Goa

Goa

Overview
Goa , a former Portuguese colony
Portuguese India
The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

, is India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

's smallest state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India
South West India
South West India extends over the regions in the states and territories of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Goa, Orissa, and Lakshadweep....

 in the region known as the Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 to the north, and by Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

 to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 forms its western coast. Goa is India's richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.

Panaji is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, Goa
Vasco da Gama is the largest city in the state of Goa on the west coast of India. It is named after the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama. Vasco has Goa's largest population, estimated at over 100,000. It is also the headquarters of the Mormugao taluka...

 is the largest city.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Goa'
Start a new discussion about 'Goa'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Recent Discussions
Quotations

Jea konnem Goa pollelam, tannem Lisboa pollonvchi goroz nam. (He who has seen Goa need not see Lisboa.) ----

Goenkarank udarponn fokot ek utor nhoi – ti amchi ek parampora. (Hospitality is not just a word for Goans – it's a tradition.) ----

Dantui moje ani vonttui moje. (To avoid hurting someone close.) ----

Zaka zolltta, takach kolltta. (Only the injured knows what's pain.) ----

Dusro nachta mhunn apnnem naschem nhoi. (Do what's within your limits.) ----

Melele moxik bara xer dudh; jivi astannam ekui nam. (Nobody utters a word of praise when alive, but one is showered with praises when dead.) ----

Sanjek nasleleak mijeas chodd. (The poor boasts more.) ----

Hanv hansta desak ani des hansta mojea bhesak. (To point out others' mistakes while one is at fault.) ----

Khatolo zalear chonno, bolsant nam anno. (To be completely bankrupt.) ----

Nakak dhorlear tondd ugtem zata. (If the nose is held closed, the mouth opens. -- Old Konkani saying.) ----

Encyclopedia
Goa , a former Portuguese colony
Portuguese India
The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

, is India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

's smallest state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in South West India
South West India
South West India extends over the regions in the states and territories of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Goa, Orissa, and Lakshadweep....

 in the region known as the Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

 to the north, and by Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

 to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

 forms its western coast. Goa is India's richest state with a GDP per capita two and a half times that of the country as a whole. It was ranked the best placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.

Panaji is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama, Goa
Vasco da Gama is the largest city in the state of Goa on the west coast of India. It is named after the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama. Vasco has Goa's largest population, estimated at over 100,000. It is also the headquarters of the Mormugao taluka...

 is the largest city. The historic city of Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

 still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. The Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 overseas territory of Portuguese India
Portuguese India
The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

 existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961.

Renowned for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

, Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year. It also has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
The Western Ghats, Western Ghauts or the Sahyādri is a mountain range along the western side of India. It runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan...

 range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot
Biodiversity hotspot
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.The concept of biodiversity hotspots was originated by Norman Myers in two articles in “The Environmentalist” , revised after thorough analysis by Myers and others in...

.

Mythological origins


The first literary reference to Goa is mentioned in the Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 as Gomanta
Gomanta Kingdom
Gomanta was a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. It was an extension of the kingdom of Yadavas at Dwaraka. It is identified to be the Goa state of India, situated in the western coast...

which means the region of cows.
Even though there are no archeological and historical evidences, Hindu scriptures mention Parashurama
Parashurama
Parashurama , is the sixth avatar of Vishnu and belongs to the treta yuga, and is the son of a Brahmin father Jamadagni and mother Renuka. He is considered one of the seven immortal human. He received an axe after undertaking a terrible penance to please Shiva, from whom he learned the methods of...

, as its creator (see:Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
The Skanda Purana is the largest Mahapurana, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts. The text is devoted mainly to the lilas of Kartikeya , a son of Shiva and Parvati. It also contains a number of legends about Shiva, and the holy places associated with him...

:Sahyadrikhanda
Sahyadrikhanda
Sahyādrikhaṇḍa or Sahyadri Khand, written in Sanskrit, is claimed as a part of Skandapurāṇa. From the old records it can be seen that Sahyādrikhaṇḍa is a later inclusion in the original Skandapurāṇa...

). He is said to have settled ten sages in this land and performed fire sacrifices. Another legend has that after performing the penance, the seven sages or the Saptarshi
Saptarshi
The Saptarishi are the seven rishis who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and Hindu literature. The Vedic Samhitas never actually enumerate these rishis by name, though later Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so. They are regarded in the Vedas as the patriarchs of the...

s were blessed by lord Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

 therefore known as Saptakoteshwar
Saptakoteshwar
The Saptakotishwar temple at Narve, Goa, India is considered to be one of the six great sites of temples of Lord Shiva in the Konkan area.-History:...

. Further Lord Shiva is believed to have taken up temporary residence after having tiff with his consort Parvati
Parvati
Parvati is a Hindu goddess. Parvati is Shakti, the wife of Shiva and the gentle aspect of Mahadevi, the Great Goddess...

. Yet another legend says that Lord Krishna
Krishna
Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

 defeated Jarasandha
Jarasandha
Jarasandha was a great and legendary king of Magadha. He was the son of a vedic king named Brihadratha. He was also a great devotee of Lord Shiva. But he is generally held in negative light owing to his enmity with the Yadav clan in the Mahābhārata....

 the king of Magadha
Magadha
Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganga; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra...

 on Gomanchal mountain in Goa. (see:Hari Vamsha purana)

In Suta Samhita Govapuri or Goa is associated with spiritually cleansing touch:... The very sight of Govapuri destroys any sin committed in former existence just as sunrise dispels darkness... Certainly there is no other kshetra equal to Govapuri


A similar hymn praising Govapuri city is found in Sahyadrikhanda of Skanda Purana, which says the extent of Goapuri was about seven
Yojana
Yojana
A Yojana is a Vedic measure of distance used in ancient India. The exact measurement is disputed amongst scholars with distances being given between 6 to 15 kilometers ....

s.
According to the Parshurama legend, Parashurama, the sixth reincarnation of lord Vishnu
Vishnu
Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

 faces with an order of banishment from the lands that he had once conquered, sets seven arrows fly from the Sahyadris to push back the sea and create a stretch of land which he could claim for himself. The sea-god is believed to have acceded his to wish and crated a regionShurparaka (literally:winnowing fan). This region is also known as Parashurama Kshetra. The legend further tells us that having created Goa thus, Parashurama brought Brahmins from the North and settled them in this land.(See:Shree Scanda Puran (Sayadri Khandha) -Ed. Dr. Jarson D. Kunha, Marathi version Ed. By Gajanan shastri Gaytonde).

The Parashurama legend personifies the geological process of elevation of submerged land along the west coast, which must have taken place around 12,000 BC. There is evidence to support this theory as indicated by presence of marine fossils
Fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals , plants, and other organisms from the remote past...

, buried seashells and other features of reclaimed topography
Topography
Topography is the study of Earth's surface shape and features or those ofplanets, moons, and asteroids...

 in the coastal belt. The evidence provided by the conch (Shankh) at Surla
Surla
Surla is a village located in Ganjam district of Orissa, India at Andhra-Orissa border on National Highway-5. On one side of Andhra-Orissa border on NH-5, village Purushottamapuram under Ichchapuram municipality limits is located an on other side, village Surla of Ganjam district is located...

 Village, fossilized marine conches discovered in 1863, petrified roots, fossilied branches have been found later in many villages on the foothills of the Sahyadri dating back more than 10,000 BC. Thus the geologists concluded that Goa has risen up from seabed as a result of violent tectonic movements
Tectonics
Tectonics is a field of study within geology concerned generally with the structures within the lithosphere of the Earth and particularly with the forces and movements that have operated in a region to create these structures.Tectonics is concerned with the orogenies and tectonic development of...

. At the decline of the intensity of pluviation
Pluvial
In geology and climatology, a pluvial was an extended period of abundant rainfall lasting many thousands of years. Pluvial is also applied to the sediments of these periods . The term is especially applied to such periods during the Pleistocene Epoch...

in the last Pleistocenic age
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

around 10.000 BC, the bottom of Deccan plateau
Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in India, making up the majority of the southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, rising further to more than a kilometers high in the south, forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of...

 was lifted up and out of sea-waters by the tectonic movements, formed the West-coast of India, Goa being a part thereof.

Etymology


The origin of the city name
Goa is unclear, it may have originated from Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 or from Vikings (see month of Góa in the Old Norse Calendar and Góa in Orkneyinga Saga). In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names such as
Gomanta
Gomanta Kingdom
Gomanta was a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. It was an extension of the kingdom of Yadavas at Dwaraka. It is identified to be the Goa state of India, situated in the western coast...

, Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak. The Indian epic Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

refers to the area now known as Goa, as Goparashtra or Govarashtra which means a nation of cowherds. Gopakapuri or Gopakapattanam were used in some ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 texts, and these names were also mentioned in other sacred Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 texts such as the
Harivansa
Harivansa
Harivansa, a chapel in Old Goa, is an example of Portuguese architecture from the Portuguese colonisers. It was mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts and other sacred Hindu texts, such as 'Gopakapuri' or 'Gapakapattana' ....

and the Skanda Purana
Skanda Purana
The Skanda Purana is the largest Mahapurana, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts. The text is devoted mainly to the lilas of Kartikeya , a son of Shiva and Parvati. It also contains a number of legends about Shiva, and the holy places associated with him...

. In the latter, Goa is also known as Gomanchala. Parashurambhoomi is a name that the region is referred to in certain inscriptions and texts such as the Puranas. In the third century BCE, Goa was known as Aparantha, and is mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy , was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in Egypt under Roman rule, and is believed to have been born in the town of Ptolemais Hermiou in the...

. The Greeks referred to Goa as
Nelkinda in the 13th century. Some other historical names for Goa are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.

History


Goa's history stretches back to 8000-6000 BC. Early Paleolithic
Paleolithic
The Paleolithic Age, Era or Period, is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered , and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory...

 and Mesolithic
Mesolithic
The Mesolithic is an archaeological concept used to refer to certain groups of archaeological cultures defined as falling between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic....

 rock art
Rock art
Rock art is a term used in archaeology for any human-made markings made on natural stone. They can be divided into:*Petroglyphs - carvings into stone surfaces*Pictographs - rock and cave paintings...

 engravings have been found on the bank of river Kushavati
Kushavati
*Kushavati was a city in Kosala Kingdom as per epic Ramayana. The king of Kosala Raghava Rama installed his son Lava at Sravasti and Kusha at Kushavati. The city is identified to be Kushinagar a town near Gorakhpur....

 at
Usgalimal. Petroglyphs, cones, stone-axe, and choppers dating back 10,000 years back have been found in many places in Goa like Kazur, Mauxim, and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. Palaeolithic cave existence is seen at Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and Aquem-Margaon etc. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses problems in determination of exact time period. These discoveries have shed light on Goa's prehistory.

