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Madeira is a Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 archipelago
Archipelago
An archipelago , sometimes called an island group, is a chain or cluster of islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi- and πέλαγος – pélagos through the Italian arcipelago...

 that lies between 32°22.3′N 16°16.5′W and 33°7.8′N 17°16.65′W, just under 400 km north of Tenerife
Tenerife
Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the seven Canary Islands, it is also the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of 2,034.38 km² and 906,854 inhabitants, 43% of the total population of the Canary Islands. About five million tourists visit Tenerife each year, the...

, Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

, in the north Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 and an outermost region of the European Union. The archipelago comprises the major part of one of the two Autonomous regions of Portugal
Autonomous regions of Portugal
The two Autonomous Regions of Portugal are the Azores and Madeira...

 (the other being the Azores
Azores
The Archipelago of the Azores is composed of nine volcanic islands situated in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, and is located about west from Lisbon and about east from the east coast of North America. The islands, and their economic exclusion zone, form the Autonomous Region of the...

 located to the northwest), that includes the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo
Porto Santo Island
Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.- History :...

, and the Desertas
Desertas Islands
The Desertas Islands are a small Portuguese archipelago, located about 25 km to the southeast of Ponta de São Lourenço, the eastern tip of the island of Madeira, the whole chain located roughly between Madeira and the Canary Islands.-Geography:...

, administered together with the separate archipelago of the Savage Islands
Savage Islands
The Savage Islands, also referred to as the Salvage Islands or the Selvagens Islands, of Sé. They are designated a Nature Reserve, comprising two areas: one on Selvagem Grande Island and the second on Selvagem Pequena Island.-Geography:...

.

Madeira was re-discovered by Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 sailors in the service of Infante D. Henrique (Henry the Navigator) in 1419, and settled after 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first territorial discovery of the exploratory period of the Portuguese Age of Discovery.

Today, it is a popular year-round resort
Resort
A resort is a place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company....

, being visited every year by about one million tourists, noted for its Madeira wine
Madeira wine
Madeira is a fortified Portuguese wine made in the Madeira Islands. Some wines produced in small quantities in California and Texas are also referred to as "Madeira", or "Madera", although those wines do not conform to the EU PDO regulations...

, flowers, landscapes and embroidery artisans, as well as for its annual New Year celebrations that feature the largest fireworks show in the world, as officially recognized by the Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records , is a reference book published annually, containing a collection of world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world...

, in 2006. The main harbour in Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

 is the leading Portuguese port in cruise liner
Cruise ship
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the way...

 dockings, being an important stopover for commercial and trans-Atlantic passenger cruises between Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, the Caribbean
Caribbean
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

 and North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

.

Madeira is currently the second richest region in Portugal, after Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

, with a GDP per capita of 103% of the European average
Economy of the European Union
The economy of the European Union generates a GDP of over €12,279.033 billion according to the International Monetary Fund , making it the largest economy in the world...

.

History




Exploration


Pliny
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

 mentioned certain "Purple Islands"
Iles Purpuraires
Iles Purpuraires are a set of small islands off the western coast of Morocco at the bay located at Essaouira. These islands were settled in antiquity by the Phoenicians, chiefly to exploit certain marine resources and as a promontory fort...

, their position corresponding to the location of the Fortunate Isles
Fortunate Isles
In the Fortunate Isles, also called the Isles of the Blessed , heroes and other favored mortals in Greek mythology and Celtic mythology were received by the gods into a winterless blissful paradise...

 (or Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

), that may have referred to islands of Madeira. Plutarch (Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius was a Roman statesman and general, born in Nursia, in Sabine territory. His brilliance as a military commander was shown most clearly in his battles against Rome for control of Hispania...

 (d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cádiz
Cádiz
Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia....

:
"...The islands are said to be two in number separated by a very narrow strait and lie 10,000 furlong
Furlong
A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U.S. customary units equal to one-eighth of a mile, equivalent to 220 yards, 660 feet, 40 rods, or 10 chains. The exact value of the furlong varies slightly among English-speaking countries....

s from Africa. They are called the Isles of the Blessed"

The estimated distance from Africa (2,000 kilometre
Kilometre
The kilometre is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres and is therefore exactly equal to the distance travelled by light in free space in of a second...

s/1,250 mile
Mile
A mile is a unit of length, most commonly 5,280 feet . The mile of 5,280 feet is sometimes called the statute mile or land mile to distinguish it from the nautical mile...

s), and the closeness of the two islands, seem to describe the similar position of the islands of Madeira and Porto Santo.

Legend


There is also a romantic tale of two lovers, Robert Machim
Robert Machin
Robert Machin or Machim was an English adventurer of uncertain historicity, who supposedly discovered the island of Madeira. Various traditions survive that give conflicting versions of Machin's story....

 and Anna d'Arfet, during the reign of King Edward III of England
Edward III of England
Edward III was King of England from 1327 until his death and is noted for his military success. Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II, Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe...

, who, fleeing from England to France in 1346, were driven off their course by a violent storm. Their ship crashed along the coast of an island, that may have been Madeira; later, this story would be used in the naming of Machico
Machico
Machico is a city and municipality in the northeastern part of the island of Madeira, in the Autonomous Region of Madeira. The easternmost municipality on the island, it is also the third most populous area; its population was 21,747...

, whose name was transliterated from the name of the boy in the tale, in memory of the young lovers.

Discovery


Much like the Azores
Azores
The Archipelago of the Azores is composed of nine volcanic islands situated in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, and is located about west from Lisbon and about east from the east coast of North America. The islands, and their economic exclusion zone, form the Autonomous Region of the...

, it is clear that some knowledge of Atlantic islands, such as Madeira, existed before the discovery and settlement of these lands, as the islands appear on maps as early as 1339. From a portolan dating to 1351, and preserved in Florence, Italy, it would appear that the islands of Madeira had been discovered, long before Portuguese vessels rediscovered them in the "official" timeline. In Libro del Conocimiento (1348–1349), a Spanish monk also identified the location of the islands in its present location, with the names Leiname, Diserta and Puerto Santo.

Officially, in 1418, two captains under service to Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco
João Gonçalves Zarco
João Gonçalves Zarco was a Portuguese explorer who established settlements and recognition of the Madeira Islands, and was appointed first captain of Funchal by Henry the Navigator.-Life:...

 and Tristão Vaz Teixeira
Tristão Vaz Teixeira
Tristão Vaz Teixeira was a Portuguese navigator and explorer who, together with João Gonçalves Zarco and Bartolomeu Perestrelo, discovered the Madeira Islands...

, were driven off-course by a storm to an island which they named Porto Santo
Porto Santo Island
Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.- History :...

 (English: holy harbour); the name was bestowed for their gratitude and divine deliverance from a possible shipwreck by the protected anchorage. The following year, an organized expedition, under the captaincy of Zarco and Vaz Teixeira, was sent to this new land, and along with captain Bartolomeu Perestrello, to take possession of the island on behalf of the Portuguese crown. Consequently, the new settlers discovered "a heavy black cloud suspended to the southwest", which when explored they discovered the larger island of Madeira.

Settlement


The first settlers began colonizing the islands around 1420 or 1425; the three Captains-major
Captain-major
Captain-major is the English rendering of the Portuguese title Capitão-mor for colonial officers, put in charge of a capitania, Portuguese possession deemed not important enough to have its own colonial Governor.Due to the impossibility of exercising direct control and sovereignty over islands,...

 had led the first settlement, along with their respective families, a small group of minor nobility
Nobility
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

, people of modest conditions and some prisoners, who could be trusted to work the lands. To gain the minimum conditions for the development of agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, they had to rough-hew a part of the dense forest of laurisilva
Laurisilva
Laurisilva or laurissilva is a subtropical forest, found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable and mild temperatures. They are characterised by evergreen, glossy-leaved tree species that look alike with leaves of lauroide type...

 and to construct a large number of canals (levada
Levada
A levada is an irrigation channel or aqueduct specific to the island of Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean .-History:...

s), since in some parts of the island there was excess water, while in others water was scarce. During this period, fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

 constituted about half of the settlers' diet, together with vegetables and fruits cultivated from small cleared parcels of land. Initially, these colonists produced wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 for their own subsistence, but later the quantity cultivated was sufficient to begin exporting wheat to continental Portugal.

In 23 September 1433, the name Ilha da Madeira (English: Madeira Island, or literally island of wood) began to appear in the first documents and maps. The name given to the islands corresponded to the large dense forests of native laurisilva trees that populated the island during the settlement.

However, when grain production began to fall, the ensuing crisis forced Henry the Navigator, as principal benefactor of the islands, to plant other commercial crops. The planting of sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

, and later Sicilian sugar beet
Sugar beet
Sugar beet, a cultivated plant of Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose tuber contains a high concentration of sucrose. It is grown commercially for sugar production. Sugar beets and other B...

, allowed the introduction of the "sweet salt" (as sugar was known) into Europe, where it was a rare
History of sugar
The long history of sugar is interwoven with that of trade, religion, colonialism, capitalism, industry and technology. The labor-intensive nature of sugar cultivation and processing has meant that much of the history of the sugar industry has had associations with large-scale slavery...

 and popular spice
Spice
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavour a dish or to hide other flavours...

. These specialized plants, and their associated industrial technology, created one of the major revolutions on the islands and fueled Portuguese industry. The expansion of sugar plantations in Madeira began in 1455, using advisers from Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

 and financed by Genoese
Republic of Genoa
The Most Serene Republic of Genoa |Ligurian]]: Repúbrica de Zêna) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, as well as Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean....

 capital (it would become an integral part of the island economy until the 17th century). The accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

 traders who were keen to bypass Venetian
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in...

 monopolies.
"By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 as a producer of sugar."

Sugarcane production was the primary engine of the island's economy, increasing the demand for labour. Slaves were used during portions of the island's history to cultivate sugar cane, and the proportion of imported slaves reached 10% of the total population of Madeira by the 16th century.

In 1617, Algerian pirates
Barbary corsairs
The Barbary Corsairs, sometimes called Ottoman Corsairs or Barbary Pirates, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Tunis, Tripoli and Algiers. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber...

, having long enslaved Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s along the Mediterranean coasts, captured 1,200 men and women in Porto Santo. After the 17th century, as sugar production shifted to Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is a Portuguese-speaking island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two islands: São Tomé and Príncipe, located about apart and about , respectively, off...

 and elsewhere, Madeira's most important product became its wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

. The British
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 occupied Madeira as a result of the Napoleonic Wars
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

, a friendly occupation starting in 1807 and concluding in 1814 when the island was returned to Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

.

