List of kings of Persia

List of kings of Persia

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Encyclopedia
The following is a list of kings and queens of Main Dynasties of Greater Iran, which includes all of the empires ruling over geographical Greater Iran
Greater Iran
Greater Iran refers to the regions that have significant Iranian cultural influence. It roughly corresponds to the territory on the Iranian plateau and its bordering plains, stretching from Iraq, the Caucasus, and Turkey in the west to the Indus River in the east...

 and their rulers.
For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of Iran please see:

Ancient Empires, c. 2700-550 BC


For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Aratta
Aratta
Aratta is a land that appears in Sumerian myths surrounding Enmerkar and Lugalbanda, two early and possibly mythical kings of Uruk also mentioned on the Sumerian king list.-Role in Sumerian literature:Aratta is described as follows in Sumerian literature:...

 kingdom, c.2700BC
1 In-Su-Kush-Siranna ? - ? c. 2700 BC c. 2700 BC ? contemporary with Enmerkar
Enmerkar
Enmerkar, according to the Sumerian king list, was the builder of Uruk in Sumer, and was said to have reigned for "420 years" ....

 king of Uruk
Uruk
Uruk was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.Uruk gave its name to the Uruk...

Early Elamite kings, c. 2700- c. 2600 BC
2 Humbaba
Humbaba
In Akkadian mythology Humbaba or Huwawa , also Humbaba the Terrible was a monstrous giant of immemorial age raised by Utu, the Sun...

? - c. 2680 BC c. 2700 BC c. 2680 BC ? contemporary with Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk, modern day Iraq , placing his reign ca. 2500 BC. According to the Sumerian king list he reigned for 126 years. In the Tummal Inscription, Gilgamesh, and his son Urlugal, rebuilt the sanctuary of the goddess Ninlil, in Tummal, a sacred quarter in her city of...

 king of Uruk
Uruk
Uruk was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.Uruk gave its name to the Uruk...

3 Humban-Shutur (or Khumbastir) ? - ? ? ? ?
First Awan dynasty
Awan dynasty
The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish The Awan Dynasty was the...

, c. 2600-2550 BC
4 The unnamed King of Awan King of Awan ? - ? c. 2580 BC ? ? contemporary with Ur-Nungal king of Uruk
Uruk
Uruk was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the ancient dry former channel of the Euphrates River, some 30 km east of modern As-Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.Uruk gave its name to the Uruk...

5 ...Lu King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
6 Kur-Ishshak King of Awan ? - ? ? c. 2550 BC ? 36 years. contemporary with Lugal-Anne-Mundu
Lugal-Anne-Mundu
Lugal-Anne-Mundu was the most important king of the city-state Adab in Sumer. The Sumerian king list claims he reigned for 90 years, following the defeat of Meskiaj-nanna of Ur...

 king of Adab & Ur-Nanshe
Ur-Nanshe
Ur-Nanshe was the first king of the dynasty of Lagash, probably in the first half of the 24th century BC .He ascended after Lugal-Sha-Gen-Sur , who was the ensi, or high priest....

 king of Lagash
Lagash
Lagash is located northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, about east of the modern town of Ash Shatrah. Lagash was one of the oldest cities of the Ancient Near East...

Second Awan dynasty
Awan dynasty
The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish The Awan Dynasty was the...

, c. 2550-2270 BC
7 Peli King of Awan ? - ? c. 2500 BC ? ?
8 Tata I King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
9 Ukku-Tanhish King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
10 Hishutash King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
11 Shushun-Tarana King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
12 Napi-Ilhush King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
13 Kikku-Siwe-Temti King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
14 Hishep-Ratep I King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
15 Luh-Ishshan King of Awan ? -c. 2325 BC ? c. 2325 BC Son of Hishep-Ratep I
16 Hishep-Ratep II King of Awan ? - ? c. 2325 BC ? Son of Luh-Ishshan
17 Emahsini King of Awan ? - 2311 BC c. 2315 BC 2311 BC
18 Helu King of Awan ? - ? ? ? ?
19 Hita King of Awan ? - ? c. 2270 BC c. 2270 BC ? contemporary of Naram-Sin king of Akkad
Akkad
The Akkadian Empire was an empire centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region in Mesopotamia....

Kuti kingdom, c.2256–c.2120 BC
20 Erridupizir
Erridupizir
Erridupizir was a Gutian ruler in Sumer from ca. 2141 BC to 2138 BC . His reign is attested by a royal inscription at Nippur where he calls himself "King of Guti, King of the Four Quarters."-See also:*Chronology of the ancient Near East...

King of Kutians ? - ? c.2256 BC c.2251 BC ?
21 Imta
Imta
Imta or Nibia was a Gutian ruler in Sumer from ca. 2138 BC to 2135 BC .-See also:*Chronology of the ancient Near East*Sumerian king list*Gutian dynasty of Sumer...

 or Nibia
King of Kutians ? - ? c.2250 BC c.2246 BC ?
22 Inkishush
Inkishush
Inkishush or Inkicuc was a Gutian ruler in Sumer from ca. 2135 BC to 2129 BC. Inkishush is the first Gutian ruler mentioned in the Sumerian King List.-See also:*Chronology of the ancient Near East*Sumerian king list...

King of Kutians ? - ? c.2245 BC c.2240 BC ?
23 Zarlagab King of Kutians ? - ? c.2239 BC c.2234 BC ?
24 Shulme
Shulme
Shulme was a Gutian ruler in Sumer from ca. 2126 BC to 2120 BC.-See also:*Chronology of the ancient Near East*Sumerian king list*Gutian dynasty of Sumer...

King of Kutians ? - ? c.2233 BC c.2228 BC ?
25 Elulmesh or Silulumesh King of Kutians ? - ? c.2227 BC c.2222 BC ?
26 Duga King of Kutians ? - ? c.2221 BC c.2216 BC ?
27 Iluan King of Kutians ? - ? c.2215 BC c.2213 BC ?
28 Inimabakesh King of Kutians ? - ? c.2212 BC c.2208 BC ?
29 Inkishush
Inkishush
Inkishush or Inkicuc was a Gutian ruler in Sumer from ca. 2135 BC to 2129 BC. Inkishush is the first Gutian ruler mentioned in the Sumerian King List.-See also:*Chronology of the ancient Near East*Sumerian king list...

King of Kutians ? - ? c.2207 BC c.2202 BC ?
30 Yarlagab
Yarlagab
Yarlagab was a Gutian ruler of Sumer.Yarlagab was preceded by Ilu-An and succeeded by Ibate....

King of Kutians ? - ? c.2201 BC c.2187 BC ?
31 Ibate King of Kutians ? - ? c.2186 BC c.2184 BC ?
32 Yarlagab
Yarlagab
Yarlagab was a Gutian ruler of Sumer.Yarlagab was preceded by Ilu-An and succeeded by Ibate....

 or Yarla
King of Kutians ? - ? c.2183 BC c.2181 BC ?
33 Kurum King of Kutians ? - ? c.2180 BC c.2180 BC ?
34 Apilkin King of Kutians ? - ? c.2179 BC c.2177 BC ?
35 La-erabum King of Kutians ? - ? c.2176 BC c.2175 BC ?
36 Irarum King of Kutians ? - ? c.2174 BC c.2173 BC ?
37 Ibranum King of Kutians ? - ? c.2172 BC c.2172 BC ?
38 Hablum King of Kutians ? - ? c.2171 BC c.2170 BC ?
39 Puzur-Suen King of Kutians ? - ? c.2169 BC c.2163 BC ?
40 Yarlaganda
Yarlaganda
Yarlaganda , and was a Gutian.He was preceded by Puzur-Suen and succeeded by Si-Um....

