Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur

Overview
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of 243 km² (93.8 sq mi), has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur
Greater Kuala Lumpur
Greater Kuala Lumpur is the geographical term that determines the boundaries of Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, though similar with Klang Valley, there remains variation between the two. It is similar with Greater London and Greater Toronto...

, also known as the Klang Valley
Klang Valley
Klang Valley is an area in Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs, and adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. An alternative reference to this would be Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area or Greater Kuala Lumpur. It is geographically delineated by Titiwangsa Mountains to the...

, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million. It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in the country, in terms of population and economy.

Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia
Parliament of Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The King as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament....

.
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Encyclopedia
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of 243 km² (93.8 sq mi), has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur
Greater Kuala Lumpur
Greater Kuala Lumpur is the geographical term that determines the boundaries of Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, though similar with Klang Valley, there remains variation between the two. It is similar with Greater London and Greater Toronto...

, also known as the Klang Valley
Klang Valley
Klang Valley is an area in Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs, and adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. An alternative reference to this would be Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area or Greater Kuala Lumpur. It is geographically delineated by Titiwangsa Mountains to the...

, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million. It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in the country, in terms of population and economy.

Kuala Lumpur is the seat of the Parliament of Malaysia
Parliament of Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system. The bicameral parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The King as the Head of State is the third component of Parliament....

. The city was once home to the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but they have since moved to Putrajaya
Putrajaya
Putrajaya is a planned city, located 25km south of Kuala Lumpur, that serves as the federal administrative centre of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya, due to the overcrowding and congestion in the Kuala Lumpur areas...

 starting in 1999. Some sections of the judiciary remain in the capital. The official residence of the Malaysian King
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya gained independence....

, the Istana Negara, is also situated in Kuala Lumpur. Rated as an alpha world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

, Kuala Lumpur is the cultural, financial and economic centre of Malaysia due to its position as the capital as well as being a primate city
Primate city
A primate city is the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. A 'primate city distribution' has one very large city with many much smaller cities and towns, and no intermediate-sized urban centres, in contrast to the linear 'rank-size...

.

Kuala Lumpur is defined within the borders of the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and is one of three Malaysian Federal Territories. It is an enclave within the state of Selangor
Selangor
Selangor also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west...

, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia , also known as West Malaysia , is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula. Its area is . It shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra...

. Residents of the city are colloquially known as KLites
KLites
KLites are people who originate from or live in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Another less-often used term is Kuala Lumpurian or Lumpurian....

.

Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games
1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 XVI Commonwealth Games were held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 11 September to 21 September 1998 making it the first Asian country to act as host and the last Commonwealth Games for the 20th century. A record 70 nations supplied 3638 athletes...

 and the Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 World Championship. In addition, Kuala Lumpur is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
The Petronas Towers are skyscrapers and twin towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

, which have become an iconic symbol of Malaysia's futuristic developments.

History


Kuala Lumpur has its origins in the 1850s, when the Malay Chief of Klang
Klang
Klang , formerly known as Kelang, is the royal city and former capital of the state of Selangor, Malaysia. It is located within the Klang District in Klang Valley. It is located about 32 km to the west of Kuala Lumpur and 6 km east of Port Klang...

, Raja Abdullah, hired some Chinese labourers to open new and larger tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

 mines for tin prospectors. The miners landed at the confluence of Sungai Gombak (previously known as Sungai Lumpur, meaning "muddy river") and Sungai Klang (Klang River
Klang River
Klang River is a river which flows through Kuala Lumpur and Selangor in Malaysia and eventually flows into the Straits of Malacca. It is approximately 120 km in length and drains a basin of about 1288 square kilometres...

) to open mines at Ampang, Pudu and Batu. These mines developed into a trading post which became a frontier
Frontier
A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary. 'Frontier' was absorbed into English from French in the 15th century, with the meaning "borderland"--the region of a country that fronts on another country .The use of "frontier" to mean "a region at the...

 town.

The tin prospectors settled in Ampang, and formed gangs within themselves. The two largest Chinese gangsters, the Hakka-dominated Hai San
Hai San Secret Society
The Hai San Society which had its origins in Southern China was a Penang-based Chinese secret society established around 1820 and in 1825 led by Low, Ah Chong and Hoh Akow , its titular head...

 and the Hokkien-dominated Ghee Hin
Ghee Hin Kongsi
The Ghee Hin Kongsi is a secret society in Singapore and Malaya, formed in 1820. Ghee Hin literally means "the rise of righteousness" in Chinese. The Ghee Hin often fought against the Hakka-dominated Hai San secret society....

, frequently engaged in warfare to gain control of tin production in the town. The incessant warfare between the two factions brought tin mine production to a standstill, prompting the British, who ruled the Federation of Malaya
Federation of Malaya
The Federation of Malaya is the name given to a federation of 11 states that existed from 31 January 1948 until 16 September 1963. The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957...

 at that time, to appoint a Chinese Kapitan (headman) to administer Kuala Lumpur. Hiu Siew, the owner of a mine in Lukut
Lukut
Lukut is a small town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Lukut is situated within the parliamentary constituency of Teluk Kemang. The historical Kota Lukut is located here and also Sekolah Menengah Teknik Port Dickson...

, was elected as the first Kapitan. As one of the first traders to arrive in Ampang (along with Yap Ah Sze), he sold provisions to the miners in exchange for tin.

During the early times, Kuala Lumpur had many problems, including the Selangor Civil War; it was also plagued by diseases and constant fires and floods. Around the 1870s, the third Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy , also known as Yap Tet Loy and Yap Mao Lan. He is regarded as the founding father of modern Kuala Lumpur, he developed Kuala Lumpur as a commercial and mining centre during the mid-19th century...

, emerged as leader, and became responsible for the survival and subsequent systematic growth of this town. He began to develop Kuala Lumpur from a small, obscure settlement into a booming mining town. In 1880, the state capital of Selangor was moved from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur.

Redevelopment of Modern Kuala Lumpur


In 1881, a flood swept through the town following a fire which engulfed it earlier. These successive problems destroyed the town's structures of wood and atap (thatching
Thatching
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge , rushes, or heather, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. It is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates...

). As a response, Frank Swettenham
Frank Swettenham
Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham GCMG CH was the first Resident General of the Federated Malay States which was formed by combining a number of sultanates. He served from 1 July 1896 to 1901. He was also an amateur photographer...

, the British Resident of Selangor, required that buildings be constructed of brick and tile. Hence, Kapitan Yap Ah Loy bought a sprawling piece of real estate for the setting up of a brick industry which would spur the rebuilding of Kuala Lumpur. This place is the eponymous Brickfields
Brickfields
Brickfields is a small to medium-sized town and residential neighbourhood located just outside central Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is known as Kuala Lumpur's Little India due to the high percentage of Indian residents and businesses.- History :In 1881, a flood swept through Kuala Lumpur following...

. Hence, destroyed atap buildings were replaced with brick and tiled ones. He restructured the building layout of the city. Many of the new brick buildings mirrored those of shop houses in southern China, characterised by "five foot way
Five foot way
Five foot ways are pedestrian walkways indented into the ground floor of a building from the road, so that the overhanging upper floors can provide a cover to shield pedestrians from the sun and rain. This feature can be found in many shophouses all over the world, and also in some office...

s" as well as skilled Chinese carpentry work. This resulted in a distinct eclectic shop house architecture typical to this region. A railway line increased accessibility into the growing town. Development intensified in the 1890s, leading to the creation of a Sanitary Board. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy
Yap Ah Loy , also known as Yap Tet Loy and Yap Mao Lan. He is regarded as the founding father of modern Kuala Lumpur, he developed Kuala Lumpur as a commercial and mining centre during the mid-19th century...

 spent a sum of $20,000 to expand road access in the city significantly, linking up tin mines with the city, these roads include the main arterial roads of Ampang Road
Jalan Ampang
Jalan Ampang is a major road in Klang Valley region, Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.-Proposal to rename Jalan Ampang to Jalan Tun Dr Mahathir Mohammad:...

, Pudu Road
Jalan Pudu
Jalan Pudu is a major road in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.-Construction of the Jalan Pudu-Hang Tuah intersections:The 114-year-old Pudu Prison's wall between Jalan Pudu and Jalan Hang Tuah was demolished on 20 June 2010 by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall to make way for a road expansion and tunnel project...

 and Petaling Street
Petaling Street
Petaling Street is a Chinatown located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is infamous for pirated clothes and accessories along with bootleg DVDs and CDs. Petaling Street however does not exclusively offer pirated products...

.

As Chinese Kapitan, he was vested with wide powers on par with Malay community leaders. He implemented law reforms and introduced new legal measures. He would also preside over a small claims court
Small claims court
Small-claims courts have limited jurisdiction to hear civil cases between private litigants. Courts authorized to try small claims may also have other judicial functions, and the name by which such a court is known varies by jurisdiction; it may be known as a county or magistrate's court...

. With a police force amounting only 6, he was able to uphold to rule of law. He built a prison which could accommodate 60 prisoners at any time. Kapitan Yap Ah Loy also built Kuala Lumpur's first school and a major tapioca mill in Petaling Street
Petaling Street
Petaling Street is a Chinatown located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is infamous for pirated clothes and accessories along with bootleg DVDs and CDs. Petaling Street however does not exclusively offer pirated products...

 of which the Selangor's Sultan Abdul Samad
Sultan Abdul Samad
Sultan Abdul Samad, KCMG was the fourth Sultan of Selangor....

 had an interest.

In 1896, Kuala Lumpur was chosen as the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States
Federated Malay States
The Federated Malay States was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula—Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang—established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay...