When, after the death of King John VI of Portugal
John VI of Portugal
John VI John VI John VI (full name: João Maria José Francisco Xavier de Paula Luís António Domingos Rafael; (13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826) was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (later changed to just King of Portugal and the Algarves, after Brazil was recognized...

, his usurper son Miguel of Portugal
Miguel of Portugal
Dom Miguel I, sometimes Michael , was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and second son of King John VI and his queen, Charlotte of Spain....

 seized power from the rightful heir, his niece Maria II, and proclaimed himself 'Absolute King', Madeira held out for the queen under the governor José Travassos Valdez
José Travassos Valdez
José Lúcio Travassos Valdez , first and only Baron and first Count do Bonfim , was a Portuguese soldier and statesman.-Early life:...

 until Miguel sent an expeditionary force
Portuguese Expeditionary Corps
The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps was the main military force from Portugal that participated in the First World War. Portuguese neutrality ended in 1916 after the seizure of German merchant ships resulted in Germany declaring war...

 and the defence of the island was overwhelmed by crushing force. Valdez was forced to flee to England under the protection of the Royal Navy (September 1828).

World War I


The effect on Portugal in World War I was first felt in Madeira on December 3, 1916 when the German U-boat, SM U-38, captained by Max Valentiner
Max Valentiner
Captain Christian August Max Ahlmann Valentiner was a German U-boat commander during World War I.He was the third highest-scoring U-boat commander of the war, and was awarded the Pour le Mérite, the highest Prussian military order until the end of the war, for his achievements.He was also branded...

 went into Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

 harbour on Madeira and torpedoed and sank 3 ships, CS Dacia (1,856 tons), Kanguroo (2,493 tons) and Surprise (680 tons). The commander of the French Gunboat
Gunboat
A gunboat is a naval watercraft designed for the express purpose of carrying one or more guns to bombard coastal targets, as opposed to those military craft designed for naval warfare, or for ferrying troops or supplies.-History:...

 Surprise and 34 of her crew (7 Portuguese) died in the attack. The Dacia, a British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 cable laying vessel, had previously undertaken war work off the coast of Casablanca
Casablanca
Casablanca is a city in western Morocco, located on the Atlantic Ocean. It is the capital of the Grand Casablanca region.Casablanca is Morocco's largest city as well as its chief port. It is also the biggest city in the Maghreb. The 2004 census recorded a population of 2,949,805 in the prefecture...

 and Dakar
Dakar
Dakar is the capital city and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert Peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland...

, was in the process of diverting the German South American cable into Brest, France. Following the attack on the ships, the Germans proceeded to bombard Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

 for two hours from a range of about 2 miles. Batteries on Madeira returned fire and eventually forced the Germans to withdraw.

In 1917 on December 12, 2 German U-boats, SM U-156 and SM U-157
SM U-157
SM U-157 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I.U-157 was engaged in the naval warfare and took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic....

 (captained by Max Valentiner
Max Valentiner
Captain Christian August Max Ahlmann Valentiner was a German U-boat commander during World War I.He was the third highest-scoring U-boat commander of the war, and was awarded the Pour le Mérite, the highest Prussian military order until the end of the war, for his achievements.He was also branded...

) again bombarded Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

, Madeira. This time the attack lasted around 30 minutes. Forty, 4.7 inches (119.4 mm) and 5.9 inches (149.9 mm) shells were fired. There were 3 fatalities and 17 wounded, In addition, a number of houses and Santa Clara church were hit.

Charles I the last Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary , more formally known as the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen, was a constitutional monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary in...

 went into exile in Madeira,
after his second unsuccessful coup d'état
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

 in Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

. He died there on April 1, 1922 and is buried in Monte
Monte (Funchal)
Monte is a civil parish in the municipality and a suburb of Funchal in the Portuguese archipelago of Madeira. Locally, the parish is also known as Nossa Senhora do Monte . Its population in 2001 was just over 7,444 inhabitants living in an area of approximately 18.59 km²...

. Charles I had tried in 1917, to secretly enter into peace negotiations with France. Although his foreign minister, Ottokar Czernin, was only interested in negotiating a general peace which would include Germany as well, Charles himself, in negotiations with the French with his brother-in-law, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma
Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma
Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma was a Prince of the Duchy of Parma, a Belgian officer in the First World War, and the central figure in the Sixtus Affair.- Biography :Sixtus was a son of the last Duke of Parma, Robert I and his...

, an officer in the Belgian Army, as intermediary, went much further in suggesting his willingness to make a separate peace. When news of the overture leaked in April 1918, Charles denied involvement until the French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau was a French statesman, physician and journalist. He served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909, and again from 1917 to 1920. For nearly the final year of World War I he led France, and was one of the major voices behind the Treaty of Versailles at the...

 published letters signed by him. This led to Czernin's resignation, forcing Austria-Hungary into an even more dependent position with respect to its seemingly-wronged German ally. Determined to prevent a restoration attempt, the Council of Allied Powers had agreed on Madeira because it was isolated in the Atlantic and easily guarded.

Autonomy


On 1 July 1976, following the democratic revolution
Carnation Revolution
The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

 of 1974, Portugal granted political autonomy to Madeira, celebrated on Madeira Day
Madeira Day
Madeira Day , celebrated in Madeira on 1st July. It marks the date when Portugal granted autonomy to Madeira Island. Although it is only officially celebrated in Madeira Island, Portuguese citizens and also Portuguese immigrants throughout the world celebrate this holiday.There are several large...

. The region now has its own government and legislative assembly.

Physical geography


The archipelago of Madeira is located 520 km (323.11 mi) from the African coast and 1000 km (621.37 mi) from the European continent (approximately an one-and-a-half hour flight from the Portuguese capital of Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

). It is found in the extreme south of the Tore-Madeira Ridge, a bathymetric structure of great dimensions oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis that extends for 1000 kilometres. This submarine structure consists of long geomorphological relief that extends from the abyssal plain to 3500 meters; its highest submersed point is at a depth of about 150 meters (around latitude 36ºN). The origins of the Tore-Madeira Ridge are not clearly established, but may have resulted from a morphological buckling of the lithosphere.

The archipelago itself is a series of oceanic volcanic islands that date back to the Miocene
Miocene
The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about . The Miocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell. Its name comes from the Greek words and and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene...

 (about 20 million years ago), and constructed from a hotspot in the Earth's crust of the African Tectonic Plate
African Plate
The African Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges.-Boundaries:...

. Madeira, and the smaller Desertas Islands, are the youngest of these islands (dating from 4.6 to 0.7 million years), while Porto Santo, the smaller of the main islands, is the oldest (approximately 14 million years). Since their immersion, there have been five phases related to the volcanism of the group, and they are particularly visible on the island of Madeira, which include:
  • Base formation - characterised by large eruptions and ejecta which terminated about three million years ago;
  • Peripheral formation - where there is a diminishing level of the projectiles, causing the formation of several dykes and platforms, that terminated about 740,000 years ago;
  • High altitude formation - marked by a continuation of projectiles, pyroclastic materials and the formation of faults along the northern and southern coasts (between 400–900 meters);
  • Paul da Serra - formation that travelled along the Bica da Cana around 550,000 years ago;
  • Recent eruptions, associated with minor island formations; the magma fields discovered on the islands (which terminated about 6500 years ago) are associated with this phase.


These basalt
Basalt
Basalt is a common extrusive volcanic rock. It is usually grey to black and fine-grained due to rapid cooling of lava at the surface of a planet. It may be porphyritic containing larger crystals in a fine matrix, or vesicular, or frothy scoria. Unweathered basalt is black or grey...

ic islands have not seen any volcanic activity within the last 6000 years.

Islands and islets

  • Madeira (740.7 km²), including Ilhéu de Agostinho, Ilhéu de São Lourenço, Ilhéu Mole (northwest);
  • Porto Santo
    Porto Santo Island
    Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.- History :...

     (42.5 km²), including Ilhéu de Baixo ou da Cal, Ilhéu de Ferro, Ilhéu das Cenouras, Ilhéu de Fora, Ilhéu de Cima;
  • Desertas Islands
    Desertas Islands
    The Desertas Islands are a small Portuguese archipelago, located about 25 km to the southeast of Ponta de São Lourenço, the eastern tip of the island of Madeira, the whole chain located roughly between Madeira and the Canary Islands.-Geography:...

     (14.2 km²), including the three uninhabited islands: Deserta Grande Island
    Deserta Grande Island
    The Deserta Grande Island is the main island of the Desertas Islands, a small chain of islands in the archipelago of Madeira, located to the southeast of the island of Madeira. The island is a nature reserve with a manned base halfway along the western side...

    , Bugio Island
    Bugio Island
    Bugio Island is one of the Desertas Islands, a small chain of islands in the archipelago of Madeira, located to the southeast of the island of Madeira....

     and Ilhéu de Chão
    Chao
    Chao or similar sounding câo, cháo, cháo, čhao, chau, ciao, jao, may refer to:-China:*Chao, an alternative spelling of Zhao ; an alternative pronunciation of Cao and Cao *Chao , a Chinese surname...

    ;
  • Savage Islands
    Savage Islands
    The Savage Islands, also referred to as the Salvage Islands or the Selvagens Islands, of Sé. They are designated a Nature Reserve, comprising two areas: one on Selvagem Grande Island and the second on Selvagem Pequena Island.-Geography:...

     (3.6 km²), including three main islands and 16 uninhabited islets) in two groups: the Northwest Group (Selvagem Grande Island
    Selvagem Grande Island
    The Selvagem Grande Island is part of the Savage Islands, which themselves are part of the Portuguese Madeira archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean....

    , Ilhéu de Palheiro da Terra, Ilhéu de Palheiro do Mar) and the Southeast Group (Selvagem Pequena Island
    Selvagem Pequena Island
    Selvagem Pequena Island is an island in the Southeast Group of the Savage Islands, Madeira, Portugal. Its fauna and flora are well preserved due to lack of human interference....

    , Ilhéu Grande, Ilhéu Sul, Ilhéu Pequeno, Ilhéu Fora, Ilhéu Alto, Ilhéu Comprido, Ilhéu Redondo, Ilhéu Norte).

Madeira Island


The island of Madeira is at the top of a massive shield volcano
Shield volcano
A shield volcano is a type of volcano usually built almost entirely of fluid lava flows. They are named for their large size and low profile, resembling a warrior's shield. This is caused by the highly fluid lava they erupt, which travels farther than lava erupted from more explosive volcanoes...

 that rises about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, on the Tore underwater mountain range. The volcano formed atop an east-west rift
Rift
In geology, a rift or chasm is a place where the Earth's crust and lithosphere are being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics....

 in the oceanic crust
Oceanic crust
Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins. Oceanic crust is primarily composed of mafic rocks, or sima, which is rich in iron and magnesium...

 along the African Plate
African Plate
The African Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges.-Boundaries:...