King of Kutians ? - ? c.2162 BC c.2156 BC ?
41 Si'um or Si'u King of Kutians ? - ? c.2155 BC c.2121 BC ?
42 Tirigan King of Kutians ? - ? c.2120 BC c.2120 BC ? 40 days
Third Awan dynasty
Awan dynasty
The Awan Dynasty was the first dynasty of Elam of which anything is known today, appearing at the dawn of historical record. The Elamites were likely major rivals of neighboring Sumer from remotest antiquity; they were said to have been defeated by Enmebaragesi of Kish The Awan Dynasty was the...

, c. 2100 BC
43 Kutik-Inshushinak
Kutik-Inshushinak
Kutik-Inshushinak was king of Elam from about 2240 to 2220 BC , and the last from the Awan dynasty....

King of Awan ? - ? c. 2100 BC c. 2100 BC son of Shinpi-hish-huk contemporary of Ur-Nammu
Ur-Nammu
Ur-Nammu founded the Sumerian 3rd dynasty of Ur, in southern Mesopotamia, following several centuries of Akkadian and Gutian rule...

 king of Ur
Ur
Ur was an important city-state in ancient Sumer located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate...

. Susa
Susa
Susa was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers....

 conquered by Ur
Ur
Ur was an important city-state in ancient Sumer located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate...

 troops in 2078 and 2016 BC. After him, kings of Simashki took the leadership of Elam.
Simashki dynasty, c. 2070- c. 1975 BC
44 Gir-Namme I king of Simashki ? - ? ? ? ?
45 Tazitta I king of Simashki ? - ? c. 2040 BC c. 2037 BC ?
46 Eparti I king of Simashki ? - ? ? c. 2033 BC ?
47 Gir-Namme II king of Simashki ? - ? c. 2033 BC ? ?
48 Tazitta II king of Simashki ? - ? ? ? ?
49 Lurak-Luhhan king of Simashki ? - 2022 BC c. 2028 BC 2022 BC ?
50 Hutran-Temti king of Simashki ? - ? ? ? ?
51 Indattu-Inshushinak I king of Simashki ? - 2016 BC ? 2016 BC son of Hutran-Temti
52 Kindattu king of Simashki ? - ? before 2006 BC after 2005 BC son of Tan-Ruhuratir conqueror of Ur
Ur
Ur was an important city-state in ancient Sumer located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar in Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate...

53 Indattu-Inshushinak II king of Simashki ? - ? c. 1980 BC ? son of Pepi cont. Shu-ilishu king of Isin
Isin
Isin was an ancient city-state of lower Mesopotamia about 20 miles south of Nippur at the site of modern Ishan al-Bahriyat in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.-History:...

 & Bilalama king of Eshnunna
Eshnunna
Eshnunna was an ancient Sumerian city and city-state in central Mesopotamia. Although situated in the Diyala Valley north-east of Sumer proper, the city nonetheless belonged securely within the Sumerian cultural milieu.The tutelary deity of the city was Tishpak .- History :Occupied from the Jemdet...

55 Tan-Ruhuratir I king of Simashki ? - ? c. 1965 BC ? son of Indattu-Inshushinnak II cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
Isin
Isin was an ancient city-state of lower Mesopotamia about 20 miles south of Nippur at the site of modern Ishan al-Bahriyat in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.-History:...

56 Indattu-Inshushinak III king of Simashki ? - ? ? ? son of Tan-Ruhuratir I more than 3 years
Epartid dynasty, c. 1975- c. 1500 BC
54 Eparti II king of Simashki, king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah ? - ? c. 1973 BC ? Married with a daughter of Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
Isin
Isin was an ancient city-state of lower Mesopotamia about 20 miles south of Nippur at the site of modern Ishan al-Bahriyat in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.-History:...

 in 1973 BC.
cont. Iddin-Dagan king of Isin
Isin
Isin was an ancient city-state of lower Mesopotamia about 20 miles south of Nippur at the site of modern Ishan al-Bahriyat in Iraq's Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate.-History:...

57 Shilhaha king of Anshan & Susa, Sukkalmah ? - ? ? ? son of Eparti II
58 Kuk-Nashur I Sukkalmah ? - ? ? ? son (ruhushak) of Shilhaha
59 Atta-hushu Sukkal and Ippir of Susa, Shepherd of the people of Susa
Susa
Susa was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers....

, Shepherd of Inshushinak
? - after 1894 BC ?1928 BC after 1894 BC son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
60 Tetep-Mada Shepherd of the people of Susa
Susa
Susa was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers....

? - ? after c. 1890 BC ? son of Kuk-Nashur I (?)
61 Palar-Ishshan Sukkalmah ? - ? ? ? ?
62 Kuk-Sanit ? - ? ? ? son of Palar-Ishshan (?)
63 Kuk-Kirwash Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Lan-Kuku & nephew of Palar-Ishshan
64 Tem-Sanit ? - ? ? ? son of Kuk-Kirwash
65 Kuk-Nahhunte ? - ? ? ? son of Kuk-Kirwash
66 Kuk-Nashur II Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Kuk-Nahhunte (?)
67 Shirukduh Sukkalmah ? - ? c. 1790 BC ? ? cont. Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I Shamshi-Adad I Shamshi-Adad I (fl. late 18th century BC (short chronology) was an Assyrian king. He rose to prominence when he carved out an empire encompassing much of Mesopotamia, Syria and Asia Minor...

 king of Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

68 Shimut-Wartash I ? - ? ? ? son of Shirukduh
69 Siwe-Palar-Hupak Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa, Prince of Elam ? - ? before 1765 BC after 1765 BC son of Shirukduh
70 Kuduzulush I Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Shirukduh
71 Kutir-Nahhunte I Sukkalmah ? - ? c. 1710 BC ? son of Kuduzulush I
72 Atta-Merra-Halki ? - ? ? ? son of Kuduzulush I (?)
73 Tata II Sukkal ? - ? ? ? brother of Atta-Merra-Halki
74 Lila-Irtash ? - ? ? ? son of Kuduzulush I
75 Temti-Agun Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Kutir-Nahhunte I
76 Kutir-Shilhaha Sukkalmah, Sukkal ? - ? ? ? son of Temti-Agun
77 Kuk-Nashur III Sukkal of Elam, Sukkal of Susa ? - ? before 1646 BC after 1646 BC son of Kutir-Shilhaha
78 Temti-Raptash ? - ? ? ? son of Kutir-Shilhaha
79 Shimut-Wartash II ? - ? ? ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
80 Shirtuh King of Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Kuk-Nashur III
81 Kuduzulush II Sukkalmah, King of Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Shimut-Wartash II
82 Tan-Uli Sukkalmah, Sukkal ? - ? ? ? ?
83 Temti-Halki Sukkalmah, Sukkal of Elam and Simashki and Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Tan-Uli
84 Kuk-Nashur IV Sukkalmah ? - ? ? ? son of Tan-Uli
85 Kutik-Matlat ? - ? c. 1500 BC ? son of Tan-Uli
Kidinuid dynasty, c. 1500- c. 1370 BC
86 Kidinu king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? 15th century BC ? ?
87 Inshushinak-Sunkir-Nappipir king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? ?
88 Tan-Ruhuratir II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? 15th century BC ? ?
89 Shalla king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? ?
94 Temti-Ahar king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? c. 1370 BC ? ? cont. Kadashman-Enlil I
Kadashman-Enlil I
Kadašman-Enlil ITypically rendered mka-dáš-man-dEN.LÍL in contemporary inscriptions. was a Kassite King of Babylon from ca. 1374 BC to 1360 BC , perhaps the 18th of the dynasty. He is known to have been a contemporary of Amenhotep III of Egypt, with whom he corresponded...