The Sumerians inhabited Goa around 2200 BC which was followed by several waves of Indo-Aryan people and the Dravidians from the Deccan. The early Goan society underwent radical changes when aboriginal locals and the migrants amalgamated, forming the base of early Goan culture.

In 3rd century BC, it formed part of the Mauryan Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 of Magadha
Magadha
Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas or kingdoms in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganga; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra...

. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 in Goa. Between the 2nd century BCE and the 6th century CE, Goa was ruled by the Chutu
Chutu
The Chutu kingdom was located in the Deccan region of South India in the 3d and 4th centuries AD. Its capital was in Banavasi and it was ruled by a feudatory dynasty of the Satavahanas...

s of Karwar
Karwar
Karwar is the administrative headquarters of Uttara Kannada district in Karnataka, India. It is a seaside town situated on the banks of the Kali river which is on the west coast of the Indian peninsula. The town lies about 15 kilometres south of the Karnataka–Goa border and 519 km north-west...

 as feudatories of the Satavahana
Satavahana
The Sātavāhana Empire or Andhra Empire, was a royal Indian dynasty based from Dharanikota and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh as well as Junnar and Prathisthan in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward...

s of Kolhapur (2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE), Western Kshatrapas
Western Kshatrapas
The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India...

 (around 150 CE), the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra is a state located in India. It is the second most populous after Uttar Pradesh and third largest state by area in India...

, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuri
Kalachuri
Kalachuri Empire is this the name used by two kingdoms who had a succession of dynasties from the 10th-12th centuries, one ruling over areas in Central India and were called Chedi or Haihaya and the other southern Kalachuri who ruled over parts of Karnataka...

s. The rule later passed on to the Chalukyas of Badami
Badami
Badami , formerly known as Vatapi, is a town and headquarters of a taluk by the same name, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India. It was the regal capital of the Badami Chalukyas from 540 to 757 AD. It is famous for rock cut and other structural temples...

, who controlled it between 578 to 753, and later the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
The Rashtrakuta Empire was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related, but individual clans. Rastrakutas in inscriptions represented as descendants of Satyaki, a Yadava well known...

s of Malkhed from 753 to 963. However from 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

 ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 in Goa.

In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

. However, the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 they were forced to surrender it to Harihara I
Harihara I
Harihara I , also called Hakka ಹಕ್ಕ and Vira Harihara I, was the founder of the Vijayanagara empire. He was Bhavana Sangama’s eldest son, belonged to the Kuruba clan and was founder of the Sangama dynasty, the first among the four dynasties that ruled Vijayanagara...

 of the Vijayanagara empire
Vijayanagara Empire
The Vijayanagara Empire , referred as the Kingdom of Bisnaga by the Portuguese, was an empire based in South Indian in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts...

. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans
Bahmani Sultanate
The Bahmani Sultanate was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms...

 of Gulbarga
Gulbarga
Gulbarga is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is the administrative headquarters of Gulbarga District. It was formerly part of Nizam's Hyderabad state...

. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell to the hands of the Adil Shahi
Adil Shahi
The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi dynasty ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1490 to 1686. Bijapur had been a province of the Bahmani Sultanate , before its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518...

s of Bijapur who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

 as Velha Goa.


In 1510, the Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 defeated the ruling Bijapur kings with the help of a local ally, Timayya, leading to the establishment of a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa).

In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century the area under occupation had expanded to most of Goa's present day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da India Portuguesa
Portuguese India
The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

, of which Goa was the largest territory.

After India gained independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to negotiate with India on the transfer of sovereignty of their Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army
Indian Army
The Indian Army is the land based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces. With about 1,100,000 soldiers in active service and about 1,150,000 reserve troops, the Indian Army is the world's largest standing volunteer army...

 commenced with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, Daman and Diu into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu was made into a centrally administered Union Territory
Union Territory
A Union Territory is a sub-national administrative division of India, in the federal framework of governance. Unlike the states of India, which have their own elected governments, union territories are ruled directly by the federal government; the President of India appoints an Administrator or...

 of India. On 30 May 1987, the Union Territory was split, and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining Union Territories.

Geography



Goa encompasses an area of 3702 km² (1,429.4 sq mi). It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Most of Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan
Konkan
The Konkan also called the Konkan Coast or Karavali is a rugged section of the western coastline of India from Raigad to Mangalore...

, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
The Western Ghats, Western Ghauts or the Sahyādri is a mountain range along the western side of India. It runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan...

 range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in India, making up the majority of the southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, rising further to more than a kilometers high in the south, forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of...

. The highest point is the Sonsogor
Sonsogor
Sonsogor is the highest peak in the state of Goa, India, at an altitude of aboove sea level. It is located in the taluk of Sanguem. It is also called Sonsogodd, Darsingha or Darsinga. the Western Ghat mountain range....

, with an altitude of 1,167 meters (3,827 feet). Goa has a coastline of 101 km (62.8 mi).

Goa's main rivers are the Mandovi, the Zuari
Zuari River
The Zuari River is the largest river in the state of Goa, India. It is a tidal river with a total length of 34 kilometres. The Zuari originates at Hemad-Barshem in the Western Ghats. The Zuari is also referred to as the Aghanashani in the interior regions...

, the Terekhol
Terekhol River
The Terekhol River is a river in western India. In its upper reaches it is known as the Banda River and in the lower reaches as the Terekhol. It forms the boundary between Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra state and North Goa district of Goa state for some distrance...

, Chapora River
Chapora River
The Chapora Fort occupies an important position which, in every direction commanded distant approaches. Rising above the wide Chapora River, long before the Portuguese arrived in Goa, was a fort in place of the present one built. Even after the Portuguese acquired Bardez, the fort changed hands...

 and the Sal
Sal River (India)
Sal River is a river in South Goa, India. The river opens near Cavelossim. Villagers here have been fighting to save the river from dredging.It passes through Margao, Navelim,Dramapur, Chinchinim, Assolna and drains itself into the Arabian Sea at Betul, Goa....

. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of its geographic area. These rivers are some of the busiest rivers in India. Goa has more than forty estuarine, eight marine and about ninety riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157.2 mi). Goa has more than three hundred ancient tanks
Irrigation tank
For etymology, see Storage tank#Etymology.In India, an irrigation tank or tank is an artificial reservoir of any size. . It can also have a natural or man-made spring included as part of a structure...

 built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over a hundred medicinal springs.

Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterite
Laterite
Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock...

s which are rich in ferric
Ferric
Ferric refers to iron-containing materials or compounds. In chemistry the term is reserved for iron with an oxidation number of +3, also denoted iron or Fe3+. On the other hand, ferrous refers to iron with oxidation number of +2, denoted iron or Fe2+...

 aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

 oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loam
Loam
Loam is soil composed of sand, silt, and clay in relatively even concentration . Loam soils generally contain more nutrients and humus than sandy soils, have better infiltration and drainage than silty soils, and are easier to till than clay soils...

y. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to plantation. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

 are found in Goa between Molem
Molem
Mollem in Konkani, is a small village in Goa, South India on National Highway 4 near the border with Karnataka in the foothills of the Sahyadri Mountain range at the beginning of Anmod Ghat...

 and Anmod
Anmod
Anmod is a town at the Goa-Karnataka border.Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka...

 on Goa's border with Karnataka. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss
Gneiss
Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.-Etymology:...

 estimated to be 3,600 million years old, dated by the Rubidium
Rubidium
Rubidium is a chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group. Its atomic mass is 85.4678. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other elements in group 1, such as very rapid...

 isotope dating
Radiometric dating
Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks, usually based on a comparison between the observed abundance of a naturally occurring radioactive isotope and its decay products, using known decay rates...

 method. A specimen of the rock is exhibited in the Goa University
Goa University
Goa University was established in 1985 and merged with the Centre for Post Graduate Instruction and Research of the University of Bombay that functioned at state-capital Panaji or Panjim. Goa University offers both graduate and post-graduate studies and research programmes...

.

Climate


Goa features a tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climate
Tropical monsoon climate, occasionally also known as a tropical wet climate or tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate in climate classification, is a relatively rare type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am."Tropical monsoon climates have monthly...

 under the Koppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui in northeastern Somalia and Kanyakumari in India...

, has a hot and humid
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

 climate for most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35 °C (95 °F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 rains arrive by early June and provide a much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goa's annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.

Goa has a short winter season between mid-December and February. These months are marked by nights of around 21 °C (68 °F) and days of around 28 °C (84 °F) with moderate amounts of humidity. Further inland, due to altitudinal gradation, the nights are a few degrees cooler.
During March 2008 Goa was lashed with heavy rain and strong winds. This was the first time in 29 years that Goa had seen rain during March.

Subdivisions



The state is divided into two districts: North Goa
North Goa
North Goa is one of the two districts that make up the state of Goa, India. The district has an area of 1736 km², and is bounded by Sindhudurg and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra state to the north and east respectively, by South Goa District to the south, and by the Arabian Sea to the...

 and South Goa
South Goa
South Goa is one of the two districts that comprise the state of Goa, India. The district has an area of 1,966 km² and a population of 586,591...

. Each district is governed by a district collector
District collector
The District Collector is the district head of administration of the bureaucracy in a state of India. Though he/she is appointed and is under general supervision of the state government, he/she has to be a member of the elite IAS recruited by the Central Government...

, an administrator appointed by the Indian government.

North Goa
North Goa
North Goa is one of the two districts that make up the state of Goa, India. The district has an area of 1736 km², and is bounded by Sindhudurg and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra state to the north and east respectively, by South Goa District to the south, and by the Arabian Sea to the...

 District:

Panaji is the headquarters of the North Goa district.

The North Goa District is further divided into four subdivisions - Mapusa
Mapusa
Mapusa also spelt at Mapuca, Mhapsa or Mapsa is a town in North Goa, India. It is situated 13 km north of the capital Panaji. The town is the headquarters of Bardez Taluka. It is located on the main highway NH-17, linking Mumbai to Trivandrum...

, Bicholim
Bicholim
Bicholim is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the state of Goa, India. It is a town in the territory of Goa, and the headquarters of the concelho of the same name; the Concelho of Bicholim, located in the north-east quarter is one of the seven that make up the Novas...

, Panaji, and Ponda
Ponda, India
Ponda is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is located in the central part of Goa. Ponda lies about 29 km south-east of Panaji and 18 km north-east of Margao and is also the capital of Ponda taluk. Ponda is well connected by road to the...

; and six taluks, Pernem
Pernem
Pernem is a northmost administrative region or Taluka in North Goa. It is also the name of the town of Pernem, which is its headquarters. It has a Municipal Council...

, Bardez
Bardez
Bardez is the name of a region and taluka in North Goa. The name is credited to the Brahmin immigrants who migrated to the Konkan via Magadha in Gangetic India from Aryavarta, in the north-western part of the Indian sub-continent. Bardez or more properly Bara desh means "twelve countries"...