, beginning during the Miocene
Miocene
The Miocene is a geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about . The Miocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell. Its name comes from the Greek words and and means "less recent" because it has 18% fewer modern sea invertebrates than the Pliocene. The Miocene follows the Oligocene...

 epoch over 5 million years ago, continuing into the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 until about 700,000 years ago. This was followed by extensive erosion
Erosion
Erosion is when materials are removed from the surface and changed into something else. It only works by hydraulic actions and transport of solids in the natural environment, and leads to the deposition of these materials elsewhere...

, producing two large amphitheatres open to south in the central part of the island. Volcanic activity later resumed, producing scoria cones and lava flows atop the older eroded shield. The most recent volcanic eruptions were on the west-central part of the island only 6,500 years ago, creating more cinder cone
Cinder cone
According to the , Cinder Cone is the proper name of 1 cinder cone in Canada and 7 cinder cones in the United States:In Canada: Cinder Cone In the United States:...

s and lava flows.

Madeira Island represents 93% of the archipelago's area, with 90% of the landmass above 500 m. It is the largest island of the group with an area of 741 km² (286.1 sq mi), a length of 57 km (35.4 mi) (from Ponte de São Lourenço to Ponte do Pargo), while approximately 22 km (13.7 mi) at its widest point (from Ponte da Cruz to Ponte São Jorge), with a coastline of 150 km (93.21 mi). It has a mountain ridge that extends along the center of the island, reaching 1862 meters (6,107 ft) at its highest point (Pico Ruivo
Pico Ruivo
Pico Ruivo is the highest peak on the Madeira Islands. It can be reached only by foot, usually either from Pico do Arieiro after a strenuous hike, or from Achada do Teixeira with a shorter, easier trail. There is an additional trail leading west to Encumeada...

), while much lower (below 200 meters) along its eastern extent. The primitive volcanic foci responsible for the central mountainous area, consisted of the peaks: Ruivo (1862 meter), Torres (1851 meter), Areeiro (1818 meter), Cidrão (1802 meter), Cedro (1759 meter), Casado (1725 meter), Grande (1657 meter), Ferreiro (1582 meter). At the end of this eruptive phase, an island circled by reefs was formed, its marine vistiges are evident in a calcierous layer in the area of Lameiros, in São Vicente (which was later explored for calcium oxide
Calcium oxide
Calcium oxide , commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature....

 production). Sea cliffs, such as Cabo Girão
Cabo Girão
Cabo Girão is a lofty sea cliff located along the southern coast of the island of Madeira, in the Portuguese archipelago of Madeira. Cabo Girão is a popular lookout point, and starting point for hikers, as well as the location of the Encosta Cabo Girão a complex of 120 apartments located on the...

, valleys and ravines extend from this central spine, making the interior generally inaccessible. Daily life has concentrated in the many villages at the mouths of the ravines, through which the heavy rains of autumn and winter usually travel to the sea. A long, narrow, and comparatively low rocky promontory forms (Paul da Serra) the eastern extremity of the island, on which lies a tract of calcareous sand known (1300-1500 meter). It is a fossil bed, that contains shells and numerous bodies resembling the roots of trees, probably produced by infiltration.

The island was formed from a base volcanic complex, forming to two massifs:
  • The Base Volcanic Complex - was formed during the Miocene period from submarine and sub-aerial eruptions in the central part of the island, and is associated with some of the deeper valleys (São Vicente, Boaventura, Socorridos). The complex extends to the east into the (Porto da Cruz and Machico) ravines until Ponta de São Lourenço and consists of accumulated block pyroclasts, lapilli
    Lapilli
    Lapilli is a size classification term for tephra, which is material that falls out of the air during a volcanic eruption or during some meteorite impacts. Lapilli means "little stones" in Latin. They are in some senses similar to ooids or pisoids in calcareous sediments.By definition lapilli range...

     and ash, layered with basaltic lava. The volcanic material is essentially effusive, of non-viscous compact basalts; the lava formed flows that were not dense which covered the topography
    Topography
    Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those ofplanets, moons, and asteroids...

     and substrata. These first flows were extensive, occupying a large part of the plateau, filling many of the valleys and ending at the sea. More recent episodes were confined into the valley of the São Vicente, Seixal and Porto Moniz ravines. The basaltic flows correspond to the last period of volcanic activity on Madeira (around .5-.2 millions of years). The flows were boxed into the valleys, and fossilized, sometimes, such as in the valley of São Vicente, forming morphological terraces. The island is covered in faults, and easily identifiable in the area around Ribeira Brava, near Encumeada. The spatial distribution of these faults is varied and their align is also diverse, although it is common to encounter some faults from west-northwest to east-south-southeast to northwest to southeast (coincident with the direction of some volcanic cones). Between many of pyroclastic cliffs, there exists a great variability in materials, from large blocks to fine ash, and a intermediary layer referred to locally as feijoco, or lapilli, of a consistency that is more porous. The material is normally dark to black rocks, yellow and reddish materials, and is used in some construction for their refractive characteristics (as well as used in the construction of blast ovens).
  • Central Massif - which occupies the central region of the island, consisting of explosive material (large blocks, Lapilli
    Lapilli
    Lapilli is a size classification term for tephra, which is material that falls out of the air during a volcanic eruption or during some meteorite impacts. Lapilli means "little stones" in Latin. They are in some senses similar to ooids or pisoids in calcareous sediments.By definition lapilli range...

     and ash
    Volcanic ash
    Volcanic ash consists of small tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions, less than in diameter. There are three mechanisms of volcanic ash formation: gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions; thermal contraction from chilling on contact...

    ) and deposited chaotically around volcanic centres of the eruptions, but today mostly hidden and unrecognisable. This massif is crossed by several dense faults, basalt
    Basalt
    Basalt is a common extrusive volcanic rock. It is usually grey to black and fine-grained due to rapid cooling of lava at the surface of a planet. It may be porphyritic containing larger crystals in a fine matrix, or vesicular, or frothy scoria. Unweathered basalt is black or grey...

    ic and trachyte
    Trachyte
    Trachyte is an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. The mineral assemblage consists of essential alkali feldspar; relatively minor plagioclase and quartz or a feldspathoid such as nepheline may also be present....

    , oriented in many directions, converging on Pico Ruivo
    Pico Ruivo
    Pico Ruivo is the highest peak on the Madeira Islands. It can be reached only by foot, usually either from Pico do Arieiro after a strenuous hike, or from Achada do Teixeira with a shorter, easier trail. There is an additional trail leading west to Encumeada...

    . The peak which includes many dykes
    Dike (geology)
    A dike or dyke in geology is a type of sheet intrusion referring to any geologic body that cuts discordantly across* planar wall rock structures, such as bedding or foliation...

    , has resisted erosion, in contrast to many of the surrounding deposits; the weak cohesion of pyroclastic materials permitted the easy carving of the terrain in this area, constituting the morphology of many of the ravines: Brava, Socorridos, Machico, São Vicente, Porco (Boaventura) and Faial.
  • The Paul da Serra Massif - corresponds to a similar structural platform of basaltic flows oriented towards the southwest.

Climate


Madeira has been classified as a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

: Csb), but based on differences in sun exposure, humidity, and annual mean temperature there are clear variations between north- and south-facing regions, as well as between some islands. The islands are strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean...

, giving it mild year-round temperatures; the average annual temperature along the coastline is between 15 to 22 °C (59 to 71.6 F) at lower altitudes, and between 5 to 15 °C (41 to 59 F) at the highest altitudes. Average annual sea temperatures are approximately 20 °C (68 °F), from 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the winter to 23 °C (73.4 °F) during the summer. Coastal temperatures usually persist year-round, although between December and April temperatures often fall below 20 °C (68 °F).

Biome




In the south, there is very little left of the indigenous laurisilva
Laurisilva
Laurisilva or laurissilva is a subtropical forest, found in areas with high humidity and relatively stable and mild temperatures. They are characterised by evergreen, glossy-leaved tree species that look alike with leaves of lauroide type...

 subtropical rainforest which once covered the whole island (the original settlers set fire to the island to clear the land for farming) and gave it the name it now bears (Madeira means "wood" in Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

). However, in the north, the valleys contain native trees of fine growth. These laurisilva forests, notably the forests on the northern slopes of Madeira Island, are designated a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 by UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

.

Madeira has three endemic
Endemism in birds
An endemic bird area is a region of the world that contains two or more restricted-range species, while a "secondary area" contains one or more restricted-range species. Both terms were devised by Birdlife International....

 bird species: Zino's Petrel
Zino's Petrel
The Zino's Petrel or Freira, Pterodroma madeira, is a small seabird in the gadfly petrel genus which is endemic to the island of Madeira. This long-winged petrel has a grey back and wings, with a dark "W" marking across the wings, and a grey upper tail...

, the Trocaz Pigeon
Trocaz Pigeon
The Trocaz Pigeon, Madeira Laurel Pigeon or Long-toed Pigeon is a pigeon which is endemic to the island of Madeira. It is a mainly grey bird with a pinkish breast; its silvery neck patch and lack of white wing markings distinguish it from its close relative and probable ancestor, the Common Wood...

 and the Madeira Firecrest
Madeira Firecrest
The Madeira Firecrest or Madeira Kinglet, Regulus madeirensis, is a very small passerine bird that is endemic to the island of Madeira. It is a member of the kinglet family. Before it was recognised as a separate species in 2003, it was classified as a subspecies of the Common Firecrest...

, while the Madeiran Chaffinch
Madeiran Chaffinch
The Madeiran Chaffinch is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. It is a subspecies of the Chaffinch that is endemic to the Portuguese island of Madeira, part of Macaronesia in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is locally known as the Tentilhão.- Description :The male is more...

 is an endemic subspecies. It is also important for breeding seabird
Seabird
Seabirds are birds that have adapted to life within the marine environment. While seabirds vary greatly in lifestyle, behaviour and physiology, they often exhibit striking convergent evolution, as the same environmental problems and feeding niches have resulted in similar adaptations...

s, including the Madeiran Storm-petrel
Madeiran Storm-petrel
The Band-rumped Storm Petrel or Madeiran Storm Petrel, is of the storm petrel family Hydrobatidae.The Band-rumped Storm Petrel is 19–21 cm in length with a 43–46 cm wingspan, and weighs 44-49g. It is mainly black with an extensive white rump...