 Kassite
Kassites
The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC...

 king of Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

Igehalkid dynasty, c. 1400 – c. 1200 BC
90 Pahir-Ishshan I king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? c. 1390 BC ? son of Ige-Halki cont. Kurigalzu I
Kurigalzu I
Kurigalzu I , the seventeenth king of the Kassite dynasty that ruled over Babylon, was responsible for one of the most extensive and widespread building programs for which evidence has survived in Babylonia. The autobiography of Kurigalzu is one of the inscriptions which record that he was the son...

 Kassite
Kassites
The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC...

 king of Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

91 Kidin-Hutran I king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Pahir-Ishshan I
92 Attar-Kittah II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Ige-Halki
93 Humban-Numena I king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? c. 1370 BC ? son of Attar-Kittah II cont. Burna-Buriash II Kassite
Kassites
The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC...

 king of Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

95 Untash-Napirisha
Untash-Napirisha
Untash-Napirisha was king of Elam from about 1275 to 1240 BC.He was the son of the previous king, Khumban-Numena. His original name was 'Untash-Khumban', but out of respect, he later changed the last half of his name to napirisha...

 or Untash-Humban
king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? c. 1340 BC ? son of Humban-Numena I
96 Kidin-Hutran II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Untash-Naprisha
97 Napirisha-Untash or Humban-Untash king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Kidin-Hutran II
98 Pahir-Ishshan II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? ?
99 Unpatar-Napirisha or Unpatar-Humban king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Pahir-Ishshan II
100 Kidin-Hutran III king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? c. 1224 BC c. 1217 BC son of Pahir-Ishshan II cont. Enlil-nadin-shumi & Adad-shuma-iddina Kassite
Kassites
The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who gained control of Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire after ca. 1531 BC to ca. 1155 BC...

 kings of Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

Shutrukid dynasty, c. 1200 – c. 970 BC
101 Hallutush-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? c. 1200 BC ? ?
102 Shutruk-Nahhunte I
Shutruk-Nakhunte
Shutruk-Nakhunte was king of Elam from about 1185 to 1155 BC , and the second king of the Shutrukid Dynasty.Elam amassed an empire that included most of Mesopotamia and western Iran....

king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? before c. 1158 BC after c. 1158 BC son of Hallutush-Inshushinak
103 Kutir-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? before c. 1155 BC after c. 1155 BC son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
104 Shilhak-Inshushinak I king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? son of Shutruk-Nahhunte I
105 Hutelutush-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? before c. 1110 BC after c. 1110 BC son of Kutir-Nahhunte II
106 Shilhina-Hamru-Lakamar king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? after 1110 BC ? son of Shilhak-Inshushinak I
107 Humban-Numena II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? early 11th century BC ? ?
108 Shutruk-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? middle of 11th century BC ? son of Humban-Numena II
109 Shutur-Nahhunte I king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? middle of 11th century BC ? son of Humban-Numena II
110 Mar-biti-apla-usur "son" of Elam ? - ? before 983 BC after 978 BC ?
? Akshir-Shimut king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? ?
? Akshir-Nahhunte king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? ? ? ?
? Kara-Indash king of Elam ? - ? ? ? ?
Humban-Tahrid (Neo-Elamite) dynasty, c. 830– c. 640 BC
114 The unnamed king of Elam king of Elam ? - ? before c. 821 BC after c. 821 BC ? cont. Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Adad V
Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 824 to 811 BC.-Biography:He was the son and successor of Shalmaneser III, the husband of Shammuramat , and the father of Adad-nirari III, who succeeded him as king....

 king of Assyria
Assyria
Assyria was a Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia , that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur...

115 Humban-Tahrah I king of Elam ? - 743 BC ? 743 BC ?
116 Humban-Nikash I king of Elam ? - 717 BC 743 BC 717 BC son of Humban-Tahrah I
117 Shutur-Nahhunte II king of Anshan & Susa ? - 699 BC 717 BC 699 BC son (Ruhushak) of Humban-Nikash I
118 Hallushu-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa ? - oct. 693 BC 699 BC oct. 693 BC brother of Shutur-Nahhunte II
119 Kutir-Nahhunte III king of Anshan & Susa ? - July 692 BC oct. 693 BC July 692 BC son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
120 Humban-Numena III king of Anshan & Susa ? - feb. 688 BC July 692 BC feb. 688 BC son of Hallushu-Inshushinak
121 Humban-Haltash I king of Anshan & Susa ? - oct. 681 BC feb. 688 BC oct. 681 BC son of Humban-Numena III (?)
122 Humban-Haltash II king of Anshan & Susa ? - sept. 675 BC oct. 681 BC sept. 675 BC son of Humban-Haltash I
124 Urtak-Inshushinak king of Anshan & Susa ? - 663 BC sept. 675 BC 663 BC brother of Humban-Haltash II
125 Temti-Humban-Inshushinak I king of Anshan & Susa ? - sept. 653 BC 663 BC sept. 653 BC brother of Urtak-Inshushinak
126 Humban-Nikash II king of Anshan & Susa ? - 651 BC sept. 653 BC 651 BC son of Urtak-Inshushinak
127 Tammaritu king of Anshan & Susa ? - after 645/4 BC 652 BC 649 BC son of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
129 Indabibi king of Anshan & Susa ? - after July 648 BC 649 BC after July 648 BC ?
130 Humban-Haltash III king of Anshan & Susa ? - after 645/4 BC after July 648 BC 645/4 BC son of Atta-hamiti-Inshushinak He was defeated and then captured by Assyrians.
127 Tammaritu king of Anshan & Susa ? - after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC son of Humban-Hapua son of Urtak-Inshushinak
131 Humban-Nikash III king of Anshan & Susa ? - after 645/4 BC 647 BC 647 BC son of Atta-Merra-Halki
132 Umhuluma king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? 647 BC 647 BC ?
133 Indattu-Inshushinak IV king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? 647 BC after autumn 646 BC ?
134 Humban-Hapua king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? 647 BC 647 BC ?
135 Pa'e king of Anshan & Susa ? - after 645/4 BC autumn 646 after 645/4 BC ?
136 Shutur-Nahhunte III king of Anshan & Susa ? - ? after autumn 646 BC ? son of Indattu-Inshushinak IV After him, kingdom of Anshan
Anshan (Persia)
Anshan - History :Before 1973, when it was identified as Tall-i Malyan, Anshan had been assumed by scholars to be somewhere in the central Zagros mountain range....

 transferred to Achaemenids
First Median dynasty
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

, 674–652 BC
123 Xšaθrita
Phraortes
Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

Phraortes (?) King of Medes ? - 652 BC 674 BC 652 BC son of Deioces
Deioces
Deioces, Diyako or Deiokes was the first king of the Medes according to Herodotus. In the late 8th century BC there was a Daiukku or Dayukku who was a Mannaean provincial governor...

Killed in battle with Assyrians and Scythians. Domination of Scythian kingdom 652–625 BC
Scythian kingdom, 652–625 BC
128 Madea
Madius
Madius or Madya was a Scythian king. He conquered and ruled the Median Empire from c.625-653 BCE....

King of Scythians ? - 625 BC 652 BC 625 BC son of Partatua
Bartatua
Bartatua or Partitava , was a Scythian king, who established friendly relations with Assyria. He married a daughter of Assyrian king Essarhaddon....

king of Scythian kingdom from c. 658/9 BC
Second Median dynasty
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

, 625–550 BC
137 Cyaxares
Cyaxares
Cyaxares, Cyaxares the Great or Hvakhshathra , the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather, therefore he is often being described as the first official Median...

