only a few kilometres from its mouth in Mainz. The suburbs of Bauschheim and Königstädten are included in Rüsselsheim...

 and Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach is a town in Groß-Gerau district in Hessen, Germany. It lies on Frankfurt's southwestern outskirts at a bend on the left bank of the river Main, right where a small brook, called the Kelster empties into the river...

.

Together with these cities (and some larger nearby cities, e.g. Hanau
Hanau
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction.- Geography :...

, Rodgau
Rodgau
Rodgau is a town in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hessen, Germany. It lies southeast of Frankfurt am Main in the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region and has the greatest population of any municipality in the Offenbach district...

, Dreieich
Dreieich
Dreieich is a town in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany. It lies roughly 10 km south of Frankfurt am Main and with more than 40,000 inhabitants is the district’s second biggest town.- Location :...

, Langen
Langen, Hesse
Langen is a town of roughly 36,000 in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany, between Darmstadt and Frankfurt am Main...

) Frankfurt forms a contiguous built-up urban area
Urban area
An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. Urban areas may be cities, towns or conurbations, but the term is not commonly extended to rural settlements such as villages and hamlets.Urban areas are created and further...

 called Stadtregion Frankfurt which is not an official administrative district. The urban area had an estimated population of 2.3 million in 2010 and is therefore the 13th largest urban area of the European Union
Largest urban areas of the European Union
This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have greater than 750,000 inhabitants each in 2011.This list is an attempt to present a consistent list of population figures for urban areas in the European Union. All the figures here have been compiled by Demographia.-Important...

.

Population



With a population of 688,249 in 2010, Frankfurt is the fifth largest city in Germany after Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

, Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 and Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

. The city is considered a multicultural
Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism is the appreciation, acceptance or promotion of multiple cultures, applied to the demographic make-up of a specific place, usually at the organizational level, e.g...

 city because it is home to people of 180 nationalities. In addition to the ethnic German majority, the city contains sizable immigrant
Immigration
Immigration is the act of foreigners passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence...

 populations from Turkey, Italy, Colombia
Colombia
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia , is a unitary constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The country is located in northwestern South America, bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the...

, Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, Macedonia, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 and China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. The Frankfurt urban area is also home to the second-largest Korean
Koreans in Germany
Koreans in Germany numbered 31,248 individuals , according to the statistics of South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Though they are now only the 14th-largest Korean diaspora community worldwide, they remain the second-largest in Western Europe, behind the rapidly-growing community...

 community in Europe, and to Germany's largest Sri Lankan Tamil community. Nearly 25 percent of Frankfurt's residents are foreign national
Foreign national
Foreign national is a term used to describe a person who is not a citizen of the host country in which he or she is residing or temporarily sojourning. In Canada, a foreign national is defined as someone who is not a Canadian citizen nor a permanent resident of Canada...

s. In addition, 40 percent of Frankfurt's residents, and 65 percent of those below the age of five, come from an immigrant background.

Frankfurt has been a Großstadt (a city with at least 100,000 residents by definition) since 1875. With 414,576 residents in 1910 it was the 9th largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to 553,464 before World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. After the war, at the end of the year 1945, the number had dropped to 358,000. In the following years the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of 691,257 in 1963. It dropped again to 592,411 in 1986 but has increased since then. According to the demographic forecast of the City of Frankfurt the population will reach the 700,000-mark in 2012 and will further increase up to 725,000 in 2020.

Religion


For a long time Frankfurt used to be a Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

-dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics
Roman Catholicism in Germany
The German Catholic Church, part of the worldwide Catholic Church, is under the leadership of the Pope, curia in Rome, and the German bishops. The current president of the conference is Robert Zollitsch, the archbishop to Freiburg, the country's second largest diocese with 2.07 million Catholics...

 moved there. In 2006, Catholicism was the largest religious denomination
Religious denomination
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.The term describes various Christian denominations...

 (25 percent) closely followed by Protestantism (23 percent). Both denominations are losing members and even together make up less than half of the population. According to the Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland
Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland
The Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland is a federation of German Jews organizing many Jewish organisations in Germany. It was founded on July 19, 1950, as a response to the increasing isolation of German Jews by the international Jewish community and increasing interest in Jewish affairs by the ...

 (Central Council of Jews in Germany) there are 7,300 Jews affiliated with Judaism
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 in Frankfurt, giving it the third largest Jewish community
History of the Jews in Germany
The presence of Jews in Germany has been established since the early 4th century. The community prospered under Charlemagne, but suffered during the Crusades...

 (behind Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

) in Germany.

Politics


Frankfurt is one of five independent district-free cities
Independent city
An independent city is a city that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity. These type of cities should not be confused with city-states , which are fully sovereign cities that are not part of any other sovereign state.-Historical precursors:In the Holy Roman Empire,...

 (
kreisfreie Städte
Urban districts of Germany
This is a list of urban districts in Germany. Germany's sixteen states are further subdivided into 402 districts of which 107 are urban districts – cities which constitute a district in their own right. A similar concept is the Statutarstadt in Austria...

) in Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

 which means that it does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity, in this case it is not part of a
Landkreis. The other four cities are the second to fifth largest cities in Hesse: Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 275,400 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens...

, Kassel
Kassel
Kassel is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants.- History :...

, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area.The sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation, prevented any larger settlement from developing, until the city became the seat...

 and Offenbach am Main. A
kreisfreie Stadt has territorial sovereignty
Sovereignty
Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided...

 within its defined city limits.

Since 1995 Frankfurt's municipal
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 leader is Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.-Commonwealth of Nations:* In Australia it is a political position. Australian cities with Lord Mayors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Parramatta, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong...

 (
Oberbürgermeisterin) Petra Roth
Petra Roth
Petra Roth is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union . Since 1995 she is mayor of Frankfurt. In addition and in a rerun she is president of Deutscher Städtetag since 2009 which is the head organisation and lobby group of all German cities obverse the Cabinet of Germany, the German...

 of the Christian Democratic Union
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

 (CDU). The CDU und the Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. Its leaders are Claudia Roth and Cem Özdemir...

 (
Bündnis '90/Die Grünen) currently form the governing parties
Ruling party
The ruling party or governing party in a parliamentary system is the political party or coalition of the majority in parliament. Within a parliamentary system, the majority in the legislature also controls the executive branch of government, thus leaving no possibility of dueling parties...

 in Frankfurt.

International relations


Twin towns and sister cities (
Städtepartnerschaften)

Frankfurt twinned with, or has sister city relationships with: Lyon
Lyon
Lyon , is a city in east-central France in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. Lyon is located at from Paris, from Marseille, from Geneva, from Turin, and from Barcelona. The residents of the city are called Lyonnais....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, since 1960 Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, since 1966 Milan
Milan
Milan is the second-largest city in Italy and the capital city of the region of Lombardy and of the province of Milan. The city proper has a population of about 1.3 million, while its urban area, roughly coinciding with its administrative province and the bordering Province of Monza and Brianza ,...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, since 1971 Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

, Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

, since 1979 Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv , officially Tel Aviv-Yafo , is the second most populous city in Israel, with a population of 404,400 on a land area of . The city is located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline in west-central Israel. It is the largest and most populous city in the metropolitan area of Gush Dan, with...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, since 1980 Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, since 1988 Toronto
Toronto
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the largest city in Canada. It is located in Southern Ontario on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A relatively modern city, Toronto's history dates back to the late-18th century, when its land was first purchased by the British monarchy from...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, since 1989 Prague
Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, since 1990 Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

, since 1990 Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, since 1991 Granada
Granada, Nicaragua
Granada is a city in western Nicaragua and the capital of the Granada Department. With an estimated population of 110,326 , it is Nicaragua's fourth most populous city. Granada is historically one of Nicaragua's most important cities, economically and politically...

, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

, since 1991 Asmara
Asmara
Asmara is the capital city and largest settlement in Eritrea, home to a population of around 579,000 people...

, Eritrea
Eritrea
Eritrea , officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea derives it's name from the Greek word Erethria, meaning 'red land'. The capital is Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast...

, since 1991 Dubai, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

, since 2005 Guadalajara
Guadalajara
Guadalajara may refer to:In Mexico:*Guadalajara, Jalisco, the capital of the state of Jalisco and second largest city in Mexico**Guadalajara Metropolitan Area*University of Guadalajara, a public university in Guadalajara, Jalisco...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, since 2011
Partnerships (Freundschaftsverträge)

Partnerships are a weaker form of cooperation compared to sister cities relations, like a fixed-term cooperation or limited to certain projects. Frankfurt has partnerships with the following cities: Deuil-la-Barre
Deuil-la-Barre
Deuil-la-Barre is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris.-Name:Originally called simply Deuil, the name of the commune became officially Deuil-la-Barre on 7 December 1952.-History:...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, partnered with Nieder-Eschbach
Nieder-Eschbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Nieder-Eschbach is a suburb and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The suburb has about 11.500 inhabitants.-External links:* * *...

, since 1967; incorporated in 1972 Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

 in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, since 1991

Subdivisions



The city is divided into 46 city districts (Stadtteile), which are again divided into 118 city boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 448 electoral districts (Wahlbezirke). The 46 city districts are combined for political reasons into 16 area districts (Ortsbezirke), which each have a district committee and chairperson.

The largest city district by population and area is Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

, the smallest is Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

, Frankfurt's historical center. Three larger city districts (Sachsenhausen, Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 and Nordend
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

) are divided for administrative purposes into a northern (-Nord) and a southern (-Süd) part, respectively a western (-West) and an eastern (-Ost) part, but are generally considered as one city district (that's why there are often only 43 city districts mentioned, even on the official website of the City of Frankfurt).

Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt (part of Niederursel
Niederursel (Frankfurt am Main)
Niederursel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Niederursel-Ost and Niederursel-West....

, Heddernheim
Heddernheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Heddernheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Heddernheim-Ost and Heddernheim-West. Heddernheim was first mentioned in documents in 801 as Phetterenheim...

 and Praunheim
Praunheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Praunheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke....

), Goldstein (part of Schwanheim
Schwanheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Schwanheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Schwanheim, Goldstein-Ost and Goldstein-West....

), Riedberg (part of Kalbach-Riedberg
Kalbach-Riedberg (Frankfurt am Main)
Kalbach-Riedberg is a district or Stadtteil and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Kalbach and Riedberg....

) and Europaviertel
Europaviertel (Frankfurt)
Europaviertel in Frankfurt am Main is a new district on the former site of the main freight depot in the suburb of Gallus. Development work began in 2005, and the development is slated for completion by 2019. The district will have offices, hotels, apartments, parks, shopping, and leisure...

 (part of Gallus
Gallus (Frankfurt am Main)
Gallus, former Gallusviertel, is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke....

). The Bankenviertel (banking district), Frankfurt's financial district, is also not an administrative city district (it covers parts of the western Innenstadt
Innenstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
The Innenstadt is the central district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke. It stretches in the north and east round the district of Altstadt...

 district, the southern Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 district and the eastern Bankenviertel
Bahnhofsviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
The Bahnhofsviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It was developed between 1891 and 1915 on the land of the established Westbahnhof.-Geography:...

 district).

Many city districts are incorporated suburbs (
Vororte), or were previously independent cities, like Höchst
Höchst (Frankfurt am Main)
Höchst is a district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke.Höchst am Main became part of Frankfurt am Main in 1928 together with its boroughs Sindlingen, Unterliederbach and Zeilsheim. It is situated 10 km west of downtown...

. Some like Nordend
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

 and Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
' refers to the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s...

 following the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German...

, while others were formed from territory which previously belonged to other city district, like Dornbusch
Dornbusch (Frankfurt am Main)
Dornbusch is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into 3 Stadtbezirke....

 and Riederwald
Riederwald (Frankfurt am Main)
Riederwald is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost. It is one of the smallest Frankfurt districts...

.

Population by districts




Population of the 46 city districts on December 31, 2009
No
City district
Area (km²)
Population
Foreign nationals
Foreign nationals (%)
Area district
1 Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 
3.475 1.122 01 - Innenstadt 1
2 Innenstadt
Innenstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
The Innenstadt is the central district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke. It stretches in the north and east round the district of Altstadt...

 
6.577 2.529 01 - Innenstadt 1
3 Bahnhofsviertel
Bahnhofsviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
The Bahnhofsviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It was developed between 1891 and 1915 on the land of the established Westbahnhof.-Geography:...

 
2.125 810 01 - Innenstadt 1
4 Westend-Süd
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 
17.288 3.445 02 - Innenstadt 2
5 Westend-Nord
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 
8.854 2.184 02 - Innenstadt 2
6 Nordend-West
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

 
28.808 5.162 03 - Innenstadt 3
7 Nordend-Ost
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

 
26.619 5.580 03 - Innenstadt 3
8 Ostend
Ostend (Frankfurt am Main)
Ostend is a borough of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke. It is home to several brothels located along the Main River. The most famous of these brothels, or "Puffs," is the Eros-Center with its ubiquitous "legs" entrance...

 
26.955 7.213 04 - Innenstadt 4
9 Bornheim
Bornheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bornheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, with approximately 25,861 inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke....

 
27.184 6.240 04 - Innenstadt 4
10 Gutleutviertel  5.843 1.953 01 - Innenstadt 1
11 Gallus
Gallus (Frankfurt am Main)
Gallus, former Gallusviertel, is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke....

 
26.716 11.012 01 - Innenstadt 1
12 Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

 
34.740 9.034 02 - Innenstadt 2
13 Sachsenhausen-Nord
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

 
30.374 6.507 05 - Süd
14 Sachsenhausen-Süd
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

 
26.114 4.847 05 - Süd
15 Flughafen
Flughafen (Frankfurt am Main)
Frankfurt-Flughafen is an independent district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Unterwald and Flughafen. It is the least populated district of the city as well as the second largest one after Sachsenhausen...

 
211 14 05 - Süd
16 Oberrad
Oberrad (Frankfurt am Main)
Oberrad is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd.To the north of the district lies the River Main. Beyond it, the Eastern Harbor of Frankfurt in the Ostend borough. To the northeast, Oberrad is bordered by Offenbach's Kaiserlei district, to the...

 
12.828 3.113 05 - Süd
17 Niederrad
Niederrad (Frankfurt am Main)
Niederrad is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany with about 23.000 Inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Niederrad-Nord and Niederrad-Süd.-History:...

 
22.954 6.569 05 - Süd
18 Schwanheim
Schwanheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Schwanheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Schwanheim, Goldstein-Ost and Goldstein-West....

 
20.162 3.532 06 - West
19 Griesheim
Griesheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Griesheim has been a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt, Germany since 1928, the year of its suburbanisation. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke...

 
22.648 8.029 06 - West
20 Rödelheim
Rödelheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Rödelheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Rödelheim-Ost and Rödelheim-West....

 
17.841 4.863 07 - Mitte-West
21 Hausen
Hausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Hausen is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West....

 
7.178 2.135 07 - Mitte-West
22/23 Praunheim
Praunheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Praunheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke....

 
15.761 3.197 07 - Mitte-West
24 Heddernheim
Heddernheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Heddernheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Heddernheim-Ost and Heddernheim-West. Heddernheim was first mentioned in documents in 801 as Phetterenheim...

 
16.443 3.194 08 - Nord-West
25 Niederursel
Niederursel (Frankfurt am Main)
Niederursel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Niederursel-Ost and Niederursel-West....

 
16.394 3.671 08 - Nord-West
26 Ginnheim
Ginnheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Ginnheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord....

 
16.444 4.024 09 - Mitte-Nord
27 Dornbusch
Dornbusch (Frankfurt am Main)
Dornbusch is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into 3 Stadtbezirke....

 
18.511 3.482 09 - Mitte-Nord
28 Eschersheim
Eschersheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Eschersheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, with some 14,000 inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Eschersheim-Nord and Eschersheim-Süd....

 
14.808 2.657 09 - Mitte-Nord
29 Eckenheim
Eckenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Eckenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was suburbanized on 1 April 1910. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

 
14.277 3.674 10 - Nord-Ost
30 Preungesheim
Preungesheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Preungesheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

 
13.568 3.442 10 - Nord-Ost
31 Bonames
Bonames (Frankfurt am Main)
Bonames is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost. The name comes from the Latin phrase „bona mansio“ which has its roots in the time of Roman occupation....

 
6.362 1.288 10 - Nord-Ost
32 Berkersheim
Berkersheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Berkersheim is since 1910 a district , in the north-eastern part of Frankfurt, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

 
3.400 592 10 - Nord-Ost
33 Riederwald
Riederwald (Frankfurt am Main)
Riederwald is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost. It is one of the smallest Frankfurt districts...

 
4.911 1.142 11 - Ost
34 Seckbach
Seckbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Seckbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost....

 
10.194 1.969 11 - Ost
35 Fechenheim  16.061 5.635 11 - Ost
36 Höchst
Höchst (Frankfurt am Main)
Höchst is a district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke.Höchst am Main became part of Frankfurt am Main in 1928 together with its boroughs Sindlingen, Unterliederbach and Zeilsheim. It is situated 10 km west of downtown...

 
13.888 5.279 06 - West
37 Nied
Nied (Frankfurt am Main)
Nied is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Nied-Nord and Nied-Süd....

 
17.829 5.224 06 - West
38 Sindlingen
Sindlingen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sindlingen is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Sindlingen-Süd and Sindlingen-Nord. The Internationale Schule Frankfurt Rhein-Main is located in Sindlingen.A short walk from Sindlingen main street is the...

 
9.032 2.076 06 - West
39 Zeilsheim
Zeilsheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Zeilsheim is the westernmost district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Zeilsheim-Ost, Zeilsheim-Süd and Zeilsheim-Nord...

 
11.984 2.555 06 - West
40 Unterliederbach
Unterliederbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Unterliederbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Unterliederbach-Ost, Unterliederbach-Mitte and Unterliederbach-West....

 
14.350 3.511 06 - West
41 Sossenheim
Sossenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Sossenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Sossenheim-Ost and Sossenheim-West. It has been a district since 1928 and makes part of the northwest border of the city...

 
15.853 4.235 06 - West
42 Nieder-Erlenbach
Nieder-Erlenbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Nieder-Erlenbach is a district or Stadtteil and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.In Nieder-Erlenbach there is the private school Anna-Schmidt-Schule.It has a population of 4,629 inhabitants....

 
4.629 496 13 - Nieder-Erlenbach
43 Kalbach-Riedberg
Kalbach-Riedberg (Frankfurt am Main)
Kalbach-Riedberg is a district or Stadtteil and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Kalbach and Riedberg....

 
8.482 1.279 12 - Kalbach-Riedberg
44 Harheim
Harheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Harheim is a district or Stadtteil and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.It is a possible birthplace of the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim....

 
4.294 446 14 - Harheim
45 Nieder-Eschbach
Nieder-Eschbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Nieder-Eschbach is a suburb and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The suburb has about 11.500 inhabitants.-External links:* * *...

 
11.499 1.978 15 - Nieder-Eschbach
46 Bergen-Enkheim  17.954 2.764 16 - Bergen-Enkheim
47 Frankfurter Berg  7.149 1.715 10 - Nord-Ost
Frankfurt am Main 679.571 165.418

History of incorporations


Until the year 1877 the city territory of Frankfurt consisted of the present-day inner-city districts of Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

, Innenstadt
Innenstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
The Innenstadt is the central district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke. It stretches in the north and east round the district of Altstadt...

, Bahnhofsviertel
Bahnhofsviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
The Bahnhofsviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It was developed between 1891 and 1915 on the land of the established Westbahnhof.-Geography:...

, Gutleutviertel
Gutleutviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
Gutleutviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I.It takes its name from the medieval town "Gutleuthof", once a refuge for lepers. There is a similar multicultural meeting as in neighboring Central Railway Station District. The...

, Gallus
Gallus (Frankfurt am Main)
Gallus, former Gallusviertel, is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke....

, Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

, Nordend
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

, Ostend
Ostend (Frankfurt am Main)
Ostend is a borough of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke. It is home to several brothels located along the Main River. The most famous of these brothels, or "Puffs," is the Eros-Center with its ubiquitous "legs" entrance...

 and Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

.

Bornheim
Bornheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bornheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, with approximately 25,861 inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke....

, which was part of an administrative district called Landkreis Frankfurt, became part of the city on January 1, 1877, followed by Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

 on April 1, 1895. Seckbach
Seckbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Seckbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost....

, Niederrad
Niederrad (Frankfurt am Main)
Niederrad is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany with about 23.000 Inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Niederrad-Nord and Niederrad-Süd.-History:...

 and Oberrad
Oberrad (Frankfurt am Main)
Oberrad is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd.To the north of the district lies the River Main. Beyond it, the Eastern Harbor of Frankfurt in the Ostend borough. To the northeast, Oberrad is bordered by Offenbach's Kaiserlei district, to the...

 followed on July 1, 1900. The
Landkreis Frankfurt was finally dispersed on April 1, 1910, and therefore Berkersheim
Berkersheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Berkersheim is since 1910 a district , in the north-eastern part of Frankfurt, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

, Bonames
Bonames (Frankfurt am Main)
Bonames is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost. The name comes from the Latin phrase „bona mansio“ which has its roots in the time of Roman occupation....

, Eckenheim
Eckenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Eckenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was suburbanized on 1 April 1910. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

, Eschersheim
Eschersheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Eschersheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, with some 14,000 inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Eschersheim-Nord and Eschersheim-Süd....

, Ginnheim
Ginnheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Ginnheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord....

, Hausen
Hausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Hausen is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West....

, Heddernheim
Heddernheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Heddernheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Heddernheim-Ost and Heddernheim-West. Heddernheim was first mentioned in documents in 801 as Phetterenheim...

, Niederursel
Niederursel (Frankfurt am Main)
Niederursel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Niederursel-Ost and Niederursel-West....

, Praunheim
Praunheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Praunheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke....

, Preungesheim
Preungesheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Preungesheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

 and Rödelheim
Rödelheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Rödelheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Rödelheim-Ost and Rödelheim-West....

 joined the City of Frankfurt. In the same year a new city district, Riederwald
Riederwald (Frankfurt am Main)
Riederwald is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost. It is one of the smallest Frankfurt districts...

, was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend.

On April 1, 1928, the City of Höchst
Höchst (Frankfurt am Main)
Höchst is a district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke.Höchst am Main became part of Frankfurt am Main in 1928 together with its boroughs Sindlingen, Unterliederbach and Zeilsheim. It is situated 10 km west of downtown...

 became part of Frankfurt, as well as its city districts Sindlingen
Sindlingen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sindlingen is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Sindlingen-Süd and Sindlingen-Nord. The Internationale Schule Frankfurt Rhein-Main is located in Sindlingen.A short walk from Sindlingen main street is the...

, Unterliederbach
Unterliederbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Unterliederbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Unterliederbach-Ost, Unterliederbach-Mitte and Unterliederbach-West....

 and Zeilsheim
Zeilsheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Zeilsheim is the westernmost district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Zeilsheim-Ost, Zeilsheim-Süd and Zeilsheim-Nord...

. Simultaneously the Landkreis Höchst was dispersed with its member cities either joining Frankfurt (Fechenheim, Griesheim
Griesheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Griesheim has been a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt, Germany since 1928, the year of its suburbanisation. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke...

, Nied
Nied (Frankfurt am Main)
Nied is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Nied-Nord and Nied-Süd....

, Schwanheim
Schwanheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Schwanheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Schwanheim, Goldstein-Ost and Goldstein-West....

, Sossenheim
Sossenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Sossenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Sossenheim-Ost and Sossenheim-West. It has been a district since 1928 and makes part of the northwest border of the city...

) or joining the newly established
Landkreis of Main-Taunus-Kreis
Main-Taunus-Kreis
Main-Taunus is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany and is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region as well as the Frankfurt urban area...

.

Dornbusch
Dornbusch (Frankfurt am Main)
Dornbusch is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into 3 Stadtbezirke....

 became a city district in 1946. It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim.

At the beginning of the 1970s the government of Hesse developed plans to significantly reduce the number of administrative districts in Hesse (
Hessische Gebietsreform). On August 1, 1972, the smaller suburbs of Harheim
Harheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Harheim is a district or Stadtteil and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.It is a possible birthplace of the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim....

, Kalbach, Nieder-Erlenbach
Nieder-Erlenbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Nieder-Erlenbach is a district or Stadtteil and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany.In Nieder-Erlenbach there is the private school Anna-Schmidt-Schule.It has a population of 4,629 inhabitants....

 and Nieder-Eschbach
Nieder-Eschbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Nieder-Eschbach is a suburb and an Ortsbezirk of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The suburb has about 11.500 inhabitants.-External links:* * *...

 became districts of Frankfurt while other neighbouring suburbs chose to join the Main-Taunus-Kreis, the Landkreis Offenbach, the Kreis Groß-Gerau, the Hochtaunuskreis
Hochtaunuskreis
The Hochtaunuskreis is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany and is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Neighbouring districts are Lahn-Dill, Wetteraukreis, district-free Frankfurt, Main-Taunus, Rheingau-Taunus, Limburg-Weilburg.The Hochtaunuskreis and the Landkreis Starnberg...

, the Main-Kinzig-Kreis
Main-Kinzig-Kreis
Main-Kinzig is a Kreis in the east of Hesse, Germany. Neighboring districts are Wetteraukreis, Vogelsbergkreis, Fulda, Bad Kissingen, Main-Spessart, Aschaffenburg, Offenbach and the district-free cities of Offenbach and Frankfurt.-History:...

 or the Wetteraukreis
Wetteraukreis
The Wetteraukreis is a Kreis in the middle of Hesse, Germany. Neighbouring districts are Landkreis Gießen, Vogelsbergkreis, Main-Kinzig-Kreis, district-free Stadt Frankfurt, Hochtaunuskreis, Lahn-Dill-Kreis.-History:...

.

Bergen-Enkheim was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on January 1, 1977.

