Brunei

Brunei

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Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state
Sovereign state
A sovereign state, or simply, state, is a state with a defined territory on which it exercises internal and external sovereignty, a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood to be a state which is neither...

 located on the north coast of the island
Island
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or lake may be called an eyot , or holm...

 of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

, in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

, it is completely surrounded by the state of Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

, Malaysia, and in fact it is separated into two parts by Limbang
Limbang
Limbang is a border town and the capital of Limbang District in the Limbang Division of northern Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. The division has an area of 3,978.1 square kilometers, and a population of 42,600...

, which is part of Sarawak. It is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

, with the remainder of the island belonging to Malaysia and Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

. Brunei's population
Bruneians
Bruneians are people originating in the Indochina country of Thailand, Cambodia and Southern Vietnam dating back from 5,000 BC.-Diaspora:Many Bruneians now live overseas and outside of Brunei, the majority have migrated to Anglophone countries, including the United Kingdom, where there are around...

 is around 400,000 (July 2010).

Brunei can trace its beginnings to the 7th century, when it was a subject state of the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Srivijaya was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. The earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for 6...

n empire under the name P'o-li. It later became a vassal state
Vassal state
A vassal state is any state that is subordinate to another. The vassal in these cases is the ruler, rather than the state itself. Being a vassal most commonly implies providing military assistance to the dominant state when requested to do so; it sometimes implies paying tribute, but a state which...

 of Majapahit empire before converting to Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 in the 15th century. At the peak of its empire
Bruneian Empire
The Bruneian Empire was founded in the early 7th century on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The empire was ruled by pagan or Hindu kings converted into Muslims by Indian, Arab and merchants from the other parts of the Malay Archipelago who came to trade and spread Islam...

, the sultanate had control that extended over the coastal regions of modern-day Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 and Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

, the Sulu archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
The Sulu Archipelago is a chain of islands in the southwestern Philippines. This archipelago is considered to be part of the Moroland by the local rebel independence movement. This island group forms the northern limit of the Celebes Sea....

, and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo
Borneo
Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located north of Java Island, Indonesia, at the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia....

. The thalassocracy
Thalassocracy
The term thalassocracy refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as Athens or the Phoenician network of merchant cities...

 was visited by Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands" ....

 in 1521 and fought the Castille War
Castille War
The Castille War was a military conflict between Brunei and Spain in 1578.-Background:...

 in 1578 against Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

. Its empire began to decline with the forced ceding of Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 to James Brooke
James Brooke
James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB was the first White Rajah of Sarawak. His father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India; his mother, Anna Maria, born in Hertfordshire, was the illegitimate daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre,...

 and the ceding of Sabah
Sabah
Sabah is one of 13 member states of Malaysia. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south...

 to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. After the loss of Limbang
Limbang
Limbang is a border town and the capital of Limbang District in the Limbang Division of northern Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. The division has an area of 3,978.1 square kilometers, and a population of 42,600...

, Brunei finally became a British protectorate
Protectorate
In history, the term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity...

 in 1888, receiving a resident in 1906. In the years after the wartime occupation
Japanese occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak
Throughout much of World War II, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with the invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan on 8 December 1941 at 00:25, about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7...

, it formalised a constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 and fought an armed rebellion
Brunei Revolt
The Brunei Rebellion broke out on 8 December 1962. The rebels began co-ordinated attacks on the oil town of Seria and on police stations and government facilities around the protectorate...

. Brunei regained its independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1970s and 1990s, averaging 56% from 1999 to 2008, has transformed Brunei Darussalam into a newly industrialised country.

Brunei has the second highest Human Development Index
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate "very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries...

 among the South East Asia nations after Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, and is classified as a Developed Country
Developed country
A developed country is a country that has a high level of development according to some criteria. Which criteria, and which countries are classified as being developed, is a contentious issue...

. According to the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund is an organization of 187 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world...

 (IMF), Brunei is ranked 4th in the world by gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 per capita at purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity
In economics, purchasing power parity is a condition between countries where an amount of money has the same purchasing power in different countries. The prices of the goods between the countries would only reflect the exchange rates...

.

Etymology


According to legend, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak Betatar. His move from Garang, a place in the Temburong District to the Brunei river estuary led to the discovery of Brunei. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed "Baru nah!" (loosely translating as "that's it!" or "there"), from which the name Brunei was derived.