 (Mapusa
Mapusa
Mapusa also spelt at Mapuca, Mhapsa or Mapsa is a town in North Goa, India. It is situated 13 km north of the capital Panaji. The town is the headquarters of Bardez Taluka. It is located on the main highway NH-17, linking Mumbai to Trivandrum...

), Bicholim
Bicholim
Bicholim is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the state of Goa, India. It is a town in the territory of Goa, and the headquarters of the concelho of the same name; the Concelho of Bicholim, located in the north-east quarter is one of the seven that make up the Novas...

, Sattari
Sattari
Sattari is a taluka on North East side of Goa known for its greenary and dense forest. Its headquarters is Valpoi . It is the 'Fenny capital' of Goa. The Western Ghats form the eastern part of the Sattari Taluka. The Mhadei River is considered to be the lifeline of Sattari. It has a...

 (Valpoy
Valpoi
Valpoi or Valpoy is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is the headquarters of the Sattari Taluk. The Western Ghats are to the east of the town.- Demographics :...

), Tiswadi
Tiswadi
Tiswadi is a taluka of North Goa district of the state of Goa, India.The word Tiswadi itself means thirty settlements. It refers to the thirty settlements in which the Goud Saraswat Brahmins settled when they migrated to Goa. It is geographically an Island with the Mandovi river forming its...

 (Panaji) and Ponda
Ponda taluk
Ponda taluk is a comunidade of Goa, India. Ponda taluk is part of North-Goa district. Ponda taluk is almost in middle of Goa state. Ponda taluk hosts many educational institutes and industries . The Belagavi - Panaji Highway passes through this taluka.-External links:**...

.

South Goa
South Goa
South Goa is one of the two districts that comprise the state of Goa, India. The district has an area of 1,966 km² and a population of 586,591...

 District:

Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

 is the headquarters of the South Goa district.

The South Goa District is further divided into three subdivisions - Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

, Mormugao
Mormugao
Mormugao or Marmagao is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is Goa’s main port. It was featured in the 1980 film The Sea Wolves and the Bollywood film Bhootnath....

 (Vasco), and Quepem
Quepem
Quepem is a town and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa.The town is the administrative capital for the Quepem district. Curchorem and Sanvordem are the a major towns located in the Quepem District.-Geography:...

; and six taluks, Mormugao
Mormugao
Mormugao or Marmagao is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is Goa’s main port. It was featured in the 1980 film The Sea Wolves and the Bollywood film Bhootnath....

, Salcete (Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

), Quepem
Quepem
Quepem is a town and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa.The town is the administrative capital for the Quepem district. Curchorem and Sanvordem are the a major towns located in the Quepem District.-Geography:...

, Canacona
Canacona
Canacona is an administrative region in south Goa, in India.Canacona is one of the five talukas that constitute the South Goa district. It is bounded on the north by the taluka of Quepem, on the northeast by Sanguem, on the south by the state of Karnataka, and on the west by the Arabian Sea...

 (Chaudi
Chaudi
Chaudi is a town in the South Goa District and is approximately two km from Kankon....

), Sanguem
Sanguem
Sanguem is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa.Notable landmarks include the Sagameshwar Temple, Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park and the Salaulim Dam.-Geography:...

, and Dharbandora.

Municipal Corporation & Municipal Councils


Goa's major cities include Ponda, Mapusa
Mapusa
Mapusa also spelt at Mapuca, Mhapsa or Mapsa is a town in North Goa, India. It is situated 13 km north of the capital Panaji. The town is the headquarters of Bardez Taluka. It is located on the main highway NH-17, linking Mumbai to Trivandrum...

, Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

, Mormugao
Mormugao
Mormugao or Marmagao is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is Goa’s main port. It was featured in the 1980 film The Sea Wolves and the Bollywood film Bhootnath....

, Vasco and Panaji. The region connecting the last four cities is considered a de facto conurbation
Conurbation
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area...

, or a more or less continuous urban area.

Municipal Corporation (1): Panaji

Municipal Councils (13): Pernem
Pernem
Pernem is a northmost administrative region or Taluka in North Goa. It is also the name of the town of Pernem, which is its headquarters. It has a Municipal Council...

, Mapusa
Mapusa
Mapusa also spelt at Mapuca, Mhapsa or Mapsa is a town in North Goa, India. It is situated 13 km north of the capital Panaji. The town is the headquarters of Bardez Taluka. It is located on the main highway NH-17, linking Mumbai to Trivandrum...

, Bicholim
Bicholim
Bicholim is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the state of Goa, India. It is a town in the territory of Goa, and the headquarters of the concelho of the same name; the Concelho of Bicholim, located in the north-east quarter is one of the seven that make up the Novas...

, Sanquelim, Valpai
Valpoi
Valpoi or Valpoy is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is the headquarters of the Sattari Taluk. The Western Ghats are to the east of the town.- Demographics :...

, Ponda
Ponda, India
Ponda is a city and a municipal council in North Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is located in the central part of Goa. Ponda lies about 29 km south-east of Panaji and 18 km north-east of Margao and is also the capital of Ponda taluk. Ponda is well connected by road to the...

, Mormugao
Mormugao
Mormugao or Marmagao is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is Goa’s main port. It was featured in the 1980 film The Sea Wolves and the Bollywood film Bhootnath....

 (including Vasco), Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

, Cuncolim
Cuncolim
Cuncolim is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the state of Goa, India.-Etymology:The name Cuncolim is derived from the fact that the village was known as Kumkumahalli .-Geography:Cuncolim is located at...

, Quepem
Quepem
Quepem is a town and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa.The town is the administrative capital for the Quepem district. Curchorem and Sanvordem are the a major towns located in the Quepem District.-Geography:...

, Curchorem
Curchorem
Curchorem is a city and a municipal council in the South Goa District in India, and is part of the Quepem Taluka, in the State of Goa. Curchorem and Sanvordem are twin towns on either side on the Zuari river...

-Cacora, Sanguem
Sanguem
Sanguem is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa.Notable landmarks include the Sagameshwar Temple, Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park and the Salaulim Dam.-Geography:...

, (Canacona
Canacona
Canacona is an administrative region in south Goa, in India.Canacona is one of the five talukas that constitute the South Goa district. It is bounded on the north by the taluka of Quepem, on the northeast by Sanguem, on the south by the state of Karnataka, and on the west by the Arabian Sea...

)

Flora and fauna


Equatorial forest cover in Goa stands at 1424 km² (549.81 sq mi), most of which is owned by the government. Government owned forest is estimated at 1224.38 km² (472.74 sq mi) whilst private is given as 200 km² (77.22 sq mi). Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of the state. The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
The Western Ghats, Western Ghauts or the Sahyādri is a mountain range along the western side of India. It runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats block rainfall to the Deccan...

, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue of National Geographic Magazine
National Geographic Magazine
National Geographic, formerly the National Geographic Magazine, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. It published its first issue in 1888, just nine months after the Society itself was founded...

, Goa was compared with the Amazon
Amazon Basin
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries that drains an area of about , or roughly 40 percent of South America. The basin is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela...

 and Congo
Congo Basin
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin that is the drainage of the Congo River of west equatorial Africa. The basin begins in the highlands of the East African Rift system with input from the Chambeshi River, the Uele and Ubangi Rivers in the upper reaches and the Lualaba River draining wetlands...

 basins for its rich tropical biodiversity.

Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles.

Rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

 is the main food crop with pulses, ragi
Finger millet
Eleusine coracana, commonly Finger millet , also known as African millet or Ragi is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal in the arid areas of Africa and Asia. E...

 and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut
Coconut
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae . It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word...

s, cashewnuts, arecanuts, sugarcane
Sugarcane
Sugarcane refers to any of six to 37 species of tall perennial grasses of the genus Saccharum . Native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six metres tall...

 and fruits like pineapple
Pineapple
Pineapple is the common name for a tropical plant and its edible fruit, which is actually a multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries. It was given the name pineapple due to its resemblance to a pine cone. The pineapple is by far the most economically important plant in the Bromeliaceae...

s, mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

s and banana
Banana
Banana is the common name for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors when ripe, including yellow, purple, and red....

s. The State has a rich forest cover of more than 1,424 km². Goa's state animal is the Gaur
Gaur
The gaur , also called Indian bison, is a large bovine native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. The species is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1986 as the population decline in parts of the species' range is likely to be well over 70% over the last three generations...

, the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul, which is a variation of Black-crested Bulbul
Black-crested Bulbul
The Black-crested Bulbul, Pycnonotus melanicterus, is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is found in the Indian Subcontinent including in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka, and eastwards in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia....

, and the state tree is the Asan.
The important forests products are bamboo
Bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

 canes, Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

 barks, chillar barks and the bhirand. Coconut trees are ubiquitous and are present in almost all areas of Goa barring the elevated regions. A large number of deciduous
Deciduous
Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe...

 vegetation consisting of teak
Teak
Teak is the common name for the tropical hardwood tree species Tectona grandis and its wood products. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia, mainly India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Burma, but is naturalized and cultivated in many countries, including those in Africa and the...

, sal, cashew
Cashew
The cashew is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew nuts and cashew apples.-Etymology:The...

 and mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

 trees are present. Fruits include jackfruit
Jackfruit
The jackfruit is a species of tree in the Artocarpus genus of the mulberry family . It is native to parts of Southern and Southeast Asia. It is the national fruit of Bangladesh, . The jackfruit tree is believed to be indigenous to the southwestern rain forests of India...

s, mango
Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to India from where it spread all over the world. It is also the most cultivated fruit of the tropical world. While...

s, pineapple
Pineapple
Pineapple is the common name for a tropical plant and its edible fruit, which is actually a multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries. It was given the name pineapple due to its resemblance to a pine cone. The pineapple is by far the most economically important plant in the Bromeliaceae...

s and 'black-berry' ('podkoam' in konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

). Goa's forests are rich with medicinal plants.

Fox
Fox
Fox is a common name for many species of omnivorous mammals belonging to the Canidae family. Foxes are small to medium-sized canids , characterized by possessing a long narrow snout, and a bushy tail .Members of about 37 species are referred to as foxes, of which only 12 species actually belong to...

es, wild boars and migrating
Bird migration
Bird migration is the regular seasonal journey undertaken by many species of birds. Bird movements include those made in response to changes in food availability, habitat or weather. Sometimes, journeys are not termed "true migration" because they are irregular or in only one direction...

 birds are found in the jungles of Goa. The avifauna
Bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

 includes kingfisher
Kingfisher
Kingfishers are a group of small to medium sized brightly coloured birds in the order Coraciiformes. They have a cosmopolitan distribution, with most species being found in the Old World and Australia...

s, myna
Myna
The myna is a bird of the starling family . This is a group of passerine birds which occur naturally only in southern and eastern Asia...

s and parrot
Parrot
Parrots, also known as psittacines , are birds of the roughly 372 species in 86 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three families: the Psittacidae , the Cacatuidae and the Strigopidae...

s. Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. Crab
Crab
True crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" , or where the reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax...

s, lobster
Lobster
Clawed lobsters comprise a family of large marine crustaceans. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate.Though several groups of crustaceans are known as lobsters, the clawed lobsters are most...

s, shrimps, jellyfish
Jellyfish
Jellyfish are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and refers to any free-swimming jellyfish stages in the phylum Cnidaria...