Flughafen
Flughafen (Frankfurt am Main)
Frankfurt-Flughafen is an independent district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Unterwald and Flughafen. It is the least populated district of the city as well as the second largest one after Sachsenhausen...

 became an official city district in 1979. It covers the area of Frankfurt Airport which had formerly belonged to Sachsenhausen and the neighbouring City of Mörfelden-Walldorf
Mörfelden-Walldorf
Mörfelden-Walldorf is a town in the Groß-Gerau district, situated in the Frankfurt Rhein-Main Region in Hessen, Germany.- Location :Mörfelden-Walldorf is situated within a triangle formed by the South Hessian cities of Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt and Wiesbaden, near Frankfurt International...

.

Frankfurts youngest city district is Frankfurter Berg. It was part of Bonames until 1996.

Kalbach was officially renamed "Kalbach-Riedberg" in 2006 because of the large residential housing development in the area which goes by the name of Riedberg.

Landmarks


  • Saint Bartholomew's Cathedral
    Frankfurt Cathedral
    Saint Bartholomeus's Cathedral is a Gothic building located in Frankfurt, Germany.Frankfurt Cathedral is the main church of Frankfurt and was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time...


Saint Bartholomew's Cathedral (Dom Sankt Bartholomäus), named after Bartholomew the Apostle, is a gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 building which was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time. From 1356 onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 were elected in this church, and from 1562 to 1792, the Roman-German
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 emperors were crowned here. Today it is the main church of Frankfurt.

Since the 18th century, St. Bartholomew's has been called "the cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

" by the people, although it has never been a bishop's seat. In 1867, the cathedral was destroyed by a fire and rebuilt in its present style. It was again partially destroyed in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 and rebuilt in the 1950s. The height of the cathedral is 95 metres. The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 metres.
  • Saint Paul's Church
    St. Paul's Church, Frankfurt
    St. Paul's Church in Frankfurt am Main is a church with important political symbolism in Germany. It was opened as a Protestant church in 1789, coincidentally the same year as the French Revolution, and in 1848-1849 it became the seat of the Frankfurt Parliament, the first publicly and freely...


Saint Paul's Church (Paulskirche) is a national historic monument in Germany with great political symbolism, because it was the seat of the first democratically elected Parliament in 1848. It was established in 1789 as a Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 church but was not completed until 1833. Its importance has its root in the Frankfurt Parliament
Frankfurt Parliament
The Frankfurt Assembly was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. Session was held from May 18, 1848 to May 31, 1849 in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main...

, which met in the church during the revolutionary years of 1848/49 in order to write a constitution for a united Germany. The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 and Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 did not want to lose power, and in 1849 Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force of arms and the parliament was dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.

St. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly the interior of the building, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is not used for religious services, but mainly for exhibitions and events.
  • Archäologischer Garten Frankfurt

The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest buildings ever recovered in Frankfurt: An ancient roman settlement and the Frankfurt Royal Palace (Kaiserpfalz Frankfurt) from the 6th century. The garden is located between the Römerberg and St. Bartholomew's. It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt. The remains were preserved and are now open to the public. There are plans underway to construct a building on top of the garden but anyhow it is decided that the garden will stay open to the public.
  • Römer
    Romer
    A Reference Card or "Romer" is a device for increasing the accuracy when reading a grid reference from a map. Made from transparent plastic, paper or other materials, they are also found on most baseplate compasses. Essentially, it is a specially marked-out ruler which matches the scale of the map...


"Römer" is the German word for "Roman
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

" and is the name of a complex of nine houses that form the Frankfurt city hall
City hall
In local government, a city hall, town hall or a municipal building or civic centre, is the chief administrative building of a city...

 (Rathaus). The houses where acquired by the city council in 1405 from a wealthy merchant
Merchant
A merchant is a businessperson who trades in commodities that were produced by others, in order to earn a profit.Merchants can be one of two types:# A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between producer and retail merchant...

 family. The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with the neighbouring buildings. Located on the upper floor is the
Kaisersaal ("Emperor's Hall") where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets. The Römer was partially destroyed in World War II and later rebuilt. The surrounding square, the Römerberg, is named after the city hall.

  • Haus Wertheim

Wertheim House is the only timbered house
Timber framing
Timber framing , or half-timbering, also called in North America "post-and-beam" construction, is the method of creating structures using heavy squared off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs . It is commonplace in large barns...

 in the Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II without any damage. It is located on the Römerberg next to the Historical Museum.
  • Saalhof

The Saalhof is the oldest conserved building in the Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 district which dates back to the 12th century. It was used as an exhibition hall by Dutch clothier
Clothier
Clothier may refer to one of the following professions:*Tailor - the most common modern usage*Cloth merchant*A cloth manufacturer - see cloth productionAs a surname, Clothier may refer to one of the following individuals:...

s when trade fairs were held in Frankfurt during the 14th and 15th century. The Saalhof was partly destroyed in World War II and later rebuilt. Today it serves as a part of the Historical Museum
Historical museum, Frankfurt
The Historical Museum in Frankfurt am Main was founded in 1878, and includes cultural and historical objects relating to the city's history...

.
  • Eiserner Steg

The Eiserner Steg (Iron Bridge) is a pedestrian-only bridge
Bridge
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle...

 over the Main river which connects the Römerberg and Sachsenhausen. It was built in 1868 and was only the second bridge to cross the river in Frankfurt. After World War II, when it was blown up by the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
The Wehrmacht – from , to defend and , the might/power) were the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer , the Kriegsmarine and the Luftwaffe .-Origin and use of the term:...

, it was quickly rebuilt in 1946. Today around 10,000 people cross the bridge on a daily basis.
  • Alte Oper
    Alte Oper
    The Alte Oper is a major concert hall and former opera house in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The building was inaugurated in 1880. Many important works have been premiered at the Alte Oper, including Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in 1937....


The Alte Oper is a former opera house, hence the name "Old Opera". It was built in 1880 by architect Richard Lucae. It was one of the major opera houses in Germany until it was heavily damaged in World War II. Until the late 1970s it was a ruin, nicknamed "Germany's Most Beautiful Ruin". There were even efforts to just blow it up. Former Frankfurt Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.-Commonwealth of Nations:* In Australia it is a political position. Australian cities with Lord Mayors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Parramatta, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong...

 Rudi Arndt called for blowing it up in the 1960s, which earned him the nickname "Dynamite-Rudi". (Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously.)

Due to public pressure it was finally fully reconstructed and reopened in 1981. Today it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Oper Frankfurt. The inscription on the frieze
Frieze
thumb|267px|Frieze of the [[Tower of the Winds]], AthensIn architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon...

 of the Alte Oper says: "Dem Wahren, Schönen, Guten" ("To the true, the beautiful, the good").
  • Eschenheimer Turm
    Eschenheimer Turm
    Eschenheimer Turm was a city gate part of the late-medieval fortifications of Frankfurt am Main and is a landmark of the city...


The Eschenheim Tower (
Eschenheimer Turm) was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of the late-medieval fortifications of Frankfurt. It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt
Innenstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
The Innenstadt is the central district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke. It stretches in the north and east round the district of Altstadt...

 district.
  • Saint Catherine's Church

St. Catherine's Church (
Katharinenkirche) is the largest evangelical
Evangelical Church in Germany
The Evangelical Church in Germany is a federation of 22 Lutheran, Unified and Reformed Protestant regional church bodies in Germany. The EKD is not a church in a theological understanding because of the denominational differences. However, the member churches share full pulpit and altar...

 church in Frankfurt, dedicated to the martyr
Martyr
A martyr is somebody who suffers persecution and death for refusing to renounce, or accept, a belief or cause, usually religious.-Meaning:...

ed early Christian saint
Saint
A saint is a holy person. In various religions, saints are people who are believed to have exceptional holiness.In Christian usage, "saint" refers to any believer who is "in Christ", and in whom Christ dwells, whether in heaven or in earth...

, Catherine of Alexandria
Catherine of Alexandria
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius...

. It is located in the city centre at the entrance to the Zeil, the central shopping street.
  • Hauptwache
    Hauptwache (Frankfurt am Main)
    The Hauptwache is a central point of Frankfurt am Main and is one of the most famous plazas in the city. The original name Schillerplatz was superseded in the early 1900s.- The Hauptwache building :...


Although today "Hauptwache" is mostly associated with the inner-city underground train station of the same name
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptwache station
Hauptwache station is a major station in Frankfurt am Main with 181,000 passengers per day, making it the second busiest rapid transit station in the city and a major hub for rail transport in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region. It is served by eight S-Bahn lines—S1–S6 and S8/S9—and 6 U-Bahn...

, the name originates from a baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

 building on the square above the station. The Hauptwache building was constructed in 1730 and was used as a prison
Prison
A prison is a place in which people are physically confined and, usually, deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime...

, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house". Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" (formal: An der Hauptwache). It is situated in the city centre opposite to St. Catherine's Church and houses a famous café.
  • Frankfurt Central Station
    Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
    is the central station for Frankfurt am Main. In terms of railway traffic, it is the busiest railway station in Germany. With about 350,000 passengers per day the station is the second most frequented railway station in Germany and one of the most frequented in Europe.- Proto-history :In the late...


Frankfurt Central Station (
Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof), which opened in 1888, was built as the central train station for Frankfurt to replace three smaller train stations in the city centre and to boost the needed capacity for travellers. It was constructed as a terminus station
Terminal Station
Terminal Station is a 1953 film by Italian director Vittorio De Sica. It tells the story of the love affair between an Italian man and an American woman. The film was entered into the 1953 Cannes Film Festival.-Production:...

 and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until 1915 when Leipzig Central Station
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
is, at 83,460 m², Europe's largest railway station when measured by floor area. It has 24 platforms housed in six iron trainsheds; a multi-level concourse with towering stone arches; and a 293 metre-long facade...

 was opened. Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance-style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in 1924 were constructed in a neoclassicism
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome...

-style.
  • Frankfurter Hof

The Frankfurter Hof is a landmarked hotel in the city centre at Kaiserplatz, built from 1872-1876. It is part of Steigenberger Hotels
Steigenberger Hotels
Steigenberger Hotels is a German hotel company founded by Albert Steigenberger in 1930. As of 2007, Steigenberger owned 82 hotels worldwide, with a total of 14,283 rooms...

 group and is considered the most prestigious hotel in Frankfurt.

20th-century architecture

  • Frauenfriedenskirche
    Frauenfriedenskirche
    The Frauenfriedenskirche is a Roman Catholic church in Bockenheim, Frankfurt am Main . It was built by Hans Herkommer from 1927 to 1929, on a rise then known as Ginnheimer Höhe...

    , consecrated 1929, an example of an early modernist church building.
  • Grossmarkthalle, built 1926–1928, the former wholesale market hall, currently under reconstruction to become part of the future European Central Bank Headquarters.
  • Goethe House
    Goethe House
    The Goethe House in the old town of Frankfurt am Main was the family residence of the Goethe family, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, until 1795. Johann Wolfgang was himself born here in 1749 to his parents, Johann Caspar Goethe, a lawyer, and Katherine Elisabeth Textor, daughter of the...

    , rebuilt 1947. The birthplace of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer, pictorial artist, biologist, theoretical physicist, and polymath. He is considered the supreme genius of modern German literature. His works span the fields of poetry, drama, prose, philosophy, and science. His Faust has been called the greatest long...

     from 1749 was destroyed in World War II and then rebuilt true to the original.
  • Junior-Haus, built 1951, an example of early post-World War II architecture located at Kaiserplatz.
  • Bayer-Haus, built 1952, another example of early post-World War II architecture. Today it houses the 5-star Fleming's Hotel Frankfurt.
  • Museum für angewandte Kunst
    Museum für angewandte Kunst
    The Museum of Applied Arts or just MAK, a short version of its German name Museum für angewandte Kunst is located in Frankfurt, Germany and exhibits more than 30,000 objects representing European and Asian decorative arts. The new building of the museum was designed by the American architect...

    , built 1985, designed by Richard Meier
    Richard Meier
    Richard Meier is an American architect, whose rationalist buildings make prominent use of the color white.- Biography :Meier is Jewish and was born in Newark, New Jersey...

    .

  • IG Farben Building
    IG Farben Building
    The IG Farben Building or the Poelzig Building was built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters of the IG Farben conglomerate in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is also known as the Poelzig Ensemble or Poelzig Complex, and previously as the IG Farben Complex, and the General Creighton W....


The IG Farben Building, also known as
Poelzig Building (Poelzig-Bau) after its architect Hans Poelzig
Hans Poelzig
Hans Poelzig was a German architect, painter and set designer.-Life:Poelzig was born in Berlin in 1869 to the countess Clara Henrietta Maria Poelzig while she was married to George Acland Ames, an Englishman...

, was built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters of the chemical industry conglomerate I.G. Farbenindustrie AG
IG Farben
I.G. Farbenindustrie AG was a German chemical industry conglomerate. Its name is taken from Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG . The company was formed in 1925 from a number of major companies that had been working together closely since World War I...

. It is located in the Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 district and borders Grüneburgpark
Grüneburgpark
The Grüneburgpark is a park in the Westend district of Frankfurt, whose name derives from the "Green castle", which used to stand on the site from the 14 century. In 1789 the banker Peter Heinrich von Bethmann Metzler acquired the property and designed the park...

 in the west. On its completion, the complex was the largest office building in Europe and remained so until the 1950s. The building served as headquarters for research projects relating to the development of Nazi
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 wartime
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 synthetic oil
Synthetic oil
Synthetic oil is a lubricant consisting of chemical compounds that are artificially made . Synthetic lubricants can be manufactured using chemically modified petroleum components rather than whole crude oil, but can also be synthesized from other raw materials...

 and rubber
Synthetic rubber
Synthetic rubber is is any type of artificial elastomer, invariably a polymer. An elastomer is a material with the mechanical property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous size without permanent deformation...

, and the production administration of magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and common oxidation number +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole...

, lubricating oil, explosives, methanol
Methanol
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH . It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to, but slightly sweeter than, ethanol...

, and Zyklon B
Zyklon B
Zyklon B was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide infamous for its use by Nazi Germany to kill human beings in gas chambers of extermination camps during the Holocaust. The "B" designation indicates one of two types of Zyklon...

, the lethal gas used in concentration camps. After World War II, the IG Farben Building served as the headquarters for the Supreme Allied Command
Supreme Allied Commander
Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances. It originated as a term used by the Western Allies during World War II, and is currently used only within NATO. Dwight Eisenhower served as Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary...

 and from 1949-1952 the High Commissioner for Germany (HICOG). It became the principal location for implementing the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948...

, which largely financed the post-war reconstruction of Europe. The state apparatus of the Federal German Government
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

 was devised there. The IG Farben Building served as the headquarters for the US Army's V Corps and the Northern Area Command (NACOM) until 1995 when the US Army returned control of the IG Farben Building to the German government. It was purchased on behalf of the Goethe University of Frankfurt
Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main
The Goethe University Frankfurt was founded in 1914 as a Citizens' University, which means that, while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt am Main, a unique feature in German university history...

 by the state of Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

. Since October 2001 it is part of the Westend Campus of the Goethe University.

21th-century architecture


  • Die Welle (The Wave), built 1998-2003, a complex of three wavelike-formed office buildings next to the Opernplatz.
  • Alte Stadtbibliothek, rebuilt 2003-2005, reconstruction of the old public library house which was originally built 1820-1825.
  • Palais Thurn und Taxis
    Palais Thurn und Taxis
    The Palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt was built from 1731 to 1739 by Robert de Cotte commissioned by the Prince Reichserbgeneralpostmeisters Anselm Franz von Thurn und Taxis...

    , rebuilt 2004-2009, reconstruction of a palace which was originally built 1731-1739.
  • MyZeil
    MyZeil
    The MyZeil is a shopping mall in the city center of Frankfurt, designed by Roman architect Massimiliano Fuksas. It is part of the building ensembles PalaisQuartier and forms its access to the Zeil shopping street...

    , built 2004-2009, a shopping mall at the Zeil with an imposing vaulted glass-structure.

  • The Squaire

The Squaire (a portmanteau of the words square and air), also known as
Airrail Center Frankfurt, is a 660 m (2,165.35 ft) long and 45 m (147.64 ft) tall office building located at Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

. It was built from 2006-2011 on top of an existing train station (Frankfurt Airport long distance Station) and has a connecting bridge to Terminal 1 for pedestrians. With a total of 140,000
Square metre
The square metre or square meter is the SI derived unit of area, with symbol m2 . It is defined as the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre...

 rentable floor space it is considered the largest office building in Germany. Main tenants of The Squaire are KPMG Europe LLP, two Hilton Hotels
Hilton Hotels & Resorts
Hilton Hotels & Resorts is an international chain of full-service hotels and resorts founded by Conrad Hilton and now owned by Hilton Worldwide. Hilton hotels are either owned by, managed by, or franchised to independent operators by Hilton Worldwide. Hilton Hotels became the first coast-to-coast...

 and Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

.

Skyscrapers


Frankfurt is one of the few European city's with a significant number of skyscraper
Skyscraper
A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of many stories, often designed for office and commercial use. There is no official definition or height above which a building may be classified as a skyscraper...

s, meaning buildings at least 150 m (492.13 ft) tall. 12 out of a total of 13 skyscapers in Germany are located in Frankfurt with two more (European Central Bank Headquarters, 185 metres, and Taunusturm
Taunusturm
Taunusturm is the project name for a complex of two buildings, a 170-metres skyscraper and a 60-metres high-rise residential building, currently under construction in Frankfurt, Germany. The construction site is located in Frankfurt's financial district, the Bankenviertel, at the corner of Neue...

, 170 metres) under construction in 2011. Most of the skyscrapers and high-rise office buildings in Frankfurt are located in the financial district (Bankenviertel) near the city centre, around the trade fair premises (Europaviertel
Europaviertel (Frankfurt)
Europaviertel in Frankfurt am Main is a new district on the former site of the main freight depot in the suburb of Gallus. Development work began in 2005, and the development is slated for completion by 2019. The district will have offices, hotels, apartments, parks, shopping, and leisure...

) and at Mainzer Landstraße, which connects the two areas.

The 12 skyscrapers in Frankfurt are:
  • Commerzbank Tower
    Commerzbank Tower
    Commerzbank Tower, located in the city centre of Frankfurt, Germany, is the tallest completed skyscraper in the European Union. After it was completed in 1997 it ranked as the tallest skyscraper in Europe until 2005 when it was surpassed by the Triumph-Palace in Moscow...

    , 259 m (849.74 ft) — Europe's tallest building (1997–2003), Headquarters of Commerzbank
    Commerzbank
    Commerzbank AG is the second-largest bank in Germany, after Deutsche Bank, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main.-Activities:Commerzbank is mainly active in commercial bank, retail banking and mortgaging. It suffered reversals in investment banking in early 2000s and scaled back its Securities unit...

    .
  • Messeturm
    Messeturm
    The Messeturm is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Its name translates as "Fair Tower" in German. It is the second tallest building in Frankfurt, the second tallest building in Germany. The Messeturm's ground floor area is just . The Messeturm is directly located in the Frankfurt Trade...

    , 257 m (843.18 ft) — Europe's tallest building (1990–1997), Main tenant is Goldman Sachs
    Goldman Sachs
    The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational bulge bracket investment banking and securities firm that engages in global investment banking, securities, investment management, and other financial services primarily with institutional clients...

     (Germany).
  • Westendstraße 1
    Westendstraße 1
    Westendstraße 1 is a well-known skyscraper in the Westend of Frankfurt. It was completed in 1993 and together with the City Haus, the headquarters of DZ Bank...

    , 208 m (682.41 ft) — Headquarters of DZ Bank
    DZ Bank
    DZ Bank AG is an acronym for Deutsche Zentral-Genossenschaftbank . DZ Bank is the fourth largest bank in Germany by asset size and the central institution for more than 900 co-operative banks and their 12,000 branch offices...

    .
  • Maintower
    Maintower
    Maintower is a 200 metre skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is named after the river Main. A 40 metre communications tower is mounted atop the building. It features five underground floors, as well as two public viewing platforms. The tower currently remains the only skyscraper in...

    , 200 m (656.17 ft) — Headquarters of Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen
    Helaba
    Helaba short for Hessische Landesbank Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen is a commercial bank with core regions in Hesse and Thuringia, Germany...

     and of Standard & Poor’s (Germany).
  • Tower 185
    Tower 185
    Tower 185 is the name of a skyscraper under construction in Frankfurt, Germany. At with 55 floors it will be the fourth tallest building in Germany when it is completed in 2011. It is a commercial office building...

    , 200 m (656.17 ft) — Headquarters of PricewaterhouseCoopers
    PwC
    PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

     (Germany).
  • Trianon
    Trianon (Frankfurt am Main)
    Trianon is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was completed in 1993, and topped out at 45 storeys. Atop the building is an upside-down pyramid suspended from the three corners. Trianon is currently used by the investment company DEKA as their headquarters, as well as by Linklaters and...

    , 186 m (610.24 ft) — Headquarters of DekaBank
    DekaBank
    The DekaBank is the central asset manager of the German Sparkassen. Deka as an investment company was founded in 1956. In 1999 it merged with Deutsche Girozentrale , which was founded in 1918...

    .
  • Opernturm
    Opernturm
    The OpernTurm is a skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. The property is situated opposite Alte Oper on the corner of Bockenheimer Landstrasse and Bockenheimer Anlage. The building was designed by Christoph Mäckler. The project developer was Tishman Speyer, a US firm that previously built the Sony...

    , 170 m (557.74 ft) — Headquarters of UBS (Germany).
  • Silver Tower, 166 m (544.62 ft) — Germany's tallest building (1978–1990), Main tenant is Deutsche Bahn
    Deutsche Bahn
    Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

    .
  • Plaza Büro Center
    Plaza Büro Center
    The Plaza Büro Center is a 523ft tall 47 story skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. When it was built in 1976 it was the tallest building in Germany until it was passed by the Silver Tower in 1978. The building is located at the north end of Frankfurt's principal skyline, across from the Messe. It...

    , 159 m (521.65 ft) — Germany's tallest building (1976–1978), Main tenant is Marriott
    Marriott International
    Marriott International, Inc. is a worldwide operator and franchisor of a broad portfolio of hotels and related lodging facilities. Founded by J. Willard Marriott, the company is now led by son J.W. Marriott, Jr...

     Frankfurt Hotel.
  • Deutsche Bank I
    Deutsche Bank Twin Towers
    The Deutsche Bank Twin Towers consists of two skyscrapers that are each 155 meters high. They are also called debit and credit , or German bank called Twin Towers I and II. It is the headquarters of Deutsche Bank Group, located in the banking district in Frankfurt, Germany...

    , 155 m (508.53 ft) — Headquarters of Deutsche Bank
    Deutsche Bank
    Deutsche Bank AG is a global financial service company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets...

    .
  • Deutsche Bank II
    Deutsche Bank Twin Towers
    The Deutsche Bank Twin Towers consists of two skyscrapers that are each 155 meters high. They are also called debit and credit , or German bank called Twin Towers I and II. It is the headquarters of Deutsche Bank Group, located in the banking district in Frankfurt, Germany...

    , 155 m (508.53 ft) — Headquarters of Deutsche Bank
    Deutsche Bank
    Deutsche Bank AG is a global financial service company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets...

    .
  • Skyper
    Skyper
    Skyper, a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main’s banking district, is one of three buildings that together form the Skyper ensemble. With 39 floors and an overall height of 154 metres, it is the 12th largest building in Germany...

    , 154 m (505.25 ft) — Main tenant is DekaBank.


Other high-rise buildings in Frankfurt include:
  • Eurotower
    Eurotower (Frankfurt)
    The Eurotower is a skyscraper located in the Bankenviertel of Frankfurt, Germany.The tower is tall, with 40 floors and 78.000 m² of office space...

    , 148 m (485.56 ft) — Headquarters of European Central Bank
    European Central Bank
    The European Central Bank is the institution of the European Union that administers the monetary policy of the 17 EU Eurozone member states. It is thus one of the world's most important central banks. The bank was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1998, and is headquartered in Frankfurt,...

    .
  • Frankfurter Büro Center
    Frankfurter Büro Center
    The Frankfurt Büro Center is a skyscraper in the Westend of Frankfurt. The 142 meter high building stands on the Mainzer Landstrasse in the middle of a string of high-rises, which draws from the Republic Square to Opera Square...

    , 142 m (465.88 ft) — Main tenant is Clifford Chance
    Clifford Chance
    Clifford Chance LLP is a global law firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom and a member of the 'Magic Circle' of leading UK law firms. It is one of the ten largest law firms in the world measured by both number of lawyers and revenue...

     (Germany).
  • City-Haus
    City-Haus
    The 142 meter high City-Haus is located in the Westend district in Frankfurt am Main at the Republic Square. It was constructed from 1971 to 1974 and designed by architects John Krahn and Richard Heil.- History :...

    , 142 m (465.88 ft) — Main tenant is DZ Bank.
  • Gallileo
    Gallileo
    Gallileo is a 446ft tall skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. It was constructed from 1999 to 2003 and has 38 floors. It has 49,000 m² of floor space and is the 14th tallest skyscraper in Frankfurt. Its name is an intentional misspelling of the scientist Galileo's name; the extra l comes from the...

    , 136 m (446.19 ft) — Main tenant is Commerzbank.

History of high-rise buildings



For centuries St. Bartholomeus's Cathedral
Frankfurt Cathedral
Saint Bartholomeus's Cathedral is a Gothic building located in Frankfurt, Germany.Frankfurt Cathedral is the main church of Frankfurt and was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time...

 had been the highest structure in Frankfurt. The first building to beat the 95-metres high cathedral in terms of height was not an office building but a grain silo, the 120-metres high Henninger Turm
Henninger Turm
The Henninger-Turm is a grain storage silo located in the Frankfurt district of Sachsenhausen. It was built by the Henninger Brewery and has a storage capacity of 16,000 tons of barley. The , 33-story high tower was designed by Karl Lieser and was built from 1959 to 1961...