Huvaxšaθra King of Medes ? - 585 BC 625 BC 585 BC son of Xšaθrita
Phraortes
Phraortes , son of Diyako, was the second king of the Median Empire....

138 Astyages
Astyages
Astyages Astyages Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης - Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Akkadian: Ištumegu, was the last king of the Median Empire, r...

Ishtuvigu King of Medes ? - 585 BC 585 BC 550 BC son of Cyaxares
Cyaxares
Cyaxares, Cyaxares the Great or Hvakhshathra , the son of King Phraortes, was the first king of Media. According to Herodotus, Cyaxares, grandson of Deioces, had a far greater military reputation than his father or grandfather, therefore he is often being described as the first official Median...

Deposed and later killed

Old Persian Empire, 550–329 BC

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Achaemenid dynasty, 550–329 BC
139 Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

The great king, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World 600 BC - 530 BC 550 BC 530 BC Son of Cambyses I or (II)
Cambyses I of Anshan
Cambyses I or Cambyses the Elder was king of Anshan in Iran from c. 580 to 559 BC and the father of Cyrus the Great . He should not be confused with his better-known grandson Cambyses II.Cambyses was an early member of the Achaemenid dynasty...

 king of Anshan
Anshan (Persia)
Anshan - History :Before 1973, when it was identified as Tall-i Malyan, Anshan had been assumed by scholars to be somewhere in the central Zagros mountain range....

 and Mandana daughter of Astyages
Astyages
Astyages Astyages Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης - Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Akkadian: Ištumegu, was the last king of the Median Empire, r...

King of Anshan
Anshan (Persia)
Anshan - History :Before 1973, when it was identified as Tall-i Malyan, Anshan had been assumed by scholars to be somewhere in the central Zagros mountain range....

 from 559 BC. Killed in battle with Massagetes
140 Cambyses Khshayathiya Khshayathiyanam, The Great King ? - 521 BC 530 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

Died while en route to put down a rebellion.
141 Bardiya
Bardiya
Bardiya was a son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of Cambyses II, both Persian kings. There are sharply divided views on his life, he may have ruled the Achaemenid Empire for a few months in 522 BCE, or he may have been impersonated by a magus called Gaumata. -Name and sources:The...

Tanyoxarces The Great King, Pharaoh of Egypt ? - 522 BC 522 BC 522 BC Son of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus II of Persia , commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much...

Killed by Persian aristocrats
142 Darius I
Darius I of Persia
Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

Arsames (?) The Great King, King of Kings 550 BC - 486 BC 522 BC 486 BC Son of Hystaspes
Hystaspes (father of Darius I)
Vishtaspa , known under his Hellenized name Hystaspes , was a Persian satrap of Bactria and Persis, and the father of Darius I of Persia....

 son of Arsames
Arsames of Persia
Arsames was the son of Ariaramnes and perhaps briefly the king of Persia during the Achaemenid dynasty, but gave up the throne and declared loyalty to Cyrus II of Persia...

 son of Ariaramnes
Ariaramnes of Persia
Ariaramnes was a great uncle of Cyrus the Great and the great-grandfather of Darius I, and perhaps the king of Parsa, the ancient core kingdom of Persia....

 son of Teispes (II)
Teispes of Anshan
Teispes lived from 675-640 BCE. He was the son of Achaemenes and an ancestor of Cyrus the Great. There is evidence that Cyrus I and Ariaramnes were both his sons. Cyrus I is the grandfather of Cyrus the Great, whereas Ariaramnes is great grandfather of Darius the Great...

143 Xerxes I
Xerxes I of Persia
Xerxes I of Persia , Ḫšayāršā, ), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire.-Youth and rise to power:...

The Great King, King of Kings 519 BC - 465 BC 485 BC 465 BC Son of Darius I
Darius I of Persia
Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

Killed
144 Artaxerxes I The Great King, King of Kings, Longimanus ? - 424 BC 465 BC 424 BC Son of Xerxes I
Xerxes I of Persia
Xerxes I of Persia , Ḫšayāršā, ), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire.-Youth and rise to power:...

145 Xerxes II
Xerxes II of Persia
Xerxes II was a Persian king and the son and successor of Artaxerxes I. After a reign of forty-five days, he was assassinated in 424 BC by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by Darius II. He is an obscure historical figure known primarily from the writings of Ctesias. He was...

Artaxerxes The Great King, King of Kings ? - 424 BC 424 BC 424 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Killed by Sogdianus
Sogdianus of Persia
Sogdianus , died 423 BC, king of Persia . He was an obscure historical figure known primarily from the writings of Ctesias. He was reportedly an illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I by his concubine Alogyne of Babylon....

146 ? Sogdianus
Sogdianus of Persia
Sogdianus , died 423 BC, king of Persia . He was an obscure historical figure known primarily from the writings of Ctesias. He was reportedly an illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I by his concubine Alogyne of Babylon....

The Great King, King of Kings ? - 423 BC 424 BC 423 BC Son of Artaxerxes I Killed by Darius II
Darius II of Persia
Darius II , was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 405 BC.Artaxerxes I, who died on December 25, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother Secydianus or Sogdianus...

147 Darius II
Darius II of Persia
Darius II , was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 405 BC.Artaxerxes I, who died on December 25, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother Secydianus or Sogdianus...

Ochus The Great King, King of Kings ? - 404 BC 423 BC 404 BC Son of Artaxerxes I
148 Artaxerxes II
Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II Mnemon was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.-Reign:...

Arsaces The Great King, King of Kings 436 BC - 358 BC 404 BC 358 BC Son of Darius II
Darius II of Persia
Darius II , was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 405 BC.Artaxerxes I, who died on December 25, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother Secydianus or Sogdianus...

149 Artaxerxes III Ochus The Great King, King of Kings ? - 338 BC 358 BC 338 BC Son of Artaxerxes II
Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II Mnemon was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.-Reign:...

Killed
150 Artaxerxes IV
Arses of Persia
Artaxerxes IV Arses was king of Persia between 338 BC and 336 BC. He was the youngest son of King Artaxerxes III and Atossa and was not expected to succeed to the throne of Persia...

Arses The Great King, King of Kings ? - 336 BC 338 BC 336 BC Son of Artaxerxes III Killed
151 Darius III
Darius III of Persia
Darius III , also known by his given name of Codomannus, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC....

Artashata The Great King, King of Kings 380 BC - 330 BC 336 BC 330 BC Son of Arsanes son of Ostanes son of Darius II
Darius II of Persia
Darius II , was king of the Persian Empire from 423 BC to 405 BC.Artaxerxes I, who died on December 25, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes II was murdered by his brother Secydianus or Sogdianus...

Killed by Artaxerxes V
Bessus
Artaxerxes V, also known as Bessus was a prominent Persian nobleman and satrap of Bactria, and later self-proclaimed king of Persia...

152 Artaxerxes V
Bessus
Artaxerxes V, also known as Bessus was a prominent Persian nobleman and satrap of Bactria, and later self-proclaimed king of Persia...

Bessus The Great King, King of Kings ? - 329 BC 330 BC 329 BC Probably a descendant of Artaxerxes II
Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II Mnemon was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.-Reign:...

Killed by Alexander I

Macedonian Empire, 330–129 BC

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Argead Dynasty
Argead dynasty
The Argead dynasty was an ancient Greek royal house. They were the ruling dynasty of Macedonia from about 700 to 310 BC. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece...

, 330–312 BC
153 Alexander I the Great 356 - June 13, 323 BC 330 BC 323 BC son of Philip II of Macedonia King of Macedonia from 336 BC as Alexander III
154 Philip
Philip III of Macedon
Philip III Arrhidaeus was the king of Macedonia from after June 11, 323 BC until his death. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedonia by Philinna of Larissa, allegedly a Thessalian dancer, and a half-brother of Alexander the Great...