, oysters and catfish
Catfish
Catfishes are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the heaviest and longest, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia and the second longest, the wels catfish of Eurasia, to detritivores...

 form some of the piscine catch. Goa also has a high snake
Snake
Snakes are elongate, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids and external ears. Like all squamates, snakes are ectothermic, amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales...

 population, which keeps the rodent
Rodent
Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing....

 population under control. Goa has many famous National Parks, including the renowned Salim Ali
Salim Ali
Sálim Moizuddin Abdul Ali was an Indian ornithologist and naturalist. Known as the "birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the first Indians to conduct systematic bird surveys across India and his bird books helped develop ornithology...

 bird sanctuary. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary
Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary
Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Northeastern Goa, India in the Ponda taluka of the state. The total area of the park is 8km2. It is a popular destination for both tourists and schoolchildren...

, Molem Wildlife Sanctuary, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
The Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Canacona taluka of Goa, in India . Founded in 1968, this is the southernmost sanctuary in Goa...

, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary
Madei Wildlife Sanctuary
Mahadeyi Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Sattari takula of Goa, in India. The size of this area is about 208 km². This sanctuary covers much of the north-eastern portions of Goa and is connected to the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary. Together the two wildlife areas have a total area of 420 km²....

, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Eastern Goa, India. It is connected to The Madei Wildlife Sanctuary. Together the two parks have a total area of 420 km² of which Netravali is 211 km². One can find many animals here including the black panther, the slender loris and giant...

, Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and the Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
The Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary located on western tip of the Island of Chorao along the river Mandovi, Goa, in India. The size of the sanctuary is 1.78 km²...

 located on the island of Chorao
Chorao
Chorao is an island along the river Mandovi near Panaji, Goa, India.The island was historically called Chudamani, meaning stunning precious stone in Sanskrit. Local legends tell of the islands emerging from diamonds that were thrown away by Yashoda the mother of Lord Krishna. The Islanders call...

.

Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224.38 km²) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew, mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56.6% of the geographic area.

Economy

Gross State Domestic Product (in millions of Rupees
Indian rupee
The Indian rupee is the official currency of the Republic of India. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India....

)
Year GSDP
1980 3,980
1985 6,550
1990 12,570
1995 33,190
2000 76,980



Goa's gross state domestic product
State Domestic Product
State Domestic Product, or SDP, is the total value of goods and services produced during any financial year within the geographical boundaries of a province or state. Also called the state income, SDP is always calculated or estimated in monetary terms, and is instrumental in the evaluation of per...

 for 2007 is estimated at $3 billion in current prices. Goa is one of India's richest states with the highest GDP per capita — two and a half times that of the country as a whole — and one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000).
Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it handles 12% of all foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate. In the summer time (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across India come to spend the holidays.

The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores and mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 forms the second largest industry. Mining in Goa focuses on ores of iron, Bauxite
Bauxite
Bauxite is an aluminium ore and is the main source of aluminium. This form of rock consists mostly of the minerals gibbsite Al3, boehmite γ-AlO, and diaspore α-AlO, in a mixture with the two iron oxides goethite and hematite, the clay mineral kaolinite, and small amounts of anatase TiO2...

, manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

, clays, limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 and silica. The Marmagao Port handled 31.69 million tonnes of cargo last year, and accounts for over 39% of India's Iron Ore exports. The leaders in the Goan Iron Ore industry include Sesa Goa
Sesa Goa
Sesa Goa is India's largest producer and exporter of iron ore in the private sector. For over five decades it has been engaged in the business of exploration, mining and processing of iron ore. In fiscal 2010, it produced 21.4 million tonnes and sold 20.5 million tonnes of iron ore...

 (now owned by Vedanta Resources
Vedanta Resources
Vedanta Resources plc is a global mining and metals company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the largest mining and non-ferrous metals company in India and also has mining operations in Australia and Zambia. Its main products are copper, zinc, aluminium, lead and iron ore...

) and Dempo.
Rampant mining in areas rich in Iron Ore and other minerals is now threatening the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Mining corporations are also indulging in illegal mining in some areas without proper permits.
Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizable portion of the populace. Rice
Rice
Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima . As a cereal grain, it is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and the West Indies...

 is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca
Areca
Areca is a genus of about 50 species of single-stemmed palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from Malaysia to the Solomon Islands. The generic name Areca is derived from a name used locally on the Malabar Coast of India....

, cashew
Cashew
The cashew is a tree in the family Anacardiaceae. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, caju, which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, acajú. It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew nuts and cashew apples.-Etymology:The...

 and coconut
Coconut
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae . It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word...

. The fishing industry provides employment for about forty thousand people, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, perhaps coupled with the fact that traditional fishing has given way to large-scale mechanised trawling.

Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticide
Pesticide
Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.A pesticide may be a chemical unicycle, biological agent , antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest...

s, fertilisers, tyres
Tire
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground...

, tubes, footwear
Footwear
Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet, for fashion, protection against the environment, and adornment. Being barefoot is commonly associated with poverty, but some cultures chose not to wear footwear at least in some situations....

, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery
Brewery
A brewery is a dedicated building for the making of beer, though beer can be made at home, and has been for much of beer's history. A company which makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company....

 products.

The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones
Special Economic Zone
A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

 (SEZs) in Goa. This is in stark contrast to policy followed by other states of India. SEZs are known to bring tax revenues for the government and employment option for local citizens since industries flock there for lower tax rates as compared to other areas. Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. This decision was taken by state government after strong opposition to SEZs by political parties and Goa Catholic Church.

Goa is also notable for its low beer, wine and spirits prices due to its very low excise duty
Excise
Excise tax in the United States is a indirect tax on listed items. Excise taxes can be and are made by federal, state and local governments and are far from uniform throughout the United States...

 on alcohol
Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is an organic compound in which the hydroxy functional group is bound to a carbon atom. In particular, this carbon center should be saturated, having single bonds to three other atoms....

. Another source of cash inflow into the state comes from many of its citizens who work abroad and remit money to their families.

Transport



  • Air

Goa's sole airport, the Dabolim Airport
Dabolim Airport
Dabolim Airport is located in the village of Dabolim in Goa, India. It is the only airport in the state and operates as a civil enclave in a military airbase named INS Hansa.-History :...

, is both a military and civilian airport catering to domestic and international airlines that stop en route to other Indian destinations. The airport also handles a large number of chartered flights. Goa receives international flights from Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

, Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

, Sharjah
Sharjah (city)
Sharjah is the third largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. It is located along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula.Sharjah is the seat of government of the emirate of Sharjah...

 and Kuwait
Kuwait
The State of Kuwait is a sovereign Arab state situated in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south at Khafji, and Iraq to the north at Basra. It lies on the north-western shore of the Persian Gulf. The name Kuwait is derived from the...

 in the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 and from Britain
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 during the charter flight tourist season. Dabolim Airport is serviced by the following carriers – Air Arabia
Air Arabia
Air Arabia is a low-cost airline with its head office in the Sharjah Freight Center, Sharjah International Airport, in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates....

, Indian Airlines
Indian (airline)
Indian , formerly Indian Airlines was a major Indian airline based in Delhi and focused primarily on domestic routes, along with several international services to neighbouring countries in Asia. It was state-owned, and was administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. It was one of the two flag...

, Kingfisher Airlines
Kingfisher Airlines
Kingfisher Airlines is an airline group based in India. Its head office is Kingfisher House in Vile Parle , Mumbai. Kingfisher Airlines, through its parent company United Breweries Group, has a 50% stake in low-cost carrier Kingfisher Red....

, Go Air, SpiceJet
SpiceJet
SpiceJet is a low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, India. It began service in May 2005 and by 2008, it was India's second-largest low-cost airline in terms of market share. SpiceJet was voted as the best low-cost airline in South Asia and Central Asia region by Skytrax in...

, Jet Airways
Jet Airways
Jet Airways is a major Indian airline based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is India's largest airline and the market leader in the domestic sector. It operates over 400 flights daily to 76 destinations worldwide. Its main hub is Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, with secondary hubs at Delhi,...

, Qatar Airways
Qatar Airways
Qatar Airways Company Q.C.S.C. , operating as Qatar Airways, is the flag carrier of Qatar. Headquartered in the Qatar Airways Tower in Doha, it operates a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 100 international destinations from its base in Doha, using a fleet of over 100 aircraft...

, besides charter flights from the UK, Netherlands, Russia, Germany operated by Thomas Cook
Thomas Cook
Thomas Cook of Melbourne, Derbyshire, England founded the travel agency that is now Thomas Cook Group.- Early days :...

, Condor, Arkefly
Arkefly
ArkeFly is a Dutch charter airline headquartered in Schiphol-Rijk on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. It is the charter carrier of the Dutch arm of the German travel conglomerate TUI and its main base is Schiphol Airport...

, Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines
Monarch Airlines, often shortened to and trading as Monarch, is a British charter and scheduled airline based at London Luton Airport in Luton. It is one of the United Kingdom's largest charter airlines, operating to Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, India and Africa, serving mainly leisure...

 etc. Another international airport at Mopa is proposed.
  • Road

Goa's public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation
Kadamba Transport Corporation
Kadamba Transport Corporation is a Government of Goa road transport undertaking. It was set up in 1980 by the Congress government, then headed by Pratapsing Rane. Goa has long dependent on privatised bus-transport, and the blue-and-red-and-white Kadamba buses are an exception to this rule...

, links both major routes (like the Panjim–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state. In large towns such as Panjim and Margao, intra-city buses ply. However, public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transport, usually motorised two-wheelers. Goa has two National Highways passing through it. NH-17 runs along India's west coast and links Goa to Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 in the north and Mangalore
Mangalore
Mangalore is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about west of the state capital, Bangalore. Mangalore lies between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges, and is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district in south western...

 to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the capital Panjim to Belgaum
Belgaum
Belgaum is a city and a municipal corporation in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka, India. It is the fourth largest city of the state of Karnataka, the first three being Bangalore, Mysore, Hubli-Dharwad....

 in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan. The NH-17A connects NH-17 to Mormugao
Mormugao
Mormugao or Marmagao is a city and a municipal council in South Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. It is Goa’s main port. It was featured in the 1980 film The Sea Wolves and the Bollywood film Bhootnath....