. A mixture of different communities settled in various sections of Kuala Lumpur. The Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square, east of the Klang River, and towards Chinatown. The Malays, Indian Chettiars, and Indian Muslims resided along Java Street (now Jalan Tun Perak). The Padang, now known as Merdeka Square
Dataran Merdeka
Merdeka Square is located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is situated in front of the Sultan Abdul Samad Building. It was here the Union Flag was lowered and the Malayan flag hoisted for the first time at midnight on August 31, 1957...

, was the centre of the British administrative offices.

World War II



During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army
Battle of Kuala Lumpur
The Battle of Kuala Lumpur is a battle between Japanese invasion forces and the British forces in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of the then-Federated Malay States, a British protectorate.-Background:...

 on January 11, 1942. They occupied the city until August 15, 1945, when the commander in chief of the Japanese Seventh Area Army in Singapore and Malaya, Seishirō Itagaki, surrendered to the British administration following the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
During the final stages of World War II in 1945, the United States conducted two atomic bombings against the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the first on August 6, 1945, and the second on August 9, 1945. These two events are the only use of nuclear weapons in war to date.For six months...

. Kuala Lumpur grew through the war, the rubber
Rubber
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, is an elastomer that was originally derived from latex, a milky colloid produced by some plants. The plants would be ‘tapped’, that is, an incision made into the bark of the tree and the sticky, milk colored latex sap collected and refined...

 and tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

 commodity crashes and the Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war fought between Commonwealth armed forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army , the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party, from 1948 to 1960....

, during which Malaya was preoccupied with the communist
Communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

 insurgency. In 1957, the Federation of Malaya gained its independence from British rule. Kuala Lumpur remained the capital through the formation of Malaysia
Malaysia Day
Malaysia Day is held on September 16 every year to commemorate the establishment of the Malaysian federation on the same date in 1963. It marked the joining together of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore to form Malaysia...

 on September 16, 1963.

May 13 Race Riots and beyond



On May 13, 1969, one of the worst race riots in Malaysia took place in Kuala Lumpur. The May 13 Incident
May 13 Incident
The 13 May Incident is a term for the Sino-Malay sectarian violences in Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia, which began on 13 May 1969...

 was a riot between the Malays and the Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is also sometimes used to refer to...

, with the former apparently dissatisfied with their socio-political situation at the time. The riot resulted in the deaths of 196 people, and led to a major reform in the country's economic policy to reduce the monopoly of the Chinese.

Kuala Lumpur later achieved city status
Cities of Malaysia
This is a list of cities of Malaysia. In Malaysia, there are populated areas which are granted city status by law . However, there are also highly urbanised and populated areas which does not have city status, but are sometimes colloquially also referred to as cities. City status is granted to a...

 in 1972, becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence. Later, on February 1, 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory. Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of Selangor
Selangor
Selangor also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west...

 in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam
Shah Alam
Shah Alam is the state capital of Selangor, Malaysia situated within the Petaling District and a small portion of the neighboring Klang District. It is located about west of the country's capital, Kuala Lumpur. Shah Alam replaced Kuala Lumpur as the capital city of the state of Selangor in 1978...

 was declared as the new state capital. On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur celebrated 100 years of local authority. The new federal territory of Kuala Lumpur flag
Flag of Kuala Lumpur
The flag of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia is a variant of the Jalur Gemilang, the Malaysian national flag. It was introduced on 14 May 1990 following its centennial as a local authority.-Use of the state flag:...

 and anthem were introduced.

In 1998, another political movement known as Reformasi
Reformasi (Malaysia)
The Reformasi movement in Malaysia was initiated by Anwar Ibrahim and his supporters shortly after he was sacked as Deputy Prime Minister in 1998. It consisted of several mass demonstrations and rallies against the long-standing Barisan Nasional coalition government, and continued until Anwar was...

took place mainly in this city. The movement was a result of the sacking of former Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister, Anwar Ibrahim
Anwar Ibrahim
Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who served as Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister from 1993 to 1998. Early in his career, Anwar was a close ally of Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad but subsequently emerged as the most prominent critic of Mahathir's government.In 1999, he was sentenced...

, and resulted in a chain of protests until 1999, where supporters of Anwar Ibrahim took to the streets to demand reforms in the government's administration, among others.

A series of meetings between several Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda is a global broad-based militant Islamist terrorist organization founded by Osama bin Laden sometime between August 1988 and late 1989. It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad...

 operatives were conducted in January 2000 in Kuala Lumpur. The rendezvous were photographed by Malaysian authorities at the request of the C.I.A. It is believed that both the USS Cole bombing
USS Cole bombing
The USS Cole Bombing, or the USS Cole Incident, was a suicide attack against the United States Navy destroyer on October 12, 2000 while it was harbored and refueled in the Yemeni port of Aden. Seventeen American sailors were killed, and 39 were injured...

 and the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center
World Trade Center
The original World Trade Center was a complex with seven buildings featuring landmark twin towers in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. The complex opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The site is currently being rebuilt with five new...

 were planned during these meetings. Among the participants were Khalid Almidhar and Nawaf Alhazmi, who were hijackers aboard American Flight 77, Ramzi bin al-Shibh (Mohammed Atta's roommate), and Tawfiq bin-Atash. The meetings are sometimes referred to as the Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit.

On February 1, 2001, Putrajaya was declared a Federal Territory, as well as the seat of the federal government. The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function, and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is the head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957 when the Federation of Malaya gained independence....

 (King).

Geography



The geography of Kuala Lumpur is characterized by a huge valley known as Klang Valley
Klang Valley
Klang Valley is an area in Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs, and adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. An alternative reference to this would be Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area or Greater Kuala Lumpur. It is geographically delineated by Titiwangsa Mountains to the...

. The valley is bordered by the Titiwangsa Mountains
Titiwangsa Mountains
The Titiwangsa Mountains are the main mountain range that forms the backbone of the Malay Peninsula.-Geology:...

 in the east, several minor ranges in the north and the south and the Strait of Malacca
Strait of Malacca
The Strait of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is named after the Malacca Sultanate that ruled over the archipelago between 1414 to 1511.-Extent:...

 in the west. Kuala Lumpur is a Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 term which translates to "muddy confluence" as it is located at the confluence
Confluence (geography)
In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water. It usually refers to the point where two streams flow together, merging into a single stream...

 of the Klang
Klang River
Klang River is a river which flows through Kuala Lumpur and Selangor in Malaysia and eventually flows into the Straits of Malacca. It is approximately 120 km in length and drains a basin of about 1288 square kilometres...

 and Gombak
Gombak River
The Gombak River is a river which flows through Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. It is a tributary of the Klang River. The point where it meets the Klang River is the origin of Kuala Lumpur's name....

 rivers.

Located in the centre of Selangor
Selangor
Selangor also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity") is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west...

 state, Kuala Lumpur was previously under the rule of Selangor State Government. In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was separated from Selangor to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian Federal Government. Its location on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia , also known as West Malaysia , is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula. Its area is . It shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra...

, which has wider flat land than the east coast, has contributed to its faster development relative to other cities in Malaysia. The municipality of the city covers an area of 243 km² (93.8 sq mi), with an average elevation of 21.95 m (72 ft).

Climate and weather


Protected by the Titiwangsa Mountains
Titiwangsa Mountains
The Titiwangsa Mountains are the main mountain range that forms the backbone of the Malay Peninsula.-Geology:...

 in the east and Indonesia's Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra is an island in western Indonesia, westernmost of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island entirely in Indonesia , and the sixth largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 with a population of 50,365,538...

 Island in the west, Kuala Lumpur has a tropical rainforest climate
Tropical rainforest climate
A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually found along the equator...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Af) which is warm and sunny, along with abundant rainfall, especially during the northeast monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 season from October to March. Temperatures tend to remain constant. Maximums hover between 31 and 33 °C (87.8 and 91.4 F) and have never exceeded 39.3 °C (102.7 °F), while minimums hover between 22 and 23.5 °C (71.6 and 74.3 F) and have never fallen below 14.4 °C (57.9 °F). Kuala Lumpur typically receives minimum 2600 mm (102.4 in) of rain annually; June and July are relatively dry, but even then rainfall typically exceeds 133 millimetres (5.2 in) per month.

Flood
Flood
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water...

ing is a frequent occurrence in Kuala Lumpur whenever there is a heavy downpour, especially in the city centre and downstream areas. Dust particles from forest fires from nearby Sumatra
Sumatra
Sumatra is an island in western Indonesia, westernmost of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island entirely in Indonesia , and the sixth largest island in the world at 473,481 km2 with a population of 50,365,538...

 sometimes cast a haze
Haze
Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. The World Meteorological Organization manual of codes includes a classification of horizontal obscuration into categories of fog, ice fog, steam fog, mist, haze, smoke, volcanic...

 over the region. It is a major source of pollution in the city together with open burning, emission from motor vehicles and construction work.

Mean Rainfall Average



Governance



Kuala Lumpur was administered by a corporation sole
Corporation sole
A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single man or woman. This allows a corporation to pass vertically in time from one office holder to the next successor-in-office, giving the position legal continuity with each subsequent office...

 called the Federal Capital Commissioner from April 1, 1961 until it was awarded city status in 1972, after which executive power was transferred to the Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.-Commonwealth of Nations:* In Australia it is a political position. Australian cities with Lord Mayors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Parramatta, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong...

 (Datuk Bandar). Nine mayors have been appointed since then. The current mayor is Ahmad Fuad Ismail
Ahmad Fuad Ismail
- References :...

, who has been in office since December 14, 2008.

Local government


The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia. They are responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister. This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970.

Politics


Kuala Lumpur is home to the Parliament of Malaysia
Malaysian Houses of Parliament
The Malaysian Houses of Parliament is a building complex where the Malaysian Parliament assembles. The structure is located at the Lake Gardens in Kuala Lumpur, right next to the Malaysian National Monument.-Description:...