It was renamed Barunai in the 14th century, possibly influenced by the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 word , meaning "seafarers", later to become Brunei. The word Borneo is of the same origin. In the country's full name , means "Abode of Peace", while means "country" in Malay
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

. derives from the Sanskrit , meaning "city".

History



The power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines. The efforts of the Brunei Sultans in spreading Islam helped to spread the religion not only in Borneo but also as far north as to the southern Philippines islands. When Malacca fell to the Portuguese in 1511, it was Brunei that played a major role in the spread of Islam in the region.

By the 16th century, Islam was firmly rooted in Brunei, and the country had built one of its biggest mosques. In 1578, Alonso Beltrán, a Spanish traveler described it as being five stories tall and built on the water. Most likely it had five layers of roofs to represent the Five Pillars of Islam
Five Pillars of Islam
The Pillars of Islam are basic concepts and duties for accepting the religion for the Muslims.The Shi'i and Sunni both agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts, but the Shi'a do not refer to them by the same name .-Pillars of Shia:According to Shia Islam, the...

. This mosque was destroyed by the Spanish in June that same year.

Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an influence gradually brought an end to this regional power
Regional power
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. States which wield unrivaled power and influence within a region of the world possess regional hegemony.-Characteristics:...

, as Brunei entered a period of decline compounded by internal strife over royal succession. Piracy was also detrimental to the kingdom. Later, there was a brief war
Castille War
The Castille War was a military conflict between Brunei and Spain in 1578.-Background:...

 with Spain, in which Brunei's capital was occupied. Eventually the sultanate was victorious but lost territories to Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, including the island of Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. The decline of the Bruneian Empire
Bruneian Empire
The Bruneian Empire was founded in the early 7th century on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The empire was ruled by pagan or Hindu kings converted into Muslims by Indian, Arab and merchants from the other parts of the Malay Archipelago who came to trade and spread Islam...

 culminated in the 19th century, when Brunei lost much of its territory to the White Rajahs
White Rajahs
White Rajahs refers to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, namely the Brookes, who came originally from England. A Rajah is a monarch in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.-Rulers:...

 of Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

, resulting in its current small landmass and separation into two parts. Brunei was a British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 protectorate
Protectorate
In history, the term protectorate has two different meanings. In its earliest inception, which has been adopted by modern international law, it is an autonomous territory that is protected diplomatically or militarily against third parties by a stronger state or entity...

 from 1888 to 1984, and occupied by Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 from 1941 to 1945 during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

There was a small rebellion
Rebellion
Rebellion, uprising or insurrection, is a refusal of obedience or order. It may, therefore, be seen as encompassing a range of behaviors aimed at destroying or replacing an established authority such as a government or a head of state...

 against the monarchy
Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

 during the 1960s, which was suppressed with help from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. This event became known as the Brunei Revolt
Brunei Revolt
The Brunei Rebellion broke out on 8 December 1962. The rebels began co-ordinated attacks on the oil town of Seria and on police stations and government facilities around the protectorate...

 and was partly responsible for the failure to create the North Borneo Federation
North Borneo Federation
The North Borneo Federation, also known as Kalimantan Utara or North Kalimantan was a proposed political entity which would have comprised the British Colonies of Sarawak, British North Borneo and the protectorate of Brunei.By 1956, the governments of Sarawak, North Borneo, and the State of Brunei...

. The rebellion partially affected Brunei's decision to opt out of the Malaysian Federation.

Politics and government


Brunei has a constitutional sultanate
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

. It has a legal system based on English common law, although Islamic shariah law supersedes this in some cases.

The political system in the country is governed by the constitution and the tradition of the Malay Islamic Monarchy, the concept of “Melayu Islam Beraja” (MIB). The three components of MIB cover Malay culture, Islamic religion and the political framework under the monarchy.

Under Brunei's 1959 constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

, His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah is the head of state
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 with full executive authority, including emergency powers, since 1962. The Sultan's role is enshrined in the national ideology known as Melayu Islam Beraja
Melayu Islam Beraja
Melayu Islam Beraja is the adopted national philosophy of Negara Brunei Darussalam...

 (MIB), or Malay Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 Monarchy
Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which the office of head of state is usually held until death or abdication and is often hereditary and includes a royal house. In some cases, the monarch is elected...