 Harbour from Cortalim, and the new NH-17B, is a four lane highway connecting Mormugao Harbour to NH-17 at another location, Verna, via Dabolim airport. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of National highway, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 km of district highway.
Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis, and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws. A unique form of transport in Goa is the Motorcycle taxi
Motorcycle taxi
A motorcycle taxi is a licensed form of transport in some countries. Typically, they will carry one passenger , who rides as the pillion, behind the motorcycle operator.-Cambodia:...

, operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots". These vehicles transport a single pillion rider
Pillion
A pillion is a mostly British English term for a secondary pad, cushion, or seat behind the main seat or saddle on a horse, motorcycle, bicycle or moped...

, at fares that are usually negotiated. River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry boats
Ferry
A ferry is a form of transportation, usually a boat, but sometimes a ship, used to carry primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services...

, operated by the river navigation departments.
  • Rail

Goa has two rail lines
Rail transport
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks they run on...

—one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway
Konkan Railway
The Konkan Railway is a railway line which runs along the Konkan coast of India. It was constructed and is operated by the Konkan Railway Corporation...

. The line run by the South Western Railway
South Western Railway
The South Western Railway is one of the 16 railway zones in India. It is headquartered at Hubli and comprises Bangalore, Mysore divisions of the erstwhile Southern Railway and the reorganized Hubli division of the erstwhile South Central Railway which includes Hospet and Bellary. The division...

 was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa
Vasco da Gama, Goa
Vasco da Gama is the largest city in the state of Goa on the west coast of India. It is named after the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama. Vasco has Goa's largest population, estimated at over 100,000. It is also the headquarters of the Mormugao taluka...

 with Belgaum
Belgaum
Belgaum is a city and a municipal corporation in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka, India. It is the fourth largest city of the state of Karnataka, the first three being Bangalore, Mysore, Hubli-Dharwad....

, Hubli, Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...

 via Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

. The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.
  • Sea

The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. Panjim, which is situated on the banks of the Mandovi, also has a minor port, which used to handle passenger steamers
Steamboat
A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels...

 between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.

Demographics


A native of Goa is called a Goan
Goans
Goan is the demonym used to describe the people of the Indian state of Goa who form an ethno-linguistic group which is a result of assimilation of Indo-Portuguese, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Proto-Australoid, Indo-Scythian, Indo-Greeks and Indo-Iranians ethnic and/or linguistic ancestries.They speak...

 in English, Goenkar (गोंयकार) in Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

,
Govekar (गोवेकर ) in Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

. Goa has a population of 1.344 million residents, making it India's fourth smallest (after Sikkim
Sikkim
Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayan mountains...

, Mizoram
Mizoram
Mizoram is one of the Seven Sister States in North Eastern India, sharing borders with the states of Tripura, Assam, Manipur and with the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Burma. Mizoram became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. Its capital is Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the...

 and Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh is a state of India, located in the far northeast. It borders the states of Assam and Nagaland to the south, and shares international borders with Burma in the east, Bhutan in the west, and the People's Republic of China in the north. The majority of the territory is claimed by...

). The population has a growth rate of 14.9% per decade. There are 363 people for each square kilometre of the land. Goa is the State with highest proportion of Urban Population with 49.76% of the population living in urban areas. The literacy rate of Goa is over 87%. The sex ratio
Sex ratio
Sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. The primary sex ratio is the ratio at the time of conception, secondary sex ratio is the ratio at time of birth, and tertiary sex ratio is the ratio of mature organisms....

 is 968 females to 1000 males. The birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007. Goa also is the State with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes at 0.04% in India.

According to the 2001 census out of a total population of 1,343,998. 886,551 (60%) were Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s, 359,568 (20%) were Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

s, 92,210 (10%) were Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s, 970 (2.5%) were Sikh
Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s, 649 (2.5%) were Buddhists
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, 820 (2.5%) were Jains
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

 and 3530 (2.5%) belonged to other religious communities.


Languages


The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

 in the Devanagari
Devanagari
Devanagari |deva]]" and "nāgarī" ), also called Nagari , is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal...

 script the sole official language of Goa, but provides that Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". The Portuguese language
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

 was used extensively as an administrative language during the colonial era but today is only spoken by the upper strata of society. The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Whilst there have been demands for according Marathi and Konkani in the Roman script
Konkani in the Roman script
Konkani is a language that is spoken by 3.6 million speakers mostly on the western coast of the Indian states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala. Konkani is written in five scripts – Devanagari, Roman, Kannada, Malayalam and Perso-Arabic. Of these, the Roman script has the oldest preserved ...

 co-equal status in the state, , Konkani remained the sole official language.

Konkani is spoken as a native language by about 60% of the people in the state. Other linguistic minorities in the state as of 1991 are Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

 (20%), Kannada
Kannada language
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...

 (10%), Urdu (5%), and Hindi (5%). All these minority languages except Marathi
Marathi language
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

  , are spoken by the recent migrants and not the natives.

Tourism




Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of whom were from abroad.

Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In the winter time, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come to Goa to enjoy the climate. In the summertime (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across India come to spend the holidays.

With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of Portuguese culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than other parts of the country. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations.

Historic sites and neighbourhoods


Goa has two World Heritage Sites: the Bom Jesus Basilica
Bom Jesus Basilica
The Basilica of Bom Jesus or Borea Jezuchi Bajilika is located in Goa, India, and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier. The church is located in Old Goa, which was the capital of Goa in the early days of Portuguese rule.'Bom Jesus' is the...


and churches and convents of Old Goa
Old Goa
Old Goa or Velha Goa is a historical city in North Goa district in the Indian state of Goa. The city was constructed by the Bijapur Sultanate in the 15th century, and served as capital of Portuguese India from the 16th century until its abandonment in the 18th century due to plague...

. The Basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier, regarded by many Catholics as the patron saint
Patron saint
A patron saint is a saint who is regarded as the intercessor and advocate in heaven of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family, or person...

 of Goa (the patron of the Archdiocese of Goa is actually the Blessed Joseph Vaz
Joseph Vaz
Blessed Joseph Vaz was a Catholic Oratorian priest from Goa. He is known as theApostle of Ceylon....

). Once every twelve years, the body is taken down for veneration and for public viewing. The last such event was conducted in 2004. The Velhas Conquistas
Velhas Conquistas
The Velhas Conquistas or “Old Conquests” are a group of four concelhos or administrative districts in Goa which were incorporated into Portuguese India in the 16th century...

 regions are also known for its Goa-Portuguese style architecture. There are many forts in Goa such as Tiracol
Terekhol fort
Terekhol fort, also called Tiracol fort, is a fort in Goa, India. Located on the northern tip of Goa at the mouth of Terekhol river, Terekhol fort is reached by a car ferry from Querim, 42 km North of Panaji...

, Chapora, Corjuem
Corjuem Fort
Corjuem Fort is a fortress situated 4 kilometers from the village of Aldona on the island of Corjuem, Goa. It was constructed in the year 1551. It is smaller than the other forts in Goa, but it gives a good view of the surrounding river and land....

, Aguada
Fort Aguada
Fort Aguada and its lighthouse is a well-preserved seventeenth-century Portuguese fort standing in Goa, India, on Sinquerim Beach, overlooking the Arabian Sea.-Origins and history:...

, Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama
Cabo De Rama
The popular Goan beach fort Cabo De Rama Fort is named after Lord Rama. Also known as Cape Rama fort, this ancient fortress is located in the Canacona district of Goa, India just 25 km south of Margao. This is one of the oldest forts in Goa, build here before the arrival of the Portuguese. With...

.

In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas
Fontainhas (quarter)
Fontainhas is an old Latin Quarter in the city of Panaji in Goa, India. It maintains to this day its Portuguese influence, namely at the architectonic level, such as narrow streets, old villas and buildings painted in lively colors. The quarter shows how Panaji was during the Portuguese rule of...

 in Panaji has been declared a cultural quarter, showcasing the life, architecture and culture of Goa. Some influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples, notably the Shanta Durga Temple
Shanta Durga temple
Shantadurga Temple is a large temple complex from Panaji at the foothill of Kavalem village in Ponda Taluka, Goa, India.-Deity:The temple is dedicated to Shantadurga, the goddess who mediates between Vishnu and Shiva...

, the Mangueshi Temple
Mangueshi Temple
Shri Mangueshi temple is located at Mangeshim in Priol, Ponda taluk, 1 kilometer from Mardol close to Nagueshi, 22 km from Panaji the capital of Goa and 26 km from Margao....

 and the Mahalasa
Mahalasa
Mahalasa is the Mohini avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. She is also known as Mhalshi and Mahalasa. In Goa and elsewhere, Mahalasa is considered as the Mohini form of Lord Vishnu and hence she is referred to as "Mahalasa Narayani". The deity, it may particularly be noted, also wears the holy thread,...

 Temple, although after 1961, many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.

Museums and science center


Goa also has a few museums, the two important ones being Goa State Museum
Goa State Museum
Goa State Museum is located in Panjim, which is the capital city of Goa. This new museum complex, located in the EDC Complex in Patto, was inaugurated by the President of India when it first opened on June 18th, 1996. Prior to this date, artifacts was set up in the Department of Archives in Goa by...

 and the Naval Aviation Museum. The Aviation museum is the only one of its kind in the whole of India. Also, a place not well known to tourists is the Goa Science Center
Goa Science Center
Goa Science Center is located on New Marine Highway, Miramar, Panjim. Initial work on the construction for this building started in 1999 and took two and a half years to finish. Goa Science Center is a division of the National Council of Science Museums, which is a project headed by the Ministry...

, which is located in Panjim. The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is also located in Goa at Dona Paula.

People and culture




The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the State. The festival of music and dance, Shigmo Mel
Shigmo
Shigmo , or Shishirotsava, is a spring festival celebrated in the Indian state of Goa, where it is one of the major festivals of the Hindu community...

 or the Holi and Spring celebrations, signify unity in diversity. Prominent local festivals are Chavoth
Ganesh Chaturthi
Ganesh Chaturthi , also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi is the Hindu festival of Ganesha also called Vinayagar in Tamil Nadu, the son of Shiva and Parvati, who is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees in the duration of this festival...

, Diwali
Diwali
Diwali or DeepavaliThe name of the festival in various regional languages include:, , , , , , , , , , , , , popularly known as the "festival of lights," is a festival celebrated between mid-October and mid-December for different reasons...

, Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

, Easter
Easter
Easter is the central feast in the Christian liturgical year. According to the Canonical gospels, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. His resurrection is celebrated on Easter Day or Easter Sunday...

, Shigmo
Shigmo
Shigmo , or Shishirotsava, is a spring festival celebrated in the Indian state of Goa, where it is one of the major festivals of the Hindu community...