Arrhideus c. 359 - 317 BC June 323 BC 317 BC son of Philip II of Macedonia King of Macedonia as Philip III. Killed by Olympias
Olympias
Olympias was a Greek princess of Epirus, daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the fourth wife of the king of Macedonia, Philip II, and mother of Alexander the Great...

155 Alexander II
Alexander IV of Macedon
Alexander IV Aegus was the son of Alexander the Great and Princess Roxana of Bactria.-Birth:...

Egus Sept. 323 - 309 BC Sept. 323 BC 317 BC son of Alexander The Great King of Macedonia as Alexander IV until 310 BC, Killed by Cassander
Cassander
Cassander , King of Macedonia , was a son of Antipater, and founder of the Antipatrid dynasty...

 son of Antipater
Antipater
Antipater was a Macedonian general and a supporter of kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. In 320 BC, he became Regent of all of Alexander's Empire. Antipater was one of the sons of a Macedonian nobleman called Iollas or Iolaus and his family were distant collateral relatives to the...

Perdiccas
Perdiccas
Perdiccas was one of Alexander the Great's generals. After Alexander's death in 323 BC he became regent of all Alexander's empire.Arrian tells us he was son of Orontes, a descendant of the independent princes of the Macedonian province of Orestis...

? - 321 BC June 323 BC 321 BC Regent, prince of Orestis
Peithon
Peithon
Peithon or Pithon was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordaia in western Macedonia. One of the bodyguards of Alexander the Great, later satrap of Media and one of the diadochi....

c. 355-314 BC 321 BC 321 BC son of Crateuas Regent
Arrhidaeus
Arrhidaeus
Arrhidaeus , one of Alexander the Great's generals, was entrusted with the conduct of Alexander's funeral to Egypt in 323 BC...

? -319 BC 321 BC 321 BC Regent
Antipater
Antipater
Antipater was a Macedonian general and a supporter of kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. In 320 BC, he became Regent of all of Alexander's Empire. Antipater was one of the sons of a Macedonian nobleman called Iollas or Iolaus and his family were distant collateral relatives to the...

?398-319 BC 321 BC 319 BC son of Iollas Regent, Killed by Seleucus I
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

Polysperchon 394–303 BC 319 BC 316 BC son of Simmias Regent
156 Olympias
Olympias
Olympias was a Greek princess of Epirus, daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the fourth wife of the king of Macedonia, Philip II, and mother of Alexander the Great...

c. 375–316 BC 317 BC 316 BC daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus
Neoptolemus I of Epirus
Neoptolemus I of Epirus was a king of Epirus and son of Alcetas I, and father of Alexander I of Epirus and Queen Olympias. He was a maternal grandfather of Alexander the Great...

 and mother of Alexander I.
Killed by Cassander
Cassander
Cassander , King of Macedonia , was a son of Antipater, and founder of the Antipatrid dynasty...

 son of Antipater
Antipater
Antipater was a Macedonian general and a supporter of kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. In 320 BC, he became Regent of all of Alexander's Empire. Antipater was one of the sons of a Macedonian nobleman called Iollas or Iolaus and his family were distant collateral relatives to the...

157 Antigonus Monophthalmus 382-301 BC 316 BC 312 BC son of Philip of Elymiotis King of Anatolia, Syria and Macedonia as Antigonus I until 301 BC. Killed by Seleucus I
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

Seleucid dynasty
Seleucid dynasty
The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator , which ruled the Seleucid Kingdom centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.-History:Seleucus was an...

, 312–129 BC
158 Seleucus I
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

Nicator c. 358–281 BC 312 BC 281 BC son of Antiochus son of Seleucus Assumed title of "King" from 306 BC. Killed by Ptolemy Ceraunus
159 Antiochus I
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter , was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 BC - 261 BC....

Soter ? - 261 BC 281 BC 261 BC son of Seleucus I
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

co-ruler from 291
160 Antiochus II
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom who reigned 261 BC – 246 BC). He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC...

Theos 286–246 BC 261 BC 246 BC son of Antiochus I
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter , was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 BC - 261 BC....

162 Seleucus II
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC...

Callinicus ? - 225 BC 246 BC 225 BC son of Antiochus II
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom who reigned 261 BC – 246 BC). He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC...

163 Seleucus III
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus III Soter, called Seleucus Ceraunus , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom, the eldest son of Seleucus II Callinicus and Laodice II. His birth name was Alexander and was named after his great uncle the Seleucid official Alexander...

Alexander Soter, Ceraunus c. 243-223 BC 225 BC 223 BC son of Seleucus II
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC...

164 Antiochus III
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great Seleucid Greek king who became the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. Antiochus was an ambitious ruler who ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC...

Megas c. 241–187 BC 223 BC 187 BC son of Seleucus II
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC...

166 Seleucus IV
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus IV Philopator , ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria , Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran . He was the second son and successor of Antiochus III the Great and Laodice III...

Philopator ? - 175 BC 187 BC 175 BC son of Antiochus III
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great Seleucid Greek king who became the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. Antiochus was an ambitious ruler who ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC...

168 Antiochus IV
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne....

Epiphanes c. 215-163 BC 175 BC 163 BC son of Antiochus III
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great Seleucid Greek king who became the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. Antiochus was an ambitious ruler who ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC...

Killed in Elymais
171 Antiochus V Eupator c. 172-161 BC 163 BC 161 BC son of Antiochus IV
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne....

172 Demetrius I
Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I , surnamed Soter , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire....

Soter 185-150 BC 161 BC 150 BC son of Seleucus IV
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus IV Philopator , ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria , Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran . He was the second son and successor of Antiochus III the Great and Laodice III...

173 Alexander III
Alexander Balas
Alexander Balas , ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom 150-146 BC, was a native of Smyrna of humble origin, but gave himself out to be the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Laodice IV and heir to the Seleucid throne...

Balas, Theopator, Euergetes ? - 146 BC 150 BC 146 BC son of Antiochus IV
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne....

 (?)
Seleucid king of Syria As Alexander I
174 Demetrius II
Demetrius II Nicator
For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair.Demetrius II , called Nicator , was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter, brother of Antiochus VII Sidetes and his mother could have been Laodice V...

Nicator ? - 139 BC 146 BC 139 BC son of Demetrius I
Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I , surnamed Soter , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire....

Defeated and captured by Parthians. He married to Rhodogune daughter of Mithridates I
Mithridates I of Parthia
Mithridates or Mithradates I was the "Great King" of Parthia from ca. 171 BC - 138 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca. 176 BC). Mithridates I made Parthia into a major political power by expanding the empire to the east, south, and west...

175 Antiochus VII
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes , ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC. He was the last Seleucid king of any stature....

Euergetes, Sidetes ? - 129 BC 139 BC 129 BC son of Demetrius I
Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I , surnamed Soter , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire....

Killed in battle with Phraates II
Phraates II of Parthia
Phraates II of Parthia, son of Mithridates I of Parthia , the conqueror of Babylon, ruled the Parthian Empire from 138 BC to 128 BC. He was attacked in 130 BC by Antiochus VII Sidetes , ruler of the Seleucid Empire...


Middle Iranian Empire, 247 BC–c. 670 AD


For more comprehensive lists of kings, queens, sub-kings and sub-queens of this Era see:
Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Arsacid dynasty, 247 BC–228 AD
161 Arsaces I
Arsaces I of Parthia
Arsaces I was the founder of the Arsacid dynasty, and after whom all 30+ monarchs of the Arsacid empire officially named themselves. A celebrated descent from antiquity begins with Arsaces.A 1st century AD tradition casts Arsaces as descending from the 5th-century BC Achaemenid monarch...