. The country has been under hypothetical martial law
Martial law
Martial law is the imposition of military rule by military authorities over designated regions on an emergency basis— only temporary—when the civilian government or civilian authorities fail to function effectively , when there are extensive riots and protests, or when the disobedience of the law...

 since the Brunei Revolt
Brunei Revolt
The Brunei Rebellion broke out on 8 December 1962. The rebels began co-ordinated attacks on the oil town of Seria and on police stations and government facilities around the protectorate...

 of 1962. The Royal family retains a venerated status within the country.

Foreign relations



With its traditional ties with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, it became the 49th member of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 immediately on the day of its independence on 1 January 1984. As its first initiatives toward improved regional relations, Brunei joined ASEAN on 7 January 1984, becoming the sixth member. It later joined the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 at the 39th Session of the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
For two articles dealing with membership in the General Assembly, see:* General Assembly members* General Assembly observersThe United Nations General Assembly is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation...

 and became a full member on 21 September 1984 as a means to achieve recognition of its sovereignty and full independence from the world community. As it is an Islamic country, Brunei Darussalam became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in January 1984 at the Fourth Islamic Summit held in Morocco
Morocco
Morocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...

.

After its accession to the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in 1989, Brunei hosted the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in November 2000 and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 2002. As for other economic ties, Brunei Darussalam became an original member of the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...

 (WTO) since it came into force in 1 January 1995, and is a major player in BIMP-EAGA
BIMP-EAGA
The East ASEAN Growth Area is a subregional economic cooperation initiative in Southeast Asia.-Background:BIMP-EAGA was launched in 1994 as a cooperation initiative by Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, all of which are member-countries of the regional Association of...

 which was formed during the Inaugural Ministers’ Meeting in Davao
Davao
Davao refers to several closely related places in Mindanao in the Philippines. The term is used most often to refer to the city.*Davao Region, an administrative region*Davao del Norte province*Davao del Sur province*Davao Oriental province...

, Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 on 24 March 1994.

Brunei is recognized by every nation in the world. It shares a close relationship particularly with the Philippines and other nations such as Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

. In April 2009, Brunei and the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 signed a Memorandum of Understanding
Memorandum of understanding
A memorandum of understanding is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in...

 (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral cooperation of the two countries in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.

Brunei is one of many nations to lay claim to some of the disputed Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands
The Spratly Islands are a group of more than 750 reefs, islets, atolls, cays and islands in the South China Sea. The archipelago lies off the coasts of the Philippines and Malaysia , about one third of the way from there to southern Vietnam. They comprise less than four square kilometers of land...

. The status of Limbang
Limbang
Limbang is a border town and the capital of Limbang District in the Limbang Division of northern Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. The division has an area of 3,978.1 square kilometers, and a population of 42,600...

 as part of Sarawak was disputed by Brunei since the area was first annexed in 1890. The issue was reportedly settled in 2009, with Brunei agreeing to accept the border in exchange for Malaysias giving up claims to oil fields in Bruneian waters.

Subdivisions


Brunei is divided into four districts (daerah):
  • Belait
    Belait District
    Belait is the largest district in Brunei, as well as the western-most. The word 'Belait' is taken from the name of the native inhabitants of Belait, the Belait People. The district is administered from the town of Kuala Belait, its capital. Belait is governed by an appointed District Officer. The...

  • Brunei and Muara
  • Temburong
    Temburong District
    Temburong is the eastern-most district in Brunei. It is an exclave, as it is separated from the rest of Brunei by Malaysia and Brunei Bay. Its capital is Bangar. The main town located in the district is Pekan Bangar.-Geography:...

  • Tutong
    Tutong District
    Tutong is a district in Brunei and its capital is Pekan Tutong or Tutong Town . The district borders the South China Sea to the north, the Bruneian district of Brunei and Muara and the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the east and the Bruneian district of Belait to the west. It has a population of...



The district of Temburong is physically separated from the rest of Brunei by part of Sarawak
Sarawak
Sarawak is one of two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang , Sarawak is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia followed by Sabah, the second largest state located to the North- East.The administrative capital is Kuching, which...

 State (Malaysia). The districts are subdivided into 38 mukims.
Rank Mukim Population Town/Suburb/Town District
1 Sengkurong
Sengkurong, Brunei-Muara
Sengkurong is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the west of the Brunei-Muara district. It faces the South China Sea to the north, Mukim Gadong 'A' to the east, Mukim Kilanas to the south-east, Mukim Pengkalan Batu to the south and Mukim Keriam to the west.-Areas and...