, Samvatsar Padvo
Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa or Gudhi Padwa , is the Marathi name for the Hindu holiday of Chaitra Shukla Pratipada. It is celebrated on the first day of the Chaitra month to mark the beginning of the New year according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar...

, Dasara etc. The Goan Carnival and new year celebration is known to attract a large number of tourists.

Dance and music


Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak
Natak
Natak is a 1975 Bollywood film directed by Sohanlal Kanwar. The film stars Vijay Arora and Moushumi Chatterjee....

, Bhajan
Bhajan
A Bhajan is any type of Indian devotional song. It has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas. It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine...

 and Kirtan
Kirtan
Kirtan or Kirtana is call-and-response chanting or "responsory" performed in India's devotional traditions. A person performing kirtan is known as a kirtankar. Kirtan practice involves chanting hymns or mantras to the accompaniment of instruments such as the harmonium, tablas, the two-headed...

. Many famous Indian Classical
Indian classical music
The origins of Indian classical music can be found in the Vedas, which are the oldest scriptures in the Hindu tradition. Indian classical music has also been significantly influenced by, or syncretised with, Indian folk music and Persian music. The Samaveda, one of the four Vedas, describes music...

 singers hail from Goa, including Kishori Amonkar
Kishori Amonkar
Kishori AmonkarN- is an Indian singer who performs in the classical genre khyal and the light classical genres thumri and bhajan. Amonkar trained under her mother, classical singer Mogubai Kurdikar of the Jaipur gharana , but experimented with a variety of vocal styles in her career...

, Kesarbai Kerkar, Jitendra Abhisheki
Jitendra Abhisheki
Pandit Jitendra Abhisheki was an Indian vocalist, composer and scholar of classical, semi-classical, and devotional music...

 and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar. Some traditional Goan art forms are dekhnni, fugdi
Fugdi
Fugdi is a Goan folk dance performed by the women in the Konkan region during Hindu religious festivals like Ganesh Chaturthi and Vrata or towards the end of other dances like Dhalo.-Traditional Roots:...

, corridinho
Corridinho
The corridinho is a form of Portuguese dance, namely in the Algarve. It is danced with the pairs always embraced, forming a circle, girls inside and the boys outside the circle. By rotating the circle the pairs evolve side by side. At a certain time, when the music as a stronger beat, their feet...

, Mando
Mando (music)
Mando or Manddo is a musical form that evolved during the 19th and 20th century among Goan Catholics of Goa, India. It represents the meeting point of Indian and western musical traditions. The music has elements of both Indian and western culture. The males wear formal coats, showing Portuguese...

 and dulpod
Dulpod
Dulpod is a Goan dance song with quick rhythm and themes from everyday Goan life. The plural of dulpod in Konkani is dulpodam. The dulpod is a folk song, anonymous, freely improvised, and sometimes lacking in thematic unity. The tunes of the dulpod are usually in the six-eight measure, though the...

.

Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance
Goa trance
Goa trance is a form of electronic music that originated during the late 1980s in Goa, India.-History:The music has its roots in the popularity of Goa in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a hippie capital, and although musical developments were incorporating elements of industrial music and EBM...

. While Goa trance never achieved widespread popularity itself, it heavily influenced later forms of music such as psytrance, techno
Techno
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the United States during the mid to late 1980s. The first recorded use of the word techno, in reference to a genre of music, was in 1988...

, and dubstep
Dubstep
Dubstep is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in south London, England. Its overall sound has been described as "tightly coiled productions with overwhelming bass lines and reverberant drum patterns, clipped samples, and occasional vocals"....

.

Theatre


Natak
Natak
Natak is a 1975 Bollywood film directed by Sohanlal Kanwar. The film stars Vijay Arora and Moushumi Chatterjee....

, Tiatr
Tiatr
Tiatr is a type of musical popular in the state of Goa on the west coast of India where they originated as well as in Mumbai and with expatriate communities in the Middle East. The dramas are performed in the Konkani language and include music, dancing and singing...

 and Zagor
Zagor (festival)
Zagor , mainly celebrated in Siolim, in Bardez taluka of Goa is a festival highlighted by dance, drama and music....

 are the chief forms of Goa's traditional performance arts. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari, Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala. Stories from the Ramayana
Ramayana
The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon , considered to be itihāsa. The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India and Nepal, the other being the Mahabharata...

 and the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance. The drummers, keyboard artists, and guitarists are part of the show and give the background score.

Food


Rice with fish curry
Curry
Curry is a generic description used throughout Western culture to describe a variety of dishes from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Thai or other Southeast Asian cuisines...

 (Xit kodi in Konkani
Konkani language
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine
Goan cuisine
Goan cuisine consists of regional foods popular in Goa, located along India's west coast along the Arabian Sea. Seafood, coconut milk, rice and paste are main ingredients of Goan delicacies. The area is located in a tropical climate, and spices and flavors are intense. Use of Kokum is another...

 is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut
Coconut
The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the family Arecaceae . It is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which is not a botanical nut. The spelling cocoanut is an old-fashioned form of the word...

 and coconut oil
Coconut oil
Coconut oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm . Throughout the tropical world, it has provided the primary source of fat in the diets of millions of people for generations. It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry...

 are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili peppers, spice
Spice
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavour a dish or to hide other flavours...

s and vinegar
Vinegar
Vinegar is a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid and water, the acetic acid being produced through the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Slow methods generally are used with traditional...

 giving the food a unique flavour. Pork
Pork
Pork is the culinary name for meat from the domestic pig , which is eaten in many countries. It is one of the most commonly consumed meats worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC....

 dishes such as Vindaloo
Vindaloo
Vindaloo is an Indian curry dish from the region of Goa. It is popular globally in its Anglo-Indian form as a staple of curry house menus, often renowned as a particularly spicy dish, though it is not necessarily always the hottest available. The name Vindaloo is derived from the Portuguese dish...

, Xacuti
Xacuti
Xacuti is a curry prepared in Goa, India with complex spicing, including white poppy seeds, sliced/grated coconut and large dried red chilies. It is usually prepared with chicken or lamb...

, chorisa and Sorpotel
Sorpotel
Sarapatel, also called Sorpotel, is a dish of Portuguese origin now commonly cooked in the coastal Konkan region of India primarily Goa and Mangalore and in northeastern Brazil. Ingredients include meat and offal, which varies depending on region from pork to lamb and even beef...

 are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
The Goan Catholics are an ethno-religious community of Roman Catholics and their descendants from the state of Goa, located on the west coast of India. They are Konkani people and speak the Konkani language...

. An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate
Khatkhate
-Khatkhate Surname:Khatkhate is a well-known last name in Saraswat Brahmin community hailing from Konkan province of Maharashtra State and the coastal region of Goa in India. Additional information on Khatkhate as surname is available at link.-Khatkhate Curry:In Indian Cuisine, Khatkhate Curry...

, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, Hindu and Christian alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas
Sanna (rice cakes)
Sannas, are a spongy, white, and slightly sweet steamed rice and coconut bread. They are considered to be a Goan variant of idli, a South Indian dish....

, Hitt are variants of idli and Polle,Amboli,Kailoleo are variants of dosa
Dosa
Dosa or Dhosai is a fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is indigenous to and is a staple dish in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as being popular in Sri Lanka...

;are native to Goa. A rich egg
Egg (food)
Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen , and vitellus , contained within various thin membranes...

-based multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca
Bebinca
Bebinca, also known as bibik or bebinka, is a type of pudding and a traditional Goan dessert. The ingredients include plain flour, sugar, ghee and coconut milk....

 is a favourite at Christmas. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni
Fenny
Fenny or Feni is a Goan Spirit made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. The popular brands of fenny are 'Cashyo' , 'Reals' , and 'Big Boss'...

; Cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms.

Architecture



The architecture of Goa is a combination of India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

n, Islamic
Islamic architecture
Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture....

 and Portuguese
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 styles. Since the Portuguese ruled for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture. Goan Hindu houses do not show any Portuguese influence, though the modern temple architecture is a spectacular amalgam of original Goan temple style with Dravidian
Dravidian architecture
Dravidian architecture was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India. They consist primarily of pyramid shaped temples called Koils which are dependent on intricate carved stone in order to create a step design consisting...

, Hemadpanthi
Hemadpanthi
Hemadpanthi Sculpture is an architectural form or a style, which is named after its introducer and founder, the prime minister named Hemadpant in the court of Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. The period of discovery was during the 13th Century in Maharashtra. Main ingredients in the construction include...

, Islamic, and Portuguese architecture. The original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse as the temples were demolished by the Portuguese and the Sthapati known as Thavayi in Konkani were converted to Christianity though the wooden work and the Kavi murals can still be seen. (see:Goa:Hindu temples and deities by Rui Gomes Periera).

Sports


Football is a popular sport in Goa and is embedded in Goan culture. Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part of a "Christian education". On 22 December 1959, the
Associação de Futebol de Goa was formed, which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name, Goa Football Association. Goa, along with West Bengal
West Bengal
West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. It is also the seventh-most populous sub-national entity in the world, with over 91 million inhabitants. A major agricultural producer, West Bengal is the sixth-largest contributor to India's GDP...

 and Kerala
Kerala
or Keralam is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act by combining various Malayalam speaking regions....

. is the locus of football in the country and is home to many football clubs in India's I-League
I-League
The I-League is an Indian football league for association football clubs. At the top of the Indian football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. Contested by 14 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation of two teams each year with the I-League 2nd Division...

. The state's football powerhouses include Salgaocar
Salgaocar Sports Club
Salgaocar Sporting Club is a professional football club who currently play in the I-League. They are based in Vasco, Goa. They are owned by the V. M...

, Dempo
Dempo Sports Club
Dempo Sports Club is a sports club based in Panjim, Goa. Its football side is one of India's most prominent football teams. The club is owned and sponsored by the Dempo group of companies...

, Churchill Brothers, Vasco Sports Club
Vasco Sports Club
Vasco Sports Club are a football club from Goa, India. They currently play in the I-League 2nd Division which is India's second most prominent football league.-History:...

 and Sporting Clube de Goa
Sporting Clube de Goa
Sporting Clube de Goa is a association football club based in the Indian state of Goa who currently participate in the I-League which is India's number one league competition in the country...

. The state's main football stadium, Fatorda (or Nehru stadium)
Fatorda Stadium
The Fatorda Stadium, is a football stadium located in Margao, Goa and is the current home of Churchill Brothers S.C., Dempo S.C., Salgaocar S.C., and Sporting Clube de Goa. The stadium opened in 1989 and has an capacity of 27,300...

, is located at Margao and also hosts cricket matches. A number of Goans have represented India in football, and four of them, namely Brahmanand Sankhwalkar
Brahmanand Sankhwalkar
Brahmanand S. K. Sankhwalkar is a prominent Indian soccer player and former captain of Goan football team. He played the position of goalkeeper, and represented India at international tournaments. In 1997, Brahmanand received Arjuna Award for his achievements in sports.-References:...