, built from 1959-1961.

The first boom of high-rise buildings came in the 1970s when the Silver Tower and the Plaza Büro Center
Plaza Büro Center
The Plaza Büro Center is a 523ft tall 47 story skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. When it was built in 1976 it was the tallest building in Germany until it was passed by the Silver Tower in 1978. The building is located at the north end of Frankfurt's principal skyline, across from the Messe. It...

 were constructed and became the tallest buildings in Germany with a height of 166 metres and 159 metres respectively. Around the same time the Frankfurter Büro Center
Frankfurter Büro Center
The Frankfurt Büro Center is a skyscraper in the Westend of Frankfurt. The 142 meter high building stands on the Mainzer Landstrasse in the middle of a string of high-rises, which draws from the Republic Square to Opera Square...

 and the City-Haus
City-Haus
The 142 meter high City-Haus is located in the Westend district in Frankfurt am Main at the Republic Square. It was constructed from 1971 to 1974 and designed by architects John Krahn and Richard Heil.- History :...

 (both 142 metres tall) were constructed at Mainzer Landstraße and the Eurotower
Eurotower (Frankfurt)
The Eurotower is a skyscraper located in the Bankenviertel of Frankfurt, Germany.The tower is tall, with 40 floors and 78.000 m² of office space...

 (148 metres) and the Garden Towers
Garden Towers
The Garden Towers is a high-rise building in the city of Frankfurt which was built in 1976 to Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen . Known as Helaba-Hochhaus, it was one of the first skyscrapers in Frankfurt's banking district. In 2005 it was opened after a nuclear reorganization under a new name again...

 (127 metres; then called Helaba-Hochhaus) were constructed in the financial district.

During the 1980s none of the then constructed buildings reached higher than the existing buildings. The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers
Deutsche Bank Twin Towers
The Deutsche Bank Twin Towers consists of two skyscrapers that are each 155 meters high. They are also called debit and credit , or German bank called Twin Towers I and II. It is the headquarters of Deutsche Bank Group, located in the banking district in Frankfurt, Germany...

 at Taunusanlage, both 155 metres tall.

The second boom of high-rise buildings was in the 1990s: The MesseTurm
Messeturm
The Messeturm is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Its name translates as "Fair Tower" in German. It is the second tallest building in Frankfurt, the second tallest building in Germany. The Messeturm's ground floor area is just . The Messeturm is directly located in the Frankfurt Trade...

, built at the trade fair premises, reached a height of 257 metres and became the tallest building in Europe by 1991. It was beaten in terms of height by the Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower, located in the city centre of Frankfurt, Germany, is the tallest completed skyscraper in the European Union. After it was completed in 1997 it ranked as the tallest skyscraper in Europe until 2005 when it was surpassed by the Triumph-Palace in Moscow...

 (259 metres) in 1997. Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstraße 1
Westendstraße 1
Westendstraße 1 is a well-known skyscraper in the Westend of Frankfurt. It was completed in 1993 and together with the City Haus, the headquarters of DZ Bank...

 (208 metres), Maintower
Maintower
Maintower is a 200 metre skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is named after the river Main. A 40 metre communications tower is mounted atop the building. It features five underground floors, as well as two public viewing platforms. The tower currently remains the only skyscraper in...

 (200 metres) and Trianon
Trianon (Frankfurt am Main)
Trianon is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was completed in 1993, and topped out at 45 storeys. Atop the building is an upside-down pyramid suspended from the three corners. Trianon is currently used by the investment company DEKA as their headquarters, as well as by Linklaters and...

 (186 metres).

Since the beginning of the 21th century Frankfurt has seen the construction of more high-rise buildings (e.g. Skyper
Skyper
Skyper, a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main’s banking district, is one of three buildings that together form the Skyper ensemble. With 39 floors and an overall height of 154 metres, it is the 12th largest building in Germany...

, Gallileo
Gallileo
Gallileo is a 446ft tall skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. It was constructed from 1999 to 2003 and has 38 floors. It has 49,000 m² of floor space and is the 14th tallest skyscraper in Frankfurt. Its name is an intentional misspelling of the scientist Galileo's name; the extra l comes from the...

, Westhafen Tower
Westhafen Tower
Westhafen Tower is a skyscraper in the Gutleutviertel district of Frankfurt. The building, which has a height of 109 metres, was designed by the architects Schneider & Schumacher and was completed in 2004...

) but not any record-breaking heights. The last skyscrapers constructed are the Opernturm
Opernturm
The OpernTurm is a skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. The property is situated opposite Alte Oper on the corner of Bockenheimer Landstrasse and Bockenheimer Anlage. The building was designed by Christoph Mäckler. The project developer was Tishman Speyer, a US firm that previously built the Sony...

 (170 metres; built 2007-2010) and the Tower 185
Tower 185
Tower 185 is the name of a skyscraper under construction in Frankfurt, Germany. At with 55 floors it will be the fourth tallest building in Germany when it is completed in 2011. It is a commercial office building...

 (200 metres; built 2008-2011).

Other tall structures


  • Europaturm
    Europaturm
    The Europaturm is a 337.5 metre high telecommunications tower in Frankfurt am Main in Germany.-History:Designed by architect Erwin Heinle, the tower's construction began in 1974. At its completion five years later, it became the tallest free-standing structure in the Federal Republic of Germany...


The Europe Tower is a telecommunications tower
Radio masts and towers
Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television. They are among the tallest man-made structures...

, also known as the Frankfurt TV Tower, built from 1974-1979. With a height of 337.5 metres it is the tallest tower in the city and the second tallest structure in Germany after the Fernsehturm Berlin. It was open to the public until 1999, with an entertainment establishment in the revolving top. It is normally referred to by locals as the "Ginnheimer Spargel" (Ginnheim Asparagus), which is misleading because it is not located in the Ginnheim district but stands a few metres within the neighbouring Bockenheim district.
  • Henninger Turm
    Henninger Turm
    The Henninger-Turm is a grain storage silo located in the Frankfurt district of Sachsenhausen. It was built by the Henninger Brewery and has a storage capacity of 16,000 tons of barley. The , 33-story high tower was designed by Karl Lieser and was built from 1959 to 1961...


The Henninger Tower is a 120-metre high grain silo built from 1959–1961 and owned by Henninger Brewery. It was the highest structure in Frankfurt until 1974 and it was the first to surpass the 95-metre high St. Bartholomeus Cathedral
Frankfurt Cathedral
Saint Bartholomeus's Cathedral is a Gothic building located in Frankfurt, Germany.Frankfurt Cathedral is the main church of Frankfurt and was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time...

. The Henninger Tower has two rotating restaurants at the height of 101 and 106 metres and an open-air observation deck at the height of 110 metres. The tower has been closed to the public since October 2002. Plans to destroy the tower and replace it were abandoned because of its statuts as a local landmark building. Today there are new plans to convert it into a residential tower but these plans are also criticized because it would drastically change the external appearance of the tower. From 1962 to 2008 there was a famous yearly cycling race
Road bicycle racing
Road bicycle racing is a bicycle racing sport held on roads, using racing bicycles. The term "road racing" is usually applied to events where competing riders start simultaneously with the winner being the first to the line at the end of the course .Historically, the most...

 named after the tower, the "Radrennen Rund um den Henninger Turm" (Cycling race around Henninger Tower). The race is still a yearly event but due to a change of sponsors it has now a different name, while locals still call it by its long-established name.
  • Goetheturm
    Goethe Tower
    The Goethe Tower is a 43-metre high tower built entirely out of wood on the northern edge of the woods of Sachsenhausen near Frankfurt am Main...


The Goethe Tower is a 43-metre high tower built entirely out of wood on the northern edge of the Frankfurt City Forest
Frankfurt City Forest
The Frankfurt City Forest or Frankfurter Stadtwald is a forest district in the south of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. There are also other forest areas spread out through the city.-Basic Facts:...

 in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

. It is the fifth tallest wooden construction in Germany. It was built in 1931 and is still a popular place for day-trippers, especially families, as a large playground and a café have been built at the foot of the tower. Climbing the Goethe Tower is free of charge and offers a spectacular view of the Frankfurt skyline. Due to deficiencys on the wooden structure the tower is momentarily closed (Summer 2011).

Shopping streets


  • Zeil
    Zeil
    The Zeil is a street in the city centre of Frankfurt, Germany. The name, which dates back to the 14th century, is derived from the German word Zeile 'row' and originally referred to a row of houses on the eastern end of the north side; the name was not extended to the entire street until...


The Zeil is Frankfurt's central shopping street and one of the most crowded in Germany. The street is a pedestrian-only area and is bordered by two large public squares, Hauptwache
Hauptwache (Frankfurt am Main)
The Hauptwache is a central point of Frankfurt am Main and is one of the most famous plazas in the city. The original name Schillerplatz was superseded in the early 1900s.- The Hauptwache building :...

 in the west and Konstablerwache
Konstablerwache
Konstablerwache is a central square in the centre of Frankfurt am Main and part of its pedestrian zone. It lies to the east of Hauptwache with both squares linked by the Zeil, the central shopping area of the city.-History:...

 in the east. It is the second most expensive street for shops to rent in Germany after the Kaufingerstraße in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

. 85 percent of the shops there are retail store chains like H&M
H&M
H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB is a Swedish retail-clothing company, known for its fast-fashion clothing offerings for women, men, teenagers and children....

, Saturn
Saturn (store)
Saturn is a German chain of electronics stores, now found in several European countries. Saturn sells household appliances, home entertainment, and media such as CDs and DVDs. With Media Markt it constitutes MediaSaturn Holding, owned by the German retail trade company METRO...

, Esprit
Esprit Holdings
Esprit Holdings Limited is a publicly owned manufacturer of apparel, footwear, accessories, jewellery and housewares under the Esprit label. The company is headquartered in Kowloon, Hong Kong, and Ratingen , Germany. In the 2007–2008 business year, Esprit Holdings Limited generated a worldwide...

, Zara or NewYorker
NewYorker
NewYorker is an international fashion label based in Braunschweig, Germany. It primarily addresses the target group of 12 to 39-year-olds.In 1971 the first NewYorker store was opened in Flensburg Jean City Center...

. In 2009 a new shopping mall
Shopping mall
A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping arcade, shopping precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area — a modern, indoor version...

 named MyZeil
MyZeil
The MyZeil is a shopping mall in the city center of Frankfurt, designed by Roman architect Massimiliano Fuksas. It is part of the building ensembles PalaisQuartier and forms its access to the Zeil shopping street...

 opened on the Zeil with nearly 100 stores and new chains like Hollister
Hollister Co.
Hollister Co., sometimes advertised as Hollister or HCo., is an American lifestyle brand by Abercrombie & Fitch Co. The concept was originally designed to attract consumers aged 14–18 through its SoCal-inspired image and casual wear. Goods are available in-store and through the company's online store...

. There are three more shopping malls on the Zeil: Zeilgalerie
Zeilgalerie
Zeilgalerie is a shopping centre located at the Zeil in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was opened in September 1992 and is 41 metres tall with 10 floors, one of which is underground. There are approximately 70 stores situated in the 41 metre long building....

, Galeria Kaufhof
Metro AG
Metro AG is a diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf, Germany. It has the largest market share in its home market, and is one of the most globalised retail and wholesale corporations. It is the fourth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues . In English...

 and Karstadt
Arcandor
Arcandor AG is a holding company located in Essen, Germany that oversees companies operating in the businesses of mail order and internet shopping, department stores and tourism services. It was created in 1999 through the merger of Karstadt Warenhaus AG, which was founded in 1920, and Quelle...

, as well as large fashion retail clothing stores from Peek & Cloppenburg
Peek & Cloppenburg
Peek & Cloppenburg is an international chain of fashion department stores. The chain is made up of two separate groups, Peek & Cloppenburg KG Düsseldorf and Peek & Cloppenburg KG Hamburg which operate independently from each other.-History:In 1869, Johann Theodor Peek and Heinrich Anton Adolph...

 and C&A
C&A
C&A is an international chain of fashion retail clothing stores, with its European head offices in Vilvoorde , Belgium and Düsseldorf, Germany...

. During the month before Christmas, the extended pedestrian-only zone is host to one of the largest and oldest Christmas Markets in Germany.
  • Goethestraße

Goethestraße is Frankfurt's most expensive shopping street with prestigious shops like Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton Malletier – commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton , or shortened to LV – is a French fashion house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label is well known for its LV monogram, which is featured on most products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes,...

, Prada
Prada
Prada S.p.A. is an Italian fashion label specializing in luxury goods for men and women , founded by Mario Prada.-Foundations:...

, Gucci
Gucci
The House of Gucci, better known simply as Gucci , is an Italian fashion and leather goods label, part of the Gucci Group, which is owned by French company PPR...

, Tiffany
Tiffany & Co.
Tiffany & Co. is an American jewelry and silverware company. As part of its branding, the company is strongly associated with its Tiffany Blue , which is a registered trademark.- History :...

, Giorgio Armani
Giorgio Armani
Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines. He formed his company, Armani, in 1975, and by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer to come out of Italy, with an annual turnover of $1.6 billion and a...

, Versace
Versace
Gianni Versace S.p.A. , usually referred to as Versace, is an Italian fashion label founded by Gianni Versace in 1978.The first Versace boutique was opened in Milan's Via della Spiga in 1978, and its popularity was immediate. Today, Versace is one of the world's leading international fashion houses...

, Cartier
Cartier SA
Cartier S.A., commonly known as Cartier , is a French luxury jeweler and watch manufacturer. The corporation carries the name of the Cartier family of jewellers whose control ended in 1964 and who were known for numerous pieces including the "Bestiary" , the diamond necklace created for Bhupinder...

, Burberry
Burberry
Burberry Group plc is a British luxury fashion house, manufacturing clothing, fragrance, and fashion accessories. Its distinctive tartan pattern has become one of its most widely copied trademarks. Burberry is most famous for its iconic trench coat, which was invented by founder Thomas Burberry...

, Vertu
Vertú
Vertú is a jazz fusion band consisting of bassist Stanley Clarke and drummer Lenny White , keyboardist Rachel Z, violinist Karen Briggs and guitarist Richie Kotzen. The band released one eponymous album in 1999....

 and Bulgari
Bulgari
Bulgari is an Italian jeweler and luxury goods retailer which has been owned by the French firm LVMH since October 2011. The trademark is usually written "BVLGARI" in the classical Latin alphabet , and is derived from the surname of the company's Greek founder, Sotirio Voulgaris...

. It is located between the financial district and the city centre and runs from Goetheplatz to Opernplatz.
  • Freßgass

"Freßgass" (officially Kalbächer Gasse and Große Bockenheimer Straße) is the well-established name for a pedestrian-only street section between Börsenstraße and Opernplatz in the city centre. The name literally translates as "devour alley" because of its high concentration of gastronomy, but latetly more and more prestigious shops (e.g. Apple Store, Hugo Boss
Hugo Boss
Hugo Ferdinand Boss was the founder of clothing company Hugo Boss.-Early life:Boss was born in Metzingen, Germany. After completing his apprenticeship and one year of employment, he founded his own company in Metzingen in 1923.-Support of Nazism:Boss joined the Nazi Party in 1931, two years before...

, Porsche Design
Porsche Design Group
Porsche Design Group , based in Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany, was founded in November 2003 by as a majority-owned subsidiary of Porsche AG to combine Porsche AG's and Porsche Design Group’s accessories and licensing business into one single company.Originally, there were five independently...

) move here, due to a lack of space in the neighbouring Goethestraße, and displace old-established restaurants, butchers or delicatessen.
  • Berger Straße

Berger Straße is Frankfurt's longest shopping street. It begins in the city center, runs through Nordend and Bornheim and ends in Seckbach
Seckbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Seckbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost....

. The street is less crowded than the Zeil and offers more smaller shops, restaurants and cafés.
  • Braubachstraße

Brauchbachstraße in the Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 district, close to the historic sites of the city, offers a large variety of art gallerys and second-hand bookshops.
  • Münchener Straße

Münchener Straße in the Bahnhofsviertel
Bahnhofsviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
The Bahnhofsviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It was developed between 1891 and 1915 on the land of the established Westbahnhof.-Geography:...

 district, located between the central station and Willy-Brandt-Platz, is the most multicultural shopping street in Frankfurt with lots of shops that sell product mainly from Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 and Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

.
  • Kaiserstraße

Kaiserstraße is one of the best-known streets in Frankfurt and considered one of the most beautiful because of its amount of Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
' refers to the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s...

-style buildings. It runs parallel to Münchener Straße from the central station to the financial district. Kaiserstraße is still a synonym for Frankfurt's Red-light district
Red-light district
A red-light district is a part of an urban area where there is a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, adult theaters, etc...

 although sex-oriented businesses
Sex industry
The sex industry consists of businesses which either directly or indirectly provide sex-related products and services or adult entertainment...

 have been moved to neighbouring streets such as Taunusstraße since the 1990s. Today Kaiserstraße houses many smaller shops, restaurants and cafés.
  • Kleinmarkthalle

The Kleinmarkthalle (literally: Small Market Hall) is a market
Market
A market is one of many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange. While parties may exchange goods and services by barter, most markets rely on sellers offering their goods or services in exchange for money from buyers...

 hall in the city centre close to Konstablerwache where fresh food and flowers are sold on a daily basis. In addition to regional delicacies like green sauce
Green Sauce
Green sauce is the name of several different sauces containing mainly herbs, namely the Italian salsa verde, the French sauce verte, the Spanish salsa verde and the German Grüne Soße or Frankfurter Grie Soß .- History :...

 there are also imported goods to purchase. Despite the name, the Kleinmarkthalle is the largest public market place in the Frankfurt urban area and attracts locals as well as tourists.

Green city


With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas.
  • Frankfurter Grüngürtel

Frankfurt's Green Belt is a ring-shaped public green space around the city. With 8,000 ha
Hectare
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...

 it covers a third of the administrative area of Frankfurt. Part of the green belt
Green belt
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character and may run through an...

 - from south to west, from the west to the north and then to the east - are the Frankfurter Stadtwald (Frankfurt City Forest
Frankfurt City Forest
The Frankfurt City Forest or Frankfurter Stadtwald is a forest district in the south of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. There are also other forest areas spread out through the city.-Basic Facts:...

, Germany's largest forest within a city), the Schwanheimer Düne (Schwanheim
Schwanheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Schwanheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Schwanheim, Goldstein-Ost and Goldstein-West....

 Dune
Dune
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by wind. Dunes occur in different forms and sizes, formed by interaction with the wind. Most kinds of dunes are longer on the windward side where the sand is pushed up the dune and have a shorter "slip face" in the lee of the wind...

), the Niddatal (Nidda Valley
Valley
In geology, a valley or dale is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. A very deep river valley may be called a canyon or gorge.The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys...

), the Niddapark, the Lohrberg (Lohr Mountain, Frankfurt's only vineyard
Vineyard
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice...

), the Huthpark, the Enkheimer Ried (
Enkheim
Frankfurt-Bergen-Enkheim
Bergen-Enkheim is a district and an Ortsbezirk of the city of Frankfurt am Main in Germany. This eastern district is formed from the towns of Bergen and Enkheim...

 Marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

), the Seckbacher Ried (Seckbach
Seckbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Seckbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Ost....

 Marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

) and the Fechenheimer Mainbogen (a S-shaped part of the Main river in Fechenheim). The Green Belt is a protected area
Protected area
Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognised natural, ecological and/or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international...

 which means that house building is not allowed. The Green Belt was formally created in 1991 with its own constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

.
  • Mainuferpark

The Mainuferpark (
Main Riverbanks Park) is the common term to describe both sides of the inner-city Main riverbanks. It is a auto-free zone with large green areas and therefore popular with strollers and tourists, especially in the summertime, when it can become very crowded. The southern riverbank, which continues further to Offenbach am Main and Hanau
Hanau
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction.- Geography :...

, offers the best views of the Frankfurt skyline. The northern riverbank ends in the west at the former Westhafen (West Harbour, now a residential housing area) but is currently being enlarged to the east: A former industrial-used area between the future European Central Bank Headquarters and the Osthafen (East Harbour) will become a new park named Hafenpark (Harbour Park).
  • Wallanlagen

The Wallanlagen (analogous:
Rampart
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

s) relate to the former ring-shaped city wall fortifications
Defensive wall
A defensive wall is a fortification used to protect a city or settlement from potential aggressors. In ancient to modern times, they were used to enclose settlements...

 around the Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 and the Innenstadt
Innenstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
The Innenstadt is the central district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke. It stretches in the north and east round the district of Altstadt...

 district (abolished 1804-1812), now a series of parks. House building is not allowed, with a few exceptions, the most famous being the Alte Oper
Alte Oper
The Alte Oper is a major concert hall and former opera house in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The building was inaugurated in 1880. Many important works have been premiered at the Alte Oper, including Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in 1937....

 (built 1880) at the Opernplatz. The part between the northern Main riverbank and the Opernplatz, referred to officially as Taunusanlage and Gallusanlage, is also locally known as "Central Park" (a reference to the famous park
Central Park
Central Park is a public park in the center of Manhattan in New York City, United States. The park initially opened in 1857, on of city-owned land. In 1858, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux won a design competition to improve and expand the park with a plan they entitled the Greensward Plan...

 in Manhattan
Manhattan
Manhattan is the oldest and the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. Located primarily on the island of Manhattan at the mouth of the Hudson River, the boundaries of the borough are identical to those of New York County, an original county of the state of New York...

), not because of its size but because of the skyscrapers which stand on both sides of the park.
  • Nizza Park

At the juncture of the northern Main riverbank and the Wallanlagen is a famous small park called Nizza. The name of the park recalls the City of Nice
Nice
Nice is the fifth most populous city in France, after Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse, with a population of 348,721 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of more than 955,000 on an area of...

 in southern France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 because it is one of the warmest areas in Frankfurt with a nearly mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

. Numerous plants from the mediterranean flora
Flora
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animals is fauna.-Etymology:...

 grow here and can even survive outside during the winter.
  • Garten des Himmlichen Friedens

The Garden of Heavenly Peace, named after the Tiananmen Gate
Tiananmen Square
Tiananmen Square is a large city square in the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen Gate located to its North, separating it from the Forbidden City. Tiananmen Square is the third largest city square in the world...

 in Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, is a Chinese-styled park in the Nordend
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

 district and part of the larger Bethmannpark. It contains Chinese buildings, with the building materials shipped in from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and built by Chinese workpeople in the 1980s, as well as traditional Chinese plants and herbs.
  • Other parks

The largest parks in Frankfurt are the Niddapark (168 ha), the Ostpark (32 ha) and the Grüneburgpark
Grüneburgpark
The Grüneburgpark is a park in the Westend district of Frankfurt, whose name derives from the "Green castle", which used to stand on the site from the 14 century. In 1789 the banker Peter Heinrich von Bethmann Metzler acquired the property and designed the park...

 (29 ha).

Museums




With more than 30 museums, some of them considered international prestigious, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. 20 museums are part of the Museumsufer
Museumsufer
The embankment to the south of the Main River in Frankfurt, Germany, is called Museumsufer or Museum Embankment because of the large concentration of museums there...

 (Museums Riverbank), which means that their location is on the front row of both sides of the Main
Main river
Main rivers are a statutory type of watercourse in England and Wales, usually larger streams and rivers, but also include some smaller watercourses. A main river is defined as a watercourse marked as such on a main river map, and can include any structure or appliance for controlling or regulating...

 riverbank or within spitting distance.

Ten museums are located on the southern riverbank in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

 between the Eiserner Steg and the Friedensbrücke. The street itself, Schaumainkai
Schaumainkai
Schaumainkai is a street in central Frankfurt, Germany, running along the south side of the River Main. It includes a number of museums including the Städel, a leading art gallery...

, is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for Frankfurt's largest flea market
Flea market
A flea market or swap meet is a type of bazaar where inexpensive or secondhand goods are sold or bartered. It may be indoors, such as in a warehouse or school gymnasium; or it may be outdoors, such as in a field or under a tent...

.
  • Deutsches Architekturmuseum
    German Architecture Museum
    The German Architecture Museum is located on the Museumsufer in Frankfurt, Germany. Housed in an 18th-century building, the interior has been re-designed by Oswald Mathias Ungers in 1984 as a set of "elemental Platonic buildings within elemental Platonic buildings".The museum organises several...

    (German Architecture Museum)
  • Deutsches Filmmuseum (German Film Museum)
  • Frankfurter Ikonenmuseum (Icon Museum Frankfurt)
  • Liebieghaus
    Liebieghaus
    The Liebieghaus is a late 19th-century villa in Frankfurt, Germany. It contains a sculpture museum, the Städtische Galerie Liebieghaus, which is part of the Museumsufer on the Sachsenhausen bank of the River Main.-History:...

    (Museum of Municipal Sculptures)
  • Museum für Angewandte Kunst
    Museum für angewandte Kunst
    The Museum of Applied Arts or just MAK, a short version of its German name Museum für angewandte Kunst is located in Frankfurt, Germany and exhibits more than 30,000 objects representing European and Asian decorative arts. The new building of the museum was designed by the American architect...

    (Museum of Applied Arts)
  • Museum Giersch
    Museum Giersch
    The Museum Giersch is an art gallery in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, on the Museumsufer.The museum opened in 2000. It hosts a changing series of exhibitions displaying the art and cultural history of the Rhine-Main area, with the aim of promoting the regions's cultural identity.The Museum Giersch...

    (Museum for Regional Art)
  • Museum für Kommunikation
    Museum für Kommunikation Frankfurt
    The Museum für Kommunikation is a telecommunications museum in Frankfurt, Germany....

    (Museum of Communications)
  • Museum der Weltkulturen
    Museum der Weltkulturen
    The Museum of World Cultures is an ethnological museum in Frankfurt, Germany. Until 2001 it was called the Museum of Ethnology .-History:...