62,400 Jerudong and Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
2 Gadong A
Gadong A, Brunei-Muara
Gadong 'A is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the west facing the South China Sea to the north, bordering Mukim Berakas A to the east, Mukim Gadong B to the south and Mukim Sengkurong to the west.-Areas and villages:...

 & Gadong B
Gadong B, Brunei-Muara
Gadong 'B is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the central western part of the Brunei-Muara district bordering Mukim Gadong 'A' to the north, Mukim Berakas 'A' to the north-east, Mukim Kianggeh to the east and south and Mukim Kilanas to the south and west.-Areas and...

59,610 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
3 Berakas A
Berakas A, Brunei-Muara
Berakas 'A is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the north, centre facing the South China Sea, bordering Mukim Mentiri and Mukim Berakas 'B' to the east, Mukim Kianggeh and Mukim Gadong 'B' to the south and Mukim Gadong 'A' to the west.-Areas and Divisions:Mukim...

57,500 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
4 Kuala Belait
Kuala Belait, Belait
Kuala Belait is a mukim of Brunei and is also the westernmost mukim in the Belait District and in Brunei. It is bounded by the South China Sea to the north, Mukim Seria to the east, Kuala Balai to the south-east and Sarawak to the south and west....

35,500 Kuala Belait Belait
5 Seria
Seria, Belait
Seria is a mukim in the Belait District of Brunei. It is about 169 square kilometres in size. It is located in the north-west of the Belait District, bordering the South China Sea to the north, Mukim Liang to the east, Mukim Labi to the south-east, Mukim Kuala Balai to the south and Mukim Kuala...

32,900 Seria Town (Pekan Seria) Belait
6 Berakas B 23,400 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
7 Sungai Liang
Liang, Belait
Liang is a mukim in the Belait District of Brunei. It is located in the north of the Belait District facing the South China Sea, bordering Mukim Telisai to the north-east, Mukim Bukit Sawat to the south-east, Mukim Labi to the south and Mukim Seria to the west.-Areas and divisions:Mukim Liang...

18,100 None Belait
8 Pengkalan Batu
Pengkalan Batu, Brunei-Muara
Pengkalan Batu is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is the southern most part of the Brunei-Muara district. It is the located in the south-west, bordering Mukim Sengkurong to the north, Mukim Kilanas and Mukim Lumapas to the north-east, Limbang, Sarawak to the east and south,...

approx. 15,000 None Brunei-Muara
9 Kilanas
Kilanas, Brunei-Muara
Kilanas is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the south-west of the Brunei-Muara district, bordering Mukim Gadong 'B' and Mukim Kianggeh to the north-east, Mukim Lumapas to the east and south, Mukim Pengkalan Batu to the south-west and Mukim Sengkurong to the west and...

approx. 15,000 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
10 Kota Batu
Kota Batu, Brunei-Muara
Kota Batu is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located on the eastern-south of the Brunei-Muara district, bordering Mukim Mentiri to the north, the Brunei Bay to the east, Pulau Limpaku Pinang of Limbang, Sarawak to the east, Mukim Lumapas to the south and west, Mukim Kianggeh...

12,600 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
11 Pekan Tutong
Pekan Tutong, Mukim
Pekan Tutong is a mukim in the Tutong District of Brunei. It is located in the north-west of the Tutong District facing the South China Sea, bordering Mukim Keriam to the north-east, Mukim Kiudang to the south-east, Mukim Tanjong Maya to the south and Mukim Telisai to the south-west...

12,100 Pekan Tutong Tutong
12 Mentiri
Mentiri, Brunei-Muara
Mentiri is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the north-east of the Brunei-Muara district, facing the South China Sea to the north, Mukim Serasa to the east, the Brunei Bay to the south, Mukim Kota Batu to the south-west and Mukim Berakas 'A' and Mukim Berakas 'B' to...

10,872 None Brunei-Muara
13 Serasa
Serasa, Brunei-Muara
Serasa is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is the easternmost and northernmost mukim in the Brunei-Muara district. It contains the largest port in the country - Muara Port...

approx. 10,000 Muara Town (Pekan Muara) Brunei-Muara
14 Kianggeh
Kianggeh, Brunei-Muara
Kianggeh is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the centre of the Brunei-Muara district, bordering Mukim Berakas 'A' and Mukim Berakas 'B' to the north, Mukim Kota Batu to the east and south, the water village mukims and Mukim Lumapas to the south, Mukim Kilanas to the...