. The parliament is composed of a lower House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) and an upper House of Senate (Dewan Negara). The city is represented in the lower House of Representatives by eleven Members of Parliament (MPs), who are elected
Elections in Malaysia
Elections in Malaysia exist at two levels: national level and state level. National level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state level elections are for membership in the various State Legislative Assemblies...

 to five-year terms. The 2008 General Elections
Malaysian general election, 2008
The 12th Malaysian general election was held on March 8, 2008, in accordance with Malaysian laws for national elections, which states that a general election must be held no later than five years subsequent to the previous elections; the previous general election was held in 2004...

 witnessed the first time opposition
Opposition (Malaysia)
The Opposition in Malaysia is a term used to describe political parties represented in the Parliament of Malaysia that are not in government either on their own or as part of a governing coalition. Note that this article uses the term government as it is used in parliamentary systems, i.e...

 parties gained majority in the Federal Territory's parliamentary constituencies. The People's Coalition
Pakatan Rakyat
Pakatan Rakyat or PR is an informal Malaysian political coalition. It currently controls four state governments while in opposition to the ruling Barisan Nasional at the federal level....

 pact, comprising the Democratic Action Party (DAP)
Democratic Action Party
The Democratic Action Party, or DAP is a secular, multi-racial, social democratic Malaysian political party.The DAP is one of the three major opposition parties in Malaysia, along with the PKR and PAS, that are seen as electable alternatives to the Barisan Nasional coalition of parties...

, People's Justice Party (PKR), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), swept five seats, four seats and one seat respectively, whereas the ruling National Front (Barisan Nasional) controls only one.

Economy



Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialized and economically, the fastest growing region in Malaysia. Despite the relocation of federal government administration to Putrajaya, certain government institutions such as Bank Negara Malaysia
Bank Negara Malaysia
Bank Negara Malaysia is the Malaysian central bank. Established on January 26, 1959 as the Bank Negara Malaya, its main purpose was to issue currency, act as banker and adviser to the Government of Malaysia and regulate the country's credit situation...

 (National Bank of Malaysia), Companies Commission of Malaysia and Securities Commission as well as most embassies and diplomatic missions have remained in the city.

The city remains as the economic and business centre of the country. Kuala Lumpur is a centre for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is rated as an alpha world city
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

, and is the only global city in Malaysia, according to the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). The infrastructure development in the surrounding areas such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport , or KLIA serves the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, and is one of Southeast Asia's largest airports. It is also Malaysia's main international airport. It is situated in the Sepang district, in the south of the state of Selangor, about from Kuala Lumpur...

 at Sepang
Sepang
Sepang is a town and district located in the southern part of the state of Selangor in Malaysia. Formerly a small town, Sepang grew to several recent developments...

, the creation of the Multimedia Super Corridor and the expansion of Port Klang
Port Klang
Port Klang is a town and the main gateway by sea into Malaysia. Colonially known as Port Swettenham, it is also the location of the largest and busiest port in the country. As such, its economic progress has been greatly influenced by the port activities in its area...

 further reinforce the economic significance of the city.

Bursa Malaysia
Bursa Malaysia
Bursa Malaysia is an exchange holding company approved under Section 15 of the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007. It operates a fully integrated exchange, offering the complete range of exchange-related services including trading, clearing, settlement and depository services.- History :Bursa...

 or the Malaysia Exchange is based in the city and forms one of its core economic activities. As of 20 November 2007, the market capitalisation stood at US$318.65 billion.

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM73,536 million in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 5.9 percent. The per capita GDP for Kuala Lumpur in 2008 is RM48,556 with an average annual growth rate of 5.9 percent. The total employment in Kuala Lumpur is estimated at around 838,400. The service sector comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment representing about 83.0 percent of the total. The remaining 17 percent comes from manufacturing and construction.

The average monthly household income for Kuala Lumpur was RM4,105 (USD 1,324) in 1999, up from RM3,371 (USD 1,087) four years prior, making it 66% higher than the national average. In terms of household income distribution, 23.5% of households in the city earned more than RM5,000 (USD 1,613) per month compared to 9.8% for the entire country, while 8.1% earned less than RM1,000 (USD 323) a month. The most common crimes in Kuala Lumpur are snatch theft
Snatch theft
In Malaysia and Southeast Asia in general, snatch theft is a criminal act of forcefully stealing from a pedestrian's person while employing rob-and-run tactics. It is typical for two thieves to work together and ride a moped to make theft and escape easier. A person steers the vehicle while another...

s, robberies
Robbery
Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. At common law, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear....

 and motor vehicle theft
Motor vehicle theft
Motor vehicle theft is the criminal act of stealing or attempting to steal a motor vehicle...

.


The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. Kuala Lumpur is poised to become the global Islamic Financing hub with an increasing number of financial institutions providing Islamic Financing and the strong presence of Gulf's financial institutions such as the world's largest Islamic bank, Al-Rajhi Bank and Kuwait Finance House. Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company
Dow Jones & Company
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm.The company was founded in 1882 by three reporters: Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser. Like The New York Times and the Washington Post, the company was in recent years publicly traded but privately...

 is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf. The city has a large number of foreign corporations and is also host to many multi national companies’ regional offices or support centres, particularly for finance and accounting, and information technology functions. Most of the countries’ largest companies have their headquarters based here and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas
Petronas
PETRONAS, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. Wholly owned by the Government of Malaysia, the corporation is vested with the entire oil and gas resources in Malaysia and is entrusted with the responsibility of developing and...

, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000 based in Kuala Lumpur.

Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. Kuala Lumpur also has advantages stemming from the high concentration of educational institutions located within its boundaries, providing a wide range of courses. There are numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city which offer general health services and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment catering to locals and tourists.

There has been growing emphasis to expand the economic scope of the city into other service activities such as research and development which supports the rest of the economy of Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to important research centres such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
The Forest Research Institute Malaysia is a statutory agency of the Government of Malaysia, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. FRIM promotes sustainable management and optimal use of forest resources in Malaysia by generating knowledge and technology through research,...

 and the Institute of Medical Research and more research centres are expected to be established in the coming years.

Tourism



Tourism plays an important role in the city’s service-driven economy. Many large worldwide hotel chains have a presence in the city. Kuala Lumpur is the sixth most visited city in the world, with 8.94 million tourist arrivals in 2008. Tourism here is driven by the city's cultural diversity, relatively low costs and wide gastronomic and shopping variety. MICE
Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions
Meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions. The acronym MICE is applied inconsistently with the “E” sometimes referring to events and the “C” sometimes referring to conventions. MICE is used to refer to a particular type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance,...

 tourism which mainly encompasses conventions
Convention (meeting)
A convention, in the sense of a meeting, is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest. The most common conventions are based upon industry, profession, and fandom...

— has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the industry. Another notable trend is the increased presence of budget hotels in the city.

The major tourist destinations in Kuala Lumpur include the Merdeka Square, the House of Parliament
Malaysian Houses of Parliament
The Malaysian Houses of Parliament is a building complex where the Malaysian Parliament assembles. The structure is located at the Lake Gardens in Kuala Lumpur, right next to the Malaysian National Monument.-Description:...

, the Petaling Street
Petaling Street
Petaling Street is a Chinatown located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is infamous for pirated clothes and accessories along with bootleg DVDs and CDs. Petaling Street however does not exclusively offer pirated products...

, the National Palace (Istana Negara), the Kuala Lumpur Tower
Kuala Lumpur Tower
The Kuala Lumpur Tower is a tall tower located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Its construction was finished in 1995. It is used for communication purposes and features an antenna that reaches 421 m , which currently makes it the second tallest freestanding tower in the world. The roof of the pod is at...

, the National Museum, the Central Market, the National Monument,and religious sites such as the Jamek Mosque and Batu Caves
Batu Caves
Batu Caves , is a limestone hill, which has a series of caves and cave temples, located in Gombak district, north of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It takes its name from the Sungai Batu or Batu River, which flows past the hill. Batu Caves is also the name of the nearby village.The cave is one of the...

. Kuala Lumpur plays host to many cultural festivals such as the Thaipusam
Thaipusam
Thaipusam is a Hindu festival celebrated mostly by the Tamil community on the full moon in the Tamil month of Thai . It is celebrated not only in countries where the Tamil community constitutes a majority, but also in countries where Tamil communities are smaller, such as Singapore and Malaysia...

 procession at the Sri Mahamariamman Temple.

The entertainment hub of the city is mainly centred in the Golden Triangle encompassing Jalan P. Ramlee, Jalan Sultan Ismail and Ampang Road. Trendy nightclub
Nightclub
A nightclub is an entertainment venue which usually operates late into the night...

s, bar
Bar (establishment)
A bar is a business establishment that serves alcoholic drinks — beer, wine, liquor, and cocktails — for consumption on the premises.Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go...

s and lounges, such as the Beach Club, Espanda, the Hakka Republic Wine Bar & Restaurant, Hard Rock Cafe
Hard Rock Cafe
Hard Rock Cafe is a chain of theme restaurants founded in 1971 by Americans Peter Morton & Isaac Tigrett. In 1979, the cafe began covering its walls with rock and roll memorabilia, a tradition which expanded to others in the chain. In 2006, Hard Rock was sold to the Seminole Tribe of Florida, and...

, the Luna Bar, Nuovo, Rum Jungle, the Thai Club, Zouk
Zouk (club)
Zouk is one of the oldest and most popular nightclubs in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. The club is named after the French Creole word for 'party'. It has won the Singapore Tourism Board's "Best Nightspot Experience" award 6 times, between 1996 to 2007...

, and many others are located here.

Retail



Kuala Lumpur alone has 66 shopping malls and it is the retail and fashion hub for Malaysia. Shopping in Malaysia contributed RM7.7 billion (USD 2.26 billion) or 20.8 percent of the RM31.9 billion tourism receipts in 2006. and Kuala Lumpur plays a big role in attracting consumers.