    (Museum of World Cultures)
  • Städel
    Städel
    The Städel, officially the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, is an art museum in Frankfurt am Main, with one of the most important collections in Germany....

    , one of the most famous art museums in Germany
  • Bibelhaus Erlebnis Museum (Bible House Experience Museum)


Two museums are located on the northern riverbank:
  • Jüdisches Museum Frankfurt
    Jewish Museum Frankfurt
    The Jewish Museum of the City of Frankfurt am Main covers the history and culture of the Jewish communities in Frankfurt from the 12th to the 20th centuries. There is another branch of the museum, the Museum Judengasse, in a different part of town....

    (Jewish Museum Frankfurt)
  • Historisches Museum Frankfurt
    Historical museum, Frankfurt
    The Historical Museum in Frankfurt am Main was founded in 1878, and includes cultural and historical objects relating to the city's history...

    (Historical Museum Frankfurt)


Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 district are:
  • Museum für Moderne Kunst
    Museum für Moderne Kunst
    The Museum für Moderne Kunst in Frankfurt am Main was founded in 1981. The museum was designed by the Viennese architect Hans Hollein. Because of its triangular shape, it is called "piece of cake"....

    (Museum of Modern Art)
  • Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt
    Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt
    The Schirn Kunsthalle is Frankfurt's active exhibition space located in the heart of the old city next to the Dom , exhibiting both modern and contemporary art. Exhibitions in recent years included retrospectives of Wassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Frida Kahlo, Alberto Giacometti, Bill Viola, and...

    (Schirn Art Gallery Frankfurt)
  • Frankfurter Kunstverein
    Frankfurter Kunstverein
    The Frankfurt Art Association is an art museum founded in 1829 by a group of influential citizen of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. The aim of the institution is to support the arts in the city, which was an important center of trade and business...

    (Art Association Frankfurt)
  • Museum Judengasse
    Frankfurter Judengasse
    The Frankfurter Judengasse was the Jewish ghetto of Frankfurt and one of the earliest ghettos in Germany. It existed from 1462 until 1796 and was home to Germany's largest Jewish community in early modern times....

    (Jews' Alley Museum)
  • Goethe-Haus
    Goethe House
    The Goethe House in the old town of Frankfurt am Main was the family residence of the Goethe family, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, until 1795. Johann Wolfgang was himself born here in 1749 to his parents, Johann Caspar Goethe, a lawyer, and Katherine Elisabeth Textor, daughter of the...

    (Goethe House)
  • Archäologisches Museum Frankfurt (Archaeological Museum Frankfurt)
  • Caricatura Museum für Komische Kunst (Caricatura Museum of Comical Art)
  • Dommuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt Cathedral Museum)


Another important museum is located in the Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 district:
  • Naturmuseum Senckenberg (Senckenberg Natural History Museum), the second largest natural history
    Natural history
    Natural history is the scientific research of plants or animals, leaning more towards observational rather than experimental methods of study, and encompasses more research published in magazines than in academic journals. Grouped among the natural sciences, natural history is the systematic study...

     museum in Germany


Other museums in Frankfurt are the
Dialogmuseum (Dialogue Museum) in the Ostend
Ostend (Frankfurt am Main)
Ostend is a borough of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke. It is home to several brothels located along the Main River. The most famous of these brothels, or "Puffs," is the Eros-Center with its ubiquitous "legs" entrance...

 district,
Eintracht Frankfurt
Eintracht Frankfurt
Eintracht Frankfurt is a German sports club, based in Frankfurt, Hesse that is best known for its association football club.- Club origins :...

 Museum at Commerzbank-Arena
Commerzbank-Arena
The Commerzbank-Arena is a sports stadium in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany. Commonly known by its original name, Waldstadion , the stadium opened in 1925. The stadium has been upgraded several times since then; the most recent remodelling was its redevelopment as a football-only stadium in preparation...

,
Explora Museum+Wissenschaft+Technik (Explora Museum of Science and Engineering) in the Nordend
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

 district, the
Frankfurter Feldbahnmuseum e.V. (Light Railway Museum Frankfurt) in the Gallus
Gallus (Frankfurt am Main)
Gallus, former Gallusviertel, is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke....

 district, the
Verkehrsmuseum Frankfurt (Transport Museum Frankfurt) in the Schwanheim
Schwanheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Schwanheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Schwanheim, Goldstein-Ost and Goldstein-West....

 district, the
Hammer Museum in the Bahnhofsviertel
Bahnhofsviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
The Bahnhofsviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It was developed between 1891 and 1915 on the land of the established Westbahnhof.-Geography:...

 district and the
Geldmuseum der Deutschen Bundesbank (Money Museum of the German Federal Bank) in the Ginnheim
Ginnheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Ginnheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord....

 district.

Performing arts



  • Oper Frankfurt

The Frankfurt Opera is a leading opera company in Germany and one of the most important opera house
Opera house
An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building...

s in Europe. It was elected Opera house of the year
Opera house of the year
Opera House of the Year , is an award from the German monthly magazine Opernwelt. Each year since 1994, at the end of the season, a jury of 50 critics selects an opera house in Austria, Germany or German speaking Switzerland for the award....

(of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 and German-speaking Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

) by German magazine Opernwelt
Opernwelt
Opernwelt is a monthly German magazine for opera, operetta and ballet.The magazine covers news about current performances; it presents portraits of composers and performers, articles about opera houses and performance spaces, and about contemporary and historical subjects from the world of opera...

 in 1995, 1996 and 2003. It was also elected
Best opera house in Germany in 2010 and 2011. Its orchestra
Orchestra
An orchestra is a sizable instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ορχήστρα, the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus...

 was voted
Orchestra of the year in 2009, 2010 and 2011.
  • Schauspiel Frankfurt

The Frankfurt Schauspiel is a famous theatre at Willy-Brandt-Platz in the financial district, right next to the Frankfurt Opera.
  • Festhalle Frankfurt
    Festhalle Frankfurt
    The Festhalle Frankfurt in Frankfurt, Germany in Frankfurt is a representative Built in 1907 and 1908 multi-purpose hall at the Frankfurt Exhibition Centre. The interior of about 40 metres high dome provides an area of 5646 square metres up to 4880 seats...


The Festhalle (
Festival Hall) is a multi-purpose hall next to the Messeturm
Messeturm
The Messeturm is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Its name translates as "Fair Tower" in German. It is the second tallest building in Frankfurt, the second tallest building in Germany. The Messeturm's ground floor area is just . The Messeturm is directly located in the Frankfurt Trade...

 at the grounds of the Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair , with 448,000,000 Euros in sales and over 1,600 active employees, is one of the world's largest trade fair companies. The group has a global network of 28 subsidiaries, five branch offices, and 52 international sales partners. Thus, the Messe Frankfurt is present in over 150...

. It is mostly used for concerts, exhibitions or sport events and can house up to 13,500 people.
  • Commerzbank-Arena
    Commerzbank-Arena
    The Commerzbank-Arena is a sports stadium in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany. Commonly known by its original name, Waldstadion , the stadium opened in 1925. The stadium has been upgraded several times since then; the most recent remodelling was its redevelopment as a football-only stadium in preparation...


Commerzbank-Arena is the largest sports stadium
Stadium
A modern stadium is a place or venue for outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event...

 in Frankfurt and is one of the ten largest in Germany. It is located in the Frankfurt City Forest
Frankfurt City Forest
The Frankfurt City Forest or Frankfurter Stadtwald is a forest district in the south of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. There are also other forest areas spread out through the city.-Basic Facts:...

 near Niederrad. It is primarily used for soccer games and concerts with a capacity up to 51,500 visitors. It was opend in 1925 and underwent several major reconstructions since then. Although the official name of Commerzbank-Arena is in use for serval years now, locals still prefer to call the stadium by its traditional name, Waldstadion (Forest Stadium).
  • Alte Oper
    Alte Oper
    The Alte Oper is a major concert hall and former opera house in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The building was inaugurated in 1880. Many important works have been premiered at the Alte Oper, including Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in 1937....


The Alte Oper was once a opera house and is now a major concert hall.
  • Jahrhunderthalle

The Jahrhunderthalle (
Century Hall) is a large concert and exhibition hall in the Unterliederbach
Unterliederbach (Frankfurt am Main)
Unterliederbach is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Unterliederbach-Ost, Unterliederbach-Mitte and Unterliederbach-West....

 district. It is sometimes referred to as "Jahrhunderthalle Höchst", not because of the city district with the same name, but because it was built to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the chemical company Hoechst AG
Hoechst AG
Hoechst AG was a German chemicals then life-sciences company that became Aventis Deutschland after its merger with France's Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999...

 in 1963.
  • The English Theatre

The English Theatre, located on the ground floor of the Gallileo
Gallileo
Gallileo is a 446ft tall skyscraper in Frankfurt, Germany. It was constructed from 1999 to 2003 and has 38 floors. It has 49,000 m² of floor space and is the 14th tallest skyscraper in Frankfurt. Its name is an intentional misspelling of the scientist Galileo's name; the extra l comes from the...

 high-rise building, is the largest anglophone theatre in continental Europe. It was established in 1979.
  • Tigerpalast

The Tigerpalast (Tiger Palace) is a varieté
Varieté
Variety is a 1925 silent drama film directed by Ewald Andre Dupont based on the novel Der Eid des Stephan Huller by . Jannings portrays "Boss Huller," an ex-trapeze artist who runs a seedy carnival with his wife and child...

 in the city centre near the Zeil. It was established in 1988 and houses the famous Tiger-Restaurant which was awarded a Michelin star
Michelin Guide
The Michelin Guide is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. The term normally refers to the Michelin Red Guide, the oldest and best-known European hotel and restaurant guide, which awards the Michelin stars...

.
  • Künstlerhaus Mousonturm

The Künsterhaus Mousonturm (
House of Artists Mouson Tower) is a free theatre, which means that it has a smaller budget than traditional theatres and used more unconventional performing methods. It is located in an old factory in the Ostend
Ostend (Frankfurt am Main)
Ostend is a borough of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke. It is home to several brothels located along the Main River. The most famous of these brothels, or "Puffs," is the Eros-Center with its ubiquitous "legs" entrance...

 district.
  • Die Schmiere

Die Schmiere (literally:
The Grease) is a cabaret
Cabaret
Cabaret is a form, or place, of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue: a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting at tables watching the performance, as introduced by a master of ceremonies or...

 and the oldest private-owned theatre in Frankfurt. It is located in the Karmeliterkloster in the Altstadt
Altstadt (Frankfurt am Main)
Altstadt or old city is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, located on the northern Main bank. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It is surrounded by the Stadtteil of Innenstadt...

 district. According to its own advertising it is
the worst theatre in the world.
  • Die Komödie

Die Komödie (literally:
The Comedy) is a boulevard theatre
Boulevard theatre
Boulevard theatre is a theatrical aesthetic which emerged from the boulevards of Paris's old city.-Origin:Starting from the second half of the 18th century, popular and bourgeois theatre alike took up residence on the boulevard du Temple, then nicknamed Boulevard of Crime due to the many...

 in the city centre near Willy-Brandt-Platz.

Botanical gardens



Frankfurt is home to two major botanical gardens.
  • Palmengarten
    Palmengarten
    The Palmengarten is one of two botanical gardens in Frankfurt am Main, Hesse, Germany, and is located in the city district Westend-Nord. It is the largest garden of its kind in Germany....


The Palmengarten, located in the Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 district, is the largest botanical garden in Germany with 22 ha
Hectare
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...

 ground area. It opened to the public in 1871. The botanical exhibits are organized according to their origin in free-air or in climatized greenhouses, which also contain numerous tropical and subtropical plants, hence the name "Palm
Arecaceae
Arecaceae or Palmae , are a family of flowering plants, the only family in the monocot order Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates...

 Garden".
  • Botanischer Garten der Goethe-Universität
    Botanischer Garten der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
    The Botanischer Garten der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main , also known as the Botanischer Garten Frankfurt am Main, is a botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main...


The Botanical Garden of the Goethe University is the second botanical garden in Frankfurt and also an arboretum
Arboretum
An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum , and a viticetum, a collection of vines. More commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study...

. The garden contains about 5,000 species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

, with special collections of Rubus
Rubus
Rubus is a large genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are...

 (45 species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

) and indigenous plants of central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

. It is organized into two major areas: The geobotanical area contains an alpine garden, arboretum
Arboretum
An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum , and a viticetum, a collection of vines. More commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study...

, meadow
Meadow
A meadow is a field vegetated primarily by grass and other non-woody plants . The term is from Old English mædwe. In agriculture a meadow is grassland which is not grazed by domestic livestock but rather allowed to grow unchecked in order to make hay...

s, steppe
Steppe
In physical geography, steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes...

s, marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

, and pond
Pond
A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens, water features and koi ponds; all designed for aesthetic ornamentation as landscape or architectural...

, as well as collections of plants from the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

, Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

, East Asia
East Asia
East Asia or Eastern Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms...

, Mediterranean, and North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and the systematic and ecological collection includes crop
Crop
Crop may refer to:* Crop, a plant grown and harvested for agricultural use* Crop , part of the alimentary tract of some animals* Crop , a modified whip used in horseback riding or disciplining humans...

 plants, endangered species
Endangered species
An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters...

, ornamental plants, rose
Rose
A rose is a woody perennial of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows...

s, and the Neuer Senckenbergischer Arzneipflanzengarten (New Senckenberg Medicinal Plant Garden, 1200 m²). The Botanical Garden, the neighbouring Palmengarten and the neighbouring Grüneburgpark
Grüneburgpark
The Grüneburgpark is a park in the Westend district of Frankfurt, whose name derives from the "Green castle", which used to stand on the site from the 14 century. In 1789 the banker Peter Heinrich von Bethmann Metzler acquired the property and designed the park...

 form the largest inner-city green area in Frankfurt.

Foreign culture


  • Instituto Cervantes
    Instituto Cervantes
    The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes , the author of Don Quixote and perhaps the most important figure in the history of Spanish literature...


The Cervantes Institute, named after Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, considered the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written...

, one of the most important Spanish authors, is the largest organization in the world responsible for promoting the study and the teaching of Spanish language and culture. There are currently 54 Centros Cervantes all over the world which offer Spanish language and history courses. The Frankfurt branch was officially opened in September 2008 by Felipe, Prince of Asturias
Felipe, Prince of Asturias
Felipe, Prince of Asturias de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968), is the third child and only son of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía of Spain....

 and his wife Letizia, Princess of Asturias
Letizia, Princess of Asturias
Letizia, Princess of Asturias , is the wife of Felipe, Prince of Asturias, the heir apparent to the Spanish throne...

. It is located in the so-called Amerika-Haus which was previously used as the United States Information Center after World War II until 2005.
  • Central and Eastern European Online Library
    Central and Eastern European Online Library
    The Central and Eastern European Online Library is an online archive providing access to full text articles from humanities and social science scholarly journals on Central, Eastern and South Eastern European topics....


The Central and Eastern European Online Library (C.E.E.O.L.) is an online archive providing access to full text articles from humanities and social science scholarly journals on Central, Eastern and South Eastern European topics. The subject areas include: anthropology, culture and society, economy, gender studies, history, Judaic studies, fine arts, literature, linguistics, political sciences and social sciences, philosophy, religion, reviews, etc. The C.E.E.O.L. is initiated and maintained by Questa.Soft GmbH in Frankfurt.

Festivals




  • Museumsuferfest

A major festival in the city is the Museumsuferfest (Museums Riverbank Festival). It is one of the biggest cultural festivals in Germany which attracts more than 3 million visitors over a period of 3 days. It takes place yearly at the end of August on both sides of the Main riverbank in the city centre. More than 20 museums are located there and they are open far into the night. Furthermore there are special attractions like live-bands, dance shows, several booths for crafts, jewellery, clothes and food from all around the world. It ends with a spectacular firework display.
  • Dippemess

Frankfurt's oldest folk festival is the Dippemess (analogous: Festival of Stoneware) which takes place twice a year around Easter
Easter
Easter is the central feast in the Christian liturgical year. According to the Canonical gospels, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. His resurrection is celebrated on Easter Day or Easter Sunday...

 and the end of September in the eastern part of the city. "Dippe" is a regional Hessian dialect
Hessian dialects
Hessian is a West Central German group of dialects of the German language in the central German state of Hesse. The dialect most similar to Hessian is Palatinate German of the Rhine Franconian sub-family...

 word meaning "pot" or "jar" which would not be understood in most other German regions. Mentioned for the first time in the 14th century as an annual marketplace it is now more of an amusement park. The name of the festival derives from its original purpose, when it was a fair where traditionally-crafted jars, pots and other stoneware were on offer.
  • Wäldchestag

The Frankfurt Wäldchestag (analogous: Day of the forest) is jocularly known as a regional holiday because until the 1990s it was common that Frankfurt's shops were closed on this day. Despite the name, the festival takes place over a period of four days after Pentecost
Pentecost
Pentecost is a prominent feast in the calendar of Ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai, and also later in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Christ after the Resurrection of Jesus...

 with the actual Wäldchestag being Tuesday. What is special about this festival is its location in the Frankfurt City Forest
Frankfurt City Forest
The Frankfurt City Forest or Frankfurter Stadtwald is a forest district in the south of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. There are also other forest areas spread out through the city.-Basic Facts:...

, south-west of the city centre in Niederrad. "Wäldches" is a regional dialect of the German word "Wäldchen", meaning "small forest".
  • Nacht der Museen

At the Nacht der Museen (Night of the museums), taking place every year in April or May, 50 museums in Frankfurt and in the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main are opened to the public far into the night (2:00 am). Additionally there are special music events, dance performances, readings and guided tours. To move between the museums there is a free bus shuttle on offer. In 2010, approx 40,000 visitors were counted at the museums.
  • Nacht der Clubs

Nacht der Clubs (Night of the clubs) is an event similar to Nacht der Museen: On one night as many as 20 clubs in Frankfurt can be visited with only one ticket for 12 €. Usually there is also a less strict club-door-policy depending visitor's clothes to attract new customers. A free bus shuttle runs between the clubs to allow people to visit more than one location. Nacht der Clubs enjoys great popularity with 15,000 people participating in 2008.
  • Luminale

Luminale is a "festival of light" that takes place in Frankfurt and in the urban area every two years since 2000, parallel to the Light + building exhibition at the trade fair. During the festival a lot of public and private-owned buildings are especially illuminated. In 2008, more than 220 light installations could be seen and attracted 100,000 visitors. The next Luminale will be held in April 2012.
  • Wolkenkratzer Festival

The Wolkenkratzer Festival (
Skyscraper Festival) is unique in Germany. It takes place irregularly, the last time in May 2007 and attracted around 1.2 million visitors. For two days most of the skyscrapers in Downtown Frankfurt are open to the public, which is normally not the case, apart from the Maintower
Maintower
Maintower is a 200 metre skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is named after the river Main. A 40 metre communications tower is mounted atop the building. It features five underground floors, as well as two public viewing platforms. The tower currently remains the only skyscraper in...

 observation deck. Sky-divers, base jumpers, fireworks and laser shows were extra attractions. The next festival will be held in 2013.
  • Sound of Frankfurt

The Sound of Frankfurt was a music festival held in the city centre. It took place regularly from 1994 to 2004. Various artists and bands performed open-air and for-free concerts on eight stages located mainly around the Zeil. Different types of music (rock, Latino, techno, house, alternative and pop) attracted about 500,000 visitors each year.

Nightlife


Frankfurt offers a large variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs. Many clubs are located in and around the city centre and in the Ostend
Ostend (Frankfurt am Main)
Ostend is a borough of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke. It is home to several brothels located along the Main River. The most famous of these brothels, or "Puffs," is the Eros-Center with its ubiquitous "legs" entrance...

 district, mainly close to Hanauer Landstraße. Restaurants, bars and pubs can be found all around the city, with large concentrations in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

, Nordend
Nordend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Nordend is a district of the German city of Frankfurt am Main. While it officially consists of the two administrative districts Nordend-Ost and Nordend-West, the "Nordend" is normally seen as one unit by the locals who live here...

, Bornheim
Bornheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bornheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, with approximately 25,861 inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 5 Stadtbezirke....

 and Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

.

The roots of techno music can be traced back to Germany, and in particular, Frankfurt. It was here, in the early 1990s, that local DJs like Sven Väth
Sven Väth
Sven Väth is a Frankfurt-based DJ who has produced an extensive range of work since his career began in 1982. From 1985, he was part of the band OFF which released the hit "Electrica Salsa" in 1986...

 and DJ DAG (of Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance was a German trance duo composed of Rolf Ellmer and DJ Dag Lerner. They had a small number of hit singles in the mid 1990s and were associated with Jam & Spoon.-Musical career:...

) first played a harder, deeper style of acid house
Acid house
Acid house is a sub-genre of house music that emphasizes a repetitive, hypnotic and trance-like style, often with samples or spoken lines rather than sung lyrics. Acid house's core electronic squelch sounds were developed around the mid-1980s, particularly by DJs from Chicago who experimented with...

 that became hugely popular worldwide during the next decade. One of the main venues of the early Trance music
Trance music
Trance is a genre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s.:251 It is generally characterized by a tempo of between 125 and 150 bpm,:252 repeating melodic synthesizer phrases, and a musical form that builds up and breaks down throughout a track...

 sound was the Omen nightclub in the city (closed 1998). Accordingly, some of the early and most influential Techno acts, e.g. Jam and Spoon, Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance
Dance 2 Trance was a German trance duo composed of Rolf Ellmer and DJ Dag Lerner. They had a small number of hit singles in the mid 1990s and were associated with Jam & Spoon.-Musical career:...

, Oliver Lieb
Oliver Lieb
Oliver Lieb is a German electronic music producer and DJ. Lieb is known to have more than a dozen aliases with over 200 productions and remixes in various electronic genres such as, trance, house, and techno. He has also produced tracks for other artists...

 and Hardfloor
Hardfloor
Hardfloor is a German techno and acid trance duo, consisting of Oliver Bondzio and Ramon Zenker. Their most famous track is "Acperience 1" ....

, and record labels such as Harthouse
Harthouse
Harthouse is a German record label specializing in techno music. The label has been responsible for many success stories in the electronic world including Oliver Lieb, Eternal Basement, Hardfloor, Sven Väth and Koxbox....

 and Eye Q
Eye Q (record label)
Eye Q was a record label founded in 1990 by Sven Väth, Matthias Hoffmann and Heinz Roth. It was based in Offenbach, Germany, specialized in trance music and greatly influenced the Sound of Frankfurt...

, were based in the city in the early 1990s.
  • Cocoon Club

Cocoon Club is a techno club in Fechenheim and is one of the best-known clubs in Frankfurt because of its extraordinary design. It was opened in 2004 and was voted best techno club of the year by well-respected music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
  • King Kamehameha Club

King Kamehameha Club, named after the first king of Hawaii
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

, is a disco club at Hanauer Landstraße. It was opened in 1999 and has since then expanded its business with a beach club in Offenbach am Main and a restaurant (King Kamehameha Suite) in Frankfurt's financial district.
  • U60311

U60311 is a techno club in the city centre. "60311" is the zip code
ZIP Code
ZIP codes are a system of postal codes used by the United States Postal Service since 1963. The term ZIP, an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan, is properly written in capital letters and was chosen to suggest that the mail travels more efficiently, and therefore more quickly, when senders use the...

 of the area. It was voted best club of the year by music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" multiple times. Its location is an underground former pedestrian underpass.
  • Living XXL

Living XXL is a club/restaurant in the financial district, located on the ground floor of the Eurotower
Eurotower (Frankfurt)
The Eurotower is a skyscraper located in the Bankenviertel of Frankfurt, Germany.The tower is tall, with 40 floors and 78.000 m² of office space...

.
  • Club 101

Club 101 is a club in the financial district, located on the 24th floor of the Japan Center
Japan Center
The Japan Center is a skyscraper in the banking district of Frankfurt, Germany. The 115 meter high office tower with 27 floors was completed in 1996.The building was designed by Berlin architect Joachim Ganz and cost approximately 200 million Euros...

.
  • Batschkapp

Batschkapp is an alternative rock club in Fechenheim
Eschersheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Eschersheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, with some 14,000 inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Eschersheim-Nord and Eschersheim-Süd....

. It opened in 1976 and attracts mostly people with a left-winged political attitude. Joschka Fischer
Joschka Fischer
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005...

, Germanys former Foreign Minister, was a regular guest in the 1980s.
  • Velvet Club
  • Cooky's
  • Nachtleben


A very popular disco club of the 1980-1990s was
Dorian Gray which was located within Terminal 1 at Frankfurt Airport. Because of the location at the airport the club had no restrictions regarding the opening hours. The club had to close at the end of the year 2000 because it was not longer possible to meet strict fire safety regulations.

Culinary specialties


  • Apfelwein

Apfelwein (apple wine or cider) is regionally known as "Ebbelwoi", "Äppler" oder "Stöffsche". It has an alcohol content of 5.5%–7% and a tart, sour taste. It is traditionally served in a lozenge-shaped glass called "Geripptes", a full glass is then called "Schoppen". Apfelwein is also available in a stoneware jar locally known as "Bembel". A group of people normally orders a "Bembel" (or two) and shares the content. Apfelwein can be ordered as "sauergespritzer", which is apfelwein blended with 30% mineral water or as "süssgespritzer", which is Apfelwein blended with lemon soda, orange soda or fresh-pressed apple juice (lemon soda being the most common). Most of the old-established pubs which serve Apfelwein are located in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

, which is therefore jocularly known as "Ebbelwoi district". Due to its national drink Frankfurt is sometimes called "Big Ebbel" (pronunciation with hessian dialect
Hessian dialects
Hessian is a West Central German group of dialects of the German language in the central German state of Hesse. The dialect most similar to Hessian is Palatinate German of the Rhine Franconian sub-family...

), a reference to Big Apple
Big Apple
"The Big Apple" is a nickname for New York City. It was first popularized in the 1920s by John J. Fitz Gerald, a sports writer for the New York Morning Telegraph...