, Bruno Coutinho
Bruno Coutinho
Bruno Coutinho is a football player from Goa, and winner of the Arjuna Award in 2001, a national Indian award for excellence in sport.-Former Indian captain:...

, Mauricio Afonso
Mauricio Afonso
Mauricio Afonso is an ex Indian football Midfielder who played for India in the 1984 Asian Cup. He also played for Chinchinim, Salcete, Salgaocar and Dempo S.C..He is currently the assistant coach of Dempo SC in the I-League-References:**...

, and Roberto Fernandes
Roberto Fernandes
Roberto Fernandes is a Brazilian football manager.- Coaching career :On March 12, 2009, Fernandes transferred from his position at Náutico to coach Figueirense until December 2009....

 have all captained the national team at one time or another. Goa also has its own state football league. The biggest peak of the league is Goa pro league which is sponsored by Kingfishers.

Goa has its own cricket team
Goa cricket team
The Goa cricket team has never been an overly strong team in the Ranji Trophy. Confined to the plate group, Goa bottomed the table in 2005/06 by not achieving a win in their 5 matches, losing 3 matches. In 2006/07 they again finished bottom of the plate group without a win this time losing 4...

. Dilip Sardesai
Dilip Sardesai
Dilip Narayan Sardesai was a former Indian Test cricketer. He was the only Goan-born cricketer to play for India, and was often regarded as India's best batsman against spin bowling.-Early career:...

 remains the only Goan to date to play international cricket for India
Indian cricket team
The Indian cricket team is the national cricket team of India. Governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India , it is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test and One Day International status....

.

The Elite Football League of India
Elite Football League of India
The Elite Football League of India is a proposed men's professional American football league in India. When play begins in late 2012, there will be ten teams, located in various cities across India...

 (EFLI) - an American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 league slated for a November 2012 kickoff - has announced that the Goa Swarm will be a member franchise. Goa is one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season. The Swarm's first season will be played in Pune
Pune
Pune , is the eighth largest metropolis in India, the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after Mumbai, and the largest city in the Western Ghats. Once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire, it is situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the confluence of the Mula ...

, and it will be Goa's first professional American football franchise.

Government and politics


In the Parliament of India
Parliament of India
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India. Founded in 1919, the Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all political bodies in India. The Parliament of India comprises the President and the two Houses, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha...

, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
The Lok Sabha or House of the People is the lower house of the Parliament of India. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by direct election under universal adult suffrage. As of 2009, there have been fifteen Lok Sabhas elected by the people of India...

, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Rajya means "state," and Sabha means "assembly hall" in Sanskrit. Membership is limited to 250 members, 12 of whom are chosen by the President of India for their expertise in specific fields of art, literature,...

.

Goa's capital is Panaji, known as Panjim in English and earlier called Pangim in Portuguese times, and known in the local language as Ponnje is the administrative capital of Goa lying on the left bank of the Mandovi near Panaji. Goa's legislative assembly building is located in Porvorim
Porvorim
Porvorim is the legislative capital of the state of Goa, India. It is situated on the right bank of the Mandovi River. The administrative capital Panaji is located on the opposite bank...

 – the seat of the Goa assembly
Goa assembly
The Goa Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the state of Goa in western India. It consists of 40 members. In charge of the budget, the Assembly appropriates money for social programs, agricultural development, infrastructure development, etc...

, which lies across the Mandovi River. The state's judicial hierarchy relates to Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 (formerly known as Bombay, which is the capital of Goa's neighbouring Maharashtra state), as the state comes under the Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court at Mumbai, Maharashtra, is the High Court of India with jurisdiction over the states of Maharashtra & Goa, and, the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli...

. A bench of the High Court is present in Panaji. Unlike other states, which follow the British Indian model of civil laws framed for individual religions, the Portuguese Uniform Civil Code
Uniform civil code
Uniform civil code of India is a term referring to the concept of an overarching Civil Law Code in India. A uniform civil code administers the same set of secular civil laws to govern all people irrespective of their religion, caste and tribe. This supersedes the right of citizens to be governed...

, based on the Napoleonic code
Napoleonic code
The Napoleonic Code — or Code Napoléon — is the French civil code, established under Napoléon I in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified...

, has been retained by the Goa government.

Goa has a unicameral legislature consisting of a forty member Legislative Assembly
Goa assembly
The Goa Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the state of Goa in western India. It consists of 40 members. In charge of the budget, the Assembly appropriates money for social programs, agricultural development, infrastructure development, etc...

, headed by a Chief Minister
Chief Minister
A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national state, provinces of Sri Lanka, Pakistan, notably a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government...

 who wields the executive power
Executive (government)
Executive branch of Government is the part of government that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the idea of the separation of powers.In many countries, the term...

. The present Chief Minister of Goa is Mr. Digambar Kamat
Digambar Kamat
Digambar Kamat is an Indian politician and the Chief Minister of Goa, since June 2007. He belongs to the Indian National Congress.-Political career:...

 and the Leader of Opposition is Mr. Manohar Parrikar
Manohar Parrikar
Manohar Gopalkrishna Prabhu Parrikar is an Indian politician and the Chief Minister of Goa from 2000 to 2005....

. Both of them are Brahmins. The ruling government consists of the party or coalition garnering the most seats in the state elections and enjoying the support of a simple majority
Majority
A majority is a subset of a group consisting of more than half of its members. This can be compared to a plurality, which is a subset larger than any other subset; i.e. a plurality is not necessarily a majority as the largest subset may consist of less than half the group's population...

 of the House. The governor is appointed by the President of India
President of India
The President of India is the head of state and first citizen of India, as well as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. President of India is also the formal head of all the three branches of Indian Democracy - Legislature, Executive and Judiciary...

. The governor's role is largely ceremonial, but plays a crucial role when it comes to deciding who should form the next government or in suspending the legislature as has happened in the recent past. After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990, Goa is now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005. In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the governor and President's Rule
President's rule
President's rule is the term used in India when a state legislature is dissolved or suspended and the state is placed under direct federal rule...

 was declared, which suspended the legislature. A by-election
By-election
A by-election is an election held to fill a political office that has become vacant between regularly scheduled elections....

 in June 2005 saw the Congress coming back to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The Congress party
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. It is the largest and one of the oldest democratic political parties in the world. The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered center-left in the Indian...

 and the Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party ,; translation: Indian People's Party) is one of the two major political parties in India, the other being the Indian National Congress. Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of representation in the parliament...

 (BJP) are the two largest parties in the state. In the assembly poll of 2007, Congress-led coalition won and started ruling the state. Other parties include the United Goans Democratic Party
United Goans Democratic Party
United Goans Democratic Party is one of two formerly dominant political parties in the Indian state of Goa. UGDP has its base amongst the Christian part of the population....

, the Nationalist Congress Party
Nationalist Congress Party
The Nationalist Congress Party is a centre to centre left political party primarily based in the state of Maharashtra, India.-Background:...

 and the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party was Goa's first ruling party after the end of Portuguese colonial rule in 1961. In the first elections held after India took over the former Portuguese colony, it ascended to power in December 1963 and stayed on, till being ousted from power by defections in early...

.

Media and communication



Goa is served by almost all television channel
Television channel
A television channel is a physical or virtual channel over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the broadcast or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video and...

s available in India. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the interior regions, channels are received via satellite dish
Satellite dish
A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites, which transmit data transmissions or broadcasts, such as satellite television.-Principle of operation:...

es. Doordarshan
DoorDarshan
Doordarshan is an Indian public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati. It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in India in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters. Recently, it has also started Digital Terrestrial Transmitters. On September 15, 2009,...

, the national television broadcaster, has two free terrestrial channels on air.

DTH (Direct To Home) TV services are available from Dish TV
Dish TV
Dish TV India Limited is an Indian company engaged in the business of providing direct-to-home satellite television service, which includes teleport service, customer support and transponder space leasing. Dishtv is a division of Zee Network Enterprise . It uses MPEG-2 digital compression...

, Tata Sky
Tata Sky
TATA Sky is a direct broadcast satellite television provider in India, using MPEG-2 digital compression technology, transmitting using INSAT 4A at 83.0°E....

 & DD Direct Plus
DD Direct Plus
DD Direct+ is an Indian free-to-air digital satellite television owned by Doordarshan. Which provides digital video and audio programming to households and businesses in India. It offers a satellite alternative to the free-view service on digital terrestrial television, with a broadly similar...

. The All India Radio
All India Radio
All India Radio , officially known since 1956 as Akashvani , is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936, it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks...

 is the only radio channel in the state, broadcasting in both FM
Frequency modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its instantaneous frequency. This contrasts with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is varied while its frequency remains constant...

 and AM
Amplitude modulation
Amplitude modulation is a technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. AM works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in relation to the information being sent...

 bands. Two AM channels are broadcast, the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel at 1539 kHz. AIR's FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105.4 MHz. Private FM radio channels available are Big FM at 92.7 MHz, Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi
Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. It is owned by the Entertainment Network India Ltd , which is one of the subsidiaries of The Times Group....

 at 98.3 MHz, and Radio Indigo
Radio indigo
Radio Indigo 91.9 is the one of the all English radio stations in India. Its headquarters is based in Bangalore and was launched in 2006. It is broadcasted mainly in Bangalore, but is also available in Goa....

 at 91.9 MHz. There is also an educational radio channel, Gyan Vani
Gyan Vani
Gyan Vani is an educational FM radio station in several cities of India.-Description:Gyan Vani is an educational FM Radio station in several cities of India...

, run by IGNOU broadcast from Panaji at 107.8 MHz. In 2006, St Xavier's College, Mapusa, became the first college in the state to launch a campus community radio station 'Voice of Xavier's'.

Major cellular service operators include Bharti Airtel
Bharti Airtel
Bharti Airtel Limited , commonly known as Airtel, is an Indian telecommunications company that operates in 20 countries across South Asia, Africa and the Channel Islands. It operates a GSM network in all countries, providing 2G or 3G services depending upon the country of operation...

, Vodafone Essar
Vodafone Essar
Vodafone Essar, formerly Hutchison Essar, is a cellular operator in India that covers 23 telecom circles in India. It is based in Mumbai. On July 2011, Vodafone Group agreed terms for the buy-out of its partner Essar from its Indian mobile phone business. The UK firm paid $5.46 billion to its...

 (Previously Hutch), Idea Cellular
Idea cellular
Idea Cellular, usually referred to as Idea, is an Indian wireless telecom company based in Mumbai, India. Idea is the 3rd largest mobile services operator in India, in revenue terms, and recorded of over 98.4 million customers as of August 2011....