Tiridates I
Tiridates I of Parthia
Tiridates, or Teridates is a Persian name, given by Arrian in his Parthica to the brother of Arsaces I, the founder of the Parthian kingdom, whom he is said to have succeeded in about 246 BC...

 or Arsaces
King, Karen, Autocrator ? - 211 BC 247 BC 211 BC A descendant of Arsaces son of Phriapatius who was probably son of Artaxerxes II
Artaxerxes II of Persia
Artaxerxes II Mnemon was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He was a son of Darius II of Persia and Parysatis.-Reign:...

165 Arsaces II
Arsaces II of Parthia
Arsaces II, also Artabanus I, of the Arsacid dynasty was King of Parthia between 211 BC and 191 BC. Greek 'Arsaces' appears as 'Artabanus' in Latin sources, and both forms appear in history books....

Arsaces ? - 185 BC 211 BC 185 BC Son of Arsaces I
Arsaces I of Parthia
Arsaces I was the founder of the Arsacid dynasty, and after whom all 30+ monarchs of the Arsacid empire officially named themselves. A celebrated descent from antiquity begins with Arsaces.A 1st century AD tradition casts Arsaces as descending from the 5th-century BC Achaemenid monarch...

167 Arsaces III Phriapatius
Phriapatius of Parthia
Phriapatius , sometimes called Phriapites, ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 BC to 176 BC. He was the grandson of Tiridates I of Parthia , the brother of Arsaces I of Parthia , the founder of the Parthian Empire.He ruled in the period following the invasion of Parthia by the Seleucid king...

? - 170 BC 185 BC 170 BC Grandson of Tiridates I
Tiridates I of Parthia
Tiridates, or Teridates is a Persian name, given by Arrian in his Parthica to the brother of Arsaces I, the founder of the Parthian kingdom, whom he is said to have succeeded in about 246 BC...

169 Arsaces IV Phraates I
Phraates I of Parthia
Phraates I of Parthia, ruler of the Parthian Empire from 176-171 BCE, succeed his father Phriapatius on the throne. Died relatively young, and appointed as his successor not one of his sons, but his brother Mithridates I ....

? - 167 BC 170 BC 167 BC Son of Phriapatius
Phriapatius of Parthia
Phriapatius , sometimes called Phriapites, ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 BC to 176 BC. He was the grandson of Tiridates I of Parthia , the brother of Arsaces I of Parthia , the founder of the Parthian Empire.He ruled in the period following the invasion of Parthia by the Seleucid king...

170 Arsaces V Mithridates I
Mithridates I of Parthia
Mithridates or Mithradates I was the "Great King" of Parthia from ca. 171 BC - 138 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca. 176 BC). Mithridates I made Parthia into a major political power by expanding the empire to the east, south, and west...

The Great King, Theos, Theopator, Philhellene ? - 132 BC 167 BC 132 BC Son of Phriapatius
Phriapatius of Parthia
Phriapatius , sometimes called Phriapites, ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 BC to 176 BC. He was the grandson of Tiridates I of Parthia , the brother of Arsaces I of Parthia , the founder of the Parthian Empire.He ruled in the period following the invasion of Parthia by the Seleucid king...

176 Arsaces VI Phraates II
Phraates II of Parthia
Phraates II of Parthia, son of Mithridates I of Parthia , the conqueror of Babylon, ruled the Parthian Empire from 138 BC to 128 BC. He was attacked in 130 BC by Antiochus VII Sidetes , ruler of the Seleucid Empire...

The Great King, Philopator, Theopator, Nikephoros ? - 127 BC 132 BC 127 BC Son of Mithridates I
Mithridates I of Parthia
Mithridates or Mithradates I was the "Great King" of Parthia from ca. 171 BC - 138 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca. 176 BC). Mithridates I made Parthia into a major political power by expanding the empire to the east, south, and west...

Killed in battle with Scythians
177 Arsaces VII Artabanus I
Artabanus I of Parthia
Artabanus I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 128 to 124 BC. He succeeded his nephew Phraates II and died, just like his predecessor, in battle against the Tochari - a name commonly identified with the Yuezhi of the Chinese sources, who had fled from Gansu in northwest China, via the Ili...

King ? - 126 BC 127 BC 126 BC Son of Phriapatius
Phriapatius of Parthia
Phriapatius , sometimes called Phriapites, ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 BC to 176 BC. He was the grandson of Tiridates I of Parthia , the brother of Arsaces I of Parthia , the founder of the Parthian Empire.He ruled in the period following the invasion of Parthia by the Seleucid king...

Killed in battle with Tocharians
178 Arsaces VIII Vologases (I) The Great King, Theopator, Philadelphos, Philhellene, Epiphanes ? - 122 BC 126 BC 122 BC Son of Phriapatius
Phriapatius of Parthia
Phriapatius , sometimes called Phriapites, ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 BC to 176 BC. He was the grandson of Tiridates I of Parthia , the brother of Arsaces I of Parthia , the founder of the Parthian Empire.He ruled in the period following the invasion of Parthia by the Seleucid king...

He was the first Arsacid king of Media, Arran and Iberia
179 Arsaces IX Artabanus (II) The Great King, King of kings, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 121 BC 122 BC 121 BC Son of Artabanus I
Artabanus I of Parthia
Artabanus I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 128 to 124 BC. He succeeded his nephew Phraates II and died, just like his predecessor, in battle against the Tochari - a name commonly identified with the Yuezhi of the Chinese sources, who had fled from Gansu in northwest China, via the Ili...

Killed in battle with Medians
180 Arsaces X Mithridates II
Mithridates II of Parthia
Mithridates II the Great was king of Parthian Empire from 123 to 88 BC. His name invokes the protection of Mithra. He adopted the title Epiphanes, "god manifest" and introduced new designs on his extensive coinage....

The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Epiphanes, Soter ? - 91 BC 121 BC 91 BC Son of Artabanus I
Artabanus I of Parthia
Artabanus I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 128 to 124 BC. He succeeded his nephew Phraates II and died, just like his predecessor, in battle against the Tochari - a name commonly identified with the Yuezhi of the Chinese sources, who had fled from Gansu in northwest China, via the Ili...

181 Arsaces XI Gotarzes I
Gotarzes I of Parthia
Gotarzes I of Parthia ruled parts of the Parthian Empire c. 95–90 BC. He was the grandson of Phriapatius and came to power during the troubled times around the end of the reign of Mithridates II. He is mentioned on some astronomical tablets from Babylon and appears to have reigned for some...

The Great King, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Euergetes, Autocrator ? - 87 BC 91 BC 87 BC Son of Mithridates II
Mithridates II of Parthia
Mithridates II the Great was king of Parthian Empire from 123 to 88 BC. His name invokes the protection of Mithra. He adopted the title Epiphanes, "god manifest" and introduced new designs on his extensive coinage....

182 Arsaces XII Artabanus (III) The Great King, Theopator, Nicator ? - 77? BC 91 BC 77? BC Son of Vologases (I)
183 Arsaces XIII Mithridates (III) The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Euergetes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philopator, Epiphanes ? - 67 BC 88 BC 67 BC Son of Mithridates II
Mithridates II of Parthia
Mithridates II the Great was king of Parthian Empire from 123 to 88 BC. His name invokes the protection of Mithra. He adopted the title Epiphanes, "god manifest" and introduced new designs on his extensive coinage....