8,540 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
15 Burong Pinggai Ayer
Burong Pinggai Ayer, Brunei
Burong Pingai Ayer is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is one of the six water village mukim. All the water village mukims are quite small in size and area and are water-bound. It is located in the heart of Brunei's capital, Bandar Seri Begawan on the waters of the Brunei river...

approx. 8,200 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
16 Keriam
Keriam
Keriam is a mukim in the Tutong District of Brunei. It is located in the north-east of the Tutong District facing the South China Sea, bordering Mukim Sengkurong to the south-east, Mukim Pengkalan Batu to the south-west, Mukim Kiudang to the south and Mukim Pekan Tutong to the west.-Areas and...

8,000 None Tutong
17 Lumapas
Lumapas, Brunei-Muara
Lumapas is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is located in the south of the Brunei-Muara district, bordering the water village mukims and Mukim Kianggeh to the north, Mukim Kota Batu and Pulau Berambang to the north and east, Limbang, Sarawak to the east and south, Mukim...

7,458 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
18 Kiudang
Kiudang
Kiudang is a mukim in the Tutong District of Brunei. It is located in the east of the Tutong District, bordering Mukim Keriam in the north, Mukim Pengkalan Batu to the north-east, Limbang, Sarawak to the south-east, Mukim Lamunin to the south and Mukim Tanjong Maya to the west and Mukim Pekan...

7,000 None Tutong
19 Saba
Saba, Brunei-Muara
Saba is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is one of the six water village mukims. All the water village mukims are quite small in size and area and are water-bound. It is located in the heart of Brunei's capital, Bandar Seri Begawan on the waters of the Brunei river. Saba is a part...

approx. 6,600 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara
20 Sungai Kedayan
Sungai Kedayan, Brunei-Muara
Sungai Kedayan is a mukim in the Brunei-Muara district of Brunei. It is one of the six water village mukims. All the water village mukims are quite small in size and area and are water-bound. It is located in the heart of Brunei's capital, Bandar Seri Begawan on the waters of the Brunei river...

approx. 6,000 Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei-Muara


Geography




Brunei is a southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

n country consisting of two unconnected parts with the total area of 5765 square kilometres (2,226 sq mi). It has 161 kilometres (100 mi) of coastline next to the South China sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

, and it shares a 381 km (237 mi) border with Malaysia. It has 500 square kilometres (193 sq mi) of territorial waters, and an 200 nm exclusive economic zone
Exclusive Economic Zone
Under the law of the sea, an exclusive economic zone is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, including production of energy from water and wind. It stretches from the seaward edge of the state's territorial sea out to 200 nautical...

.

77% of the population lives in the eastern part of Brunei, while only about 10,000 live in the mountainous south eastern part (the district of Temburong). The total population of Brunei Darussalam is approximately 408,000 (July 2010) of which around 150,000 live in the capital Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan, with an estimated population 140,000 , is the capital and largest city of the Sultanate of Brunei...

. Other major towns are the port town of Muara
Muara, Brunei
Muara is a town in the Brunei and Muara district, Brunei. It contains the country's only deep-water port. Muara is the Malay word for estuary.-Location:...

, the oil producing town of Seria
Seria
Seria is a town in the Belait District of Brunei Darussalam. Its full name is Pekan Seria in full . Seria was originally known as Padang Berawa which is Wild Pigeon's Field in Malay. The name "Seria" comes from the river located very near where oil was first discovered in the area in 1929...

 and its neighboring town, Kuala Belait
Kuala Belait
This article refers to the town of Kuala Belait. For the mukim of the same name, please refer to Kuala Belait, Belait. For district, please see Belait district.Kuala Belait |Jawi]]: )is a town located in South-West of Brunei...

. In the Belait
Belait
Belait can refer to either:* the Belait District of Brunei Darussalam.* Kuala Belait, the administrative town of the Belait District* the Belait River which flows through the Belait District of Brunei Darussalam....

 district, the Panaga
Panaga
Panaga is a town in Mukim Seria in the Belait District of Brunei Darussalam. Its full name is Kampung Panaga...

 area is home to large numbers of expatriates due to Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell plc , commonly known as Shell, is a global oil and gas company headquartered in The Hague, Netherlands and with its registered office in London, United Kingdom. It is the fifth-largest company in the world according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine and one of the six...

 and British Army housing and recreational facilities.