, North Atlantic Little Shearwater
North Atlantic Little Shearwater
The Barolo Shearwater , also known as the North Atlantic Little Shearwater or Macaronesian Shearwater, is a small shearwater which breeds in the North Atlantic....

 and Cory's Shearwater
Cory's Shearwater
The Cory's Shearwater is a large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.This species breeds on islands and cliffs in the Mediterranean, with the odd outpost on the Atlantic coast of Iberia. The nest is on open ground or among rocks or less often in a burrow where one white egg is laid,...

.

The Macaronesia
Macaronesia
Macaronesia is a modern collective name for several groups of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean near Europe and North Africa belonging to three countries: Portugal, Spain, and Cape Verde...

 region harbours an important floral diversity. In fact, the archipelago's forest composition and maturity are quite similar to the forests found in the Tertiary period that covered Southern Europe
Southern Europe
The term Southern Europe, at its most general definition, is used to mean "all countries in the south of Europe". However, the concept, at different times, has had different meanings, providing additional political, linguistic and cultural context to the definition in addition to the typical...

 and Northern Africa millions of years ago. The great biodiversity
Biodiversity
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions...

 of Madeira is phytogeographically linked to the Mediterranean region, Africa, America
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

 and Australia, and interest in this phytogeography
Phytogeography
Phytogeography , also called geobotany, is the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species...

 has been increasing in recent years due to the discovery of some epiphytic bryophyte species with non-adjacent distribution.

Madeira also has many endemic species of fauna – mostly invertebrates which include the extremely rare Madeiran Large White
Madeiran Large White
The Madeiran Large White is a subspecies of the Large White, endemic to Madeira. It can reach a size from 55 to 65 millimetres. The wings are pure white with a wide black tip on the apexes of the forewings. Its natural habitat is the laurisilva laurel forest...

 but also some vertebrates such as the native bat, some lizards species, and some birds as already mentioned. The biggest tarantula of Europe is found on Desertas islands of Madeira and can be as wide as a man's hand. These islands have more than 250 species of land molluscs (snails and slugs), some with very unusual shell shape and colours, most of which are endemic and vulnerable.

Levadas



The island of Madeira is wet in the northwest but dry in the southeast. In the 16th century the Portuguese started building levadas or aqueduct
Aqueduct
An aqueduct is a water supply or navigable channel constructed to convey water. In modern engineering, the term is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose....

s to carry water to the agricultural regions in the south. The most recent were built in the 1940s. Madeira is very mountainous, and building the levadas was difficult and often sentenced criminals or slaves were used. Many are cut into the sides of mountains, and it was also necessary to dig 25 miles (40.2 km) of tunnels, some of which are still accessible.

Today the levadas not only supply water to the southern parts of the island but provide hydro-electric power. There are over 1350 miles (2,172.6 km) of levadas and they provide a remarkable network of walking paths. Some provide easy and relaxing walks through beautiful countryside, but others are narrow, crumbling ledges where a slip could result in serious injury or death.

Two of the most popular levadas to hike are the Levada do Caldeirão Verde and the Levada do Caldeirão do Inferno which should not be attempted by hikers prone to vertigo or without torches and helmets. The Levada do Caniçal is a much easier walk, running 7.1 miles (11.4 km) from Maroços to the Caniçal Tunnel. It is known as the mimosa levada because mimosa trees
Mimosa
Mimosa is a genus of about 400 species of herbs and shrubs, in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the legume family Fabaceae. The generic name is derived from the Greek word μιμος , meaning "mimic."...

 are found all along the route.

Human geography




Administratively, Madeira (with a population of 244,286 inhabitants in 2009) and covering an area of 768 km² (296.5 sq mi) is organized into eleven municipalities
Municipalities of Portugal
In Portugal, municipality or concelho is the most stable subdivision of Portugal since the foundation of the country.Portugal has an entirely separate system of cities and towns. Cities and towns are located in municipalities, but often do not have the same boundaries, even if built-up is continuous...

:
Municipality Population
(2006)
Area Main settlement Parishes
Freguesia
Freguesia is the Portuguese term for a secondary local administrative unit in Portugal and some of its former colonies, and a former secondary local administrative unit in Macau, roughly equivalent to an administrative parish. A freguesia is a subdivision of a concelho, the Portuguese synonym term...

Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

100,847 75.7 km² (29.2 sq mi) Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

 
10
Câmara de Lobos
Câmara de Lobos
Câmara de Lobos -History:The location of the modern town is believed to be the original landing point for the Portuguese discoverer João Gonçalves Zarco, who is credited with the discovery of the Madeira Islands...

 
35,150 52.6 km² (20.3 sq mi) Câmara de Lobos
Câmara de Lobos
Câmara de Lobos -History:The location of the modern town is believed to be the original landing point for the Portuguese discoverer João Gonçalves Zarco, who is credited with the discovery of the Madeira Islands...

 
5
Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, Madeira
Santa Cruz is a municipality, a parish and a city in the eastern part of the island of Madeira. Much of the municipality is mountainous and apart from residential areas, farmlands and orchards cover the remainder of the land...

32,696 68 km² (26.3 sq mi) Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, Madeira
Santa Cruz is a municipality, a parish and a city in the eastern part of the island of Madeira. Much of the municipality is mountainous and apart from residential areas, farmlands and orchards cover the remainder of the land...

 
5
Machico
Machico
Machico is a city and municipality in the northeastern part of the island of Madeira, in the Autonomous Region of Madeira. The easternmost municipality on the island, it is also the third most populous area; its population was 21,747...

 
21,321 67.6 km² (26.1 sq mi) Machico
Machico
Machico is a city and municipality in the northeastern part of the island of Madeira, in the Autonomous Region of Madeira. The easternmost municipality on the island, it is also the third most populous area; its population was 21,747...

 
5
Ribeira Brava
Ribeira Brava, Madeira
Ribeira Brava is a municipality on the island of Madeira, in the Portuguese Autonomous Region of Madeira. It is located along the southern coast , and is west of Câmara de Lobos and the regional capital Funchal...

 
12,523 64.9 km² (25.1 sq mi) Ribeira Brava
Ribeira Brava, Madeira
Ribeira Brava is a municipality on the island of Madeira, in the Portuguese Autonomous Region of Madeira. It is located along the southern coast , and is west of Câmara de Lobos and the regional capital Funchal...

 
4
Calheta  11,856 110.3 km² (42.6 sq mi) Calheta  8
Santana
Santana, Madeira
Santana is a municipality along the northern coast of the archipelago of Madeira-Human geography:Santana includes six parishes, within a rugged mountainous environment, most occupying river-valleys:* Arco de São Jorge* Faial* Ilha...

 
8,491 93.1 km² (35.9 sq mi) Santana
Santana, Madeira
Santana is a municipality along the northern coast of the archipelago of Madeira-Human geography:Santana includes six parishes, within a rugged mountainous environment, most occupying river-valleys:* Arco de São Jorge* Faial* Ilha...

 
6
Ponta do Sol  8,189 46.8 km² (18.1 sq mi) Ponta do Sol  3
São Vicente  6,063 80.8 km² (31.2 sq mi) São Vicente  3
Porto Santo
Vila Baleira
Vila Baleira is the city and municipal seat of the island of Porto Santo, in the Portuguese Madeiran archipelago. It is an example of one of the few settlements in Portugal with only one civil parish, and only became a city on 6 August 1996....

 
4,388 42.4 km² (16.4 sq mi) Vila Baleira
Vila Baleira
Vila Baleira is the city and municipal seat of the island of Porto Santo, in the Portuguese Madeiran archipelago. It is an example of one of the few settlements in Portugal with only one civil parish, and only became a city on 6 August 1996....

 
1
Porto Moniz
Porto Moniz
Porto Moniz is a municipality in the northwest corner of the island of Madeira. It is located west of Santana and Machico, and northwest of Funchal, linked to Santana and Funchal by a main roadway from Calheta.-History:...

 
2,762 82.6 km² (31.9 sq mi) Porto Moniz
Porto Moniz
Porto Moniz is a municipality in the northwest corner of the island of Madeira. It is located west of Santana and Machico, and northwest of Funchal, linked to Santana and Funchal by a main roadway from Calheta.-History:...

 
4

Funchal



Funchal
Funchal
Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

, is the capital and principal city of the Madeira Autonomous Region, located along the southern coast of the island of Madeira. It is a modern city, located within a natural geological "amphitheater" composed of volcanological structure and fluvial hydrological forces. Beginning at the harbor (Porto de Funchal), the neighborhoods and streets rise almost 1200 metres (3,937 ft), along gentle slopes that helped to provide a natural shelter to the early settlers.

With five centuries of populated history, Funchal was named by the early discoverers and settlers, for the abundance of fennel
Fennel
Fennel is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum . It is a member of the family Apiaceae . It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves...

 () that was found in this heavily forested area. The natural harbor and climate
Climate
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods...

, combined with an excellent geographical position, allowed Funchal to rapidly grow. Its Sé Cathedral
Cathedral
A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

, built between 1493 and 1514 (by Pêro Annes in Manueline
Manueline
The Manueline, or Portuguese late Gothic, is the sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the discoveries brought from the voyages of Vasco da Gama and Pedro Álvares Cabral...

-style), was one of the main centers of activity during its formative period, and represents one of Madeira's numerous historical treasures.

Demographics


When the Portuguese discovered the island of Madeira in 1419, it was uninhabited by humans, with no aboriginal
Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples are ethnic groups that are defined as indigenous according to one of the various definitions of the term, there is no universally accepted definition but most of which carry connotations of being the "original inhabitants" of a territory....

 population. The island was settled by Portuguese people
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

, especially farmers from the Minho
Minho (province)
Minho is an historical province of Portugal. It was established as an official province in 1936 and dissolved in 1976. It consisted of 23 municipalities, with its capital in the city of Braga. Today, the area would include the districts of Braga and Viana do Castelo. Minho has substantial Celtic...

 region, meaning that Madeirans , as they are called, are ethnic Portuguese, though they have developed their own distinct regional identity and cultural traits.

The region has a total population of just under 250,000 inhabitants, the majority of whom live on the main island of Madeira where the population density is 337/km²; meanwhile only around 4,500 live on the Porto Santo Island
Porto Santo Island
Porto Santo Island is a Portuguese island northeast of Madeira Island in the North Atlantic Ocean; it is the northernmost and easternmost island of the archipelago of Madeira, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Europe and Africa.- History :...

 where the population density is 112/km².
Population genetics

As in continental Portugal, the most frequent mtDNA haplogroup in Madeira is H
Haplogroup H (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 25,000-30,000 YBP.-Origin:...