Suria KLCC
Suria KLCC
Suria KLCC is Malaysia's premier shopping centre located at the base of the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur City Centre based in Kuala Lumpur. It is located on 6 floors, with anchor tenants Isetan, Parkson Grand, Cold Storage Supermarket, Tanjong Golden Village, Signature's Level 2 Food Court...

 is one of Malaysia's premier shopping destinations due to its location beneath the Petronas Twin Towers.

Apart from Suria KLCC, Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang is the name of the shopping and entertainment district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It encompasses Jalan Bukit Bintang and its immediate surrounding areas...

 district has the highest concentration of shopping malls in Kuala Lumpur. It houses various cafes, alfresco dining outlets and retail malls. The Bangsar
Bangsar
Bangsar, also Bungsar , is an affluent residential suburb on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur, lying about south-west of the city centre. It is part of the Lembah Pantai parliamentary constituency...

 district also has a few shopping complexes, including Bangsar Village, Bangsar Shopping Centre, Mid Valley Megamall
Mid Valley Megamall
Mid Valley Megamall is a complex comprising a shopping mall, an office tower block, 30 signature offices and 2 hotels located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was opened in November 1999. The mall has 4.5 million square feet of total floor area, out of which 1.7 million square feet is leasable...

 and The Gardens. The Damansara
Damansara, Selangor
Damansara is a one of 36 subdivisions of the district of Petaling in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. It is named after the Damansara River which flows nearby. It is one of the most densely populated areas in Malaysia...

 subdivision north-west of Kuala Lumpur, though not in the city-proper, is the home of the only IKEA
IKEA
IKEA is a privately held, international home products company that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture such as beds and desks, appliances and home accessories. The company is the world's largest furniture retailer...

 outlet in the country, and a cluster of locally operated malls like Cathay
Cathay Organisation
Cathay Organisation Holdings Limited is one of Singapore's leading leisure and entertainment groups. It has the first THX cinema hall and digital cinema in Singapore. The group has operations in Singapore and Malaysia.-The early years:...

 Multi Screen Cinemas, The Curve
The Curve (shopping mall)
The Curve is a shopping mall in Mutiara Damansara, Selangor next to Ikea, Ikano Power Centre, Tesco and e@Curve ....

, Ikano Power Centre
Ikano Power Centre
IPC Shopping Centre, is a shopping mall located in Mutiara Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia. It was opened in 2004, and is located adjacent to a wholesale IKEA outlet and The Curve. Among its major attractions are a pet safari, Popular bookstore and Cold Storage, a higher end supermarket...

 and One Utama.

Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as textile
Textile
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands...

s, fabric
Fabric
A fabric is a textile material, short for "textile fabric".Fabric may also refer to:*Fabric , the spatial and geometric configuration of elements within a rock*Fabric , a nightclub in London, England...

s and handicraft
Handicraft
Handicraft, more precisely expressed as artisanic handicraft, sometimes also called artisanry, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft. Usually the term is applied to traditional means...

s. The Chinatown of Kuala Lumpur, commonly known as Petaling Street
Petaling Street
Petaling Street is a Chinatown located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is infamous for pirated clothes and accessories along with bootleg DVDs and CDs. Petaling Street however does not exclusively offer pirated products...

, is one of them. Chinatown features many pre-independence buildings with Straits Chinese and colonial architectural influences. Kuala Lumpur's Central Market
Central Market, Malaysia
Central Market is a main attraction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.-Introduction:Central Market is located at Jalan Hang Kasturi, a few minutes away from Petaling Street. It was founded in 1888 and originally used as a wet market, while the current building was completed in 1937...

 (Pasar Seni), which was once the city's wet market, offers an assortment of arts and craft merchandise, varying from antiques and paintings to souvenirs and clothing.

In 2000, the Malaysian Ministry of Tourism introduced the mega sale event for shopping in Malaysia. The mega sale event is held thrice in a year—in March, May and December—where all shopping malls are encouraged to participate to boost Kuala Lumpur as a leading shopping destination.

Demographics


Kuala Lumpur is the most populous city in Malaysia, with a population of 1.6 million in the city proper
City proper
City proper is defined as a "locality with legally fixed boundaries and an administratively recognized urban status that is usually characterized by some form of local government", or the area within the corporate limits. This definition has been consistently used since the United Nations...

 as of 2010. It has a population density of 6696 PD/km2, and is the most densely populated administrative district in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is a primate city
Primate city
A primate city is the leading city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. A 'primate city distribution' has one very large city with many much smaller cities and towns, and no intermediate-sized urban centres, in contrast to the linear 'rank-size...

 as it has an estimated metropolitan population of 6.9 million as of 2007.

Kuala Lumpur has a heterogeneous populace which includes the country's three major ethnic groups: the Malays
Malaysian Malay
In Malaysia, the Malay population is defined by Article 160 of the Malaysian Constitution as someone born to a Malaysian citizen who professes to be a Muslim, habitually speaks the Malay language, adheres to Malay customs and is domiciled in Malaysia or Singapore...

, the Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is also sometimes used to refer to...

 and the Indians, although the city also has a mix of different cultures including Eurasians
Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
The word Eurasian refers to people of mixed Asian and European ancestry. It was originally coined in 19th-century British India to refer to Anglo-Indians of mixed British and Indian descent....

, as well as Kadazan
Kadazan
The Kadazans are an ethnic group indigenous to the state of Sabah in Malaysia. They are found mainly on the west coast of Sabah, the surrounding locales, and various locations in the interior. Due to similarities in culture and language with the Dusun ethnic group, and also because of other...

s, Ibans
Iban people
The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. In Malaysia, most Ibans are located in Sarawak, a small portion in Sabah and some in west Malaysia. They were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks. Ibans were renowned for practising headhunting and...

 and other indigenous races from East Malaysia
East Malaysia
East Malaysia, also known as Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia located on the island of Borneo. It consists of the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, and the Federal Territory of Labuan. It lies to the east from Peninsular Malaysia , which is located on the Malay Peninsula. The two are...

 and Peninsula Malaysia. According to the 2000 census by the Department of Statistics, the percentage of the Bumiputera population in Kuala Lumpur was around 38% in 2000 (next census is in 2010), while the Chinese population comprised 43% and Indians 10%. A notable phenomenon has been the increase in the presence of foreign residents in Kuala Lumpur, who now constitute about 9% of the city’s population.


Birth rates in Kuala Lumpur have declined and resulted in the lower proportion of young people falling below 15 years old category from 33% in 1980 to slightly less than 27% in 2000. On the other hand, the working age group of 15–59 increased from 63% in 1980 to 67% in 2000. The elderly age group, 60 years old and above has increased from 4% in 1980 and 1991 to 6% in 2000.

Kuala Lumpur's rapid development triggered a huge influx of low-skilled foreign workers from Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

, Burma, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a country off the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. Known until 1972 as Ceylon , Sri Lanka is an island surrounded by the Indian Ocean, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait, and lies in the vicinity of India and the...

, Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

, and Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 into Malaysia, many of these low-skilled workers enter the country illegally or without proper permits. However, at the same time there are more than 750,000 Malaysians abroad, in countries like France, the UK, and Australia and Europe. In the UK in particular many enter the country on holiday visas and overstay and work illegally. This has been a source of tension in the media recently between the UK border force and Air Asia and the Malaysian High Commission in London.


Kuala Lumpur is plural and religiously diverse. The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population. Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 is practiced primarily by the Malays and the Indian Muslim communities. While Buddhism, Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

 and Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

 is practised mainly among the Chinese. Indians traditionally adhere to Hinduism. Some Chinese and Indians also subscribe to Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

.

Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysian language
Malaysian or Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia and a standardized form of the Malay language of the Austronesian family. It is over 80% cognate with Indonesian and is spoken natively by over 10 million people...

 is the principal language in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur residents are generally literate in English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, with a large proportion adopting it as their first language. It has a strong presence, especially in business and is a compulsory language taught in schools. Cantonese and Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
Standard Chinese or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

 are prominent as they are spoken by the local majority Chinese
Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese is a Malaysian of Chinese origin. Most are descendants of Chinese who arrived between the fifteenth and the mid-twentieth centuries. Within Malaysia, they are usually simply referred to as "Chinese" in all languages. The term Chinese Malaysian is also sometimes used to refer to...

 population. Other major dialects spoken are Hakka
Hakka
The Hakka , sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese who speak the Hakka language and have links to the provincial areas of Guangdong, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan and Fujian in China....

 and Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

. While Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

 is dominant amongst the local Indian population. Other Indian languages spoken include Malayalam, Telugu
Telugu language
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

, Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 and Punjabi
Punjabi language
Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the historical Punjab region . For Sikhs, the Punjabi language stands as the official language in which all ceremonies take place. In Pakistan, Punjabi is the most widely spoken language...

.

Cityscape




Architecture



The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a blend of old colonial
Colonialism
Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by...

 influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

, and postmodern architecture
Postmodern architecture
Postmodern architecture began as an international style the first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950s, but did not become a movement until the late 1970s and continues to influence present-day architecture...

 mix. Being a relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

 and Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, most of Kuala Lumpur's colonial buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. These buildings have Moorish
Mughal architecture
Mughal architecture, an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian architecture, is the distinctive style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries in what is now India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. It is symmetrical and decorative in style.The Mughal dynasty was...

, Tudor
Tudor style architecture
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of medieval architecture during the Tudor period and even beyond, for conservative college patrons...