Most of Brunei is within the Borneo lowland rain forests ecoregion that covers most of the island but there are areas of mountain rain forests
Borneo montane rain forests
The Borneo montane rain forests are an ecoregion, of Cloud forest, within the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Biome, of the island of Borneo in south-east Asia .-Location and description:...

 inland.

The climate of Brunei is tropical
Tropical climate
A tropical climate is a climate of the tropics. In the Köppen climate classification it is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above...

 equatorial
Tropical rainforest climate
A tropical rainforest climate, also known as an equatorial climate, is a tropical climate usually found along the equator...

. The average annual temperature is 26.1 °C (79 °F), with the April–May average of 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) and the October–December average of 23.8 °C (74.8 °F).
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean Maximum (°C)
25.8
24.8
27.2
27.1
27.5
27.1
28.4
28.3
28.0
26.5
24.4
24.0
Mean Minimum (°C)
22.1
22.0
22.5
23.9
23.9
24.7
24.1
24.3
25.3
23.1
22.2
23.6
Average Rainfall (mm) 277.7 138.3 113.0 200.3 239.0 214.2 228.8 215.8 257.7 319.9 329.4 343.5

Economy



This small, wealthy economy
Economic system
An economic system is the combination of the various agencies, entities that provide the economic structure that defines the social community. These agencies are joined by lines of trade and exchange along which goods, money etc. are continuously flowing. An example of such a system for a closed...

 is a mixture of foreign
Foreign corporation
A foreign corporation is a term used in the United States for an existing corporation that is registered to do business in a state or other jurisdiction other than where it was originally incorporated...

 and domestic
Domestic policy
Domestic policy, also known as public policy, presents decisions, laws, and programs made by the government which are directly related to all issues and activity within the country....

 entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village
Village
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand , Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods, such as the West Village in Manhattan, New...

 tradition
Tradition
A tradition is a ritual, belief or object passed down within a society, still maintained in the present, with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes , but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings...

. Crude oil
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 production account for nearly half of its GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

. Substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

 and housing. The national airline, Royal Brunei, is trying to make Brunei a hub for international travel between Europe and Australia/New Zealand, and also has services to major Asian destinations. Brunei is increasingly importing from other countries.

Brunei's leaders are very concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion
Social cohesion
Social cohesion is a term used in social policy, sociology and political science to describe the bonds or "glue" that bring people together in society, particularly in the context of cultural diversity. Social cohesion is a multi-faceted notion covering many different kinds of social phenomena...

 although it became a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region...

 (APEC) forum. Stated plans for the future include upgrading the labour force, reducing unemployment
Unemployment
Unemployment , as defined by the International Labour Organization, occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past four weeks...

, strengthening the banking and tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 sectors, and, in general, further widening the economic base.

To achieve its target for food self-sufficiency, Brunei renamed its Brunei Darussalam Rice 1 to Laila Rice during the launch of the "Padi Planting Towards Achieving Self-Sufficiency of Rice Production in Brunei Darussalam" ceremony at the Wasan padi fields in April 2009. In August 2009, the Royal Family reaped the first few Laila padi stalks, after years of multiple attempts to boost local rice production, a goal which was envisioned about half a century ago. In July 2009 Brunei launched its national halal
Halal
Halal is a term designating any object or an action which is permissible to use or engage in, according to Islamic law. The term is used to designate food seen as permissible according to Islamic law...

 branding scheme, Brunei Halal, with an aim to export to foreign markets.

Demographics


The population of Brunei in July 2011 was 401,890 of which 76% live in urban areas. The average life expectancy is 76.17 years. In 2004, 66.3% of the population were Malay, 11.2% are Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, 3.4% are Indigenous, with smaller groups making up the rest.

The official language of Brunei
Languages of Brunei
There are a multitude of languages spoken in Brunei. The official language of the state of Brunei is Melayu Brunei. This came into force on 29 September 1959, with the signing of Brunei 1959 Constitution....

 is Melayu Brunei
Melayu Brunei
Melayu Brunei is the official standardized form of the Malay language used in Brunei. It is also spoken as lingua franca in some parts of East Malaysia such as Federal Territory of Labuan, District of Limbang and Lawas and District of Sipitang, Beaufort, Kuala Penyu and Papar . It is spoken by...