, the famous nickname of New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

.
  • Grüne Soße

Grüne Soße (green sauce), or locally "Grie Soß", is a sauce made with hard-boiled eggs, oil, vinegar, salt, and generous amount of seven fresh herbs, namely borage, sorrel, garden cress, chervil, chives, parsley, and salad burnet. Variants, often due to seasonal availability include dill, lovage, lemon balm and even spinach. Original green sauce Frankfurt-style is made of herbs that were gathered only on fields within the city limits.
  • Frankfurter Würstchen

Frankfurter Würstchen, or short "Frankfurter", are small sausage
Sausage
A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat , mixed with salt, herbs, and other spices, although vegetarian sausages are available. The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted.Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made...

s made of pork
Pork
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

 which are smoked in a specific way. They are similar to Hot dog
Hot dog
A hot dog is a sausage served in a sliced bun. It is very often garnished with mustard, ketchup, onions, mayonnaise, relish and/or sauerkraut.-History:...

s. The name Frankfurter Würstchen is trademarked since 1860.
  • Frankfurter Rindswurst
    Frankfurter Rindswurst
    Frankfurter Rindswurst is a sausage made of pure beef meat. It was introduced in 1894 by Frankfurt butcher Gref-Voelsing to meet the demands of the growing Jewish population of the city and has since become one of its most famous delicacies. The sausage may be boiled, or broiled or grilled....


Frankfurter Rindswurst is a sausage made of pure beef
Beef
Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. It is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of the Middle East , Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Europe and the United States, and is also important in...

.
  • Frankfurter Rippchen
    Frankfurter Rippchen
    Rippchen mit Kraut is a traditional dish served in and around Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It consists of cured pork cutlets, slowly heated in sauerkraut or meat broth, and usually served with sauerkraut, mashed potatoes and yellow mustard. Apfelwein is normally consumed alongside Rippchen...


Frankfurter Rippchen, also known as Rippchen mit Kraut, is a traditional dish which consists of cured pork cutlets, slowly heated in sauerkraut
Sauerkraut
Sauerkraut , directly translated from German: "sour cabbage", is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid...

 or meat broth, and usually served with sauerkraut, mashed potatoes and yellow mustard.
  • Handkäs mit Musik
    Handkäse
    Handkäse is a German regional sour milk cheese and is a culinary speciality of Frankfurt, Offenbach am Main, Darmstadt, Langen and all other parts of South-Hessen. It gets its name from the traditional way of producing it: forming it with one's own hands.It is a small, translucent, yellow cheese...


Handkäse is a German regional sour milk cheese
Sour milk cheese
Sour milk cheese is a cheese that has been curdled by natural souring or by the addition of lactic acid bacteria, such as Cottage cheese. Sour milk cheese does not use rennet for coagulation....

 (similar to Harzer
Harzer
Harzer cheese is a German sour milk cheese made from low fat curd cheese, which contains only about one percent fat and originates in the Harz mountain region south of Braunschweig....

) and a culinary speciality in the Rhine Main Region
Frankfurt Rhine-Main
The Frankfurt/Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, often simply referred to as Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main area or Rhine-Main area is the second largest metropolitan region in Germany, with a total population exceeding 5.8 million...

. The traditional way producing it is by hands, hence the name. When it is topped with chopped onions it becomes "Handkäs mit Musik" (with music) because the onions are supposed to stimulate people to pass gas.
  • Frankfurter Kranz
    Frankfurter Kranz
    The Frankfurter Kranz is a cake speciality believed to originate from Frankfurt am Main, Germany.Preparation starts with the baking of a firm sponge cake in a ring shaped baking tin...


Frankfurter Kranz is a cake
Cake
Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet and enriched baked dessert. In its oldest forms, cakes were normally fried breads or cheesecakes, and normally had a disk shape...

 speciality believed to originate from Frankfurt.
  • Bethmännchen
    Bethmännchen
    Bethmännchen is a pastry made from marzipan with almond, powdered sugar, rosewater, flour, and egg. It is usually baked for Christmas....


Bethmännchen (German for "a little Bethmann") is a pastry
Pastry
Pastry is the name given to various kinds of baked products made from ingredients such as flour, sugar, milk, butter, shortening, baking powder and/or eggs. Small cakes, tarts and other sweet baked products are called "pastries."...

 made from marzipan with almond, powdered sugar, rosewater, flour, and egg. It is usually baked for Christmas.

Airports


  • Frankfurt Airport
    Frankfurt Airport
    Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...


The city can easily be accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located
12 km (7 mi) from the city centre. The airport has four runway
Runway
According to ICAO a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft." Runways may be a man-made surface or a natural surface .- Orientation and dimensions :Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally one tenth...

s and serves 265 non-stop destinations. Run by transport company Fraport
Fraport
Fraport AG Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide is a German transport company which operates the Frankfurt International Airport serving Frankfurt am Main and holds interests in the operation of several other airports around the world. In the past the firm also managed the smaller Frankfurt-Hahn...

 it ranks among the world's 10 busiest airports by passenger traffic
World's busiest airports by passenger traffic
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by number of total passengers . One passenger is described as someone who arrives in, departs from, or transfers through the airport on a given day...

 and is the second busiest airport by cargo traffic
World's busiest airports by cargo traffic
The world's thirty busiest airports by cargo traffic for various periods . Numbers listed refer to loaded and unloaded freight in metric tonnes.-2010 final statistics:...

 in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

. Depending on whether total passengers or flights are used, it ranks second or third busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe...

 and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport. Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in 2010 was 53.0 million. There are plans to expand the airport with a third passenger terminal to increase the capacity up to 88 million in 2020.

The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn
S-Bahn
S-Bahn refers to an often combined city center and suburban railway system metro in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark...

 lines S8 and S9 (direction Offenbach Ost or Hanau Hbf) departing at the regional station take 10–15 minutes from the airport to the central station and onwards to the city centre, the IC
InterCity
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe...

 and ICE trains departing at the long-distance station take 10 minutes to the central station.
  • Frankfurt Hahn Airport

Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (
Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is not located anywhere near Frankfurt but is instead situated approximately 120 km (75 mi) from the city in Lautzenhausen
Lautzenhausen
-History:Archaeological finds bear witness to a Roman presence in the area. In 1260, Lautzenhausen had its first documentary mention. Beginning in 1794, Lautzenhausen lay under French rule. In 1814 it was assigned to the Kingdom of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna...

 (Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has an area of and about four million inhabitants. The capital is Mainz. English speakers also commonly refer to the state by its German name, Rheinland-Pfalz ....

). Hahn Airport is a major base for Low-cost carrier
Low-cost carrier
A low-cost carrier or low-cost airline is an airline that generally has lower fares and fewer comforts...

 Ryanair
Ryanair
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline. Its head office is at Dublin Airport and its primary operational bases at Dublin Airport and London Stansted Airport....

. This airport can only be reached by car or bus. An hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station, taking about 1 hour and 45 minutes. Passenger traffic at Hahn Airport in 2010 was 3.5 million.
  • Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport
    Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport
    Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport is a busy general aviation airport located near Egelsbach, a city in the German state of Hesse. It is just southeast of Frankfurt Airport.-History:...


Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport (Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation
General aviation
General aviation is one of the two categories of civil aviation. It refers to all flights other than military and scheduled airline and regular cargo flights, both private and commercial. General aviation flights range from gliders and powered parachutes to large, non-scheduled cargo jet flights...

 airport located south-east of Frankfurt Airport, near the town of Egelsbach
Egelsbach
Egelsbach is a community of 10,000 in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany.- Location :Egelsbach is one of 13 communities in the Offenbach district...

.

Roads


Due to its central location in Germany Frankfurt is a traffic hub of the German motorway (
Autobahn) system. The Frankfurter Kreuz
Frankfurter Kreuz
The Frankfurter Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange in the city of Frankfurt in Hessen, Germany where the autobahns A3 and A5 meet. The interchange was originally to be built from 1931 to 1933, but due to World War II construction was not finished until 1957....

 is an Autobahn interchange close by the airport where the Bundesautobahn 3 (A 3), Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 to Würzburg
Würzburg
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located at the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian....

, and the Bundesautobahn 5
Bundesautobahn 5
is a 445 km long Autobahn in Germany. Its northern end is the Hattenbach triangle intersection is a 445 km (277 mi) long Autobahn in Germany. Its northern end is the Hattenbach triangle intersection is a 445 km (277 mi) long Autobahn in Germany. Its northern end is the...

 (A 5), Basel
Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

 to Hannover, meet. With approximately 320,000 cars daily it is the most heavily used interchange in Europe. The Bundesautobahn 66
Bundesautobahn 66
is an autobahn in southwestern Germany. It connects the Taunus to Fulda, passing close to Frankfurt am Main. The first part of the autobahn between Wiesbaden and the Nordwestkreuz Frankfurt, was opened as early as 1934, then called the Rhein-Main-Schnellweg. It became an autobahn in 1965.The...

 (A 66) connects Frankfurt with Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 275,400 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens...

 in the west and Fulda
Fulda
Fulda is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district .- Early Middle Ages :...

 in the east. The Bundesautobahn 661
Bundesautobahn 661
- also called Osttangente Frankfurt or Taunusschnellweg - is a 40 km long Autobahn in Germany. It starts in Oberursel and goes along Bad Homburg, Frankfurt am Main, Offenbach am Main and Neu-Isenburg until it is ending in Egelsbach.The today's A 661 were opened with section Bad Homburg ...

 (A 661) is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south (Egelsbach), runs through the eastern part of Frankfurt and ends in the north (Oberursel
Oberursel
Oberursel is a town in Germany. It is located to the north west of Frankfurt, and is the second largest town in the county of Hochtaunuskreis and the 14th largest town in Hessen.-Extent of municipal area:...

). The Bundesautobahn 648 (A 648) is a very short motorway in the western part of Frankfurt which primarily serves as a fast connection between the A 66 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair , with 448,000,000 Euros in sales and over 1,600 active employees, is one of the world's largest trade fair companies. The group has a global network of 28 subsidiaries, five branch offices, and 52 international sales partners. Thus, the Messe Frankfurt is present in over 150...

. The A 5 in the west, the A 3 in the south and the A 661 in the north-east form a ring road
Ring road
A ring road, orbital motorway, beltway, circumferential highway, or loop highway is a road that encircles a town or city...

 around the inner city districts of Frankfurt and define a Low-emission zone (Umweltzone; established in 2008), meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria otherwise they are not allowed to enter the zone.

The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets Zeil, Goethestraße and Freßgass, are pedestrian-only streets, but there are numerous car parks located throughout the city and especially in the city centre.

Railway stations



  • Frankfurt Central Station
    Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
    is the central station for Frankfurt am Main. In terms of railway traffic, it is the busiest railway station in Germany. With about 350,000 passengers per day the station is the second most frequented railway station in Germany and one of the most frequented in Europe.- Proto-history :In the late...


Frankfurt Central Station (Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, often abbreviated as Frankfurt (Main) Hbf or F-Hbf) is the largest train station
Train station
A train station, also called a railroad station or railway station and often shortened to just station,"Station" is commonly understood to mean "train station" unless otherwise qualified. This is evident from dictionary entries e.g...

 in Germany by railway traffic. Regarding daily passenger volume it ranks second together with Munich Central Station
München Hauptbahnhof
Munich Central Station is the main railway station of the city of Munich in Germany. It is one of the three long distance train stations in Munich, the others being München-Pasing and München Ost. The station sees about 350,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in...

 (350,000 each) after Hamburg Central Station
Hamburg Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof for the German city of Hamburg. It was opened in 1906 to replace 4 terminal stations. Hamburg Hauptbahnhof is operated by DB Station&Service...

 (450,000). It is located between the Gallus
Gallus (Frankfurt am Main)
Gallus, former Gallusviertel, is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke....

, the Gutleutviertel and the Bahnhofsviertel
Bahnhofsviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
The Bahnhofsviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I. It was developed between 1891 and 1915 on the land of the established Westbahnhof.-Geography:...

 district, not far away from the trade fair and the financial district. It serves as a major hub for long-distance trains (InterCity
InterCity
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe...

, ICE
InterCityExpress
The Intercity-Express or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries. It is the highest service category offered by DB Fernverkehr and is the flagship of Deutsche Bahn...

) and regional trains as well as for Frankfurt's public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 system. It is a stop for most of the ICE high speed lines, making it the most important station of Germany's ICE network. In addition, ICE Trains to London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 via the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
The Channel Tunnel is a undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is deep...

 are planned for 2013. All Rhine-Main S-Bahn
Rhine-Main S-Bahn
The Rhine-Main S-Bahn system is an integrated rapid transit and commuter transport system for the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region, which includes the cities Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach am Main, Hanau and Darmstadt...

 lines, two U-Bahn
Frankfurt U-Bahn
The Frankfurt U-Bahn, together with the Frankfurt S-Bahn and the Frankfurt Straßenbahn, is the backbone of the public transport system of Frankfurt, Germany. Its name derives from the German term for underground, Untergrundbahn. The U-Bahn opened in 1968 and now consists of 87 stations on nine...

 lines (U4, U5), several tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 and bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 lines stop here, too. Regional and local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund
Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund
The Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund is an organised transport network in the German state of Hesse, centred around the city of Frankfurt am Main. Its head office is located in Hofheim im Taunus...

 (RMV), the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world. Only the integrated public transport system in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 (Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg
Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg
The Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg is a transport association run by public transport providers in the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. It is a private limited company owned jointly by the states of Berlin and Brandenburg and the 18 counties and cities of Brandenburg with 1.85% each...

) is larger.
  • Frankfurt Airport Stations

Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

 can be accessed by two train stations:
Frankfurt Airport long-distance Station (Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof) is only for long-distance traffic and connects the airport to the main rail network, with most of the ICE
InterCityExpress
The Intercity-Express or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries. It is the highest service category offered by DB Fernverkehr and is the flagship of Deutsche Bahn...

 services using the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line. The long-distance station is located outside the actual airport ground but has a connecting bridge for pedestrians to Terminal 1, concourse B.
Frankfurt Airport regional Station (Frankfurt Flughafen Regionalbahnhof) is for local S-Bahn
Rhine-Main S-Bahn
The Rhine-Main S-Bahn system is an integrated rapid transit and commuter transport system for the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region, which includes the cities Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach am Main, Hanau and Darmstadt...

 trains (lines S8, S9) and regional trains. The regional station is located within Terminal 1, concourse B.
  • Frankfurt South Station

Frankfurt's third long-distance station is Frankfurt South Station (
Frankfurt Südbahnhof, often abbreviated as Frankfurt (Main) Süd or F-Süd), located in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

. It is also an important destination for local trains and trams (lines 14 to 16, 19) and the terminal stop for four U-Bahn lines (U1, U2, U3, U8) and two S-Bahn lines (S5, S6).
  • Messe Stations

The Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair , with 448,000,000 Euros in sales and over 1,600 active employees, is one of the world's largest trade fair companies. The group has a global network of 28 subsidiaries, five branch offices, and 52 international sales partners. Thus, the Messe Frankfurt is present in over 150...

 offers two train stations:
Messe Station
Frankfurt Messe station
Frankfurt Messe station is an S-Bahn station in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in the district of Bockenheim in the middle of the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds. The station was opened in 1999 to improve the fair’s public transport connections. It consists of two platform tracks facing a central platform...

is for local S-Bahn
Rhine-Main S-Bahn
The Rhine-Main S-Bahn system is an integrated rapid transit and commuter transport system for the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region, which includes the cities Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach am Main, Hanau and Darmstadt...

 trains (lines S3-S6) and is located at the center of the trade fair premises while
Festhalle/Messe Station is served by U-Bahn line U4 and is located at the north-east corner of the premises.
  • Konstablerwache Station
    Frankfurt (Main) Konstablerwache station
    Konstablerwache station is a major station in Frankfurt am Main with 191,000 passengers per day. It is situated at the eastern end of central Frankfurt’s main shopping street, the Zeil in the Konstablerwache plaza—named after the "constable watch-house" that was once located here. The Hauptwache ...

    and Hauptwache Station
    Frankfurt (Main) Hauptwache station
    Hauptwache station is a major station in Frankfurt am Main with 181,000 passengers per day, making it the second busiest rapid transit station in the city and a major hub for rail transport in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region. It is served by eight S-Bahn lines—S1–S6 and S8/S9—and 6 U-Bahn...


Two major train stations in the city centre are Konstablerwache and Hauptwache, located on both ends of the Zeil. They are the main stations to change from east-to-west-bound S-Bahn trains to north-to-south-bound U-Bahn trains. Konstablerwache Station is the second busiest train station regarding daily passenger volume in Frankfurt (191,000) after the central station. The third-busiest train station is Hauptwache Station (181,000).

Public transport



The city has two underground railway systems: the U-Bahn and the S-Bahn, as well as an above-ground tram system. Information about the U- and S-Bahn can be found on the website of the RMV
Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund
The Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund is an organised transport network in the German state of Hesse, centred around the city of Frankfurt am Main. Its head office is located in Hofheim im Taunus...

.
  • S-Bahn
    Rhine-Main S-Bahn
    The Rhine-Main S-Bahn system is an integrated rapid transit and commuter transport system for the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region, which includes the cities Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Offenbach am Main, Hanau and Darmstadt...


Nine S-Bahn
S-Bahn
S-Bahn refers to an often combined city center and suburban railway system metro in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark...

 lines (S1 to S9) connect Frankfurt with the densely populated Rhine Main Region. Most routes have an at least 15 minute service during the day, either by one line running every 15 minutes, or by two lines servicing one route together with a 30 minutes schedule each. All lines, except line S7, run through the Frankfurt city tunnel and serve the stations Ostendstraße
Frankfurt Ostendstraße station
Frankfurt Ostendstraße station is an underground S-Bahn station in central Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The station was opened when the City Tunnel was extended to Frankfurt South station in 1990. It consists of two tracks, surrounding a central platform....

, Konstablerwache
Frankfurt (Main) Konstablerwache station
Konstablerwache station is a major station in Frankfurt am Main with 191,000 passengers per day. It is situated at the eastern end of central Frankfurt’s main shopping street, the Zeil in the Konstablerwache plaza—named after the "constable watch-house" that was once located here. The Hauptwache ...

, Hauptwache
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptwache station
Hauptwache station is a major station in Frankfurt am Main with 181,000 passengers per day, making it the second busiest rapid transit station in the city and a major hub for rail transport in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region. It is served by eight S-Bahn lines—S1–S6 and S8/S9—and 6 U-Bahn...

, Taunusanlage
Taunusanlage station
Taunusanlage station is an underground S-Bahn station in central Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is in the Westend district, close to Taunusanlage Park. The name Taunusanlage refers to a section of the now demolished city walls, named in the 19th century after the nearby Taunusbahnhof of the Taunus...

 and Frankfurt Central Station. When leaving the city the S-Bahn travels above ground. It provides access to the trade fair (S3, S4, S5, S6), the airport (S8, S9), the stadium (S7, S8, S9) and nearby cities such as Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 275,400 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens...

, Mainz
Mainz
Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area.The sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation, prevented any larger settlement from developing, until the city became the seat...

, Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim is the largest town in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany. It is one of seven special status towns in Hesse and is located on the Main, only a few kilometres from its mouth in Mainz. The suburbs of Bauschheim and Königstädten are included in Rüsselsheim...

, Hanau
Hanau
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction.- Geography :...

, Offenbach am Main, Oberursel
Oberursel
Oberursel is a town in Germany. It is located to the north west of Frankfurt, and is the second largest town in the county of Hochtaunuskreis and the 14th largest town in Hessen.-Extent of municipal area:...

, Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe is the district town of the Hochtaunuskreis, Hesse, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus, bordering among others Frankfurt am Main and Oberursel...

, Kronberg, Friedberg
Friedberg
- Places :* Friedberg, Bavaria, Germany* Friedberg, Hesse, Germany** University of Applied Sciences Giessen-Friedberg* Aichach-Friedberg, Bavaria, Germany* Friedberg, Bad Saulgau, a district of Bad Saulgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany* Friedberg, Styria, Austria...

 and smaller towns that are on the way.
  • U-Bahn
    Frankfurt U-Bahn
    The Frankfurt U-Bahn, together with the Frankfurt S-Bahn and the Frankfurt Straßenbahn, is the backbone of the public transport system of Frankfurt, Germany. Its name derives from the German term for underground, Untergrundbahn. The U-Bahn opened in 1968 and now consists of 87 stations on nine...


The U-Bahn
U-Bahn
U-Bahn or Untergrundbahn is German for underground rapid transit or metro. Five systems take its name, with only four of them being metro systems:*Berlin U-Bahn*Hamburg U-Bahn*Munich U-Bahn*Nuremberg U-Bahn...

 has nine lines (U1 to U9) serving Frankfurt and the larger suburbs of Bad Homburg and Oberursel in the north. The trains that run on the line are in fact lightrails as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre. The minimum service interval is 2.5 minutes, although the usual pattern is that each line runs with a 7.5–10 minute frequency which combines to approx 3–5 minutes on the city centre sections served by more than one line.

Frankfurt has nine tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 lines (11, 12, 14 to 17, 19 to 21), with trams arriving usually every 10 minutes. Many sections are served by two lines, combining to give a 5 minute frequency during rush-hour. The tram runs only above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the S-Bahn.
  • Bus

A number of bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

 lines complete the Frankfurt public transportation system. Night buses take over the service of the U-Bahn and tram at 1:30 am to 3:30 am. The central junction for the night bus service is Konstablerwache in the city centre, where all night bus lines start and end.

Taxis


Taxis
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

 can always be found outside the major S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations, at the central station, the south station, the airport, the trade fair and at the crowed inner-city shopping streets. The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street.

Bicycles



Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 does not only operate the German railway network but also rents out bicycle
Bicycle
A bicycle, also known as a bike, pushbike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is called a cyclist, or bicyclist....

s. The bicycles are stationed all over the city and at selected train stations and places. They can easily be spotted because of their eye-catching silver-red colour. To rent a certain bike you have to call a service number to get a code for unlocking the bike lock. The costs for renting a bike are 0.06 € per minute or 15 € per day. To return the bike you have to lock it again within a certain area and call the service number. For more information see "Call a bike".http://www.callabike-interaktiv.de/

Velotaxis are also available in Frankfurt. A velotaxi is a cycle rickshaw
Cycle rickshaw
The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, becak, trisikad, or trishaw or, simply, rickshaw which also refers to auto rickshaws, and the, now uncommon, rickshaws pulled by a person on foot...

, a type of tricycle
Tricycle
A tricycle is a three-wheeled vehicle. While tricycles are often associated with the small three-wheeled vehicles used by pre-school-age children, they are also used by adults for a variety of purposes. In the United States and Canada, adult-sized tricycles are used primarily by older persons for...

 designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver. The advantage of a velotaxi is that it is allowed to drive in pedestrian-only areas and is therefore practical for a sightseeing tour in the city.

Frankfurt has also a network of modern cycle routes throughout city. Many of the long distance bike routes into the city have cycle tracks that are separate from automobile traffic. A number of roads in the city centre are "bicycle streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised vehicles are only allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle users. In addition, cyclists are allowed to ride many cramped one-way streets in both ways. It is a manifested intention of the city politics to raise the number of cyclists in the city. Today, 15 percent of Frankfurt's citizens use a bike and the number is expected to grow to 20 percent in the next years. For further information see http://www.radfahren-ffm.de/.

Economy and business


Due to its high concentration of important financial institutions, Frankfurt is by far the leading financial centre
Financial Centre
A financial centre is a global city that is a company and business hub, as well as being home to many world famous banks and/or stock exchanges....

 in Germany and also one of the world's most important. It was ranked 6th at the Innovation Cities Index in 2010, 8th at the International Financial Centers Development Index (2011), 8th at the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index
Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index
Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index is an index of world's cities by Mastercard. Using seven evaluative dimensions, it provides rankings for 75 leading commercial cities.-2008 rankings:...

 (2008), 13th at the Global Power City Index (2010), 14th at the Global Financial Centres Index
Global Financial Centres Index
The Global Financial Centres Index is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on 26,629 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 60 indices...

 (March 2011), 14th at the World City Survey (2011) and 20th at the Global Cities Index (2010).

According to an annual study by Cushman & Wakefield, the European Cities Monitor (2010), Frankfurt has been one of the top three cities for international companies in Europe, along with London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 and Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, since the survey started in 1990. It is also the only German city considered to be an alpha world city (category 3) as listed by the Loughborough University
Loughborough University
Loughborough University is a research based campus university located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England...

 group's 2010 inventory, which was a promotion from the group's 2008 inventory when it was ranked as an alpha minus world city (category 4).

Central banks



Frankfurt is home to two important central bank
Central bank
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is a public institution that usually issues the currency, regulates the money supply, and controls the interest rates in a country. Central banks often also oversee the commercial banking system of their respective countries...

s.
  • European Central Bank
    European Central Bank
    The European Central Bank is the institution of the European Union that administers the monetary policy of the 17 EU Eurozone member states. It is thus one of the world's most important central banks. The bank was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1998, and is headquartered in Frankfurt,...


The European Central Bank (Europäische Zentralbank) is one of the world's most important central banks. The ECB sets monetary policy for the Eurozone
Eurozone
The eurozone , officially called the euro area, is an economic and monetary union of seventeen European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their common currency and sole legal tender...

, consisting of 17 European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 member states
Member State of the European Union
A member state of the European Union is a state that is party to treaties of the European Union and has thereby undertaken the privileges and obligations that EU membership entails. Unlike membership of an international organisation, being an EU member state places a country under binding laws in...

 that have adopted the Euro
Euro
The euro is the official currency of the eurozone: 17 of the 27 member states of the European Union. It is also the currency used by the Institutions of the European Union. The eurozone consists of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

 (€) as their common currency and sole legal tender
Legal tender
Legal tender is a medium of payment allowed by law or recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation. Paper currency is a common form of legal tender in many countries....