, Neo-Gothic
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture. Most of the styling has been modified to use local resources and acclimatised to the local climate, which is hot and humid all year around

Prior to the Second World War, many shophouse
Shophouse
A shophouse is a vernacular architectural building type that is commonly seen in areas such as urban Southeast Asia. This hybrid building form characterises the historical centres of most towns and cities in the region.- Design and features :...

s, usually two stories with functional shops on the ground floor and separate residential spaces upstairs, were built around the old city centre. These shop-houses drew inspiration from Straits Chinese and European traditions. Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today around Medan Pasar (Old Market Square), Chinatown
Petaling Street
Petaling Street is a Chinatown located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is infamous for pirated clothes and accessories along with bootleg DVDs and CDs. Petaling Street however does not exclusively offer pirated products...

, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman
Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman is the famous road and streets in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This road is named after the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Abdul Rahman.-Attractions:...

, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang
Bukit Bintang is the name of the shopping and entertainment district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It encompasses Jalan Bukit Bintang and its immediate surrounding areas...

 and Tengkat Tong Shin areas.

Independence coupled with the rapid economic growth from the 1970s to the 1990s and with Islam being the official religion in the country, has resulted in the construction of buildings with a more local and Islamic flavour arise around the city. Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the keris
Kris
The kris or keris is an asymmetrical dagger or sword nowadays most strongly associated with the culture of Indonesia, but also indigenous to Malaysia, Southern Thailand and Brunei. It is known as kalis in the southern Philippines. The kris is famous for its distinctive wavy blade , but many have...

. Some of these buildings have Islamic geometric motifs integrated with the designs of the building, signifying Islamic restriction on imitating nature through drawings. Examples of these buildings are Menara Telekom
Menara Telekom
Menara Telekom is the headquarters of Telekom Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur.It is 310 m tall, has 55 floors, and is shaped to represent a sprouting "bamboo shoot". It is located along the Federal Highway, Sprint Expressway and Jalan Pantai Baru and is served by the Rapid KL Kerinchi LRT station...

, Menara Maybank
Maybank Tower, Kuala Lumpur
Maybank Tower is a major skyscraper and landmark in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Located near Puduraya on the eastern fringe of the old Kuala Lumpur city centre, the tower is the headquarters of Maybank, and houses the Maybank Numismatic Museum.- History :...

, Dayabumi Complex, and the Islamic Centre. Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and National Planetarium
Planetarium Negara
The National Planetarium is the national planetarium of Malaysia. It is a blue-domed structure that is situated on top of a hill in the Lake Gardens at Jalan Perdana, Kuala Lumpur. It is about in area.-History:...

 have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome
Dome
A dome is a structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. Dome structures made of various materials have a long architectural lineage extending into prehistory....

 and minaret
Minaret
A minaret مناره , sometimes مئذنه) is a distinctive architectural feature of Islamic mosques, generally a tall spire with an onion-shaped or conical crown, usually either free standing or taller than any associated support structure. The basic form of a minaret includes a base, shaft, and gallery....

, when in fact it is a place of science and knowledge. The 452 metres (1,482.9 ft) tall Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
The Petronas Towers are skyscrapers and twin towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

 are the tallest twin buildings in the world. They were designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art.

Late modern and postmodern architecture began to appear in the late-1990s and early-2000s. With the economic development, old buildings such as Bok House
Bok House
The Bok House was an old mansion on Jalan Ampang in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The compound where the building stood is a block away from the Petronas Twin Towers, owned by a private trustee managed by the Bok family. The mansion was designed by Swan and Maclaren in 1926 and it was completed in 1929...

 have been razed to make way for new ones. Buildings with all-glass shells exist throughout the city, with the most prominent examples being the Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
The Petronas Towers are skyscrapers and twin towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

 and Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre
Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre
The Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre is a convention and exhibition centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and part of the Kuala Lumpur City Centre precinct, known as KLCC...

. As of Kuala Lumpur's central business district today has shifted around the Kuala Lumpur city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline.

Parks


The Lake Gardens
Lake Gardens, Kuala Lumpur
Lake Gardens is Kuala Lumpur's first large-scale recreational park. Measuring 91.6 hectares, it is located in the heart of the city and established in 1888. Lake Gardens served as place of refuge from the hustle and bustle of the city during colonial times...

, a 92 hectares (227.3 acre) manicured garden near the Malaysian Parliament building, was once home to a British colonial official. The park includes a Butterfly Park, Deer Park, Orchid Garden, Hibiscus Garden and the Kuala Lumpur Bird Park
Kuala Lumpur Bird Park
The Kuala Lumpur Bird Park is a public aviary in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is a popular tourist attraction in the country, receiving an average of 200,000 visitors every year. It is located adjacent to the Lake Gardens. The Bird Park houses more than 3000 birds representing more than 200...

, Southeast Asia's largest bird park. Other parks in the city include the ASEAN Sculpture Garden, KLCC Park
KLCC Park
KLCC Park is a public park located in the vicinity of Suria KLCC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The park has been designed to provide greenery to Petronas Twin Towers and the areas surrounding it.-Design:...

, Titiwangsa Lake Gardens, Metropolitan Lake Gardens in Kepong, Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Forest Research Institute Malaysia
The Forest Research Institute Malaysia is a statutory agency of the Government of Malaysia, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. FRIM promotes sustainable management and optimal use of forest resources in Malaysia by generating knowledge and technology through research,...

, Taman Tasik Permaisuri (Queen’s Lake Gardens), Bukit Kiara
Bukit Kiara
Bukit Kiara is an affluent suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The area is in proximity to the suburbs of Bukit Damansara, TTDI, Mont Kiara, Sri Hartamas and Bangsar. Bukit Kiara has often been described as the 'green lung' of Kuala Lumpur, boasting many jungle trails through its characteristic hills...

 Botanical Gardens, Equestrian Park and West Valley Park near TTDI, and Bukit Jalil International Park.

There are three forest reserves within the city namely the Bukit Nanas
Bukit Nanas
Bukit Nanas is a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It contains the only virgin tropical rain forest left in the city. The city planners are dedicated to preserving this jungle located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur...

 Forest Reserve in the city centre, the oldest gazetted forest reserve in the country 10.52 ha (26 acre), Bukit Sungai Putih Forest Reserve (7.41 ha (18.3 acre)) and Bukit Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (42.11 ha (104.1 acre)). Bukit Nanas
Bukit Nanas
Bukit Nanas is a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It contains the only virgin tropical rain forest left in the city. The city planners are dedicated to preserving this jungle located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur...

, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city. These residual forest areas are home to a number of fauna species particularly monkeys, tree shrews, squirrels and bird.

There is another park in the close vicinity to Kuala Lumpur i.e. Templer Park initiated and opened by Sir Gerald Templer
Gerald Templer
Field Marshal Sir Gerald Walter Robert Templer KG, GCB, GCMG, KBE was a British military commander. He is best known for his defeat of the guerrilla rebels in Malaya between 1952 and 1954...

 in 1954 during the "Emergency" time.

Education


According to government statistics, Kuala Lumpur has a literacy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

 rate of 97.5% in 2000, the highest rate in any state or territory in Malaysia.
In Malaysia, Malay is the language of instruction for most subjects while English is a compulsory subject and is used as the language of instruction for mathematics and the natural sciences. There are also schools which provide Mandarin and Tamil as languages of instruction for certain subjects.

In Kuala Lumpur alone, there are 13 tertiary education institutions, 79 high schools, 155 elementary schools and 136 kindergartens.

There are several notable institutions located in the city which have existed for more than 100 years, such as Bukit Bintang Girls' School (1893–2000, when shifted to Taman Shamelin Perkasa in Cheras and renamed SMK Seri Bintang Utara), Victoria Institution
Victoria Institution
Victoria Institution is a premier secondary school for boys and one of the oldest schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The school is widely known as V.I. and a student of Victoria Institution bears the name Victorian....

 (1893); Methodist Girls' School (1896); Methodist Boys' School
Methodist Boys' School (Kuala Lumpur)
Methodist Boys' School, Kuala Lumpur is a cluster secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It was founded in July 1897, making it one of the oldest schools in Malaysia. It is known as MBS and its students are known as MBSians. The school is also known as Marble School or Horley School to the...

 (1897); Convent Bukit Nanas
SMK Convent Bukit Nanas
Convent Bukit Nanas is an all-girls secondary school located at Bukit Nanas in the heart of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Established in 1899 a few years after rivals BBGS and MGSKL , it is one of the oldest schools in Kuala Lumpur and is widely known as CBN...

 (1899) and St. John's Institution
St. John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur
St. John's Institution is a secondary school for boys and one of the oldest schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

 (1904). The first school in Kuala Lumpur was The Alice Smith School which was established in 1946.

Kuala Lumpur is home to the University of Malaya
University of Malaya
The University of Malaya is located on a campus near the centre of Kuala Lumpur, and is the oldest university in Malaysia. It was founded in 1905 as a public-funded tertiary institution...

. Established in 1949, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region. It is also the most prestigious tertiary institution in Malaysia, having been ranked first among the universities in Malaysia in the 2004 Times Higher Education (THES) international rankings. In recent years, the number of international students at University of Malaya has risen, a result of increasing efforts made to attract more international students.

Other universities located in Kuala Lumpur include International Islamic University Malaysia
International Islamic University Malaysia
The International Islamic University Malaysia , also known as IIUM or UIAM, is a public publicly-funded university in Malaysia. Its main campus is located in Gombak, Selangor with its situated in Petaling Jaya / Nilai and its medical-centric branch in Kuantan, Pahang. The university is sponsored...

, Tunku Abdul Rahman University
Tunku Abdul Rahman University
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman is a private, coeducational university based in Malaysia. Established in 2001, it is renowned for courses such as business, finance, accounting, medicine, Chinese medicine, science, and journalism.-History:...

, UCSI University
UCSI University
UCSI University is a private university in Malaysia with primary campuses located at Cheras, Kuala Lumpur; Marang, Terengganu and Kuching, Sarawak. The campuses combined host a student population of 8,000. It also has a daughter campus, Perdana College of Malaysia, in Dhaka, Bangladesh...