 (Brunei Malay), the official standardized form of the Malay language
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

 used in Brunei. Brunei Malay is quite divergent from standard Malay and the rest of the Malay dialects and is mostly mutually unintelligible. English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

 are also spoken. Bahasa Rojak
Bahasa Rojak
The term Bahasa Rojak defines the Malaysian practice of code-switching among two or more languages on a Malay base.-History:...

, often spoken by the media and the public, is known as a "mixed language" and considered detrimental to normal Malay. Other languages spoken include Kedayan
Kedayan
The Kedayan are an ethnic group residing in Brunei, Labuan, Sabah, and parts of Sarawak on the island of Borneo. They are also known as Kadayan, Kadaian or simply badly spelled as Kadyan by British. The Kedayan language is the de facto national language of Brunei...

, Tutong, Murut
Murutic languages
The Murutic languages are a family of half a dozen closely related Austronesian languages, spoken in the northern inland regions of Borneo by the Murut people.The languages are:...

, Dusun and Iban
Iban language
The Iban language is spoken by the Iban, a branch of the Dayak ethnic group formerly known as "Sea Dayak" who live in Sarawak, the Indonesian province of Kalimantan Barat and in Brunei. It belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family, and is related to Malay, more...

. English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 is also widely spoken and there is a relatively large expatriate
Expatriate
An expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of the person's upbringing...

 community with significant numbers of British and Australian citizens.

Islam
Islam in Brunei
Islam is Brunei's official religion, 64 percent of the population is Muslim. mostly Sunnis of Malay origin who follow the Shafi school of Islamic law. Most of the other Muslim groups are Kedayans and Chinese converts....

 is the official religion of Brunei, and the sultan is the head of the religion in the country. Two-thirds of the population adheres to Islam. Other faiths practiced are Buddhism
Buddhism in Brunei
Mahayana Buddhism is the most popular and alongside with Ancestor Worship, Taoism and Confucianism as one which is the traditional faith of general Han Chinese people ....

 (13%, mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity
Christianity in Brunei
Christianity is the religion of about 10% of the population of Brunei. Contact with Christians in other countries, the import of Bibles and public celebration of Christmas are banned by decree.Christians in Brunei are not allowed to proselytize....

 (10%). Freethinkers
Freethought
Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic, and reason, and should not be influenced by authority, tradition, or other dogmas...

, mostly Chinese, form about 7% of the population. Although most of them practice some form of religion with elements of Buddhism, Confucianism
Confucianism
Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

 and Taoism
Taoism
Taoism refers to a philosophical or religious tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the Tao , which is the mechanism of everything that exists...

, they prefer to present themselves as having professed no religion officially, hence regarded as atheists in official censuses. Followers of indigenous religions are about 2% of the population.

All Brunei citizens have access to free health care from public hospitals. The largest hospital in Brunei is Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital
Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital
The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Hospital is the national hospital of Brunei Darussalam. It was officially opened on 28 August 1984.It is located on a site about 0.8 km from the heart of the capital, Bandar Seri Begawan....

 (RIPAS) hospital situated in the country's capital Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan
Bandar Seri Begawan, with an estimated population 140,000 , is the capital and largest city of the Sultanate of Brunei...

. There are two private medical centres, Gleneagles JPMC Sdn Bhd . and Jerudong Park Medical Centre
Jerudong Park Medical Centre
Jerudong Park Medical Centre is the major Private Specialist Hospital in Brunei Darussalam.The Centre is situated within the famous Jerudong Park area, and is located on the shores of the South China Sea with patient rooms facing an expanse of beautiful, private beaches.The hospital offers...

. As of 2008, no hospitals in Brunei were undergoing international healthcare accreditation
International healthcare accreditation
Due to the near-universal desire for quality healthcare, there is a growing interest in international healthcare accreditation. Providing healthcare, especially of an adequate standard, is a complex and challenging process...

. The Health Promotion Centre opened in November 2008 and serves to educate the public on the importance of having a healthy lifestyle.

There is currently no medical school
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

 in Brunei, and Bruneians wishing to study to become doctors must attend university overseas. However, the Institute of Medicines had been introduced at the Universiti Brunei Darussalam
Universiti Brunei Darussalam
University of Brunei Darussalam is Brunei's oldest university. It is the largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered.-History:...

 and a new building has been built for the faculty. The building, including research lab facilities, was completed in 2009. There has been a School of Nursing since 1951. 58 nurse managers were appointed in RIPAS to improve service and provide better medical care. In December 2008, The nursing college merged with the Institute of Medicines at the Universiti Brunei Darussalam to produce more nurses and midwives.
It is now called the PAPRSB (Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'datul Bolkiah) Institute of Health Sciences.