. Since its foundation in 1998 the ECB Headquarters are located in the Eurotower
Eurotower (Frankfurt)
The Eurotower is a skyscraper located in the Bankenviertel of Frankfurt, Germany.The tower is tall, with 40 floors and 78.000 m² of office space...

 at Willy-Brandt-Platz and, due to a shortage of space, in two other high-rise office buildings in Frankfurt's financial district. The future European Central Bank Headquarters in the Ostend
Ostend (Frankfurt am Main)
Ostend is a borough of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt IV, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke. It is home to several brothels located along the Main River. The most famous of these brothels, or "Puffs," is the Eros-Center with its ubiquitous "legs" entrance...

 district, consisting of the former wholesale market hall (Großmarkthalle
Großmarkthalle
The Großmarkthalle , located in the Ostend of Frankfurt am Main, was the city's main wholesale market, especially for fruit and vegetables. It was closed on June 4, 2004...

) and a newly built 185-metres skyscraper, are expected to be completed by early 2014. The new building complex will house up to 2,300 ECB personnel. The location, which is a few miles away from the city centre and borders an industrial area as well as the Osthafen (East Harbour), was primarily chosen because of its large premises which allows the ECB to install safety arrangements without using high fences.

The City of Frankfurt honours the importance of the ECB by officially using the slogan "The City of the Euro" since 1998.
  • German Federal Bank
    Deutsche Bundesbank
    The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks . Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Deutsche Bundesbank and the European Central Bank are...


The German Federal Bank (
Deutsche Bundesbank), located in Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

, was established in 1957 as the central bank for the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. Until the Euro (€) was physically introduced in 2002, the Deutsche Bundesbank was responsible for the monetary policy of Germany and for the German currency, the Deutsche Mark (DM). The Bundesbank was greatly respected for its control of inflation
Inflation
In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation also reflects an erosion in the purchasing power of money – a...

 through the second half of the 20th century. Today the Bundesbank is an integral part of the European System of Central Banks
European System of Central Banks
The European System of Central Banks is composed of the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all 27 European Union Member States.-Functions:...

 (ESCB) which is formed by all 27 European Union member states.

Banks


In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had a registered office in Frankfurt, including the headquarters of the major German banks, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is therefore well known as Bankenstadt ("City of the banks") and nickname
Nickname
A nickname is "a usually familiar or humorous but sometimes pointed or cruel name given to a person or place, as a supposedly appropriate replacement for or addition to the proper name.", or a name similar in origin and pronunciation from the original name....

d "Mainhattan" (a portmanteau of the local Main river and Manhattan
Manhattan
Manhattan is the oldest and the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. Located primarily on the island of Manhattan at the mouth of the Hudson River, the boundaries of the borough are identical to those of New York County, an original county of the state of New York...

 in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

) or "Bankfurt". 73,200 people were emplyoyed at banks in Frankfurt in 2010.
  • Deutsche Bank
    Deutsche Bank
    Deutsche Bank AG is a global financial service company with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. It employs more than 100,000 people in over 70 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets...


Deutsche Bank is by far the largest commercial bank
Commercial bank
After the implementation of the Glass–Steagall Act, the U.S. Congress required that banks engage only in banking activities, whereas investment banks were limited to capital market activities. As the two no longer have to be under separate ownership under U.S...

 in Germany. It has a share in the market of 15 percent relating to private customers and a balance sheet total of 1.900 billion € in 2010. Deutsche Bank ranks among the 30 largest banks in the world and the ten largest banks in Europe. Deutsche Bank is also listed in the DAX
DAX
The DAX is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Prices are taken from the electronic Xetra trading system...

, the stock market index
Stock market index
A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds....

 of the 30 largest German business companies at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 12th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse, which also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and the clearing company...

. In November 2010 Deutsche Bank bought the majority of shares of competitor Postbank
Deutsche Postbank
Deutsche Postbank AG is a German retail bank with headquarters in Bonn. Postbank was formed from the demerger of the postal savings division of Deutsche Bundespost in 1990. It became a wholly owned subsidiary of Deutsche Post in 1999, and was partially spun out on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2004...

. The Headquarters of Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank Twin Towers
The Deutsche Bank Twin Towers consists of two skyscrapers that are each 155 meters high. They are also called debit and credit , or German bank called Twin Towers I and II. It is the headquarters of Deutsche Bank Group, located in the banking district in Frankfurt, Germany...

 are located at Taunusanlage in the financial district.
  • Commerzbank
    Commerzbank
    Commerzbank AG is the second-largest bank in Germany, after Deutsche Bank, headquartered in Frankfurt am Main.-Activities:Commerzbank is mainly active in commercial bank, retail banking and mortgaging. It suffered reversals in investment banking in early 2000s and scaled back its Securities unit...


Commerzbank is Germany's second-largest commercial bank with a balance sheet total of 754 billion € (2010). In 2009, Commerzbank merged with competitor Dresdner Bank
Dresdner Bank
Dresdner Bank AG was one of Germany's largest banking corporations and was based in Frankfurt. It was acquired by competitor Commerzbank in December 2009.- 19th century :...

, then the third-largest German bank. Due to the merger and the higher credit risks, Commerzbank was partially nationalized
Nationalization
Nationalisation, also spelled nationalization, is the process of taking an industry or assets into government ownership by a national government or state. Nationalization usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being...

 (25 percent) during the financial crisis in 2009
Late-2000s financial crisis
The late-2000s financial crisis is considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s...

. It is listed in the DAX
DAX
The DAX is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Prices are taken from the electronic Xetra trading system...

 stock market index
Stock market index
A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds....

. The Headquarters of Commerzbank are at Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower
Commerzbank Tower, located in the city centre of Frankfurt, Germany, is the tallest completed skyscraper in the European Union. After it was completed in 1997 it ranked as the tallest skyscraper in Europe until 2005 when it was surpassed by the Triumph-Palace in Moscow...

 (259 metres), the tallest building in the European Union, at Kaiserplatz in the financial district.
  • KfW Bankengruppe
    KFW
    KFW may refer to:*Keith Fullerton Whitman , an American musician*KfW or Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, a German public-sector financial institution...


KfW Banking Group is a government-owned development bank which was formed in 1948 as part of the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948...

 to rebuilt Germany after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. Today KfW provides loans for purposes prescribed by the KfW law at lower rates than commercial banks, especially to medium-sized businesses. With a balance sheet total of 442 billion € (2010) it is Germany's third-largest bank. The KfW Headquarters are located in the Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 district at Bockenheimer Landstraße and Senckenberganlage.
  • DZ Bank
    DZ Bank
    DZ Bank AG is an acronym for Deutsche Zentral-Genossenschaftbank . DZ Bank is the fourth largest bank in Germany by asset size and the central institution for more than 900 co-operative banks and their 12,000 branch offices...


DZ Bank is the central institution for more than 900 co-operative banks
Cooperative banking
Cooperative banking is retail and commercial banking organized on a cooperative basis. Cooperative banking institutions take deposits and lend money in most parts of the world....

 (Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken
Bundesverband der Deutschen Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken
The Bundesverband der Deutschen Volksbanken und Raiffeisenbanken is the association of co-operative banks in Germany...

) and their 12,000 branch offices in Germany and is also a corporate and investment bank. It is the fourth-largest bank (balance sheet total: 383 billion €) in Germany. As a holding, the DZ Bank Group defines itself primarily as a service provider for the local Volksbanken and Raiffeisenbanken and their 30 million clients. The DZ Bank Headquarters are the Westendstraße 1
Westendstraße 1
Westendstraße 1 is a well-known skyscraper in the Westend of Frankfurt. It was completed in 1993 and together with the City Haus, the headquarters of DZ Bank...

 skyscraper (also known as Westend Tower) and the City-Haus
City-Haus
The 142 meter high City-Haus is located in the Westend district in Frankfurt am Main at the Republic Square. It was constructed from 1971 to 1974 and designed by architects John Krahn and Richard Heil.- History :...

 at Platz der Republik, not far from Frankfurt Central Station. The DZ Bank Group includes Union Investment
Union Investment
Union Investment is the investment company of the DZ BANK Group and part of the cooperative financial services network....

, DVB Bank and Reisebank, which are also headquartered in Frankfurt.
  • Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen
    Helaba
    Helaba short for Hessische Landesbank Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen is a commercial bank with core regions in Hesse and Thuringia, Germany...


Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen, or short
Helaba, is the central federal bank (Landesbank
Landesbank
The Landesbanken in Germany are a group of state owned banks of a type unique to Germany. They are regionally organised and their business is predominantly wholesale banking...

) for the federal states of Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

 and Thuringia
Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states....

. As such it is state-owned and defined as a service provider for the local german public banks (
Sparkassen). Helaba is one of nine Landesbanken and is the fifth-largest in Germany. It is located in the 200-metres tall Maintower
Maintower
Maintower is a 200 metre skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is named after the river Main. A 40 metre communications tower is mounted atop the building. It features five underground floors, as well as two public viewing platforms. The tower currently remains the only skyscraper in...

 in the financial district, the only skyscaper in Frankfurt with an observation desk open to the public.
  • DekaBank
    DekaBank
    The DekaBank is the central asset manager of the German Sparkassen. Deka as an investment company was founded in 1956. In 1999 it merged with Deutsche Girozentrale , which was founded in 1918...


DekaBank is the central Asset manager of the
Sparkassen in Germany. The Headquarters of DekaBank are located at the Trianon
Trianon (Frankfurt am Main)
Trianon is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was completed in 1993, and topped out at 45 storeys. Atop the building is an upside-down pyramid suspended from the three corners. Trianon is currently used by the investment company DEKA as their headquarters, as well as by Linklaters and...

 skyscraper at Mainzer Landstraße.
  • ING Diba
    ING Group
    The ING Group is a global financial institution offering retail banking, direct banking, commercial banking, investment banking, asset management, and insurance services. ING is the Dutch member of the Inter-Alpha Group of Banks, a cooperative consortium of 11 prominent European banks...

     Germany

ING Diba Germany is the largest direct bank in Germany, headquartered in Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

.

Other major German banks include
Frankfurter Volksbank, the second-largest
Volksbank in Germany, Frankfurter Sparkasse and old-established private banks such as Bankhaus Metzler
Metzler Bank
The B. Metzler seel. Sohn & Co. KGaA is a private banking company in Frankfurt, Germany. Metzler traces its origins to a trading company established 1674 by Benjamin Metzler in Frankfurt and is Germany’s oldest private bank still owned exclusively by the founding family.Metzler provides financial...

, Hauck & Aufhäuser
Hauck & Aufhäuser
Hauck & Aufhäuser is a private bank with offices in Frankfurt am Main and Munich. Established in 1796, Hauck & Aufhäuser is one of the few private banks operated as limited partnership with personally liable partners....

and Delbrück Bethmann Maffei
Bethmann bank
Delbrück Bethmann Maffei AG is a private bank headquartered in Frankfurt am Main. It's a subsidiary of the Dutch bank ABN AMRO and was created in 2004 from a merger of the banks Bankhaus Delbrück & Co and Bethmann-Maffei...

.
  • International banks

A lot of international banks have a registered or a representative office in Frakfurt, e.g.
Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
The Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational financial services company headquartered in Zurich, with more than 250 branches in Switzerland and operations in more than 50 countries.-History:...

, UBS, Bank of America
Bank of America
Bank of America Corporation, an American multinational banking and financial services corporation, is the second largest bank holding company in the United States by assets, and the fourth largest bank in the U.S. by market capitalization. The bank is headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina...

, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley is a global financial services firm headquartered in New York City serving a diversified group of corporations, governments, financial institutions, and individuals. Morgan Stanley also operates in 36 countries around the world, with over 600 offices and a workforce of over 60,000....

, Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational bulge bracket investment banking and securities firm that engages in global investment banking, securities, investment management, and other financial services primarily with institutional clients...

, Merrill Lynch
Merrill Lynch
Merrill Lynch is the wealth management division of Bank of America. With over 15,000 financial advisors and $2.2 trillion in client assets it is the world's largest brokerage. Formerly known as Merrill Lynch & Co., Inc., prior to 2009 the firm was publicly owned and traded on the New York...

, JPMorgan Chase & Co.
JPMorgan Chase & Co.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational banking corporation of securities, investments and retail. It is the largest bank in the United States by assets and market capitalization.It is a major provider of financial services, with assets of $2 trillion and according to Forbes magazine is...

, Bank of China
Bank of China
Bank of China Limited is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1912 by the Government of the Republic of China, to replace the Government Bank of Imperial China. It is the oldest bank in China...

, Société Générale
Société Générale
Société Générale S.A. is a large European Bank and a major Financial Services company that has a substantial global presence. Its registered office is on Boulevard Haussmann in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, while its head office is in the Tours Société Générale in the business district of La...

, BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas
BNP Paribas S.A. is a global banking group, headquartered in Paris, with its second global headquarters in London. In October 2010 BNP Paribas was ranked by Bloomberg and Forbes as the largest bank and largest company in the world by assets with over $3.1 trillion. It was formed through the merger...

, SEB
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken
Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB is a Swedish financial group for corporate customers, institutions and private individuals with headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden. Its activities comprise mainly banking services, but SEB also carries out significant life insurance operations and also owns Eurocard...

, Royal Bank of Scotland
Royal Bank of Scotland
The Royal Bank of Scotland Group is a British banking and insurance holding company in which the UK Government holds an 84% stake. This stake is held and managed through UK Financial Investments Limited, whose voting rights are limited to 75% in order for the bank to retain its listing on the...

and Barclays.

Frankfurt Stock Exchange




The roots of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 12th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse, which also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and the clearing company...

 (Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse) can be traced back to the 9th century and by the 16th century Frankfurt had developed into an important European hub for trade fairs and financial services. Today the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is by far the largest in Germany with a turnover of more than 90 percent in the German stock market
Stock market
A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price; these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.The size of the world stock market was estimated at about $36.6 trillion...

 and is the third-largest in Europe after the London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
The London Stock Exchange is a stock exchange located in the City of London within the United Kingdom. , the Exchange had a market capitalisation of US$3.7495 trillion, making it the fourth-largest stock exchange in the world by this measurement...

 and the European branch of the NYSE Euronext. The most important stock market index
Stock market index
A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds....

 in Frankfurt is the DAX
DAX
The DAX is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Prices are taken from the electronic Xetra trading system...

, the index of the 30 largest German business companies listed at the stock exchange
Stock exchange
A stock exchange is an entity that provides services for stock brokers and traders to trade stocks, bonds, and other securities. Stock exchanges also provide facilities for issue and redemption of securities and other financial instruments, and capital events including the payment of income and...

. The stock exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse
Deutsche Börse
Deutsche Börse AG is a marketplace organizer for the trading of shares and other securities. It also is a transaction services provider. It gives companies and investors access to global capital markets. It is a joint stock company and was founded in 1993. The headquarters are in Frankfurt,...

, which is itself listed in the DAX. Deutsche Börse also owns the European futures exchange
Futures exchange
A futures exchange or futures market is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized futures contracts; that is, a contract to buy specific quantities of a commodity or financial instrument at a specified price with delivery set at a specified time in the future. These types of...

 Eurex
Eurex
Eurex is one of the world's leading derivatives exchanges, providing European benchmark derivatives featuring open and low-cost electronic access globally...

 and the clearing company Clearstream
Clearstream
Clearstream Banking S.A. is the clearing and settlement division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg and Frankfurt. Clearstream was created in January 2000 through the merger of Cedel International and Deutsche Börse Clearing...

. Today, trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra trading system
Xetra (trading system)
Xetra is a worldwide electronic securities trading system based in Frankfurt, Germany. It was created for the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and launched in November, 1997. It is operated by Deutsche Börse....

, with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers on the new platform.

Since February 2011 Deutsche Börse is in negotiations with NYSE Euronext to merge and become the largest single stock exchange in the world. If the merger actually happens the headquarters of the new company will be located in Frankfurt and in New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

.

The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is located in the city centre of Frankfurt at the Börsenplatz. Deutsche Börse has its headquarters formally registered in Frankfurt but has moved most of its employees in a newly built high-rise building called "The Cube" in Eschborn
Eschborn
Eschborn is a town near Frankfurt am Main in the Main-Taunus district, Hesse, Germany. As of 2009, it had a population of 20,789, but boasts fulltime employment of over 30,000 people...

 in 2010, primarily due to significantly lower local corporate tax
Corporate tax
Many countries impose corporate tax or company tax on the income or capital of some types of legal entities. A similar tax may be imposed at state or lower levels. The taxes may also be referred to as income tax or capital tax. Entities treated as partnerships are generally not taxed at the...

es.

Frankfurt Trade Fair


Trade fair
Trade fair
A trade fair is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities...

s have a very long tradition in Frankfurt as they were first mentioned in the 12th century. Today, Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair
Frankfurt Trade Fair , with 448,000,000 Euros in sales and over 1,600 active employees, is one of the world's largest trade fair companies. The group has a global network of 28 subsidiaries, five branch offices, and 52 international sales partners. Thus, the Messe Frankfurt is present in over 150...

 (Messe Frankfurt) has the third-largest exhibition site in the world with a total of 578,000 square metres (6,221,540 square feet). The trade fair premises are located in the western part of Frankfurt between Bockenheim
Bockenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Bockenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt II, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke. It is in the west-central part of the city and covers an area of 540.1 ha...

, the Westend
Westend (Frankfurt am Main)
The Westend area of Frankfurt contains the two districts of Westend-Nord and Westend-Süd. The Westend with its Wilhelminian style buildings is a beloved residential quarter...

 and the Gallus
Gallus (Frankfurt am Main)
Gallus, former Gallusviertel, is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I, and is subdivided into 7 Stadtbezirke....

 district. It houses ten exhibition halls with a total of 321,754 square meters (3,463,331 square feet) of space and 96,078 square metres (1,034,175 square feet) of outdoor space. Visitors can access the trade fair by public transport on two sides: Via the S-Bahn (lines S3-S6) with a stop at Messe Station
Frankfurt Messe station
Frankfurt Messe station is an S-Bahn station in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in the district of Bockenheim in the middle of the Frankfurt Trade Fair grounds. The station was opened in 1999 to improve the fair’s public transport connections. It consists of two platform tracks facing a central platform...

 located at the center of the area or via the U-Bahn (line U4) with a stop at Festhalle/Messe Station on the north-east corner of the area.

Hosted in Frankfurt are the Frankfurt Motor Show (Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung - IAA), the world's largest auto show
Auto show
An auto show, or motor show, is a public exhibition of current automobile models, debuts, concept cars, or out-of-production classics. It is commonly attended by automobile manufacturers. Most auto shows occur once or twice a year...

, the Frankfurt Book Fair
Frankfurt Book Fair
The Frankfurt Book Fair is the world's largest trade fair for books, based on the number of publishing companies represented. As to the number of visitors, the Turin Book Fair attracts about as many visitors, viz. some 300,000....

 (
Frankfurter Buchmesse), the world's largest book fair, the Ambiente Frankfurt, the world's largest consumer goods fair, the Achema, the world's largest plant engineering fair, and many more like Paperworld, Christmasworld, Beautyworld, Tendence Lifestyle or Light+Building.

Messe Frankfurt GmbH, the owner and operator company, organized 87 exhibitions in 2010, 51 thereof in foreign countries. It is one of the largest trade fair companies with commercial activities in over 150 countries.
  • Messeturm


A landmark building of the trade fair (and of the whole city) is the Messeturm
Messeturm
The Messeturm is a skyscraper in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Its name translates as "Fair Tower" in German. It is the second tallest building in Frankfurt, the second tallest building in Germany. The Messeturm's ground floor area is just . The Messeturm is directly located in the Frankfurt Trade...

 (the name translates as Fair Trade Tower), which had been the tallest building in Europe from 1991-1997. It is located on the north-east corner of the trade fair premises at the so-called city entrance. Despite the name it is not used for exhibition but serves as an office tower.

Aviation



Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

 is one of the busiest airports in the world and is also the single largest place of work in Germany with over 500 companies which employ 71,500 people (2010).
  • Lufthansa
    Lufthansa
    Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...


The largest employer at Frankfurt Airport is Lufthansa, Germany's flag carrier
Flag carrier
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given country, enjoys preferential rights or privileges, accorded by the government, for international operations. It may be a state-run, state-owned or private but...

 and also the largest airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

 in Europe. Although officially headquartered in Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Lufthansa employs 35,000 people in Frankfurt (compared to 800 in Cologne). The Lufthansa Aviation Center (LAC) is the main operation base of Lufthansa at Frankfurt Airport. The airport serves as Lufthansa's primary hub
Airline hub
An airline hub is an airport that an airline uses as a transfer point to get passengers to their intended destination. It is part of a hub and spoke model, where travelers moving between airports not served by direct flights change planes en route to their destinations...

 with 157 worldwide destinations (compared to 110 destinations at Munich Airport, Lufthansa's second-largest hub). Since 2010, Lufthansa's aircraft fleet uses the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

 for flights to and from Frankfurt which made Frankfurt one of the first European A380 destinations, along with London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport or Heathrow , in the London Borough of Hillingdon, is the busiest airport in the United Kingdom and the third busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic, handling more international passengers than any other airport around the globe...

 and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport. A new passenger terminal section (called A-Plus), currently under construction, will exclusively be used by Lufthansa from 2012 on with an additional capacity of 6 million passengers. Besides the passenger traffic, Lufthansa Cargo
Lufthansa Cargo
Lufthansa Cargo AG is a cargo airline from Germany, operating worldwide air freight and logistics services on behalf of Lufthansa, of which it is a wholly owned subsidiary. The company is headquartered in Building 451 of the Frankfurt Airport area in Frankfurt, the major hub of Lufthansa...

is based in Frankfurt and operates its largest cargo center (LCC) at Frankfurt Airport. Lufthansa Flight Training
Lufthansa Flight Training
Lufthansa Flight Training GmbH is a company owned by the airline Lufthansa, that trains Lufthansa pilots. The training locations are Bremen, Frankfurt, Berlin and Munich in Germany, Vienna in Austria, Zurich in Switzerland and a facility in Phoenix, Arizona, USA...

is also based here.
  • Fraport
    Fraport
    Fraport AG Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide is a German transport company which operates the Frankfurt International Airport serving Frankfurt am Main and holds interests in the operation of several other airports around the world. In the past the firm also managed the smaller Frankfurt-Hahn...


Fraport, the owner and operator company of Frankfurt Airport, is the second-largest employer at the airport (19,800 people in 2010). Besides Frankfurt, Fraport also operates other airport worldwide, e.g. King Abdulaziz International Airport
King Abdulaziz International Airport
King Abdulaziz International Airport is an aviation facility located 19 km to the north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Named after King Abdulaziz Al Saud, the airport is Saudi Arabia's third largest air facility and busiest airport by passenger. The airport occupies an area of 15 square kilometers...

 in Jeddah
Jeddah
Jeddah, Jiddah, Jidda, or Jedda is a city located on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest sea port on the Red Sea, and the second largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. The...

, Jorge Chávez International Airport
Jorge Chávez International Airport
Jorge Chávez International Airport , known as Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez in Spanish, is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in Callao, 11 kilometers from the Historic Centre of Lima and 17 km from Miraflores. Callao is the port city now fully...

 in Lima
Lima
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central part of the country, on a desert coast overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima...

 and Antalya Airport
Antalya Airport
Antalya Airport is northeast of the city center of Antalya, Turkey. The airport is operated in Turkey's primary holiday destination located on the country's Mediterranean coast. The airport is big and modern, built to accommodate the millions of passengers who come to Turkey's Mediterranean...

.
  • Condor

Condor is a German airline and part of Thomas Cook Group
Thomas Cook Group
Thomas Cook Group plc is a travel company created on 19 June, 2007 by the merger of Thomas Cook AG and MyTravel Group plc. At flotation on the London Stock Exchange 52% of the shares in the new company were held by the German mail order and department store corporation Arcandor and 48% owned by...

, based at Frankfurt Airport. The headquarters are currently located in nearby Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach is a town in Groß-Gerau district in Hessen, Germany. It lies on Frankfurt's southwestern outskirts at a bend on the left bank of the river Main, right where a small brook, called the Kelster empties into the river...

, but Condor will move to newly built headquarters in 2012, located within Frankfurt's city limits close to the airport ground.

Accountancy and professional services


Three of the four largest international accountancy
Accountancy
Accountancy is the process of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers. The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management; the art lies in...

 and professional services
Professional services
Professional services is an industry of infrequent, technical, or unique functions performed by independent contractors or by consultants whose occupation is the rendering of such services....

 firms (Big Four) are represented in Frankfurt.

PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

(PwC) has its German headquarters in Frankfurt, located at the Tower 185
Tower 185
Tower 185 is the name of a skyscraper under construction in Frankfurt, Germany. At with 55 floors it will be the fourth tallest building in Germany when it is completed in 2011. It is a commercial office building...

.
KPMG
KPMG
KPMG is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young and PwC. Its global headquarters is located in Amstelveen, Netherlands....

moved its European Headquarters (KPMG Europe LLP) to Frankfurt, based at The Squaire near Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

.
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited , commonly referred to as Deloitte, is one of the Big Four accountancy firms along with PricewaterhouseCoopers , Ernst & Young, and KPMG....

are also represented in the city while Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms, along with Deloitte, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers ....

chose to move its office to Eschborn
Eschborn
Eschborn is a town near Frankfurt am Main in the Main-Taunus district, Hesse, Germany. As of 2009, it had a population of 20,789, but boasts fulltime employment of over 30,000 people...

.

Credit rating agencies


The three major international credit rating agencies
Credit rating agency
A Credit rating agency is a company that assigns credit ratings for issuers of certain types of debt obligations as well as the debt instruments themselves...

 (Big Three
Big Three (credit rating agencies)
The Big Three credit rating agencies are Standard & Poor's , Moody's, and Fitch Group. S&P and Moody's are US-based, while Fitch is dual-headquartered in New York City and London, and is controlled by the France-based FIMALAC. The European Union has considered setting up a state-supported EU-based...