 (36.2%), followed by U
Haplogroup U (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origins:Haplogroup U descends from a woman in the Haplogroup R branch of the phylogenetic tree, who lived around 55,000 years ago...

 (19.4% including 3.9% of North African Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

 U6), T
Haplogroup T (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Known Origins:Mitochondrial Haplogroup T derives from the haplogroup JT, which also gave rise to haplogroup J...

 (7.7%), pre-HV
Haplogroup R0 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup R0 is a mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.-Origin:Haplogroup R0 derives from the macro-haplogroup R...

clades (7.1%) and K
Haplogroup K (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, defined by HVR1 mutations 16224C and 16311C.-Origin:It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8, and it has an estimated age of c. 12,000 years BP....

 (6.5%). Two haplogroups, H and U5 alone account for more than 50% of the individuals. The relatively high frequency of sub-Saharan L
Haplogroup L1 (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup common in Central and West Africa.-Origin:Haplogroup L1 is believed to have appeared approximately 110,000 to 170,000 years ago...

 and M1 haplogroups (14.8%) in Madeira is also consistent with the historical records of slaves being introduced in both the south of Portugal and in Madeira.
Sample H I J K T U (except U6) Pre-V W X U6 M1 L1 L2 L3
155 36.2 1.3 2.6 6.5 7.7 15.5 7.1 1.9 0.6 3.9 1.9 4.5 2.6 5.8


Concerning the males Y-Dna haplogroups, R1b
Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA)
The point of origin of R1b is thought to lie in Eurasia, most likely in Western Asia. T. Karafet et al. estimated the age of R1, the parent of R1b, as 18,500 years before present....

 (particularly R1b3) was found to be the most dominant Y chromosomal lineage in Madeira, covering about 53% of the Y chromosomal lineages. The high frequency of this haplogroup is typical in all West European populations, reflecting a cline and likely continuity of the Palaeolithic gene pool in Europe. Haplogroups I
Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK....

 and G
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup G is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F . Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within many ethnic groups of the Old World in Europe, northern and western Asia, northern Africa, the Middle East,...

, also characteristic markers for many different West European populations, were found in Madeira at frequencies above 5%. Together with R1b, haplogroups J
Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup J is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is one of the major male lines of all living men...

 (12%) and E1b1b (14%) comprise about 80% of the Y-chromosomal gene pool of Madeira individuals. Haplogroups J and E1b1b consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The typical Berber
Berber people
Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. They are continuously distributed from the Atlantic to the Siwa oasis, in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean to the Niger River. Historically they spoke the Berber language or varieties of it, which together form a branch...

 haplogroup E1b1b1b (M81)
Haplogroup E1b1b1b (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, E1b1b1b , is the name of a major Y chromosome haplogroup mainly found in North Africa and to a lesser extent in Western Asia and Europe. E1b1b1b is dominated by its dominant sub-clade E1b1b1b1 , formerly known as E1b1b1b, E3b1b, and E3b2, which was discovered first, and has...

 was found as in continental Portugal at a frequency of 5–6%.
Sample A E1b1b1 E1b1b1a E1b1b1b E1b1b1c G I J* J2 T L N1c R1* R1a R1b
129 0.8 1.6 5.4 5.4 1.6 3.1 7.0 0.8 10.9 3.1 1.6 2.3 1.6 2.3 52.7

Diaspora


Madeiran immigrants in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 mostly clustered in the New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

 and mid-Atlantic states
Mid-Atlantic States
The Mid-Atlantic states, also called middle Atlantic states or simply the mid Atlantic, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South...

, Northern California, and Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

. They also settled in Rhode Island
Rhode Island
The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

 and Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 to participate in the flourishing American whaling industry. By 1980, the U.S. Census registered more than a million Americans of Portuguese descent, a large portion Madeirans.

In 1846 when a famine struck Madeira over 6,000 of the inhabitants migrated to British Guiana
British Guiana
British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana.The area was originally settled by the Dutch at the start of the 17th century as the colonies of Essequibo, Demerara, and Berbice...

. In 1891 they numbered 4.3% of the population. In 1902 in Honolulu, Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

 there were 5,000 Portuguese people mostly Madeirans. In 1910 this grew to 21,000. South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

 and Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 were also both important historically host countries for Madeirans.

There are several large Madeiran communities around the world, such is the great number in the UK, including Jersey
Jersey
Jersey, officially the Bailiwick of Jersey is a British Crown Dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. As well as the island of Jersey itself, the bailiwick includes two groups of small islands that are no longer permanently inhabited, the Minquiers and Écréhous, and the Pierres de Lecq and...

, the Portuguese British community mostly made up of Madeirans celebrate Madeira Day
Madeira Day
Madeira Day , celebrated in Madeira on 1st July. It marks the date when Portugal granted autonomy to Madeira Island. Although it is only officially celebrated in Madeira Island, Portuguese citizens and also Portuguese immigrants throughout the world celebrate this holiday.There are several large...

.

Economy



The setting-up of the Free trade zone
Free trade zone
A free trade zone or export processing zone , also called foreign-trade zone, formerly free port is an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities...

 has led to the installation, under more favourable conditions, of infrastructure, production shops and essential services for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises. The Free Zone of Madeira, also called the Madeira International Business Centre, being a tax-privileged economic area, provides an incentive for companies, offering them financial and tax advantages via a whole range of activities exercised in the Industrial Free Zone, the Off-Shore Financial Centre, the International Shipping Register organisation, and the International Service Centre.

The services sector makes the largest contribution to the formation of the regional gross value added
Gross value added
Gross Value Added ' is a measure in economics of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy...

 as opposed to the agricultural sector
Agriculture in Portugal
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units, however, the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by companies...

, for which the share has continuously declined in the regional economy.

Over the last few years, the regional economy has managed to open up and establish more internal and external competitiveness, so that its companies have become competitive internationally.
The largest industries are by sector food, beverages (especially Madeira wine
Madeira wine
Madeira is a fortified Portuguese wine made in the Madeira Islands. Some wines produced in small quantities in California and Texas are also referred to as "Madeira", or "Madera", although those wines do not conform to the EU PDO regulations...

), and construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

.

Tourism


Tourism
Tourism in Portugal
Portugal attracts many tourists each year. In 2006, the country was visited by 12.8 million tourists. Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in Portugal's economy contributing with about 5% of the Gross Domestic Product ....

 is an important sector in the region's economy since it contributes 20% to the region's GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

, providing support throughout the year for commercial
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

, transport
Transport
Transport or transportation is the movement of people, cattle, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline, and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles, and operations...

 and other activities and constituting a significant market for local products. The share in Gross Value Added of hotels and restaurants (9%) also highlights this phenomenon. The island of Porto Santo, with its 9 km (5.6 mi) long beach and its climate, is entirely devoted to tourism. Over the past decade it has recorded a substantial increase in its hotel accommodation capacity.

Development in Madeira is considered to have future potential since the necessary infrastructure has been established and adequate investment incentives have been introduced for expanding its hotel and catering structure in a controlled manner. Nature conservation is seen as important because it is a major draw for tourists to Madeira.

Visitors are mainly from the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, with German, British, Scandinavian and Portuguese tourists providing the main contingents. The average annual occupancy rate was 60.3% in 2008, reaching its maximum in March and April, when it exceeds 70%.

Transport


European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 citizens of the Schengen Treaty area can enter the islands freely, while those from other regions need identification.

There were in 2009, 7,105 legal immigrants living in Madeira Islands. They come mostly from Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

 (1.300), the UK (912), Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

 (732) and Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 (682), according to SEF.

The Islands have two airports, Funchal Airport on the Island of Madeira and the other in the island of Porto Santo. Flights to the islands are mostly made from Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon is the capital city and largest city of Portugal with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of . The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of , making it the 9th most populous urban...

 and Porto
Porto
Porto , also known as Oporto in English, is the second largest city in Portugal and one of the major urban areas in the Iberian Peninsula. Its administrative limits include a population of 237,559 inhabitants distributed within 15 civil parishes...

, but there are also direct flights from other major European cities and other countries, like Brazil, Venezuela
Venezuela
Venezuela , officially called the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela , is a tropical country on the northern coast of South America. It borders Colombia to the west, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the south...

, and South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

.

Transport between the two main islands is by plane or ferries, the latter also carrying vehicles. Visiting the interior of the islands is now easy thanks to construction of the Vias Rápidas, major roads built during Portugal's economic boom. Modern roads reach all points of interest on the islands. The old, curving mountain roads are still an excellent way to tour the island. Funchal has an extensive public transportation system. Bus companies, including Horários do Funchal
Horários do Funchal
Horários do Funchal is a bus operator based in Funchal, Madeira. They operate Urban and Inter-urban services on the south, central, and north of the island.-History:...

 which has been operating for over a hundred years, have regularly scheduled routes to all points of interest on the island.

Fish



Due to the geographic situation of Madeira, the island enjoys an abundance of fish of various kinds. The species that are consumed the most are Black scabbardfish
Black scabbardfish
The black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo, is a bathypelagic cutlassfish of the family Trichiuridae found in the Atlantic Ocean between latitudes 69° N and 27° N at depths of between 180 and 1,700 m...

, Blue Fin Tuna
Thunnus
Thunnus is a genus of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, all of which are tuna, although other tuna species are found in other genera. The name of the genus is the Latinized form of the Greek θύννος, thýnnos, tuna, the word being first mentioned in Homer...

, White Marlin
White marlin
White Marlin are large, elongated fish with a large upper jaw that forms a spear which is round in cross-section. They are dark blue to chocolate-brown in color...

, Blue Marlin
Atlantic blue marlin
The Atlantic blue marlin is a species of marlin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic blue marlin feeds on a wide variety of organisms near the surface. By using its bill, it can stun, injure, or kill while knifing through a school of prey and then return later at its leisure to eat...

, Albacore
Albacore
The albacore, Thunnus alalunga, is a type of tuna in the family Scombridae. This species is also called albacore fish, albacore tuna, albicore, longfin, albies, pigfish, tombo ahi, binnaga, Pacific albacore, German bonito , longfin tuna, longfin tunny, or even just tuna...

, Big Eye Tuna, Wahoo
Wahoo
The wahoo is a scombrid fish found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. It is best known to sports fishermen, as its speed and high-quality flesh make it a prize game fish...

, Spearfish
Marlin
Marlin, family Istiophoridae, are fish with an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long rigid dorsal fin, which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike...