Culture



The culture of Brunei is predominantly Malay
Malay people
Malays are an ethnic group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula, including the southernmost parts of Thailand, the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and the smaller islands which lie between these locations...

 (reflecting its ethnicity), with heavy influences from Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, but is seen as more conservative than Malaysia.

Brunei's culture mainly derived from the Old Malay World, which encompassed the Malay
Archipelago and from this stemmed what is known as the Malay Civilisation. Based on historical
facts, various cultural elements and foreign civilisations had a hand in influencing the culture of
this country. Thus, the influence of culture can be traced to four dominating periods of animism,
Hinduism, Islam and the West. However, it was Islam that managed to wind its roots deeply
into the culture of Brunei hence it became a way of life and adopted as the state's ideology and
philosophy.

As a Sharia
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

 country, the sale and public consumption of alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

 is banned. Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarkation overseas for their own private consumption.

Media
News media
The news media are those elements of the mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.These include print media , broadcast news , and more recently the Internet .-Etymology:A medium is a carrier of something...

 in Brunei is extremely pro-government.
The country has been given "Not Free" status by Freedom House
Freedom House
Freedom House is an international non-governmental organization based in Washington, D.C. that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights...

; press criticism of the government and monarchy is rare. Nonetheless, the press is not overtly hostile toward alternative viewpoints and is not restricted to publishing only articles regarding the government. The government allowed a printing and publishing company, Brunei Press SDN BHD, to form in 1953. It continues to print the leading English daily Borneo Bulletin
Borneo Bulletin
The Borneo Bulletin is a daily English-language newspaper in Brunei. It is published by Brunei Press, which also publishes a Malay-language daily, Media Permata. The Bulletin circulates around 20,000 copies on weekdays and 25,000 copies on Saturday and Sunday.-History:The paper was first published...

. This paper began as a weekly community paper, became the country's daily paper in 1990, and "remains the foremost source of information on local and foreign affairs." Apart from The Borneo Bulletin, there is also the Media Permata
Media Permata
Media Permata is a Malay-language newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Brunei by Brunei Press Sdn Bhd, which also publishes the Borneo Bulletin. The Saturday edition features a special 16-page pull out called Suasana, which offers lifestyle and entertainment news....

, the local Malay newspaper which is circulated daily. The Brunei Times
The Brunei Times
The Brunei Times is an independent English-language daily compact broadsheet newspaper published in Brunei Darussalam. It owned by Brunei Times PLC....

, another newspaper written in English is an independent newspaper published in Brunei Darussalam. It is owned by the company, Brunei Times Sdn Bhd which consist of a group of prominent local businessmen.

The Brunei government owns and operates six television channels with the introduction of digital TV using DVB-T (RTB 1, RTB 2, RTB 3 (HD), RTB 4, RTB 5 and RTB New Media (Game portal) and five radio stations (National FM, Pilihan FM, Nur Islam FM, Harmony FM and Pelangi FM). A private company has made cable television available (Astro-Kristal) as well as one private radio station, Kristal FM.

Infrastructure


The major population centres in the country are linked by a network of 2,800 kilometres of road. The 135 km highway from Muara Town to Kuala Belait is being upgraded to a dual carriageway.

Brunei is accessible by air, sea and land transport. Brunei International Airport
Brunei International Airport
Brunei International Airport is the primary airport in the nation of Brunei. The Royal Brunei Air Force is also based at the Rimba Air Base which is located in the Brunei International Airport...

 is the main entry point to the country. Royal Brunei Airlines is the national carrier. The ferry terminal at Muara services regular connections to Labuan island (Malaysia). The speedboats provide passenger and goods transportation to the Temburong district. The main highway running across Brunei is the Tutong-Muara Highway. The country's road network is well developed. Brunei has one main sea port located at Muara. The export of its petroleum products is carried out through dedicated terminals.

With one private car for every 2.09 persons, Brunei Darussalam has one of the highest car ownership rates in the world. This has been attributed to the absence of comprehensive transport system, low import tax, inexpensive maintenance and low unleaded petrol price of B$0.53 per litre.

See also


External links


Government

General information
  • Brunei from UCB Libraries GovPubs


Business

Travel