184 Arsaces XIV Orodes I
Orodes I of Parthia
King Orodes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 90 to 80 BC in succession to Gotarzes I. Until 88 BC his reign coincided with that of Mithridates II, the rival king against whom Gotarzes had revolted...

The Great King, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 75 BC 80 BC 75 BC Son of Mithridates II
Mithridates II of Parthia
Mithridates II the Great was king of Parthian Empire from 123 to 88 BC. His name invokes the protection of Mithra. He adopted the title Epiphanes, "god manifest" and introduced new designs on his extensive coinage....

185 Arsaces XV Sanatruces I
Sanatruces of Parthia
King Sanatruces of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 77 to c. 70 BC. He was a member of the Arsacid house, who, according to work attributed to Lucian, in the troubled times after the death of Mithridates II in ca...

The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene 157 BC - 70 BC 77 BC 70 BC Son of Vologases (I)
186 Arsaces XVI ? The Great King, Theopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Eusebes ? - 66 BC 77 BC 66 BC ?
187 Arsaces XVII Phraates III
Phraates III of Parthia
King Phraates III of Parthia succeeded his father Sanatruces and ruled the Parthian Empire from 70 to 57 BC. He was called "the God" because of his coins, that were ideal for sailors because they were polished with gold dust, so that people from other countries considered their value higher than...

The Great King, Theos, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 57 BC 70 BC 57 BC Son of Sanatruces I
Sanatruces of Parthia
King Sanatruces of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from c. 77 to c. 70 BC. He was a member of the Arsacid house, who, according to work attributed to Lucian, in the troubled times after the death of Mithridates II in ca...

Killed by Orodes II
Orodes II of Parthia
Orodes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC. Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his brother Mithridates...

188 Arsaces XVIII ? The Great King, Philopator, Euergetes, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 63 BC 66 BC 63 BC Son of Arsaces XVI
189 Arsaces XIX Mithridates III
Mithridates III of Parthia
King Mithridates III of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire c. 57–54 BC. With the assistance of his brother Orodes he murdered his father Phraates III. He was made king of Media and waged war against his brother, but was soon deposed on account of his cruelty. He took refuge with Aulus Gabinius, the...

 (or IV)
The Great King, The Great King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Theos, Eupator, Theopator, Philhellene ? - 54 BC 65 BC 54 BC Son of Phraates III
Phraates III of Parthia
King Phraates III of Parthia succeeded his father Sanatruces and ruled the Parthian Empire from 70 to 57 BC. He was called "the God" because of his coins, that were ideal for sailors because they were polished with gold dust, so that people from other countries considered their value higher than...

Killed by Orodes II
Orodes II of Parthia
Orodes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC. Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his brother Mithridates...

190 Arsaces XX Orodes II
Orodes II of Parthia
Orodes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC. Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his brother Mithridates...

King of Kings, Philopator, Eupator, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Ktistes ? - 38 BC 57 BC 38 BC Son of Phraates III
Phraates III of Parthia
King Phraates III of Parthia succeeded his father Sanatruces and ruled the Parthian Empire from 70 to 57 BC. He was called "the God" because of his coins, that were ideal for sailors because they were polished with gold dust, so that people from other countries considered their value higher than...

Killed by Phraates IV
Phraates IV of Parthia
King Phraates IV of Parthia, son of Orodes II, ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC. He was appointed successor to the throne in 37 BC, after the death of his brother Pacorus I...

191 Arsaces XXI Pacorus I
Pacorus I of Parthia
Pacorus I of Parthia was the son of king Orodes II and queen Laodice of the Parthian Empire. It is possible that he was co-ruler with his father for at least part of his father's reign...

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 38 BC 50 BC 38 BC Son of Orodes II
Orodes II of Parthia
Orodes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC. Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his brother Mithridates...

Killed in battle with Romans
192 Arsaces XXII Phraates IV
Phraates IV of Parthia
King Phraates IV of Parthia, son of Orodes II, ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC. He was appointed successor to the throne in 37 BC, after the death of his brother Pacorus I...

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 2 BC 38 2 BC Son of Orodes II
Orodes II of Parthia
Orodes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC. Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his brother Mithridates...

Killed by Musa
Musa of Parthia
Musa was Queen of Parthia c. 2 BC – AD 4. She is called as Thermusa by Josephus and is also known as Thea Urania . She was a concubine given by the Roman Emperor Augustus to King Phraates IV of Parthia...

193 Arsaces XXIII Tiridates II
Tiridates II of Parthia
Tiridates II of Parthia was set up by the Parthians against Phraates IV in about 32 BC, but expelled when Phraates returned with the help of the Scythians...

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Autocrator, Philoromaeos ? - after 23 BC 30 BC 25 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Deposed and went to Rome
194 Arsaces XXIV Mithridates (V) ? ? - ? BC 12 BC 9 BC Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
Musa Musa
Musa of Parthia
Musa was Queen of Parthia c. 2 BC – AD 4. She is called as Thermusa by Josephus and is also known as Thea Urania . She was a concubine given by the Roman Emperor Augustus to King Phraates IV of Parthia...

Queen of Queens, Thea, Urania ?- 4? AD 2 BC 4 AD Queen of Phraates IV
Phraates IV of Parthia
King Phraates IV of Parthia, son of Orodes II, ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC. He was appointed successor to the throne in 37 BC, after the death of his brother Pacorus I...

195 Arsaces XXV Phraates V
Phraates V of Parthia
Phraates V of Persia, known by the diminutive Phraataces , ruled the Iranian Parthian Empire from 2 BC to AD 4. He was the younger son of Phraates IV of Parthia and the Musa of Parthia", with whom he is associated on his coins. Under Phraates V a war threatened to break out with Rome about the...

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ?- 4 AD 2 BC 4 AD Son of Phraates IV
Phraates IV of Parthia
King Phraates IV of Parthia, son of Orodes II, ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC. He was appointed successor to the throne in 37 BC, after the death of his brother Pacorus I...

 & Musa
Musa of Parthia
Musa was Queen of Parthia c. 2 BC – AD 4. She is called as Thermusa by Josephus and is also known as Thea Urania . She was a concubine given by the Roman Emperor Augustus to King Phraates IV of Parthia...

Deposed and went to Rome
196 Arsaces XXVI Orodes III
Orodes III of Parthia
King Orodes III of Parthia was raised to the throne of the Parthian Empire around AD 4 by the magnates after the death of Phraates V of Parthia . He was killed after a short reign "on account of his extreme cruelty"...

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 6 4 6 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III) Killed by Parthian aristocrats
197 Arsaces XXVII Vonones I
Vonones I of Parthia
Vonones I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his coins) ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his...

The Great King, King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, Nikephorus ? - 19 8 12 Son of Phraates IV
Phraates IV of Parthia
King Phraates IV of Parthia, son of Orodes II, ruled the Parthian Empire from 37–2 BC. He was appointed successor to the throne in 37 BC, after the death of his brother Pacorus I...

Deposed and went to Rome. Later, He was killed by Romans.
198 Arsaces XXVIII Artabanus II
Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty, who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads...

 (or IV)
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 40 10 40 Probably a descendant of Mithridates (III)
199 Arsaces XXIX Tiridates III
Tiridates III of Parthia
Tiridates III of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 35–36. He was the grandson of Phraates IV. He was sent to Rome as a hostage and was educated there....

? ? - ? 35 36 Probably a descendant of Tiridates II
Tiridates II of Parthia
Tiridates II of Parthia was set up by the Parthians against Phraates IV in about 32 BC, but expelled when Phraates returned with the help of the Scythians...

Deposed and went to Rome
200 Arsaces XXX Cinnamus ? ? - ? 37 37 Son of Artabanus II
Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty, who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads...