, International Medical University
International Medical University
The International Medical University is a private international medical university in Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It offers courses such as Medicine, Pharmacy, and Nursing as well as postgraduate studies...

, Open University Malaysia
Open University Malaysia
- About OUM :Open University Malaysia or OUM is the 7th Malaysian private university and it is owned by the , a consortium of 11 public universities in Malaysia. It leverages on the quality, prestige and capabilities of its owners - a consortium of 11 Malaysian public universities.Currently, the...

, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Wawasan Open University
Wawasan Open University
Wawasan Open University is an institution of higher education based in Malaysia that allows adult students to pursue tertiary level qualifications through Open Distance Learning ....

 and the branch campus of the National University of Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia is the oldest public engineering and technological university in Malaysia. The university specialises in technical studies, with separate faculties for Education, Pure Sciences, Management, and Human Resources Development. It is the country's major source of graduate...

. The National Defence University of Malaysia is located at Sungai Besi
Sungai Besi
Sungai Besi is a township in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. The deepest tin mine in Malaysia is located here. Sungai Besi was a historical mining town with many heavy industries such as steelworks, waste steel plants and other steel industries...

 Army Base, at the southern part of central Kuala Lumpur. It was established to be a major centre for military and defence technology studies. This institution covers studies in the field of army
Army
An army An army An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine), in the broadest sense, is the land-based military of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of aviation corps...

, navy
Navy
A navy is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake- or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions...

, and air force
Air force
An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or...

.

Arts



Kuala Lumpur is a hub for cultural activities and events in Malaysia. Among the centres is the National Museum
Muzium Negara
National Museum of Malaysia is a museum located on Jalan Damansara in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The museum is situated in close proximity to the Perdana Lake Gardens and it provides an overview of Malaysian history and culture. Muzium Negara is a palatial structure built in the style of Rumah Gadang,...

 which is situated along the Mahameru Highway. Its collection comprises artifacts and paintings collected throughout the country. Kuala Lumpur also has an Islamic Arts Museum
Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia
Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia was officially opened on December 12, 1998. The museum is located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur’s tourist belt amidst the lush greenery and within walking distance to the National Mosque, Birds Park and National Planetarium....

 which houses more than seven thousand Islamic artefacts including rare exhibits as well as a library of Islamic art books. However, the museum's collection not only concentrate on works from the Middle East, but also includes work from elsewhere in Asia, such as China and Southeast Asia. Kuala Lumpur has a Cultural Craft Complex coupled with a museum that displays a variety of textile, ceramic, metal craft and weaved products. All the information of the production process are portrayed in diorama format complete with historical facts, technique and traditionally engineered equipment. Among the processes shown are pottery making, intricate wood carving, silver-smithing, weaving songket cloth, stamping batik patterns on cloth and boat making. Royal Selangor
Royal Selangor
Royal Selangor is a Malaysian pewter manufacturer and retailer, the largest of its type in the world. It is recognized as a Malaysian brand icon.-History:...

 has an ultra modern visitor's centre, which allows tours to be conducted through its pewter
Pewter
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy, traditionally 85–99% tin, with the remainder consisting of copper, antimony, bismuth and lead. Copper and antimony act as hardeners while lead is common in the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. It has a low melting point, around 170–230 °C ,...

 museum, gallery and its factory. In its pewtersmithing workshop, "The School of Hard Knocks," participants are taught to create their own pewter dish using traditional tools and methods.


The premier performing arts venue is the Petronas Philharmonic Hall
Dewan Filharmonik Petronas
Dewan Filharmonik Petronas is Malaysia's first purpose built concert hall for classical music by Malaysia's oil company, Petronas. It is the home of the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra. Since then, this hall has hosted many of the world's leading artists and orchestras...

. The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra
Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra
The Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra is a Malaysian orchestra, resident at the Dewan Filharmonik Petronas in Kuala Lumpur. The orchestra gives concerts throughout Malaysia and also in Singapore....

 (MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances. The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre
Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre
The Kuala Lumpur Performing Arts Centre or Pentas Seni Kuala Lumpur in Sentul West is one of the most established centres for the performing arts in Malaysia...

 (KLPac) in Sentul West is one of the most established centres for the performing arts, notably theatre, music, and film screening, in the country. It has housed many local productions and has been a supporter of local and regional independent performance artists. One of the highlights in 2006 was the KL Sing Song 2006 music fest which featured Malaysian singer-songwriters of various cultural backgrounds, from both West and East Malaysia, through two days of performances and workshops.

The National Art Gallery of Malaysia is located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a 5.67 hectares (14 acre) site neighbouring the National Theater (Istana Budaya
Istana Budaya
The Istana Budaya or The Palace of Culture, founded in September 1999, is Malaysia's main venue for all types of theatre including musical theater, operetta, classical concert and opera from local and international performances...

) and National Library. The architecture of the gallery incorporates elements of traditional Malay architecture, as well as contemporary modern architecture. The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and trustee of the national art heritage. The Petronas Art Gallery, another centre for fine art, is situated in Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC). The Galeri Tangsi near Dataran Merdeka houses exhibitions of works by local and foreign artists.

Kuala Lumpur holds the Malaysia International Gourmet Festival annually. Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, which includes international brands as well as local designers.

Sports and recreation



Kuala Lumpur has numerous parks, gardens and open spaces for recreational purposes. Total open space for recreational and sport facilities land use in the city has increased significantly by 169.6 percent from 586 hectares (1,448 acre) in 1984 to 1580 hectares (3,904.3 acre) in 2000.

Kuala Lumpur is one of the host cities for the Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 World Championship, the open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix
A1 Grand Prix
A1 Grand Prix was a 'single make' open-wheel auto racing series. It was unique in its field in that competitors solely represented their nation as opposed to themselves or a team, the usual format in most formula racing series. As such, it was often promoted as the "World Cup of Motorsport"...

 and the Motorcycle Grand Prix with races being held at Sepang International Circuit
Sepang International Circuit
The Sepang International Circuit is a racing circuit in Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia. It is located near Kuala Lumpur International Airport, approximately 60 km south of the capital city Kuala Lumpur. It is the venue used for the Formula One Malaysian Grand Prix, A1 Grand Prix as well as the...

 in the neighbouring state of Selangor, next to the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The Formula One event contributes significantly to tourist arrivals and tourism income to Kuala Lumpur. This was evident during the Asian Financial Crisis in 1998. Despite cities around Asia suffering declining tourist arrivals, Kuala Lumpur tourist arrivals increased from 6,210,900 in 1997 to 10,221,600 in 2000, or 64.6% increase in tourist arrivals.

KL Grand Prix CSI 5*, a five-star international showjumping equestrian event is held annually in the city. This annual event draws the world’s top riders and their prized horses to Malaysia.

Other annual sport events hosted by the city include the KL Tower Run, the KL Tower International BASE Jump Merdeka Circuit and the Kuala Lumpur International Marathon. Kuala Lumpur is also one of the stages of the Tour de Langkawi cycling race.

The annual Malaysia Open Super Series badminton tournament is held in Kuala Lumpur.

Kuala Lumpur has a considerable array of sports facilities of international class after hosting the 1998 Commonwealth Games
1998 Commonwealth Games
The 1998 XVI Commonwealth Games were held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 11 September to 21 September 1998 making it the first Asian country to act as host and the last Commonwealth Games for the 20th century. A record 70 nations supplied 3638 athletes...

. Many of these facilities including the main stadium (with running track and a football field), hockey stadium and swimming pools are located in the National Sports Complex at Bukit Jalil
Bukit Jalil
Bukit Jalil is a suburb about 20 km. south of Kuala Lumpur. It is a small suburb bounded by the National Sports Complex on the east, the Shah Alam Expressway on the north, city boundaries to the west, and the Puchong-Sungai Besi Highway as well as city boundaries to the south...

 while a velodrome and more swimming pools are located in Bandar Tun Razak, next to the Taman Tasik Permaisuri Lake Gardens. There are also soccer fields, local sports complexes, swimming pools and tennis courts scattered around the suburbs. Badminton and ‘takraw
Sepak Takraw
Sepak takraw , or kick volleyball, is a sport native to the Malay-Thai Peninsula...

’ courts are usually included in community halls.

Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil.
The city also has numerous large private fitness centres run by Celebrity Fitness
Celebrity Fitness
Celebrity Fitness is one of Asia's largest health and fitness club operators, by number of clubs and members. Celebrity Fitness currently has 27 clubs in 3 different countries, and operates three different gym brands: Celebrity Fitness, Celebrity Fitness Express, and Celebrity Fitness VIP...

, Fitness First
Fitness First
Fitness First is the largest privately owned health club group in the world with over 540 Fitness First clubs worldwide reaching over 1.7 million members in 21 countries...

, True Fitness and major five-star hotels.

Kuala Lumpur is also the birth place of Hashing
Hash House Harriers
The Hash House Harriers is an international group of non-competitive running, social and drinking clubs...

 which began in December 1938 when a group of British
British people
The British are citizens of the United Kingdom, of the Isle of Man, any of the Channel Islands, or of any of the British overseas territories, and their descendants...

 colonial officers and expatriates began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional British Paper Chase
Paper Chase (game)
Paper Chase is a racing game played outdoors with any number of players. At the start of the game, one person is designated the 'hare' and everyone else in the group are the 'hounds'...

 or "Hare and Hounds".

Media



There are several newspaper
Newspaper
A newspaper is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features and advertising. It usually is printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint. By 2007, there were 6580 daily newspapers in the world selling 395 million copies a...

s, including daily newspapers, opposition newspaper, business newspapers and also a digital newspaper, based in Kuala Lumpur. Daily newspapers include The Star
The Star (Malaysia)
The Star is an English-language, tabloid-format newspaper in Malaysia. It is the largest in terms of circulation in Malaysia, according to the . It has a daily circulation of between 290,000 to 300,000...