, Uninor
Uninor
Uninor is a mobile operator in India. The company holds Unified Access Service licences to offer mobile telephony services in each of India’s 22 telecom circles, and has received spectrum to roll out services in 21 of these...

, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Indicom
Tata Indicom
Tata Teleservices Limited is a Indian broadband and telecommunications provider based in Mumbai, India. It is a subsidiary of the Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate...

/Tata DoCoMo
Tata DoCoMo
TATA DoCoMo, referred to as DoCoMo , is a Tata Teleservices Limited owned cellular service provider on the GSM and CDMA platform-arising out of the Tata Group's strategic joint venture with Japanese telecom giant NTT Docomo in November 2008...

 and BSNL CellOne
CellOne
CellOne now Bsnl mobile was a mobile phone service provided by the Indian public enterprise BSNL.It provides pre-paid and post-paid mobile services as well as many value added services....

.

Local newspaper publications include the English language
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

  The Herald (Goa's oldest, once a Portuguese language paper known as O Heraldo
O Heraldo
-History:The firm was established as the first Portuguese newspaper on 22 January 1900 by Prof. Messias Gomes and Luís de Menezes Bragança in Goa, the O Heraldo which was critical of Portuguese colonial rule, which was later transformed into an English daily in 1987....

), the Gomantak Times and the Navhind Times
Navhind Times
The Navhind Times is Goa's most widely read English newspaper. It is one of the better English dailies in Goa covering most issues concerning public life with a high quality of editing.-External links:*...

. In addition to these, The Times of India and the Indian Express are also received from Mumbai and Bangalore in the urban areas. The Times of India has recently started publication from Goa itself serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Among the list of officially-accredited newspapers are Sunaparant in Konkani (Devanagari script), The Navhind Times, The Herald Times and The Gomantak Times in English; and Tarun Bharat,Gomantak, Navprabha, Goa Times, Sanatan Prabhat, Govadoot (all in Marathi). All are dailies. Other publications in the state include Goa Today (English-language, monthly), Goan Observer (English, weekly), Vavraddeancho Ixtt
Vavraddeancho Ixtt
Vavraddeancho Ixtt is a Goan weekly magazine in Romi Konknni. It has been published continuously since 1933 and is one of the oldest publications in the state.It was started on January 4 1933 by Fr Arsencio fernandes and Fr Graciano Moraes...

(Roman-script Konkani, weekly) Goa Messenger',Vasco Watch,Gulab (Konkani, monthly), Bimb (Devanagari-script Konkani) .

In 2010, director Venkat Prabhu
Venkat Prabhu
Venkat Kumar Gangai Amaren , better known by his stage name Venkat Prabhu is an Indian filmmaker, who has worked as an actor, director and playback singer in the Tamil film industry...

 hailing from Tamil Cinema
Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema is the film industry based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, dedicated to the production of films in the Tamil language. It is based in Chennai's Kodambakkam district, where several South Indian film production companies are headquartered...

 , also known as Kollywood, made a romantic-comedy film called Goa (film)
Goa (film)
Goa is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language romantic comedy film written and directed by Venkat Prabhu, who with the project, directed his third film following two previous successes...

. In this movie, three youngsters who were born and raised in a village had decided to run away. Due to particular events, the three of them decided to to Goa where their goal of marrying a white woman would be fulfilled when a not-so-handsome friend of theirs, got married to a beautiful white lady when he was in Goa as well.

Education




According to the 2011 census, Goa has a literacy rate of 87% with 90% of males and 84% of females being literate. Each taluka is made up of villages, each having a school run by the government. Due to the low levels of corruption and the quality of the government schools, private schools are less in demand, compared to the rest of the country. All schools come under the Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education
Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education
The Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education is a Board native to the state of Goa and is affiliated to the Goa Board of Education....

 whose syllabus is prescribed by the state Education department. There are also a few schools run by the all-India ICSE
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education or ICSE examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, a private, non-governmental board of school education in India, for class 10, i.e., grade 10...

 board or NIOS
Nios
Nios may refer to:*National Institute of Open Schooling, Board of Education for school level in India *Nios embedded processor*Nios II*Lake Nyos, a crater lake in the Northwest Province of Cameroon in Africa...

 board. Most students in Goa complete their high school using English as the medium of instruction. Primary schools, on the other hand are largely run in Konkani and marathi (in private, but government-aided schools). As is the case in most of India, enrollment for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education. As per a report published in the times of India, 84% of Goan schools run without an administrative head.

After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary school, which offers courses in popular streams such as Science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

, Arts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

, Law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

 and Commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

.A student may also opt for a course in vocational studies. Additionally, many join three year diploma
Diploma
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to...

 courses. Two years of college is followed by a professional degree. Goa University
Goa University
Goa University was established in 1985 and merged with the Centre for Post Graduate Instruction and Research of the University of Bombay that functioned at state-capital Panaji or Panjim. Goa University offers both graduate and post-graduate studies and research programmes...

 is the sole university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 in the state located in Taleigao
Taleigao
Taleigao is a town in Goa, India near the capital Panaji.Brahmanand Shankwalkar, ex football captain of India, was born in Taleigao. Narayan Hari Naik, a veteran freedom fighter of the Goan liberation movement was also born in Taleigao....

 and all Goan colleges are affiliated to it. There are four engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 colleges and one medical college in the state. The Goa Engineering College
Goa Engineering College
Goa Engineering College is a government-run college in Goa, India, offering courses in engineering disciplines. It is located in Farmagudi, Ponda. Founded in 1967, it is the oldest engineering college in Goa and is one of the three engineering colleges in the state. It is a NBA accredited degree...

 and Goa Medical College
Goa Medical College
Goa Medical College is a medical college and hospital in Goa, India. It was built by the Portuguese in 1842 as the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de Goa . It is the oldest Medical College in Asia...

 are run by the state whereas the other three engineering colleges are run by private organisations.

Among the best known schools in Goa include Vidya Prabhodini at Porvorim, K.B. Hedgewar High School, the Progress high school, Don Bosco High School, People's high school, Mushtifund high school in Panaji, A. J. De Almeida high school in Ponda, S.S.Samiti's I.V.B.D. High school in Dhawali-Ponda, Vidya Bharati, Mahila And Nutan English High School in Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

, Manovikas in Margao and the prestigious Sharada Mandir School in Miramar.

Among the best known colleges in Goa include V.V.M's R.M.Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in Margao
Margao
Margao and commercial capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of South Goa district and of the Salcete taluka.- Etymology :...

 G.V.M's S.N.J.A higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M's college of Arts Science and Commerce, St Xavier's College, Carmel College, Chowgule College, Dhempe College, Damodar College, MES College, S. S. Samiti's Higher Secondary School of Science, etc.

The private engineering colleges are Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering and Information Technology, Shiroda, and Padre Conceicao College of Engineering
Padre Conceicao College of Engineering
Padre Conceicao College of Engineering is a private engineering college in Verna, Goa, India. The college is affiliated to Goa University, Taleigao, Goa, and the programmes are approved by All India Council for Technical Education , New Delhi. It is a sister institute of Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues...

, Verna. There are also colleges offering pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

, architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

 and dentistry
Dentistry
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered...

 along with numerous private colleges offering law
Law
Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus...

, arts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

, commerce
Commerce
While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that are in operation in any...

 and science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

. There is also two National Oceanographic Science related centres, NCAOR
NCAOR
The National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research as an Indian research and development institution, and an autonomous Institution of the Department of Ocean Development , Government of India. Situated at Vasco, Goa, it is responsible for administering the Indian Antarctic Program and maintains...

 and the National Institute of Oceanography
National Institute Of Oceanography, India
The National Institute of Oceanography is one of 39 constituent laboratories of the CSIR - Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, an autonomous research organization in India. The institute has its headquarters in the coastal state of Goa, and regional centres in Kochi , Mumbai and...

 (NIO) in Vasco and Panjim. In 2004, BITS Pilani university started its Third Campus, BITS Pilani Goa Campus
BITS Pilani Goa Campus
Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani - Goa Campus is a campus of BITS Pilani. The Institute is privately supported and fully residential....

 near Dabolim.

In addition to the engineering colleges, there are quite a few polytechnic institutions such as the Father Agnel Polytechnic, Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology, Vasco da gama which impart technical and vocational training.

Many residents, however, choose to take up courses in other states as the demand for a course in Goa is more than that available. Goa is also well known in India for courses in marine engineering, fisheries, hotel management and cuisine
Cuisine
Cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific culture. Cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions that they originate from...

. The State also hosts one of the best business school
Business school
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in Business Administration. It teaches topics such as accounting, administration, economics, entrepreneurship, finance, information systems, marketing, organizational behavior, public relations, strategy, human resource...

 in the country – the Goa Institute of Management
Goa Institute of Management
The Goa Institute of Management is a business school located in the state of Goa, India.The autonomous school is governed by a Board, and offers a full-time MBA program and executive MBA and also is a resource center for PhD programs in Management for Goa University. Current MBA classes have a...

 which is autonomous and was founded in 1993 by Romuald D'Souza
Romuald D'Souza
Romuald D'Souza is a Jesuit priest and the Founder Director of Goa Institute of Management.Director of XLRI, Jamshedpur from 1982-1989. In 1987, he founded Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar and was its Director till 1993. Fr...

. Portuguese is taught as a part of the school curriculum, often as a third language in some schools. The Goa University also offers Bachelors and Masters degrees in Portuguese.

See also


  • Goans
    Goans
    Goan is the demonym used to describe the people of the Indian state of Goa who form an ethno-linguistic group which is a result of assimilation of Indo-Portuguese, Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Proto-Australoid, Indo-Scythian, Indo-Greeks and Indo-Iranians ethnic and/or linguistic ancestries.They speak...

  • History of Goa
    History of Goa
    Goa is a small state on the western coast of India. Though the smallest Indian state, Goa has played an influential role in Indian history. Goa was one of the major trade centers in India, thus it had always been attracting the influential dynasties, seafarers, merchants, traders, monks and...

  • Portuguese India
    Portuguese India
    The Portuguese Viceroyalty of India , later the Portuguese State of India , was the aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India.The government started in 1505, six years after the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de...

  • Christianity in India
    Christianity in India
    Christianity is India's third-largest religion, with approximately 24 million followers, constituting 2.3% of India's population. The works of scholars and Eastern Christian writings and 14th century Portuguese missionaries created an illusion to convert Indians that Christianity was introduced to...

  • Konkani language
    Konkani language
    KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...

  • 1961 Indian annexation of Goa
  • Goa Trance
    Goa trance
    Goa trance is a form of electronic music that originated during the late 1980s in Goa, India.-History:The music has its roots in the popularity of Goa in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a hippie capital, and although musical developments were incorporating elements of industrial music and EBM...



Further reading

  • Andrada (undated). The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimilie edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0900-X.

External links