) -
Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's is a United States-based financial services company. It is a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies that publishes financial research and analysis on stocks and bonds. It is well known for its stock-market indices, the US-based S&P 500, the Australian S&P/ASX 200, the Canadian...

, Moody's
Moody's
Moody's Corporation is the holding company for Moody's Analytics and Moody's Investors Service, a credit rating agency which performs international financial research and analysis on commercial and government entities. The company also ranks the credit-worthiness of borrowers using a standardized...

and Fitch Ratings - have their German offices headquartered in Frankfurt.

Investment trust companies


DWS Investments is the largest investment trust
Investment trust
An Investment trust is a form of collective investment found mostly in the United Kingdom. Investment trusts are closed-end funds and are constituted as public limited companies....

 company in Germany and manages 288 billion € fund assets. It is also one of the 10 largest investment trust companies in the world. Other large investment trust companies in Frankfurt are
Union Investment
Union Investment
Union Investment is the investment company of the DZ BANK Group and part of the cooperative financial services network....

and Deka Investmentfonds.

Management consultancies


Many of the largest international management consultancies
Management consulting
Management consulting indicates both the industry and practice of helping organizations improve their performance primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and development of plans for improvement....

 are represented in Frankfurt, including
Arthur D. Little
Arthur D. Little
Arthur D. Little is an international management consulting firm originally headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, and formally incorporated by that name in 1909 by Arthur Dehon Little, an MIT chemist who had discovered acetate. Arthur D. Little pioneered the concept of contracted...

, McKinsey & Company
McKinsey & Company
McKinsey & Company, Inc. is a global management consulting firm that focuses on solving issues of concern to senior management. McKinsey serves as an adviser to many businesses, governments, and institutions...

, Boston Consulting Group
Boston Consulting Group
The Boston Consulting Group is a global management consulting firm with offices in 42 countries. It is recognized as one of the most prestigious management consulting firms in the world. It is one of only three companies to appear in the top 15 of Fortunes "Best Companies to Work For" report for...

, Booz & Company
Booz & Company
Booz & Company is a global management consulting firm established in the United States in 1914. It is recognized as one of the most prestigious management consulting firms in the world and one of the best consulting firms to work for by Consulting Magazine...

, Oliver Wyman
Oliver Wyman
Oliver Wyman is an international management consulting firm. Founded in 1984, the firm adopted its current form in May 2007, when Mercer Oliver Wyman joined with Mercer Management Consulting and Mercer Delta to become one firm named Oliver Wyman. Oliver Wyman is headquartered in New York City with...

, Bearing Point, Capgemini
Capgemini
Capgemini is a French global IT services company, one of the world's largest management consulting, outsourcing and professional services companies with a staff of 114,274 operating in 40 countries. It is headquartered in Paris and was founded in 1967 by Serge Kampf, the current chairman, in...

, Bain & Company
Bain & Company
Bain & Company is a global management consulting firm headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts. Bain is considered one of the most prestigious consulting firms in the world, with 47 offices in 30 countries and over 5,500 professionals on staff globally...

and Roland Berger Strategy Consultants
Roland Berger Strategy Consultants
Roland Berger Strategy Consultants is a global strategy consulting firm headquartered in Munich, with 43 offices in 31 countries. Roland Berger Strategy Consultants was founded in 1967 by Prof. Roland Berger...

.

Real estate services companies


Located in Frankfurt are the German headquarters of
Jones Lang LaSalle
Jones Lang LaSalle
Jones Lang LaSalle, Inc. is a multinational financial and professional services company specializing in real estate. Global headquarters are located in Chicago, with an operational remit covering the Americas regional market...

and BNP Paribas Real Estate
BNP Paribas Real Estate
BNP Paribas Real Estate is a specialised division of the financial services group BNP Paribas. The company is present in 31 countries across the globe through owned delegations and alliances....

.

Law firms


Frankfurt has the highest concentration of lawyer
Lawyer
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political...

s in Germany, with one lawyer per 97 inhabitants (followed by Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

 with 117 lawyers and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 with 124 lawyers) in 2005.

Most of the large international law firms maintain offices in Frankfurt, among them
Allen & Overy
Allen & Overy
Allen & Overy is a global law firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom.A member of the UK's Magic Circle of leading law firms, Allen & Overy is widely considered to be one of the world's elite law firms, advising national and multinational corporations, financial institutions, and...

, Baker & McKenzie
Baker & McKenzie
Baker & McKenzie is an international law firm, founded in Chicago in 1949 by Russell Baker and John McKenzie. It is home to more than 3,800 lawyers spread over 70 offices in 42 different countries....

, Clifford Chance
Clifford Chance
Clifford Chance LLP is a global law firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom and a member of the 'Magic Circle' of leading UK law firms. It is one of the ten largest law firms in the world measured by both number of lawyers and revenue...

, Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, Debevoise & Plimpton
Debevoise & Plimpton
Debevoise & Plimpton LLP is a prominent international law firm based in New York City. Founded in 1931 by Eli Whitney Debevoise and William Stevenson, Debevoise has been a long established leader in corporate litigation and large financial transactions. In recent years, its practice has taken on an...

, DLA Piper
DLA Piper
DLA Piper is a global law firm with 76 offices across 30 countries and more than 4,200 lawyers. As of May 2011, it was the largest law firm in the world by number of attorneys. The firm's global revenues were $1.92 billion in 2009-2010. The firm is composed of two partnerships, DLA Piper...

, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer
Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer
Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP is a global law firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom and a member of the 'Magic Circle' of leading English law firms. It is the second-largest law firm in the world measured by revenues. In 2010-11 it achieved total revenues of £1.14 billion and profits...

, Hogan Lovells
Hogan Lovells
Hogan Lovells is an international law firm co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom and Washington, D.C., United States. It was formed on May 1, 2010 following the merger of Washington-based Hogan & Hartson and London-based Lovells. The two firms' agreement to merge was announced on 15 December...

, Jones Day
Jones Day
Jones Day is an international law firm founded in Cleveland, Ohio on March 1, 1893, by Judge Edwin J. Blandin and William Lowe Rice. Jones Day is the eighth largest law firm in the world by revenue, and the fourth highest grossing firm in the US with annual revenues of US$1.4 billion...

, Linklaters
Linklaters
Linklaters LLP is a global law firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom and a member of the 'Magic Circle' of leading UK law firms. Linklaters is the world's fourth largest global law firm by revenue. In 2009/10 it received total revenues of £1.18 billion and profits per equity partner of £1.2...

, Mayer Brown
Mayer Brown
Mayer Brown is an international law firm head-quartered in Chicago which specializes in commercial transactions and litigation. The firm employs more than 1,600 lawyers, including approximately 875 in the Americas, 425 in Europe and 300 in Asia....

, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy
Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy
Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP is a United States law firm headquartered in New York City. It also has offices in Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, London, Frankfurt, Munich, Tokyo, Hong Kong, São Paulo, Singapore and Beijing.Milbank is a global law firm, with approximately 550 lawyers who...

, Norton Rose
Norton Rose
Norton Rose is an international legal practice offering a business law service from 39 offices across Europe, Asia Pacific, Canada, Africa and the Middle East...

, Shearman & Sterling
Shearman & Sterling
Shearman & Sterling LLP is a law firm headquartered in New York City with 20 offices located in major financial centers around the world founded in 1873. It is well known for both its litigation and transactional capabilities, especially in International Arbitration, Capital Markets, Finance, and...

, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP and Affiliates , founded in 1948, is a prominent law firm based in New York City. With over 2,000 attorneys, it is one of the largest and highest-grossing law firms in the world. Forbes magazine calls Skadden "Wall Street's most powerful law firm"...

, K&L Gates, Taylor Wessing and White & Case
White & Case
White & Case was founded in New York in 1901 and has grown into one of the world's leading global law firms. The firm has since expanded, and has practice groups in emerging markets including Latin America, Central & Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as in Europe...

.

Advertising agencies


Although it is best known for its banks and financial institutions, Frankfurt is also a centre for media companies. There are around 570 companies of the advertising
Advertising
Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

 industry and 270 public relations
Public relations
Public relations is the actions of a corporation, store, government, individual, etc., in promoting goodwill between itself and the public, the community, employees, customers, etc....

 companies represented in the city.

According to a ranking of German FOCUS magazine
Focus (German magazine)
Focus is a German weekly news magazine published in Munich and distributed throughout Germany. It is the third-largest weekly news magazine in Germany. It is considered conservative and leaned towards economic liberalism.- Overview :...

 (November 2007) seven of the 48 largest advertising agencies
Advertising agency
An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services...

 in Germany are based in Frankfurt, including McCann-Erickson, Saatchi & Saatchi
Saatchi & Saatchi
Saatchi & Saatchi is a global advertising agency network with 140 offices in 80 countries and over 6,500 staff. It was founded in London in 1970 but now headquartered in New York. The parent company of the agency group was known as Saatchi & Saatchi PLC from 1976 to 1994, was listed on the London...

, JWT
JWT
JWT is one of the largest advertising agencies in the United States and the fourth-largest in the world. It is one of the key companies of Sir Martin Sorrell's WPP Group and is headquartered in New York. The global agency is led by Worldwide Chairman and Global CEO Bob Jeffrey who took over the...

, and Publicis
Publicis
Publicis Groupe is a French multinational advertising and communications company, headquartered in Paris, France. It is one of the world's three largest advertising holding companies . Its current president is Maurice Lévy. Publicis Groupe S.A...

.

Food companies


Frankfurt is home to the German headquarters of
Nestlé
Nestlé
Nestlé S.A. is the world's largest food and nutrition company. Founded and headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland, Nestlé originated in a 1905 merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1867 by brothers George Page and Charles Page, and Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri...

, the world's largest food company
Food industry
The food production is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that together supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population...

, located in Niederrad
Niederrad (Frankfurt am Main)
Niederrad is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany with about 23.000 Inhabitants. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd, and is subdivided into the Stadtbezirke Niederrad-Nord and Niederrad-Süd.-History:...

. Other important food companies are
Ferrero SpA
Ferrero SpA
Ferrero SpA is an Italian manufacturer of chocolate and other confectionery products, founded by confectioner Pietro Ferrero in 1946 and based in Alba, Piedmont, Italy. The company achieved success headed by Pietro's son Michele Ferrero, then Michele's son Pietro , who oversaw global business...

(German headquarters) and Radeberger Gruppe KG, the largest private brewery
Brewery
A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of beer, though beer can be made at home, and has been for much of beer's history. A company which makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company....

 group in Germany.

Automobile companies


The South-Korean automobile manufacturer
Automotive industry
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

 
Kia Motors
Kia Motors
Kia Motors , headquartered in Seoul, is South Korea's second-largest automobile manufacturer, following the Hyundai Motor Company, with sales of over 1.4 million vehicles in 2010...

moved its European Headquarters to Frankfurt in 2007. In the same year Italian manufacturer Fiat
Fiat
FIAT, an acronym for Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino , is an Italian automobile manufacturer, engine manufacturer, financial, and industrial group based in Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont. Fiat was founded in 1899 by a group of investors including Giovanni Agnelli...

opened its new German headquarters in the city.

Construction companies


Some of the largest German construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

 companies have offices in Frankfurt, e.g.
Bilfinger Berger
Bilfinger Berger
Bilfinger Berger is a large, internationally active construction and services company based in Mannheim, Germany.-History:Bilfinger Berger dates back to 1880 when August Bernatz founded an engineering business which became known, from 1886 as Bernatz & Grün and, from 1892, as Grün & Bilfinger.In...

, Hochtief
Hochtief
Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft is Germany's largest construction company. It is based in Essen but operates globally, ranking as the top general builder in the United States through its Turner Corporation subsidiary, and in Australia through the Leighton Group. In 2010 it employed more than 70,000...

, Züblin and BAM Deutschland.

Other businesses



Frankfurt is also home to many companies from the chemical, the transportation, the telecommunication and the energy industry. Some of the larger companies are:
  • Industriepark Höchst

The Industriepark Höchst is an industrial park
Industrial park
An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development...

 in Höchst
Höchst (Frankfurt am Main)
Höchst is a district of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk West, and is subdivided into 4 Stadtbezirke.Höchst am Main became part of Frankfurt am Main in 1928 together with its boroughs Sindlingen, Unterliederbach and Zeilsheim. It is situated 10 km west of downtown...

. It is one of the largest in Germany with over 90 companies from the pharmaceutical, the chemical
Chemical industry
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products.-Products:...

 and the biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts. Biotechnology also utilizes these products for manufacturing purpose...

 industry, including
Celanese
Celanese
Celanese Corporation is a Fortune 500 global technology and specialty materials company with its headquarters in Dallas, Texas. The company is a leading producer of acetyl products, which are intermediate chemicals for nearly all major industries, and is the world's largest producer of vinyl...

, Clariant
Clariant
Clariant is a Swiss speciality chemical company which was formed in 1995 as a spin off from Sandoz.- Business :The company has a turnover of around US$8 billion and is headquartered in Muttenz, near Basel, Switzerland....

, BASF
BASF
BASF SE is the largest chemical company in the world and is headquartered in Germany. BASF originally stood for Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik . Today, the four letters are a registered trademark and the company is listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, London Stock Exchange, and Zurich Stock...

, Merck KGaA
Merck KGaA
Merck KGaA is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company. Merck, also known as “German Merck” and “Merck Darmstadt”, was founded in Darmstadt, Germany, in 1668, making it the world's oldest operating chemical and pharmaceutical company. The company was privately owned until going public in 1995...

and Siemens
Siemens
Siemens may refer toSiemens, a German family name carried by generations of telecommunications industrialists, including:* Werner von Siemens , inventor, founder of Siemens AG...

. It was founded by chemical company Hoechst AG
Hoechst AG
Hoechst AG was a German chemicals then life-sciences company that became Aventis Deutschland after its merger with France's Rhône-Poulenc S.A. in 1999...

 in 1874 which became a global corporation before World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. At the beginning of the 1980s the Hoechst AG was the largest pharmaceutical corporation in the world relating to its business volume and the Industriepark Höchst was known as "the pharmacy of the world". The Hoechst AG merged with Rhône-Poulenc
Rhône-Poulenc
-History of the company:The Company was founded in 1928 through the merger of Société des Usines Chimiques du Rhône from Lyon and Établissements Poulenc Frères from Paris founded by Étienne Poulenc, a 19th century Parisian apothecary and brought to prominence by his second and third sons Emile...

 to become Aventis
Aventis
Aventis was a pharmaceutical and lab assay testing company. It was formed in 1999 when Rhône-Poulenc S.A. merged with Hoechst AG. The merged company was based in Strasbourg, France. With its headquarters in Strasbourg, Aventis was the product of the first transnational merger to combine large...

 in 1999 and in 2004 Aventis merged with Sanofi-Synthélabo
Sanofi-Synthélabo
Sanofi-Synthélabo was a Paris-based pharmaceutical company formed in 1999, when Sanofi merged with Synthélabo. Sanofi-Aventis was formed in 2004 when Sanofi-Synthélabo merged with Aventis.Sanofi was created in 1973....

 to become Sanofi-Aventis
Sanofi-Aventis
Sanofi S.A. is a multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Paris, France, the world's fourth-largest by prescription sales. Sanofi engages in the research and development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical products for sale principally in the prescription market, but the...

. In 2005, around 22,000 people worked at Industriepark Höchst. In 2011, Ticona
Ticona
Ticona is an international manufacturer of engineering polymers. The company's head office is located at the Ticona/Celanese-Plant in Florence, Kentucky, USA, since 2005.-Company history:...

, an international manufacturer of engineering polymer
Polymer
A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating structural units. These subunits are typically connected by covalent chemical bonds...

s, moved to Industriepark Höchst because it had to abandon its location in Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach is a town in Groß-Gerau district in Hessen, Germany. It lies on Frankfurt's southwestern outskirts at a bend on the left bank of the river Main, right where a small brook, called the Kelster empties into the river...

 due to its closeness to the newly constructed fourth runway at Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport
Frankfurt Airport may refer to:Airports of Frankfurt, Germany:*Frankfurt Airport , the largest airport in Germany*Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport, a general aviation airport*Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , a converted U.S...

.
  • Deutsche Bahn
    Deutsche Bahn
    Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...


Until the year 2000, when Deutsche Bahn moved to Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, the headquarters of Germany's national railway company were located in Frankfurt. Today, the Deutsche Bahn subsidiaries
DB Fernverkehr
DB Fernverkehr
DB Fernverkehr AG is a semi-independent division of Deutsche Bahn that operates long-distance passenger trains in Germany. It was founded in 1999 in the second stage of the privatisation of German Federal Railways under the name of DB Reise&Touristik and renamed in 2003.DB Fernverkehr operates all...

, DB Regio
DB Regio
DB Regio AG is a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn which operates short and medium distance passenger train services in Germany, and operates light and heavy rail infrastructure in the United Kingdom.-Germany:...

, DB Stadtverkehr, DB Netz
DB Netz
DB Netz AG is a 100%-owned subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn is a railway infrastructure provider, which owns and operates a majority of the German railway system . The company was established in the course of the second stage of the German rail reform as a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn...

and the corporate development department of Deutsche Bahn are still based in Frankfurt.

In 2010,
DB Schenker
DB Schenker
DB Schenker is a logistics company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn AG. The company, created by reorganisation and rebranding of various Deutsche Bahn subsidiaries, comprises a logistics division encompassing air, land and sea freight, and a rail division made up from a variety of...

, the logistics
Logistics
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of destination in order to meet the requirements of customers or corporations. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, and packaging, and...

 subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, announced that it would move its headquarters to Frankfurt in early 2012, together with 330 employees from offices in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Mainz
Mainz
Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

 and Essen
Essen
- Origin of the name :In German-speaking countries, the name of the city Essen often causes confusion as to its origins, because it is commonly known as the German infinitive of the verb for the act of eating, and/or the German noun for food. Although scholars still dispute the interpretation of...

.
  • Deutsche Telekom
    Deutsche Telekom
    Deutsche Telekom AG is a telecommunications company headquartered in Bonn, Germany. It is the largest telecommunications company in Europe....


Deutsche Telekom, the largest telecommunication
Telecommunication
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages via coded...

s company in Europe, is headquartered in Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

, but its subsidiary
T-Systems
T-Systems
T-Systems is a worldwide operating ICT provider founded in October 2000. It belongs to Deutsche Telekom AG and its central office is located in Bonn, Germany. Within Deutsche Telekom AG it is responsible for multinational corporations and public-sector institutions. It operates in more than 20...

is based in Frankfurt.
  • COLT
    Colt Group
    The Colt Group is a family owned business, founded in 1931, that designs and supplies climate control, smoke control, natural ventilation, solar shading and daylight technology....


COLT is a telecommunications company with its German headquarters based in Frankfurt.
  • Level 3 Communications
    Level 3 Communications
    Level 3 Communications is a telecommunications and Internet service provider headquartered in Broomfield, Colorado.It operates a Tier 1 network. The company provides core transport, IP, voice, video and content delivery for most of the medium to large Internet carriers in North America and Europe...


Level 3 Communications is an internet service provider
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is a company that provides access to the Internet. Access ISPs directly connect customers to the Internet using copper wires, wireless or fiber-optic connections. Hosting ISPs lease server space for smaller businesses and host other people servers...

 company with its German headquarters based in Frankfurt.
  • DE-CIX
    DE-CIX
    Deutscher Commercial Internet Exchange is an Internet Exchange Point situated in Frankfurt ....


Frankfurt is an important location for electronic communication, especially the Internet
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite to serve billions of users worldwide...

. It is home to DE-CIX
DE-CIX
Deutscher Commercial Internet Exchange is an Internet Exchange Point situated in Frankfurt ....

, the world's largest internet exchange point
Internet Exchange Point
An Internet exchange point is a physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers exchange Internet traffic between their networks . IXPs reduce the portion of an ISP's traffic which must be delivered via their upstream transit providers, thereby reducing the average per-bit...

, and also the place where domain name
Domain name
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System ....

s are registered for the top-level-domain ".de
.de
.de is the country code top-level domain for the Federal Republic of Germany. DENIC does not require specific second-level domains, as it is the case with the .uk domain range which require .co.uk domain for example.The name is based on the first two letters of the German name for Germany...

".
  • Mainova
    Mainova
    -References:* * * * *...


Mainova is the largest regional energy supplier
Energy supply
Energy supply is the delivery of fuels or transformed fuels to point of consumption. It potentially encompasses the extraction, transmission, generation, distribution and storage of fuels...

 in Germany with about one million customers in Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

. It provides electricity, gas, heat and water. The Mainova Headquarters are located in Frankfurt.

Businesses in the urban area


Not located in Frankfurt but within the urban area are several important companies.

A well-known former Frankfurt-based company which moved its headquarters to the neighbouring City of Eschborn
Eschborn
Eschborn is a town near Frankfurt am Main in the Main-Taunus district, Hesse, Germany. As of 2009, it had a population of 20,789, but boasts fulltime employment of over 30,000 people...

 is Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms, along with Deloitte, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers ....

. The business centre of Eschborn is located right at Frankfurt's city limits in the west and attracts businesses with significantly lower corporate tax
Corporate tax
Many countries impose corporate tax or company tax on the income or capital of some types of legal entities. A similar tax may be imposed at state or lower levels. The taxes may also be referred to as income tax or capital tax. Entities treated as partnerships are generally not taxed at the...

es compared to Frankfurt. Other major companies in Eschborn are
Vodafone Germany
Vodafone Germany
Vodafone D2 is a mobile telephone company, operating in Germany. It is a non-listed, wholly owned subsidiary of Vodafone Plc ....

, Randstad Holding
Randstad Holding
Randstad Holding N.V. is an international company offering temporary staffing and HR services. Randstad was founded in the Netherlands in 1960 by Frits Goldschmeding and operates in around 40 countries. In 2010, the company achieved a turnover of €14.2 billion and a net profit of €288.5 million...

and VR Leasing. Deutsche Börse
Deutsche Börse
Deutsche Börse AG is a marketplace organizer for the trading of shares and other securities. It also is a transaction services provider. It gives companies and investors access to global capital markets. It is a joint stock company and was founded in 1993. The headquarters are in Frankfurt,...

moved most of its employees to Eschborn in 2010 but has its headquarters still registered in Frankfurt.

Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim
Rüsselsheim is the largest town in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany. It is one of seven special status towns in Hesse and is located on the Main, only a few kilometres from its mouth in Mainz. The suburbs of Bauschheim and Königstädten are included in Rüsselsheim...

 is internationally known for its automobile manufacturer
Automotive industry
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells motor vehicles, and is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue....

 
Opel
Opel
Adam Opel AG, generally shortened to Opel, is a German automobile company founded by Adam Opel in 1862. Opel has been building automobiles since 1899, and became an Aktiengesellschaft in 1929...

, one of the biggest automobile manufacturers in Germany. With 20,000 employees in 2003, Opel was one of the five largest employers in Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

.

Offenbach am Main is home to the European headquarters of automobile manufacturer
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company is a Korean multinational automaker based in Seoul, South Korea which, along with Kia, comprises the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, the world's fourth largest automaker as of 2009. As of 2011, it is the world's fastest growing automaker for two years running...

, to the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Honda
Honda
is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than...

, to Honeywell Germany
Honeywell
Honeywell International, Inc. is a major conglomerate company that produces a variety of consumer products, engineering services, and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments....

and to Deutscher Wetterdienst, the central scientific agency that monitors weather
Weather
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the stratosphere. Weather refers, generally, to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate...

 and meteorological
Meteorology
Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere. Studies in the field stretch back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century. The 19th century saw breakthroughs occur after observing networks developed across several countries...

 conditions over Germany.

Two DAX
DAX
The DAX is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Prices are taken from the electronic Xetra trading system...

 companies are located in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe,
Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA and Fresenius Medical Care
Fresenius Medical Care
Fresenius Medical Care is a German company specializing in the production of medical supplies, primarily to facilitate or aid renal dialysis. It is 36%-owned by the health care company Fresenius. The company was formed in 1996 from the merger of Fresenius Worldwide Dialysis, then a division of...

. Other major companies are Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

, Bridgestone
Bridgestone
The is a multinational rubber conglomerate founded in 1931 by in the city of Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan. The name Bridgestone comes from a calque translation and transposition of ishibashi, meaning "stone bridge" in Japanese....

, Deutsche Leasing and Basler Versicherungen.

Kronberg im Taunus
Kronberg im Taunus
Kronberg im Taunus is a town in the Hochtaunuskreis district, Hesse, Germany. Before 1866, it was in the Duchy of Nassau; in that year the whole Duchy was absorbed into Prussia. Kronberg lies at the foot of the Taunus, flanked in the north and southwest by forests...

 is home of the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer
Jaguar Cars as well as the German headquarters of management consulting
Management consulting
Management consulting indicates both the industry and practice of helping organizations improve their performance primarily through the analysis of existing organizational problems and development of plans for improvement....

 company
Accenture
Accenture
Accenture plc is a global management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company headquartered in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. It is the largest consulting firm in the world and is a Fortune Global 500 company. As of September 2011, the company had more than 236,000 employees across...

.

Lufthansa Systems
Lufthansa Systems
Lufthansa Systems AG is an IT service provider for the aviation industry. It has around 3,000 employees in several locations in Germany and offices in 14 other countries and is headquartered in Kelsterbach near Frankfurt....

, a subsidiary of Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

, is located in Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach
Kelsterbach is a town in Groß-Gerau district in Hessen, Germany. It lies on Frankfurt's southwestern outskirts at a bend on the left bank of the river Main, right where a small brook, called the Kelster empties into the river...

.

LSG Sky Chefs
LSG Sky Chefs
LSG Sky Chefs is the brand name of LSG Lufthansa Service Holding AG, which is the world's largest provider of airline catering and in-flight services. It is a subsidiary of Deutsche Lufthansa AG. A part of the company was formerly owned by AMR Corporation, parent company of American Airlines...