, New Straits Times
New Straits Times
The New Straits Times is an English-language newspaper published in Malaysia. It is Malaysia's oldest newspaper still in print , having been founded as The Straits Times in 1845, and was reestablished as the "New Straits Times" in 1965. The paper served as Malaysia's only broadsheet format English...

, theSun
The Sun (Malaysia)
The Sun is Malaysia's first national free daily newspaper in tabloid form. Available from Mondays to Fridays except on public holiday, with a target audience of white-collar workers and urban youth....

, Malay Mail, Kosmo!
Kosmo!
Kosmo! is a Malay language compact format newspaper in Malaysia owned by Utusan Melayu Berhad. It is available in Malaysia at most newsstands....

, Utusan Malaysia
Utusan Malaysia
Utusan Malaysia is a Malay language pro-government newspaper in Malaysia. First published in Jawi, the newspaper is now published in romanised letters...

, Berita Harian
Berita Harian
Berita Harian is a major Malay language newspaper in Malaysia. Its Sunday Edition is called Berita Minggu. It was founded on 31 August 1957, which also marks the date of Malaya's independence...

, Harian Metro
Harian Metro
Harian Metro is a Malaysian newspaper published in Malay language and available in the afternoon. It was launched on 25 March 1991. A Sunday edition, Metro Ahad was launched on August 19, 1995.The format of the newspaper is tabloid...

. Mandarin and Tamil newspapers are also published here on a daily basis, for example Guang Ming Daily, Sin Chew Daily, China Press
China Press
China Press is a Malaysian Chinese-language newspaper set up by Tun Henry Lee Hau Shik and first published on 1 February 1946....

, Nanyang Siang Pau
Nanyang Siang Pau
Nanyang Siang Pau or Nanyang Business Daily was founded by philanthropist-entrepreneur Tan Kah Kee on 6 September 1923 in Singapore, currently published in Malaysia...

 and Tamil Nesan
Tamil Nesan
The Tamil Nesan is a Tamil newspaper published in Malaysia, and the oldest Tamil newspaper in the country, established in 1924. The first issue was published on September 24, 1924....

, Malaysia Nanban
Malaysia Nanban
The Malaysia Nanban is a Tamil daily newspaper based in Malaysia, one of only three Tamil-language dailies in the country, alongside the Makkal Osai and the Tamil Nesan.- Overview :...

, Makkal Osai
Makkal Osai
The Makkal Osai is a Tamil daily newspaper based in Malaysia, one of only three Tamil-language dailies in the country, alongside the Malaysia Nanban and the Tamil Nesan.- Overview :...

. Opposition newspapers such as Harakah
Harakah
Harakah is a newspaper founded in 1987 and published by Parti Islam SeMalaysia . In addition to using the Malay language, the paper includes a 8-page English language pullout consisting of pages and columns written in English called the English Section. A page in Jawi writing was introduced in 2007...

, Suara Keadilan, Siasah and Wasilah are also based here. Kuala Lumpur is also the headquarters for Malaysia's state broadcaster RTM
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
The Department of Broadcasting, Malaysia, DBA Radio Televisyen Malaysia , is a Malaysian state-owned public broadcaster. It owns and operates a number of radio and television stations in Malaysia, based in Kuala Lumpur...

 and Media Prima, a media corporation which houses the commercial television stations TV3
TV3 (Malaysia)
Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad or TV3 began broadcasting on 1 June 1984 as Malaysia’s first commercial television station. It is part of Media Prima Berhad group of companies. It now transmits opened broadcasting business private 24-hours a day, 7 days a week since 1 January 2010...

, ntv7
Ntv7
Natseven TV Sdn Bhd or better known as ntv7 is a terrestrial television channel in Malaysia. It was launched nationwide on 7 April 1998 and was the country's third private free-to-air TV station after TV3 and Astro. Its mission is to promote a happier and more enlightened Malaysia...

, 8TV
8TV (Malaysia)
8TV is a private Malaysian Chinese television station, previously known as MetroVision Channel 8. Metrovision closed on 1 November 1999. 8TV was officially launched on Thursday, 8 January 2004 as 8TV after being acquired by Media Prima Berhad....

 and TV9
TV9 (Malaysia)
TV9 is a free-to-air private television station in Malaysia. TV9 began broadcasting on 22 April 2006, as a subsidiary of Media Prima Berhad. It formerly existed as Channel 9, which began airing on 9 September 2003 and ceased transmission on 1 February 2005 due to financial difficulties faced by the...

. Programmes are broadcast in Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

, English, Chinese and Tamil
Tamil language
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

.


The city is also home to the country's main pay-TV service, Astro, a satellite television
Satellite television
Satellite television is television programming delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by an outdoor antenna, usually a parabolic mirror generally referred to as a satellite dish, and as far as household usage is concerned, a satellite receiver either in the form of an...

 service, which broadcasts local and global television channels such as CNN
CNN
Cable News Network is a U.S. cable news channel founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. Upon its launch, CNN was the first channel to provide 24-hour television news coverage, and the first all-news television channel in the United States...

, BBC World
BBC World
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel. It has the largest audience of any BBC channel in the world...

, Star World
STAR World
STAR World is an Asian English language cable and satellite television network owned by Star TV and Fox International Channels, fully owned subsidiaries of News Corporation. The channel is the successor of STAR Plus, a subsidiary of News Corporation...

 and HBO. Al-Jazeera, the Doha-based Arab news network has launched a new English-speaking channel called Al-Jazeera English to boost its international viewership with one of its broadcast centres based in Kuala Lumpur. Phoenix TV, a Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 based television broadcaster has also announced plans to expand its regional business by partnership with local satellite TV provider, Astro.
In March 2008, Time Out, an international listings and events magazine, was launched in Kuala Lumpur as its 24th global city.

Kuala Lumpur has been featured in all aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books. Movies set in Kuala Lumpur include Entrapment
Entrapment (film)
Entrapment is a 1999 American caper film directed by Jon Amiel and starring Sean Connery and Catherine Zeta-Jones.-Plot:Virginia "Gin" Baker is an investigator for Waverly Insurance. Robert "Mac" MacDougal is an international art thief. A priceless Rembrandt painting is stolen from an office one...

, starring Sean Connery
Sean Connery
Sir Thomas Sean Connery , better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards and three Golden Globes Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930), better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy...

 and Catherine Zeta-Jones
Catherine Zeta-Jones
Catherine Zeta-Jones, CBE, is a British actress. She began her career on stage at an early age. After starring in a number of United Kingdom and United States television films and small roles in films, she came to prominence with roles in Hollywood movies such as the 1998 action film The Mask of...

, and Children of Men
Children of Men
Children of Men is a 2006 science fiction film loosely adapted from P. D. James's 1992 novel The Children of Men, directed by Alfonso Cuarón. In 2027, two decades of human infertility have left society on the brink of collapse. Illegal immigrants seek sanctuary in England, where the last...

, (starring Clive Owen
Clive Owen
Clive Owen is an English actor, who has worked on television, stage and film. He first gained recognition in the United Kingdom for portraying the lead in the ITV series Chancer from 1990 to 1991...

) where the Petronas Twin Towers were depicted in flames for a few seconds. Kuala Lumpur was referenced in an episode of The Simpsons
The Simpsons
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...

entitled "Bart Gets Famous
Bart Gets Famous
"Bart Gets Famous" is the twelfth episode of The Simpsons fifth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 3, 1994. In the episode, Bart gets a job as Krusty the Clown's production assistant. However, he soon becomes sick of the job and comes close to quitting....

", in which the Bumblebee Man stated that "a powerful tidal wave in Kuala Lumpur has killed 120 people". Books which were set in Kuala Lumpur include KL 24/7 by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin, My Life As a Fake by Peter Carey
Peter Carey (historian)
Peter Carey is a British historian and author who studies East Timor, Java and Burma. He was the Laithwaite fellow of Modern History at Trinity College, Oxford. His major early work has concentrated on the history of Diponegoro, the British in Java and the Java War.He regularly comments on the...

, and Democracy
Democracy (novel)
Democracy, Joan Didion's fourth novel, was published in 1984. Set in Hawaii and Southeast Asia at the end of the Vietnam War, the book tells the story of Inez Victor, wife of U.S...

by Joan Didion. Kuala Lumpur is mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists such as Keroncong Kuala Lumpur by P. Ramlee
P. Ramlee
Tan Sri Datuk Amar Dr. P. Ramlee, was a Malaysian film actor, director, singer, songwriter, composer, and producer. Due to his contributions to the movie and music industry and his literary work, he is often considered the icon of Malay entertainment in Malaysia, Singapore, and Sumatra .-Biography:P...

, Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota by Saloma, Chow Kit Road by Sudirman Arshad
Sudirman Arshad
Dato' Sudirman Haji Arshad DIMP, JMN, AMN, AMP was a Malaysian singer and songwriter. He was known as the 'Singing Lawyer', the 'People's Singer' and the 'Elvis of Malaysia'.-Early life:...

, Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur by Alleycats
Alleycats
The Alleycats is a Malaysian band which was formed in 1969, and gained popularity in the late 1970s. They consist of musicians from Penang, and gained popularity in their home state earlier on in their career.-Band members:Members include:...

, Streets of Kuala Lumpur by Murkyway, K.L. by Vandal, Kuala Lumpur by Poetic Ammo
Poetic Ammo
Poetic Ammo was a Malaysian rap/hip-hop group. The group consisted of Yogeswaran Veerasingam , Chandrakumar Balakrishnan , Nicholas Ong , and Sashi Kumar Balakrishnan Poetic Ammo (previously known as PMO or Poetic Ammunition) was a Malaysian rap/hip-hop group. The group consisted of Yogeswaran...