, skipjack tuna
Skipjack tuna
The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonito, mushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish...

 and many others are found in the local dishes as they are found up and down the coast of Madeira

Espada (Black scabbardfish
Black scabbardfish
The black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo, is a bathypelagic cutlassfish of the family Trichiuridae found in the Atlantic Ocean between latitudes 69° N and 27° N at depths of between 180 and 1,700 m...

) is often served with banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

. Bacalhau
Bacalhau
Bacalhau is the Portuguese word for codfish and—in a culinary context—dried and salted codfish. Fresh cod is referred to as bacalhau fresco .-Use:...

 also being popular as it is in Portugal.

Meat


There are many meat dishes on Madeira, one of the most popular being Espetada
Espetada
The Espetada is a typical Portuguese dish made usually of large chunks of beef rubbed in garlic and salt, skewered onto a bay leaf stick with vegetables such as onions and bell peppers and left to grill over smouldering wood chips...

. The Espetada
Espetada
The Espetada is a typical Portuguese dish made usually of large chunks of beef rubbed in garlic and salt, skewered onto a bay leaf stick with vegetables such as onions and bell peppers and left to grill over smouldering wood chips...

 is traditionally made of large chunks of beef rubbed in garlic, salt and bay leaf and marinated for 4 to 6 hours in Madeira wine, red wine vinegar and olive oil then skewered onto a Bay laurel
Bay Laurel
The bay laurel , also known as sweet bay, bay tree, true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree, or simply laurel, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is the source of the bay leaf used in cooking...

 stick and left to grill over smouldering wood chips. Portuguese Americans use California Bay Laurel sticks as skewers as they are more readily available in the USA. In Madeira they are so integral a part of traditional eating habits that a special iron stand was developed with a T-shaped end, each branch of the "T" having a slot in the middle to hold a brochette
Brochette
In cooking, en brochette refers to food cooked, and sometimes served, on brochettes, or skewers. The French term generally applies to French cuisine, while other terms like shish kebab, satay, or souvlaki describe the same technique in other cuisines...

. A small plate is then placed underneath to collect the juices. The brochettes are very long and have a V-shaped blade in order to more easily pierce the meat.

Carne de Vinha d' Alhos
Carne de Vinha d' Alhos
Carne de Vinha d' Alhos is a Portuguese dish. The name means "Meat of Wine Garlic", that is meat with wine and garlic, the meat usually being pork or rabbit. It is traditionally served at Christmas time. In the Azores it is known as vina dosh...

 is another popular dish in Madeira and in Portugal.

Pastries


Traditional pastries in Madeira usually contain local ingredients, one of the most common being mel de cana, literally “sugarcane honey” (molasses
Molasses
Molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar cane, grapes or sugar beets into sugar. The word molasses comes from the Portuguese word melaço, which ultimately comes from mel, the Latin word for "honey". The quality of molasses depends on the maturity of the sugar cane or sugar beet,...

). The traditional cake of Madeira is called Bolo de Mel
Bolo de Mel
Bolo de Mel is a traditional cake that originates from the Madeira Islands. This cake is considered to be Madeira's oldest dessert. The cake became a popular confection when the island was an important sugar producer, since the cake itself is traditionally made with molasses instead of the now...

, which translates as (Sugarcane) "Honey Cake" and according to custom is never cut with a knife but broken into pieces by hand. It is a rich and heavy cake.
Malasada
Malasada
A malasada is a Portuguese confection. They were first made by inhabitants of Madeira Island. Malasadas are made of egg-sized balls of yeast dough that are deep-fried in oil and coated with granulated sugar. A popular variation is where they are hand dropped into the oil and people have to guess...

's are a Madeira creation which were taken around the world by Madeiran Emigrants to places such as Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

. In Madeira Malasada
Malasada
A malasada is a Portuguese confection. They were first made by inhabitants of Madeira Island. Malasadas are made of egg-sized balls of yeast dough that are deep-fried in oil and coated with granulated sugar. A popular variation is where they are hand dropped into the oil and people have to guess...

's are mainly consumed during the Carnival of Madeira
Carnival of Madeira
The Carnival of Madeira is an annual festival held forty days before Easter, that ends on Shrove Tuesday the day before Ash Wednesday...

. Pastel de nata
Pastel de nata
A pastel de nata , or pastel de Belém is a Portuguese egg tart pastry. They are common in Portugal, the Lusosphere — Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste, Goa, and Macau — and countries with significant Portuguese populations, such as Canada,...

's as in the rest of Portugal are also very popular.

Other


Milho Frito is a very popular dish in Madeira which is very similar to the Italian dish Polenta
Polenta
Polenta is a dish made from boiled cornmeal. The word "polenta" is borrowed from Italian.-Description:Polenta is made with ground yellow or white cornmeal , which can be ground coarsely or finely depending on the region and the texture desired.As it is known today, polenta derives from earlier...

.

Wine




Madeira is a fortified Portuguese wine
Portuguese wine
Portuguese wine is the result of traditions introduced to the region by ancient civilizations, such as the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and mostly the Romans. Portugal started to export its wines to Rome during the Roman Empire. Modern exports developed with trade to England after the...

, produced in the Madeira Islands; varieties may be sweet or dry. It has a history dating back to the Age of Exploration when Madeira was a standard port of call
Port of Call
-Synopsis:Berit, a young woman living in a working-class port town begins a relationship with Gösta, a sailor newly returned from overseas and intent upon staying on land...

 for ships heading to the New World
New World
The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically America and sometimes Oceania . The term originated in the late 15th century, when America had been recently discovered by European explorers, expanding the geographical horizon of the people of the European middle...

 or East Indies
East Indies
East Indies is a term used by Europeans from the 16th century onwards to identify what is now known as Indian subcontinent or South Asia, Southeastern Asia, and the islands of Oceania, including the Malay Archipelago and the Philippines...

. To prevent the wine from spoiling, neutral grape spirits were added. However, wine producers of Madeira discovered, when an unsold shipment of wine returned to the islands after a round trip, that the flavour of the wine had been transformed by exposure to heat and movement. Today, Madeira is noted for its unique winemaking process which involves heating the wine and deliberately exposing the wine to some levels of oxidation. Most countries limit the use of the term Madeira or Madère to only those wines that come from the Madeira Islands, to which the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 grants Protected Designation of Origin
Protected designation of origin
Protected Geographical Status is a legal framework defined in European Union law to protect the names of regional foods. Protected Designation of Origin , Protected Geographical Indication and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed are distinct regimes of geographical indications within the framework...

 (PDO) status.

Beer



The local Beer called Coral is produced by the Madeira Brewery, which has been around since 1872. Other Portuguese beer
Portuguese beer
Beer in Portugal has a long history, going as far back as the time of the ancient Roman province of Lusitania, where beer was commonly made and drunk. Portugal is among the 11 largest beer producers in Europe, and is the 7th largest European exporter of the product.The word for beer in Portuguese...

s are also popular on Madeira to a much lesser extent.

Soft Drinks


Laranjada
Laranjada
Laranjada is a type of carbonated soft drink with an orange flavour, which is sold in Bars, Restaurants & supermarkets all over the island of Madeira. It may also be purchased on mainland Portugal on Campo Pequeno, in the supermarket "Sá"...

 is a type of carbonated
Carbonation
Carbonation is the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is reduced, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which cause the solution to "fizz." This effect is seen in carbonated...

 soft drink
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

 with an orange flavour, which is 14 years older than Coca-Cola drink. Launched in 1872 it was the first soft drink
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

 to be produced in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 and therefore the oldest, remaining very popular to the present day. Brisa drink
Brisa drink
Brisa is a range of soft drinks,produced and distributed by the Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira. Brisa is sold in Bars, Restaurants & Supermarkets all over the island of Madeira.-Flavours:*Brisa Cola*Brisa Cola Light*Brisa Cola Zero...

s are also very popular and come in a range of flavours.

Coffee


There is also a huge coffee culture in Madeira where, like the rest of Portugal, Portuguese coffees are more popular such as Garoto, Galão
Galão
Galão is a hot drink from Portugal made of espresso and foamed milk. In all similar to café latte or café au lait, it comes in a tall glass with about one quarter coffee, three quarters foamed milk, as opposed to the smaller garoto that is served in a demitasse/espresso smaller china cup. When the...

, Bica, Chinesa and many more

Madeira Gourmet Festival


To promote Madeiran gastronomy worldwide, every November the Madeira Gourmet Festival is organized. The festival brings international chefs to the island, mixing their know-how with local young chefs and preparing new recipes using Madeiran traditional products, like Madeira wine
Madeira wine
Madeira is a fortified Portuguese wine made in the Madeira Islands. Some wines produced in small quantities in California and Texas are also referred to as "Madeira", or "Madera", although those wines do not conform to the EU PDO regulations...

, local fish and other products.

Sports


In Madeira a large number of sports are practiced, both outdoors and indoors in the various facilities available throughout the island. However the main professional sports that Madeira competes in are listed below:-

Football



The first organised game of football took place in 1875 in Camacha
Camacha
Camacha is a parish in the district of Santa Cruz in the Madeira Islands. It is about 6.5 km northeast of Funchal, 12 km south of Porto da Cruz and 7.5 km southwest of Santo António da Serra...

, organised by the Madeira born Harry Hinton. This being the first organised game of football anywhere in Portugal

Madeira has two football teams in the Portuguese Liga
Portuguese Liga
The Primeira Liga , formerly called Primeira Divisão, currently named Liga ZON Sagres after their main sponsors, is the top professional association football division of the Portuguese football league system...

 (Portugal's top league), C.S. Marítimo and Nacional. There would have been three but União da Madeira
União da Madeira
Clube de Futebol União, commonly known as União da Madeira, is a Portuguese football club from Funchal, Madeira, currently playing in the Liga de Honra. União was founded on 1 November 1913, thus being one of the oldest clubs in Portugal...

 were relegated from the top league in 1995 and have never been able to gain promotion back to the top league.

The Real Madrid
Real Madrid
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol , commonly known as Real Madrid, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain. The club have won a record 31 La Liga titles, the Primera División of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional , 18 Copas del Rey, 8 Spanish Super Cups, 1 Copa Eva Duarte and 1 Copa de la...

 and Portugal
Portugal national football team
The Portugal national football team represents Portugal in association football and is controlled by the Portuguese Football Federation, the governing body for football in Portugal. Portugal's home ground is Estádio Nacional in Oeiras, and their head coach is Paulo Bento...

 footballer Cristiano Ronaldo
Cristiano Ronaldo
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, OIH, , commonly known as Cristiano Ronaldo, is a Portuguese footballer who plays as a winger or striker for Spanish La Liga club Real Madrid and is the captain of the Portuguese national team...

 was born in Madeira and played for Nacional before going to Sporting Lisbon.