, another subsidiary of Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

, is located in Neu-Isenburg
Neu-Isenburg
The “Huguenot Town” of Neu-Isenburg with its outlying centres of Gravenbruch and Zeppelinheim is found in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany, right near Frankfurt am Main...

.

The German headquarters of
Thomas Cook Group
Thomas Cook Group
Thomas Cook Group plc is a travel company created on 19 June, 2007 by the merger of Thomas Cook AG and MyTravel Group plc. At flotation on the London Stock Exchange 52% of the shares in the new company were held by the German mail order and department store corporation Arcandor and 48% owned by...

are based in Oberursel (Taunus).

Langen
Langen, Hesse
Langen is a town of roughly 36,000 in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany, between Darmstadt and Frankfurt am Main...

 is home to
Deutsche Flugsicherung
Deutsche Flugsicherung
The Deutsche Flugsicherung is the company in charge of air traffic control for Germany. It is a company organized under private law and 100% owned by the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1994, DFS has been responsible for handling both civil and military air traffic in peacetime, removing a...

, the German air traffic control
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other...

.

Working in Frankfurt


With over 922 jobs per 1,000 inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. The high number of around 600,000 jobs with only 663,000 inhabitants of the city itself is explained by the high number of commuters who work in the city, which raises the per capita GDP of the resident population significantly. On work days and Saturdays there are around one million people within the city limits. On other days, the statistics regarding Frankfurt's wealth are reduced, in favour of the communities and towns of the so-called "Speckgürtel" (literally bacon belt, meaning the suburban area), such as Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe is the district town of the Hochtaunuskreis, Hesse, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus, bordering among others Frankfurt am Main and Oberursel...

, Königstein im Taunus
Königstein im Taunus
Königstein im Taunus is a climatic spa and lies on the thickly wooded slopes of the Taunus in Hesse, Germany. Owing to its advantageous location for both scenery and transport on the edge of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, Königstein is a favourite residential town...

, Kronberg im Taunus
Kronberg im Taunus
Kronberg im Taunus is a town in the Hochtaunuskreis district, Hesse, Germany. Before 1866, it was in the Duchy of Nassau; in that year the whole Duchy was absorbed into Prussia. Kronberg lies at the foot of the Taunus, flanked in the north and southwest by forests...

 and Bad Soden am Taunus, many of whose inhabitants work in Frankfurt.

Living in Frankfurt


According to a ranking list (2001) produced by the University of Liverpool
University of Liverpool
The University of Liverpool is a teaching and research university in the city of Liverpool, England. It is a member of the Russell Group of large research-intensive universities and the N8 Group for research collaboration. Founded in 1881 , it is also one of the six original "red brick" civic...

, Frankfurt is the richest city in Europe by GDP per capita, followed by Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
The City of Karlsruhe is a city in the southwest of Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border.Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace, when Germany was a series of principalities and city states...

, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

.
  • Quality of Life

Frankfurt was voted the 4th most liveable city in the world
World's most livable cities
The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. Two examples are the Mercer Quality of Living Survey and The Economists World's Most Livable Cities .Liveability rankings are designed for use by...

 by the Global Cities Survey (2011), 7th at the Mercer Quality of Living Survey (2010) and 18th at the Economist's
Economist Intelligence Unit
The Economist Intelligence Unit is part of the Economist Group.It is a research and advisory company providing country, industry and management analysis worldwide and incorporates the former Business International Corporation, a U.S. company acquired by the parent organization in 1986...

 World's Most Liveable Cities Survey (2011). According to an annual citizen survey (2010), arranged by the city council, 66 percent of Frankfurt's inhabitants are satisfied or highly satisfied with the city, only 6 percent said that they are dissatisfied. Compared to the 1993's survey the number of satisfied inhabitants has grown about 22 percent while the number of dissatisfied inhabitants was reduced by 8 percent. 84 percent of the inhabitants like to live in Frankfurt, 13 percent would rather chose to live somewhere else. 37 percent are satisfied with the public safety in Frankfurt (1993: only 9 percent), 22 percent are dissatisfied (1993: 64 percent).
  • Crime rate

Despite that, Frankfurt constantly has the highest levels of crime per 100,000 inhabitants in Germany (15.976 crimes per annum in 2008) and is therefore dubbed the German "crime capital". However, this statistic, which implies that Frankfurt is a dangerous city to be in, is often criticized because it ignores major factors: Firstly it is calculated based on the 680,000-inhabitant figure, but on weekdays there are around one million people within the city limits (not counting the 53 million passengers passing through the airport each year), secondly most of the registered crimes are not affecting the majority of the population, like smuggling
Smuggling
Smuggling is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons, such as out of a building, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.There are various motivations to smuggle...

 or offenses against the Air Traffic Act at the airport, fare evasion
Fare evasion
Fare evasion, as distinct from fare avoidance, is the act of travelling on public transport in disregard of the law and/or regulation, having deliberately not purchased the required ticket to travel . It is a problem in many parts of the world, and revenue protection officers operate on many systems...

 and credit card abuse. The rate for personal safety-relevant crimes such as murder, manslaughter, rape or bodily harm, is 3.4 percent and therefore lower than the average compared to other German cities. Just looking at the safety-relevant crimes Frankfurt would be number 12 in the ranking (related to the official 680,000-inhabitant figure) or number 21 (related to the one-million-figure).

Property and real estate


Frankfurt has the highest concentration of home owners in Germany. This is partly attributed to number of financial workers in the city but also because of its cosmopolitan nature with a quarter of the city's population being foreigners. For this reason Frankfurt's property market often operates differently than the rest of the country where the prices are generally much flatter than Frankfurt. German property prices are pulled down nationally because of the former East Germany, however, economically sound cities like Frankfurt and other cities in the west of Germany, have a buoyant housing market, which attracts a lot of buyers from the Far East.

Governmental institutions


  • European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority

The European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA) is an institution of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 and part of the European System of Financial Supervisors
European System of Financial Supervisors
The European System of Financial Supervisors is an institutional architecture of the EU's framework of financial supervision created in response to the financial crisis...

 which was created in response to the financial crisis
Late-2000s financial crisis
The late-2000s financial crisis is considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s...

. It was established on January 1, 2011, along with two more institutions, the European Banking Authority
European Banking Authority
The European Banking Authority is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London, United Kingdom. Its activities include conducting stress tests on European banks to increase transparency in the European financial system by identifying weaknesses in banks' capital structures...

 (EBA), based in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, and the European Securities and Markets Authority
European Securities and Markets Authority
The European Securities and Markets Authority is a European Union financial regulatory institution and European Supervisory Authority located in Paris....

 (ESMA), based in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

. The EIOPA is located in the Westhafen Tower
Westhafen Tower
Westhafen Tower is a skyscraper in the Gutleutviertel district of Frankfurt. The building, which has a height of 109 metres, was designed by the architects Schneider & Schumacher and was completed in 2004...

 in Frankfurt.
  • Federal Financial Supervisory Authority

Frankfurt is one of two locations of the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, short: BaFin), the other being Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

. The BaFin is an independent federal institution and acts as the financial regulatory
Financial regulation
Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system...

 authority for Germany.
  • International Finance Corporation
    International Finance Corporation
    The International Finance Corporation promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries.IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States....


Frankfurt is home to the German office of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), which is part of the World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 Group. The IFC promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries
Developing country
A developing country, also known as a less-developed country, is a nation with a low level of material well-being. Since no single definition of the term developing country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries...

.
  • German National Library
    German National Library
    The German National Library is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany...


Frankfurt is one of two locations of the German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek), the other being Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

. The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek is the largest universal library
Universal library
A universal library is a library with universal collections. This may be expressed in terms of it containing all existing information, useful information, all books, all works or even all possible works. This ideal, although unrealizable, has influenced and continues to influence librarians and...

 in Germany. Its task, unique in Germany, is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications from 1913 on, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public.

Trade unions and associations



IG Metall
IG Metall
IG Metall is the dominant metalworkers' union in Germany. Analysts of German labor relations consider it a major trend-setter in national bargaining. As a metalworkers' union, it represents workers in the motor vehicle industry...

, Germany's largest metalworkers
Metalworking
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large scale structures. The term covers a wide range of work from large ships and bridges to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry. It therefore includes a correspondingly wide range of skills,...

 trade union
Trade union
A trade union, trades union or labor union is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with...

, is based at the Main Forum high-rise building in the Gutleutviertel
Gutleutviertel (Frankfurt am Main)
Gutleutviertel is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Innenstadt I.It takes its name from the medieval town "Gutleuthof", once a refuge for lepers. There is a similar multicultural meeting as in neighboring Central Railway Station District. The...

 district. It was founded in 1949 and had 2.2 million union
Trade union
A trade union, trades union or labor union is an organization of workers that have banded together to achieve common goals such as better working conditions. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with...

ists in 2011.

IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt
IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt
The IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt is a trade union in Germany with a membership of 350000 . It is one of 8 industrial affiliates of the DGB...

, a union for construction
Construction worker
A construction worker or builder is a professional, tradesman, or labourer who directly participates in the physical construction of infrastructure.-Construction trades:...

 and engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 workers, Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft, a union for teacher
Teacher
A teacher or schoolteacher is a person who provides education for pupils and students . The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional...

s, and Gewerkschaft Deutscher Lokomotivführer
Gewerkschaft Deutscher Lokomotivführer
The Gewerkschaft Deutscher Lokomotivführer is a German trade union present in train companies. It has a membership of 34,000 , concentrated in the former East Germany.-2007 strike:...

, a union for train drivers
Railroad engineer
A railroad engineer, locomotive engineer, train operator, train driver or engine driver is a person who drives a train on a railroad...

, are also based in Frankfurt.

A lot of lobbying
Lobbying
Lobbying is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in the government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by various people or groups, from private-sector individuals or corporations, fellow legislators or government officials, or...

 trade association
Trade association
A trade association, also known as an industry trade group, business association or sector association, is an organization founded and funded by businesses that operate in a specific industry...

s are represented in Frankfurt, including:
  • Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik
    Verband der Elektrotechnik, Elektronik und Informationstechnik
    The VDE Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies e.V. is one of Europe’s largest technical-scientific associations with 35,000 members, including 1,300 corporate and institutional members and 8,000 students.- Organization :...

    (Electrotechnical, Electronic and Information Technology Association)
  • DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie
    DECHEMA
    DECHEMA stands for "Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie" .Founded in 1926, this is a non-profitmaking organization based in Frankfurt. It has over 5000 chemists, biotechnologists and engineers as members...

    (Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology Association)
  • Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels (German Booksellers Association), which organises the Frankfurt Book Fair
    Frankfurt Book Fair
    The Frankfurt Book Fair is the world's largest trade fair for books, based on the number of publishing companies represented. As to the number of visitors, the Turin Book Fair attracts about as many visitors, viz. some 300,000....

  • Bundesverband des Deutschen Versandhandels (German Catalogue Selling Association)
  • Verband der Chemischen Industrie (Chemical Industry Association)
  • Verband der Photoindustrie (Photography Industry Association)
  • Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau (German Machine and Equipment Building Association)
  • Verband der Köche Deutschlands (German Cooks Association)


In 2010, the Verband der Automobilindustrie
Verband der Automobilindustrie
The Verband der Automobilindustrie e. V., short VDA, is a German interest group of the German automobile industry, both automobile manufactures and automobile component suppliers. The group is located in Berlin, Germany...

(Automobile Industry Association), or short VDA, moved from Frankfurt to Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

. The VDA is the organiser of one of the most important trade fairs in Frankfurt, the Frankfurt Motor Show, but the relocation does not affect this as it is agreen upon that the motor show will be held in Frankfurt until 2019 at the least.

Consulates


Frankfurt hosts 92 consulates. Worldwide, only New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

 and Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 have more foreign representations, excluding capital cities
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

. Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 and China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 have recently opened general consulates in Frankfurt. The Consulate General of the United States in Frankfurt in Eckenheim
Eckenheim (Frankfurt am Main)
Eckenheim is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was suburbanized on 1 April 1910. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Nord-Ost....

 is the largest American consulate in the world.

Courts


Several court
Court
A court is a form of tribunal, often a governmental institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law...

s are located in Frankfurt, including:
  • Hessisches Landesarbeitsgericht (Hessian State Employment Court)
  • Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt (Higher Regional Court Frankfurt)
  • Landgericht Frankfurt (Regional Court Frankfurt)
  • Amtsgericht Frankfurt (Local Court Frankfurt)
  • Sozialgericht Frankfurt (Social Court Frankfurt)
  • Arbeitsgericht Frankfurt (Employment Court Frankfurt)
  • Verwaltungsgericht Frankfurt (Administration Court Frankfurt)

Media



Newspapers


Two important daily newspaper
Newspaper
A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features and advertising. It usually is printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a...

s are published in Frankfurt. The conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , short F.A.Z., also known as the FAZ, is a national German newspaper, founded in 1949. It is published daily in Frankfurt am Main. The Sunday edition is the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung .F.A.Z...

, also known as FAZ, was founded in 1949 and is the German newspaper with the widest circulation outside of Germany, with its editors claiming to deliver the newspaper to 148 countries every day. The FAZ has a circulation of over 380,000 copies daily. The other important newspaper, the Frankfurter Rundschau
Frankfurter Rundschau
The Frankfurter Rundschau is a German daily newspaper, based in Frankfurt am Main. It is published every day but Sunday as a city, two regional and one nationwide issues and offers an online edition as well as an e-paper...

, was first published in 1945 and has a daily circulation of over 181,000 copies.

Magazines


Several magazine
Magazine
Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles. They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three...

s also originate from Frankfurt. The local Journal Frankfurt is the best-known magazine for events, parties, and "insider tips" in the city. Öko-Test is a consumer
Consumer
Consumer is a broad label for any individuals or households that use goods generated within the economy. The concept of a consumer occurs in different contexts, so that the usage and significance of the term may vary.-Economics and marketing:...

-orientated magazine which focuses on ecological
Ecology
Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount , number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems...

 topics. Titanic
Titanic (magazine)
Titanic is a German monthly satirical magazine based in Frankfurt. It has a circulation of approximately 100,000.- History :Titanic was founded in 1979 by former contributors and editors of Pardon, a satirical monthly, which the group had left after conflicts with its publisher...

is a well-known and often criticized satirical
Satire
Satire is primarily a literary genre or form, although in practice it can also be found in the graphic and performing arts. In satire, vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, and society itself, into improvement...

 magazine with a circulation of approximately 100,000.

Radio and TV


Frankfurt's first radio station
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

 was the Südwestdeutsche Rundfunkdienst AG (Southwest German Broadcast Service), founded in 1924. Its successor service is the public broadcaster Hessischer Rundfunk
Hessischer Rundfunk
Hessischer Rundfunk is the public broadcaster for the German state of Hesse. The main offices of HR are in Frankfurt am Main. HR is a member of the ARD.- Studios :...

(Hessian Broadcast Service). It is located at the "Funkhaus am Dornbusch" in the Dornbusch
Dornbusch (Frankfurt am Main)
Dornbusch is a district or Stadtteil of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is part of the Ortsbezirk Mitte-Nord, and is subdivided into 3 Stadtbezirke....

 district and is one of the most important radio and television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 broadcasters
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

 in Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

, with additional studios in Kassel
Kassel
Kassel is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants.- History :...

, Darmstadt
Darmstadt
Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area.The sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation, prevented any larger settlement from developing, until the city became the seat...

 and Fulda
Fulda
Fulda is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district .- Early Middle Ages :...

.

Bloomberg TV and RTL Television
RTL Television
Rtl.de' redirects here. For other uses, see RTL.RTL Television , or simply RTL, is a German commercial television station distributed via cable and satellite along with DVB-T , in larger population centres...

have regional studios in Frankfurt.

Other radio broadcasters in Frankfurt include Main FM and Radio X.

From August 1945 to October 2004, the American Forces Network
American Forces Network
The American Forces Network is the brand name used by the United States Armed Forces American Forces Radio and Television Service for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide...

 (AFN) had broadcasted from Frankfurt. Due to troop reductions the AFN's location in Frankfurt has been closed with AFN now broadcasting from Mannheim
Mannheim
Mannheim is a city in southwestern Germany. With about 315,000 inhabitants, Mannheim is the second-largest city in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, following the capital city of Stuttgart....

.

Education and research


In Frankfurt am Main, there are two universities and several specialist schools. There are two Business School
Business school
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. It teaches topics such as accounting, administration, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, information systems, marketing, organizational behavior, public relations, strategy, human resource...

s in Frankfurt; Goethe University Frankfurt's Goethe Business School
Goethe Business School
The Goethe Business School is a Graduate Business School in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, set up as an independent, non-profit foundation under private law, held by Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. Founded in 2004, Goethe Business School is the center for management education of...

 and Frankfurt School of Finance & Management
Frankfurt School of Finance & Management
The Frankfurt School of Finance & Management is a state-accredited private university in Frankfurt, Hesse. The university is also accredited by Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation .-History:...

.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe University


The oldest and best-known university in the city is the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, with locations in Bockenheim, Westend, and Riedberg, and the university hospital in Niederrad. The prestigious Goethe Business School
Goethe Business School
The Goethe Business School is a Graduate Business School in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, set up as an independent, non-profit foundation under private law, held by Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. Founded in 2004, Goethe Business School is the center for management education of...

 is part of the University's House of Finance
House of Finance
The House of Finance is an interdisciplinary research and teaching institute for law and economics at Goethe University. It is located in Frankfurt am Main, in Hesse, Germany. It was established in 2008. Its Executive Director is Prof. Dr...

 at Campus Westend. The Business School's Full Time MBA program has over 70% international students.

Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences


The Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences
Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences
The Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences is a large public university in Frankfurt am Main in Germany....

 (Fachhochschule Frankfurt am Main) was created out of several older organisations in 1971, and offers over 38 study areas, in the arts, sciences, engineering and law. Some of the most important research projects: Planet Earth Simulator, FraLine
Fraline
fraLine is a non-profit project of Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences . Project and research activities focus on IT services management for schools and the use of digital media in educational settings...

-IT-School-Service, quantitative analysis of methane
Methane
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula . It is the simplest alkane, the principal component of natural gas, and probably the most abundant organic compound on earth. The relative abundance of methane makes it an attractive fuel...

 in human corpses with the help of a mass spectrometer, software engineering (e.g. fraDesk), analysis of qualitative and quantitative gas in human lungs, long-term studies on photovoltaic modules (to name only a few).

Frankfurt School of Finance & Management


Alongside the university is the banking academy Frankfurt School of Finance & Management
Frankfurt School of Finance & Management
The Frankfurt School of Finance & Management is a state-accredited private university in Frankfurt, Hesse. The university is also accredited by Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation .-History:...

, formerly known as the (Institution of Higher Learning for Banking Economics), with its campus in the Ostend (Eastend) neighbourhood. Since 2001, it has been a specialist institution for the teaching Economics and Management, or FOM.

Städelschule


Frankfurt has the State Institution of Higher Learning for Artistic Education known as the Städelschule
Städelschule
Städelschule, Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste, is a contemporary fine arts academy in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.- History :The Städelschule was established by a foundation set up by the Frankfurt merchant Johann Friedrich Städel in 1817...

, founded in 1817 by Johann Friedrich Städel
Städel
The Städel, officially the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, is an art museum in Frankfurt am Main, with one of the most important collections in Germany....

, that was taken over by the city in 1942 and turned into a state art school.

Music School and Conservatories


Music institutions are the Frankfurt University of Music and Performing Arts
Frankfurt University of Music and Performing Arts
The Frankfurt University of Music and Performing Arts is a state Hochschule for Music, Theater and Dance in Frankfurt and is the only one of its kind in the Federal State of Hesse. It was founded in 1938....

, and the Hoch Conservatory
Hoch Conservatory
Dr. Hoch’s Konservatorium - Musikakademie was founded in Frankfurt am Main on September 22, 1878. Through the generosity of Frankfurter Joseph Hoch, who bequeathed the Conservatory one million German gold marks in his testament, a school for music and the arts was established for all age groups. ...

 (Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium) which was founded in 1878.

Other notable schools


Until September 2003, Frankfurt was also home to a school for library science and administration.

The Philosophical-Theological Institution of Saint George (
Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen')', a private institution with membership in the German Jesuit Association, has been located in Sachsenhausen
Sachsenhausen (Frankfurt am Main)
Sachsenhausen is a part of the city of Frankfurt, Germany. Composed of two districts: Sachsenhausen-Nord and Sachsenhausen-Süd, it is part of the Ortsbezirk Süd. It is located on the South bank of the Main river, right in the city center, opposite the Old Town.Sachsenhausen was founded as...

 since 1950.

The city is also home of three Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

 institutes: the Max Planck Institute for European History of Law
Max Planck Institute for European History of Law
The Max Planck Institute for European History of Law was founded in 1946 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. As one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society it focuses on trans-national comparisons and the portrayal of European legal development.-History:The Max Planck Institute for European Legal...

 (MPIeR), Max Planck Institute for Biophysics
Max Planck Institute for Biophysics
The Max Planck Institute for Biophysics is located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics in 1937, and moved into a new building in 2003...

, and the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
Max Planck Institute for Brain Research
The Max Planck Institute for Brain Research is located in Frankfurt, Germany. It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin 1914, and moved into new buildings in Frankfurt 1962...

.

The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies
The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies is a private-public institution for basic theoretical research in various areas of sciencefocusing on interdisiplinary research located in Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany....

, sponsored by several institutional and private sources, is involved in theoretical research in physics, chemistry, neuroscience, and computer science.

Frankfurt is host to the Römisch-Germanische-Kommission (RGK), the German Archaeological Institute
German Archaeological Institute
The German Archaeological Institute is an institution of research within the field of archaeology , and a "scientific corporation", with parentage of the federal Foreign Office of Germany-Origin:...

 branch for prehistoric archaeology
Prehistory
Prehistory is the span of time before recorded history. Prehistory can refer to the period of human existence before the availability of those written records with which recorded history begins. More broadly, it refers to all the time preceding human existence and the invention of writing...

 in Germany and Europe. The RGK is involved in a variety of research projects. Its library, with over 130,000 volumes, is one of the largest specialised archaeological libraries in the world.

Education and media


Over the past years the city of Frankfurt has been increasingly investing into the IT-infrastructure of its schools. As a result, schools in Frankfurt now rank among the best equipped schools nationwide as far as availability of PCs and other media facilities are concerned. In order to assure maintenance and support of the school PCs, the city of Frankfurt in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences
University of applied sciences
University of applied sciences may refer to:*Ammattikorkeakoulu, the term for a university of applied sciences in Finland*Fachhochschule, the term for a university of applied sciences in Germany...

 has launched the project Fraline
Fraline
fraLine is a non-profit project of Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences . Project and research activities focus on IT services management for schools and the use of digital media in educational settings...

 - IT-Schul-Service, an initiative employing students to provide basic school IT-support.

Sport



Frankfurt hosts the following sports teams or clubs:
  • Eintracht Frankfurt
    Eintracht Frankfurt
    Eintracht Frankfurt is a German sports club, based in Frankfurt, Hesse that is best known for its association football club.- Club origins :...

    , football (soccer)
  • FSV Frankfurt
    FSV Frankfurt
    FSV Frankfurt is a German association football club based in the Bornheim district of Frankfurt am Main, Hesse and founded in 1899. The club plays in the shadow of larger and much more successful Eintracht Frankfurt, which has recently returned to 2nd tier football...

    , football (soccer)
  • 1. FFC Frankfurt
    1. FFC Frankfurt
    1. FFC Frankfurt is a German women's association football club based in Frankfurt, Hesse and has a membership of about 430. The team currently plays in the German first division women's Bundesliga.- History :...

    , football (soccer)
  • Frankfurter FC Germania 1894
    Frankfurter FC Germania 1894
    VfL Germania 1894 is a German association football club from the city of Frankfurt am Main. The club is notable as one of the Founding Clubs of the DFB in Leipzig in 1900.-History:...

    , football (soccer)
  • Rot-Weiss Frankfurt, football (soccer)
  • Frankfurt Sarsfields GAA Gaelic Football
  • Frankfurt Lions
    Frankfurt Lions
    The Frankfurt Lions were a professional men's ice hockey club from Frankfurt, Germany that played in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. The club ceased operations in 2010 due to financial difficulty.-History:...

    , ice hockey
  • Deutsche Bank Skyliners
    Deutsche Bank Skyliners
    Skyliners Frankfurt, currently known as Fraport Skyliners for sponsorship reasons, is a basketball club based in Frankfurt, Germany that has played in the Basketball Bundesliga since 1999. They have won the national club competition 2000 and the national championship 2004...

    , basketball


  • Frankfurt used to host these former teams or clubs:
    • 1. Bockenheimer FC 1899
      1. Bockenheimer FC 1899
      1. Bockenheimer FC was a German association football club from the western city district of Bockenheim.-History:Formed in 1899, 1. BFC had only a short existence playing in the FAB...

      , football (soccer)
  • Frankfurt Galaxy
    Frankfurt Galaxy
    The Frankfurt Galaxy was a professional American football team that originally played in the World League of American Football and later in the resurrected NFL Europe. The team was based in Frankfurt, Germany and played in the Commerzbank-Arena, formerly called the Waldstadion.-History:In 1991, the...

    , American Football


  • Frankfurt is host to the classic cycle
    Classic cycle races
    The classic cycle races are one-day professional cycling road races in the international calendar. Most of the events, all run in western Europe, have been fixtures on the professional calendar for decades and the oldest ones date back to the 19th Century. They are normally held at roughly the same...

     race Rund um den Henninger-Turm. The city hosts also the annual Frankfurt Marathon
    Frankfurt Marathon
    Frankfurt Marathon is an annual marathon held in Frankfurt, Germany in the month of October. The race, currently sponsored by BMW, is Germany's oldest city marathon.- List of winners :Key:- External links :***...

     and the Iron Man European Championships.

    External links