, Anak Dara by Azmyl Yunor
Azmyl Yunor
Azmyl Yunor is an independent English and Malay language singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, academic and writer from Malaysia...

 and KL by Too Phat
Too Phat
Too Phat is a Malaysian hip-hop duo, consisting of Joe Flizzow and Malique Ibrahim .-Career:...

. Kuala Lumpur, along with Putrajaya, was featured in the music video for the single "Dancing Out
Dancing Out
"Dancing Out" is a dance track by Korean boy band, Super Junior. The track was released in SMTown's studio album, 06 SUMMER SMTOWN, on June 20, 2006. Promotional performances began simultaneously with Super Junior's comeback single "U". This track is also Super Junior's first participation in an...

" by South Korean boy band Super Junior
Super Junior
Super Junior is a South Korean boy band. Formed in 2005 by producer Lee Soo-man of SM Entertainment, the group comprised a total of thirteen members at its peak, and was once claimed to be the world's largest boy band...

. Kuala Lumpur was also one of the destinations in The Amazing Race Asia and The Amazing Race
The Amazing Race
The Amazing Race is a reality television game show in which teams of two people, who have some form of a preexisting personal relationship, race around the world in competition with other teams...

. Games have also been set in Kuala Lumpur. They include three levels of the game Hitman 2: Silent Assassin
Hitman 2: Silent Assassin
Hitman 2: Silent Assassin is a stealth game developed by IO Interactive and published by Eidos Interactive. Released for the Xbox game console on September 30, 2002, it is the second entry in the Hitman series and the sequel to Hitman: Codename 47...

and two levels of the PlayStation 2 game Burnout Dominator.

Transportation



Unlike most other Asian cities, driving is the main mode of commuting in Kuala Lumpur. Hence, every part of the city is well connected by highways. As capital of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road network that leads to the rest of Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia , also known as West Malaysia , is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula. Its area is . It shares a land border with Thailand in the north. To the south is the island of Singapore. Across the Strait of Malacca to the west lies the island of Sumatra...

.
In terms of air connectivity, Kuala Lumpur is served by two airports. The main airport, Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Kuala Lumpur International Airport , or KLIA serves the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, and is one of Southeast Asia's largest airports. It is also Malaysia's main international airport. It is situated in the Sepang district, in the south of the state of Selangor, about from Kuala Lumpur...

 (KLIA) at Sepang, Selangor, which is also the aviation hub of Malaysia, is located about 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) south of city. The other airport is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport
Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport
Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport , LTSAAS , often called Subang Airport or Subang Skypark, is an airport located in Subang, Selangor, Malaysia, and primarily serves general aviation and some turboprop domestic flights...

, also known as Subang Skypark and served as the main international gateway to Kuala Lumpur from 1965 until KLIA opened in 1998. KLIA connects the city with direct flights to destinations in six continents around the world, and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines
Malaysia Airlines
Malaysian Airline System Berhad , DBA Malaysia Airlines , is the government-owned flag carrier of Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operates flights from its home base, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, and its eastern hub in Kota Kinabalu. It has its headquarters on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz...

 and low-cost carrier, AirAsia
AirAsia
AirAsia Berhad is a Malaysian-based low-cost airline. AirAsia is Asia's largest low-fare, no-frills airline and a pioneer of low-cost travel in Asia. AirAsia group operates scheduled domestic and international flights to over 400 destinations spanning 25 countries. Its main hub is the Low-Cost...

. KLIA can be reached using the KLIA Ekspres
KLIA Ekspres
KLIA Ekspres is a non-stop, airport rail link service between Kuala Lumpur Sentral and the Kuala Lumpur International Airport ERL station in Malaysia. The service is run by Express Rail Link Sdn. Bhd. which began its operations on 14 April 2002...

 high-speed train service from KL Sentral which takes twenty-eight minutes, while travelling by car via highway will take about an hour. Air Asia flights do not fly out of KLIA main terminal but from the Low Cost Carrier terminal, which is served by buses from KL Sentral, and is a 20–30 minute taxi ride from the main terminal. As of 2007, Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport is only used for chartered and turboprop flights by airlines such as Firefly
Firefly (airline)
FlyFirefly Sdn Bhd, operating as Firefly, is a full service point to point carrier and a full subsidiary of Malaysia Airlines. Its head office is located on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport in Subang, Selangor. It claims to be the first community airline in Malaysia...

 and Berjaya Air
Berjaya Air
Berjaya Air is an airline based in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. It operates domestic scheduled and charter services, as well as regional flights. Its main base is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, Subang, Malaysia.- History :...

.


Public transport in Kuala Lumpur
Public transport in Kuala Lumpur
Public transport in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, rail and taxi.-History of public transport in Kuala Lumpur:...

 and the rest of the Klang Valley
Klang Valley
Klang Valley is an area in Malaysia comprising Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs, and adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor. An alternative reference to this would be Kuala Lumpur Metropolitan Area or Greater Kuala Lumpur. It is geographically delineated by Titiwangsa Mountains to the...

 covers a variety of transport modes such as bus
Bus
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers. The most common type of bus is the single-decker bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker buses and articulated buses, and smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses; coaches are...

, rail
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

 and taxi
Taxicab
A taxicab, also taxi or cab, is a type of vehicle for hire with a driver, used by a single passenger or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride. A taxicab conveys passengers between locations of their choice...

. Despite efforts to promote usage of public transportation, utilisation rates are low as only 16 percent of the population used public transportation in 2006. Rail transport in Kuala Lumpur encompasses light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

, rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

, monorail
Monorail
A monorail is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole support and its guideway. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles traveling on such a beam or track...

 and commuter rail. Kuala Lumpur is served by three separate rail systems which meet in the city and extend towards other parts of the Klang Valley, namely RapidKL Light Rail Transit, KL Monorail, and KTM Komuter
KTM Komuter
KTM Komuter is a commuter train service in Malaysia operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu . It was introduced in 1995 to provide local rail services in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding Klang Valley suburban areas. It is popular with commuters into the city, who thus avoid being caught in road traffic...

. These lines have underground, elevated or at-grade stations around the city. The main rapid transit hub is KL Sentral which facilitates as an interchange station for the rail systems. KL Sentral is also a hub for intercity railway operated by KTM Intercity
KTM Intercity
KTM Intercity is the brand name for a group of diesel-hauled intercity train services in Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad . Most services operate from Kuala Lumpur Sentral station in the Malaysian capital. A few operate solely along the East...

. It provides rail services to as far as Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

 in the south, and Hat Yai
Hat Yai
Hat Yai is a city in southern Thailand near the Malaysian border. Located at , it has a population of 157,359 in the city itself and about 800,000 in the greater Hat Yai area. Hat Yai is the largest city of Songkhla Province, the largest metropolitan area in Southern, and third largest...

, Thailand, in the north.


The largest public transportation operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley is RapidKL. Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, RapidKL has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley metropolitan area to increase ridership and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transportation system. The management of RapidKL has adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater connectivity, and cut down the need of more buses. RapidKL is also the operator of two light rail lines in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley, namely Ampang Line
Ampang Line
The Ampang Line is one of the two lines in Kuala Lumpur Rail Transit System network operated by RapidKL Rail network. The other rail network is the Kelana Jaya Line....

 and Kelana Jaya Line
Kelana Jaya Line
The Kelana Jaya Line is a medium-capacity rail transport system and one of the three rail transit lines in the Kuala Lumpur Rail Transit System operated by RapidKL Rail network...

. By 2016, the Sungai Buloh - Kajang Line will be completed providing a faster efficient ride to the city centre.

In Kuala Lumpur, most taxis have distinctive white and red liveries. Kuala Lumpur is one of the major ASEAN city with taxis extensively running on natural gas
Natural gas vehicle
thumb|right|200px|2009 [[Honda Civic GX]] hooked up to Phill refueling system.A natural gas vehicle or NGV is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas as a clean alternative to other fossil fuels...

. Taxis can be hailed from taxi stands or from the streets. Nevertheless, taxis are known to charge high rates for foreigners.

Kuala Lumpur is served by Port Klang
Port Klang
Port Klang is a town and the main gateway by sea into Malaysia. Colonially known as Port Swettenham, it is also the location of the largest and busiest port in the country. As such, its economic progress has been greatly influenced by the port activities in its area...

, located about 64 km (39.8 mi) southwest of the city. The port is the largest and busiest in the country handling about of cargo in 2006.

International relations


Kuala Lumpur has established formal twinning
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 arrangements and diplomatic partnerships with several cities around the world.
ountry ity artnership status itation(s)
 India Chennai
Chennai
Chennai , formerly known as Madras or Madarasapatinam , is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, located on the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal. Chennai is the fourth most populous metropolitan area and the sixth most populous city in India...

Sister City
 India Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

Sister city
 Iran Isfahan Sister city
 Iran Mashhad
Mashhad
Mashhad , is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia Muslim world. It is also the only major Iranian city with an Arabic name. It is located east of Tehran, at the center of the Razavi Khorasan Province close to the borders of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. Its...

Sister city
 Japan Osaka
Osaka
is a city in the Kansai region of Japan's main island of Honshu, a designated city under the Local Autonomy Law, the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and also the biggest part of Keihanshin area, which is represented by three major cities of Japan, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe...

Business partner city
 Malaysia Malacca Town
Malacca Town
Most tourist attractions are concentrated in its small city centre which encompasses Jonker Walk which houses Malacca's traditional Chinatown that exhibits Peranakan architecture. A Famosa Fort, St. Paul Hill are among the tourist attractions located in the Bandar Hilir, old city area. There are...

Sister city
 Morocco Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

Sister city
 Turkey Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

Sister city

External links