C.S. Marítimo is considered as the biggest club of Madeira and have enjoyed various campaigns in the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
The UEFA Europa League is an annual association football cup competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs. It is the second most prestigious European club football contest after the UEFA Champions League...

 having recorded famous results against teams such as Juventus, Leeds and Rangers
Rangers F.C.
Rangers Football Club are an association football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premier League. The club are nicknamed the Gers, Teddy Bears and the Light Blues, and the fans are known to each other as bluenoses...

. Having finished 5th in the league in the 2009/2010 season, C.S. Marítimo qualified for the Europa League for the 2010/2011 season

C.S. Marítimo has nurtured great players such as Pepe, now at Real Madrid
Real Madrid C.F.
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol , commonly known as Real Madrid, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain. The club have won a record 31 La Liga titles, the Primera División of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional , 18 Copas del Rey, 8 Spanish Super Cups, 1 Copa Eva Duarte and 1 Copa de la...

, Tonel
Tonel
António Leonel Vilar Nogueira Sousa, aka Tonel , is a Portuguese footballer who plays for GNK Dinamo Zagreb in Croatia, as a central defender.-Porto / Marítimo:Coming through the youth teams of F.C...

, now at Sporting, Danny, now at Zenit, Jorge Costa
Jorge Costa
Jorge Paulo Costa Almeida , known as Costa, is a retired Portuguese professional footballer who played as a central defender, and a current manager....

, retired (F.C. Porto), Tarik Sektioui
Tarik Sektioui
Tarik Sektioui is a retired Moroccan footballer. A right winger, he was best known for his good control of the ball, technique, and speed, and spent most of his professional career in the Netherlands and Portugal.-Club career:...

, left F.C. Porto at the start of 2009/2010 league, Nuno Valente, retired, Makukula, now at Manisaspor, among others.

In 2003–04
2003-04 in Portuguese football
The 2003-2004 football season in Portuguese football was dominated by FC Porto. Although Porto did not manage to win the Portuguese Double, the club won the UEFA Champions League, becoming the first Portuguese team to do so in the current form of the competition, and complete the European...

 Nacional achieved 4th place in the Portuguese League, their best classification ever.

Outside the Portuguese top league, there are two other Maderian teams U.D. Santana
U.D. Santana
União Desportiva de Santana, known as Santana, is a Portuguese football club from Santana, Madeira. Founded in 1981, it currently plays in the Portuguese Second Division Serie B, holding home games at Manuel Marques da Trindade, with a capacity of 3,000 seats.Santana was first promoted to the...

 and A.D. Pontassolense
A.D. Pontassolense
Associação Desportiva Pontassolense is a Portuguese football club based in Ponta do Sol, Madeira. Founded in 1979, it currently plays in the Portuguese Second Division, holding home matches at Campo Municipal Ponta do Sol, with a 3,000-seat capacity....

. U.D. Santana
U.D. Santana
União Desportiva de Santana, known as Santana, is a Portuguese football club from Santana, Madeira. Founded in 1981, it currently plays in the Portuguese Second Division Serie B, holding home games at Manuel Marques da Trindade, with a capacity of 3,000 seats.Santana was first promoted to the...

 was relegated from the Portuguese Second Division
Portuguese Second Division
The Portuguese Second Division is a football league in Portugal, situated at the third level of the Portuguese football league system...

 so they now play the football in the Portuguese Third Division
Portuguese Third Division
The Terceira Divisão Portuguesa is the fourth level of the Portuguese football league system. The Third Division was initially the third level of the Portuguese pyramid but with the creation of the Liga de Honra in 1990–91, it became the fourth level...

, while A.D. Pontassolense
A.D. Pontassolense
Associação Desportiva Pontassolense is a Portuguese football club based in Ponta do Sol, Madeira. Founded in 1979, it currently plays in the Portuguese Second Division, holding home matches at Campo Municipal Ponta do Sol, with a 3,000-seat capacity....

 plays in the Portuguese Second Division.

Basketball


In recent years, Madeira has had a considerable amount of success in professional basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

, with CAB Madeira
CAB Madeira
CAB Madeira, or Clube Amigos do Basquete to give their full name, is a professional basketball team based in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. It plays in LCB.-Current Squad 2007/08:...

 having won numerous titles, especially their female team. CAB are often seen competing in European competitions such as the FIBA
International Basketball Federation
The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA , from its French name Fédération Internationale de Basketball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball...

 EuroCup
EuroChallenge
The EuroChallenge is the 3rd tier level transnational men's professional club basketball competition in Europe. It is organized and run by FIBA Europe...

, and former stars include Filipe da Silva and ex-Los Angeles Lakers
Los Angeles Lakers
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles, California. They play in the Pacific Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association...

 player Ike Nwankwo
Ike Nwankwo
Ikenna Nwankwo is a Nigerian-American professional basketball player.-Collegiate career:...

.

Surfing



In 2001 the World Surfing Championships were held in Madeira at Surfspots including Paul do Mar
Paul do Mar
Paul do Mar is a civil parish in the municipality of Calheta, in the Portuguese archipelago of Madeira. The population in 2001 was 885 in an coastal area of , with a density of less than 632 inhabitants per kilometre square.-History:...

, Ponta Pequena and Jardim do Mar
Jardim do Mar
Jardim do Mar is a civil parish in the western part of the municipality of Calheta in the archipelago of Madeira...

 (see Surfing in Madeira
Surfing in Madeira
Surfing first started in the Portuguese island of Madeira in the 1970s off the villages of Paul do Mar, Jardim do Mar and Punta Pequena. Almost every surfspot is rocky and powerful. No waves seem to break under six feet in the winter months. Madeira did not really come to the attention of foreign...

).

Handball


Madeira Andebol SAD
Madeira Andebol SAD
Madeira Andebol SAD Is a professional Handball team based in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. It plays in LPA.-European Results 2006/07:-Current Squad 2006/07:-Achievements:* Champion of Liga Portuguesa de Andebol: 12004/05...

, the island's only professional handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

 team is one of the most successful in the country.

Walking and hiking


With around 600 miles of walks, many alongside the Levadas, one of the islands greatest attractions providing stunning walks some of which are quite challenging.

Fishing


Due to the geographic situation of Madeira, the island enjoys an abundance of fish of various kinds. The species that can be caught are Black scabbardfish
Black scabbardfish
The black scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo, is a bathypelagic cutlassfish of the family Trichiuridae found in the Atlantic Ocean between latitudes 69° N and 27° N at depths of between 180 and 1,700 m...

, Blue Fin Tuna
Thunnus
Thunnus is a genus of ocean-dwelling fish in the family Scombridae, all of which are tuna, although other tuna species are found in other genera. The name of the genus is the Latinized form of the Greek θύννος, thýnnos, tuna, the word being first mentioned in Homer...

, White Marlin
White marlin
White Marlin are large, elongated fish with a large upper jaw that forms a spear which is round in cross-section. They are dark blue to chocolate-brown in color...

, Blue Marlin
Atlantic blue marlin
The Atlantic blue marlin is a species of marlin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic blue marlin feeds on a wide variety of organisms near the surface. By using its bill, it can stun, injure, or kill while knifing through a school of prey and then return later at its leisure to eat...

, Albacore
Albacore
The albacore, Thunnus alalunga, is a type of tuna in the family Scombridae. This species is also called albacore fish, albacore tuna, albicore, longfin, albies, pigfish, tombo ahi, binnaga, Pacific albacore, German bonito , longfin tuna, longfin tunny, or even just tuna...

, Big Eye Tuna, Wahoo
Wahoo
The wahoo is a scombrid fish found worldwide in tropical and subtropical seas. It is best known to sports fishermen, as its speed and high-quality flesh make it a prize game fish...

, Spearfish
Marlin
Marlin, family Istiophoridae, are fish with an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long rigid dorsal fin, which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike...

, skipjack tuna
Skipjack tuna
The skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, is a medium-sized perciform fish in the tuna family, Scombridae. It is otherwise known as the aku, arctic bonito, mushmouth, oceanic bonito, striped tuna, or victor fish...

 and many others are found up and down the coast of Madeira.

Dolphin (Common dolphin, Bridled dolphin, Striped dolphin, Bottle-nose Dolphin) and Whale (Short-finned Pilot Whale, Sperm whale, Fin whale) watching is also very popular.

Other Sports


While rally car racing (Rali Vinho da Madeira
Rali Vinho da Madeira
The Rali Vinho da Madeira is a tarmac rally held in Madeira Island, Portugal, and it is the biggest annual sporting event of the island, bringing thousands of people into the roads to watch the drivers compete through the hilly terrain and the natural landscapes...

), Karting and golf
Golf
Golf is a precision club and ball sport, in which competing players use many types of clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a golf course using the fewest number of strokes....

 are other popular sports played on the island. The island lies in an ideal location for water sports such as fishing
Fishing
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch wild fish. Fish are normally caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, spearing, netting, angling and trapping....

, Sailing and diving due to its climate and location. Jogo do Pau
Jogo do Pau
Jogo do Pau is a Portuguese martial art which developed in the northern regions of Portugal , focusing on the use of a staff of fixed measures and characteristics. The origins of this martial art are uncertain, but its purpose was primarily self-defence...

, a Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 martial art is still practised in the rural
Rural
Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture...

 areas of the island but has declined since its peak in the early part of the 20th century.

Postage stamps



Portugal has issued postage stamp
Postage stamp
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are made from special paper, with a national designation and denomination on the face, and a gum adhesive on the reverse side...

s for Madeira during several periods, beginning in 1868.

Notable residents



The following people were either born or have lived part of their lives in Madeira:
  • António de Abreu
    António de Abreu
    António de Abreu was a 16th century Portuguese navigator and naval officer. He participated under the command of Afonso de Albuquerque in the conquest of Ormus in 1507 and Malacca in 1511, where he got injured...

    , naval officer and navigator
  • Nadia Almada
    Nadia Almada
    Nadia Conceicao Almada is a Madeiran-born UK reality television star, best known for being the first transsexual winner of Big Brother in series 5 in 2004.-Big Brother:...

    , a winner of the British reality show Big Brother
  • Menasseh Ben Israel
    Menasseh Ben Israel
    Manoel Dias Soeiro , better known by his Hebrew name Menasseh Ben Israel , was a Portuguese rabbi, kabbalist, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in...

    , a notable Jewish Rabbi.
  • Joe Berardo, Portuguese millionaire, and art collector
  • Pedro Macedo Camacho
    Pedro Camacho
    Pedro Macedo Camacho, born September 4, 1979, in the city of Funchal, Portugal, is an award-winning film and video game composer.-Biography:Pedro Macedo Camacho started learning composition with Argentinean composer Roberto Pérez in his home city's Conservatoire and Arts School.After three years,...

    , Composer
  • Charles I of Austria, deposed monarch, died in exile on Madeira in 1922
  • Catarina Fagundes
    Catarina Fagundes
    Catarina Fagundes is a Portuguese sailor. She competed in the Mistral Windsurf Class at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, and achieved the 21st position...

    , Olympic
    Olympic Games
    The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

     athlete for windsurf
  • Vânia Fernandes
    Vânia Fernandes
    Vânia Fernandes is a Portuguese singer from Funchal, Madeira .Known for her powerful stage presence, as well as her prominent and versatile voice, Fernandes has participated in several singing contests and performed in public in both her home island of Madeira and on the mainland of Portugal since...

    , Portuguese singer who represented Portugal in Eurovision 2008
  • José Vicente de Freitas, military and politician
  • Vasco da Gama Rodrigues
    Vasco da Gama Rodrigues
    Vasco da Gama Rodrigues , was a Portuguese poet. Rodrigues moved in his youth to Mozambique, then a Portuguese colony. In his twenties he returned to Lisbon, where he worked in Lisbon’s Tourism Inspection Department. During this time he started writing and some of his works were published...

    , Poet, born in Paul do Mar
    Paul do Mar
    Paul do Mar is a civil parish in the municipality of Calheta, in the Portuguese archipelago of Madeira. The population in 2001 was 885 in an coastal area of , with a density of less than 632 inhabitants per kilometre square.-History:...

  • Teodósio Clemente de Gouveia, Cardinal
    Cardinal (Catholicism)
    A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

     of the Roman Catholic Church
    Roman Catholic Church
    The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

  • Herberto Hélder
    Herberto Hélder
    Herberto Hélder de Oliveira is a Portuguese poet. He was born in Funchal, Madeira.- Biography :Herberto Helder was born into a family of Jewish ancestry in the Portuguese Atlantic island of Madeira. In 1946 he traveled to Lisbon to complete his secondary studies and subsequently in 1948 moved to...

    , Poet
  • Moisés Henriques
    Moises Henriques
    Moisés Constantino Henriques is a professional Australian cricketer who currently plays for the New South Wales Blues. An all-rounder, Henriques is widely considered to be one of the best young talents in Australian cricket.-Early and personal life:...

    , former Australian Under-19 Captain and current NSW Blues cricketer
  • Alberto João Jardim
    Alberto João Jardim
    Alberto João Cardoso Gonçalves Jardim, GCIH |Santa Luzia]], Funchal, Madeira Island) is a Portuguese politician who has been the President of the Regional Government of Madeira, Portugal, since 1978. He is currently among the most controversial politicians of Portugal.-Early years:Jardim was born...

    , President of the Regional Government
  • Luís Jardim
    Luís Jardim
    Luís Alberto Figueira Gonçalves Jardim is a Portuguese percussionist, born in the Madeira Island, best known for his work with producer Trevor Horn.-Family:Jardim is a cousin of Alberto João Jardim...

    , Producer of music
  • Paul Langerhans
    Paul Langerhans
    Paul Langerhans was a German pathologist, physiologist and biologist.-Eponymous terms:* Islets of Langerhans - Pancreatic cells which produce insulin...

    , German pathologist
    Pathology
    Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek , pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and , -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling....

     and biologist
    Biology
    Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

  • Fátima Lopes
    Fátima Lopes
    Fátima Lopes, ComIH is a Portuguese fashion designer.Fátima comes from the Portuguese island of Madeira. She was born and grew up in its capital city, Funchal. Since an early age she showed an interest in fashion and during her adolescence, unhappy with what the shops had to offer in terms of...

    , Fashion designer
  • Jaime Ornelas Camacho
    Jaime Ornelas Camacho
    Jaime Ornelas Camacho, , was the first President of the Regional Government of Madeira, Portugal, and a member of the Madeiran branch of the popular centre-right-wing Portuguese party PSD....

    , first and former President of the Regional Government
  • Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos
    Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos
    Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Goa.He was born September 18, 1837 in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, a son of Aires de Ornelas e Vasconcelos Esmeraldo Rolim de Moura and wife Augusta Correia Vasques Salvago de Brito de Olival...

    , former Archbishop of the former Portuguese colonial enclave Goa
    Goa
    Goa , a former Portuguese colony, is India's smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its...

     (in India)
  • Sir Lloyd William Matthews
    Lloyd Mathews
    Sir Lloyd William Mathews KCMG, CB was a British naval officer, politician and abolitionist. Mathews joined the Royal Navy as a cadet at the age of 13 and progressed through the ranks to lieutenant. He was involved with the Third Anglo-Ashanti War of 1873–4, afterwards being stationed in...

    , British naval officer, politician and abolitionist
  • Dionísio Pestana
    Pestana Group
    Pestana Group is currently the largest Portuguese tourism and leisure group, its hotel chain PH&R , has 41 hotels and more than 8,700 rooms. And since 2003, PH&R manages the Pousadas de Portugal....

    , president of the Pestana Group
    Pestana Group
    Pestana Group is currently the largest Portuguese tourism and leisure group, its hotel chain PH&R , has 41 hotels and more than 8,700 rooms. And since 2003, PH&R manages the Pousadas de Portugal....

  • Rigo 23
    Rigo 23
    Rigo 23 , born Ricardo Gouveia, is a Portuguese muralist, painter, and political artist residing in San Francisco, California...

    , Artist
  • João Rodrigues
    João Rodrigues (sailor)
    João Filipe Gaspar Rodrigues, better known as João Rodrigues, is a Portuguese windsurfer from Funchal, Madeira. He started sailing at nine years-old and racing competitively at the age of eleven....

    , Olympic
    Olympic Games
    The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

     windsurfer
  • Cristiano Ronaldo
    Cristiano Ronaldo
    Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, OIH, , commonly known as Cristiano Ronaldo, is a Portuguese footballer who plays as a winger or striker for Spanish La Liga club Real Madrid and is the captain of the Portuguese national team...

    , Real Madrid, Portugal
    Portugal national football team
    The Portugal national football team represents Portugal in association football and is controlled by the Portuguese Football Federation, the governing body for football in Portugal. Portugal's home ground is Estádio Nacional in Oeiras, and their head coach is Paulo Bento...

      and former Manchester United football player
  • John Santos, Photographer
  • Ana da Silva
    Ana da Silva
    Ana da Silva is a founding member of The Raincoats. In approximately 1984 she provided backing vocals on The Go-Betweens' "Bachelor Kisses". In February 2005, she released a solo album The Lighthouse on Chicks on Speed Records. Stuart Moxham of the Young Marble Giants collaborated on one of the...

    , founding member of the post-punk
    Post-punk
    Post-punk is a rock music movement with its roots in the late 1970s, following on the heels of the initial punk rock explosion of the mid-1970s. The genre retains its roots in the punk movement but is more introverted, complex and experimental...

     band The Raincoats
    The Raincoats
    The Raincoats are a British post-punk band. Ana da Silva and Gina Birch formed the group in 1977 while they were students at Hornsey College of Art, London, England.-Career:...

  • Manoel Dias Soeyro or Menasseh Ben Israel
    Menasseh Ben Israel
    Manoel Dias Soeiro , better known by his Hebrew name Menasseh Ben Israel , was a Portuguese rabbi, kabbalist, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam in...

     (1604–1657), Sephardi
    Spanish and Portuguese Jews
    Spanish and Portuguese Jews are a distinctive sub-group of Sephardim who have their main ethnic origins within the Jewish communities of the Iberian peninsula and who shaped communities mainly in Western Europe and the Americas from the late 16th century on...

     Rabbi
    Rabbi
    In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

     and publisher
  • Artur de Sousa Pinga
    Artur de Sousa Pinga
    Artur de Sousa, known for his nickname Pinga was a footballer and later coach who made his name in FC Porto, club he served until his death in 1963....

    , former CS Marítimo
    CS Marítimo
    Club Sport Marítimo MH M, commonly known as just Marítimo , is a Portuguese sports club, founded in Funchal, Madeira, in 1910. The club is regarded as an important club in Portugal, and are widely known throughout the Portuguese speaking world, in countries such as Brazil, Angola, and Cape...

     and FC Porto
    Futebol Clube do Porto
    Futebol Clube do Porto , commonly known as FC Porto, Porto, or FCP, is a Portuguese multi-sports club from the city of Porto, in the northern region of the country. Although they successfully compete in a number of different sports, FC Porto is mostly known for its association football team...

     football player
  • Maximiano de Sousa (Max)
    Maximiano de Sousa (Max)
    Maximiano de Sousa Also known as Max was a Portuguese Fado singer.Max was one of the most popular Fado singers from the 1940s until well after his death in 1980.-Biografia:...

    , popular singer, born in Funchal
    Funchal
    Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira. The city has a population of 112,015 and has been the capital of Madeira for more than five centuries.-Etymology:...

  • Virgílio Teixeira, actor
  • José Travassos Valdez, 1st Count of Bonfim, governor in 1827–1828

See also



  • History of Portuguese Nationality
    History of Portuguese Nationality
    The history of Portuguese Nationality is a process lasting more than 1,000 years.- Absolute monarchy :The History of Portuguese Nationality began when Afonso Henriques, otherwise known as Afonso I of Portugal, took authority naming himself Prince of Portugal in 1128 creating an independent kingdom,...

  • Madeira Island Open
    Madeira Island Open
    The Madeira Islands Open is a men's professional golf tournament on the European Tour, played on the Madeira Islands in Portugal. It was founded in 1993 and is often the first event of the season played in Europe, after the season has spent the northern winter in Asia, Australasia and South Africa...

    , an annual European Tour golf tournament.
  • Surfing in Madeira
    Surfing in Madeira
    Surfing first started in the Portuguese island of Madeira in the 1970s off the villages of Paul do Mar, Jardim do Mar and Punta Pequena. Almost every surfspot is rocky and powerful. No waves seem to break under six feet in the winter months. Madeira did not really come to the attention of foreign...

  • University of Madeira
    University of Madeira
    The University of Madeira is a Portuguese public university, created in 1988 in Funchal. It houses the following departments and autonomous sections.-Departments:* Art and Design - * Biology - * Educational Sciences -...


External links