 (or IV)
Abdicated
201 Arsaces XXXI Gotarzes II
Gotarzes II of Parthia
Gotarzes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire intermittently between about 40 and 51. He was the son of Artabanus II and when his father died in about 38 and his brother Vardanes I succeeded to the throne, Gotarzes rebelled....

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 11 - 51 40 – 51 Son of Artabanus II
Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty, who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads...

 (or IV)
202 Arsaces XXXII Vardanes I
Vardanes I of Parthia
Vardanes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 40–45. He succeeded his father Artabanus II, but had to continually fight against Gotarzes II, a rival claimant to the throne....

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 46 40 46 Son of Artabanus II
Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty, who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads...

 (or IV)
Killed by Gotarzes II
Gotarzes II of Parthia
Gotarzes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire intermittently between about 40 and 51. He was the son of Artabanus II and when his father died in about 38 and his brother Vardanes I succeeded to the throne, Gotarzes rebelled....

203 Arsaces XXXIII Vonones II
Vonones II of Parthia
Vonones II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 51. During the reign of his brother Gotarzes II he was governor of Media, and was raised to the throne on Gotarzes' death. However, he died after a few months and was succeeded by his son Vologases I....

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 51 c. 45 51 Son of Artabanus II
Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty, who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads...

 (or IV)
204 Arsaces XXXIV Mithridates (VI) ? ? - ? 49 50 Son of Vonones I
Vonones I of Parthia
Vonones I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his coins) ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his...

Deposed and mutilated by Gotarzes II
Gotarzes II of Parthia
Gotarzes II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire intermittently between about 40 and 51. He was the son of Artabanus II and when his father died in about 38 and his brother Vardanes I succeeded to the throne, Gotarzes rebelled....

205 Arsaces XXXV Vologases I
Vologases I of Parthia
Vologases I of Parthia, sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or, following Zoroastrian usage, Valakhsh ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. Son of Vonones II by a Thracian concubine, he succeeded his father in 51 AD. He gave the kingdom of Media Atropatene to his brother Pacorus II,...

 (or II)
King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene, The Lord ? - 77 51 77 Son of Vonones II
Vonones II of Parthia
Vonones II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire briefly in 51. During the reign of his brother Gotarzes II he was governor of Media, and was raised to the throne on Gotarzes' death. However, he died after a few months and was succeeded by his son Vologases I....

206 Arsaces XXXVI Vardanes II
Vardanes II of Parthia
Vardanes II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I and briefly ruler of part of the Parthian Empire. He rebelled against his father from about 55 to 58 CE and must have occupied Ecbatana, since he issued coins from the mint there, bearing the likeness of a young beardless king wearing a diadem with...

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - ? 55 58 Son of Vologases I
Vologases I of Parthia
Vologases I of Parthia, sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or, following Zoroastrian usage, Valakhsh ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. Son of Vonones II by a Thracian concubine, he succeeded his father in 51 AD. He gave the kingdom of Media Atropatene to his brother Pacorus II,...

 (or II)
Deposed
207 Arsaces XXXVII Vologases II
Vologases II of Parthia
Vologases II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I of Parthia and ruled the Parthian Empire from about 77 to 80. Little is known about him. It seems that Vologases II was defeated and deposed by his uncle, Pacorus II of Parthia ....

 (or III)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - ? 77 89/90 Probably son of Vologases I
Vologases I of Parthia
Vologases I of Parthia, sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or, following Zoroastrian usage, Valakhsh ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. Son of Vonones II by a Thracian concubine, he succeeded his father in 51 AD. He gave the kingdom of Media Atropatene to his brother Pacorus II,...

 (or II)
208 Arsaces XXXVIII Pacorus II
Pacorus II of Parthia
Pacorus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 78 to 105. A son of Vonones II and brother of Vologases I, he was given the kingdom of Media Atropatene by the latter after his succession to the throne. After Vologases' death, Pacorus revolted against his brother's son and successor,...

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 115 77 115 Probably son of Vologases I
Vologases I of Parthia
Vologases I of Parthia, sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or, following Zoroastrian usage, Valakhsh ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. Son of Vonones II by a Thracian concubine, he succeeded his father in 51 AD. He gave the kingdom of Media Atropatene to his brother Pacorus II,...

 (or II)
209 Arsaces XXXIX Artabanus III
Artabanus III of Parthia
Artabanus III of Parthia was a rival for the crown of the Parthian Empire during the reign of Pacorus II, against whom he revolted; his own reign extended from about 80 to 81 AD. On a coin of 80 he calls himself Arsaces Artabanus...

 (or V)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - ? 80 81 Probably son of Vologases I
Vologases I of Parthia
Vologases I of Parthia, sometimes called Vologaeses or Vologeses or, following Zoroastrian usage, Valakhsh ruled the Parthian Empire from about 51 to 78. Son of Vonones II by a Thracian concubine, he succeeded his father in 51 AD. He gave the kingdom of Media Atropatene to his brother Pacorus II,...

 (or II)
210 Arsaces XL Osroes I
Osroes I of Parthia
Osroes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire c. 109–129. He succeeded his brother Pacorus II. For the whole of his reign he contended with the rival king Vologases III based in the east of Parthia....

King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 130 89/90 130 Probably son of Vologases II
Vologases II of Parthia
Vologases II of Parthia was the son of Vologases I of Parthia and ruled the Parthian Empire from about 77 to 80. Little is known about him. It seems that Vologases II was defeated and deposed by his uncle, Pacorus II of Parthia ....

 (or III)
211 Arsaces XLI Vologases III
Vologases III of Parthia
Vologases III of Parthia claimed the throne of the Parthian Empire about 105, in the last days of Pacorus II of Parthia . He reigned over the eastern portion of the kingdom from 105 to 147...

 (or IV)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 148 105 148 ?
212 Arsaces XLII Mithridates IV
Mithridates IV of Parthia
Mithridates IV of Parthia ruled the western Parthian Empire from 129 to 140. He was the brother of Osroes I of Parthia . He was the youngest son of the Parthian King Vonones II. During the invasion of Mesopotamia by the Roman emperor Trajan in 116 he and his son Sanatruces II took up the diadem...

 (or VII)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - c. 145 115 c. 145 Brother of Osroes I
Osroes I of Parthia
Osroes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire c. 109–129. He succeeded his brother Pacorus II. For the whole of his reign he contended with the rival king Vologases III based in the east of Parthia....

Killed in battle with Romans
213 Arsaces XLIII Parthamaspates King of Kings, Euergetes, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - after 123 116 117 Son of Osroes I
Osroes I of Parthia
Osroes I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire c. 109–129. He succeeded his brother Pacorus II. For the whole of his reign he contended with the rival king Vologases III based in the east of Parthia....

Deposed and went to Rome
214 Arsaces XLIV Sanatruces II
Sanatruces II of Parthia
Sanatruces II of Parthia, the son of Mithridates IV, was a pretender to the throne of the Parthian Empire during the disputed reign of his uncle Osroes I....

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - c. 145 c. 145 c. 145 son of Mithridates IV
Mithridates IV of Parthia
Mithridates IV of Parthia ruled the western Parthian Empire from 129 to 140. He was the brother of Osroes I of Parthia . He was the youngest son of the Parthian King Vonones II. During the invasion of Mesopotamia by the Roman emperor Trajan in 116 he and his son Sanatruces II took up the diadem...

 (or VII)
Killed in battle with Romans
215 Arsaces XLV Vologases IV
Vologases IV of Parthia
Vologases IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191. The son of Mithridates IV of Parthia , he united the two halves of the empire which had been split between his father and Vologases III of Parthia...

 (or V)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 191 148 191 Son of Mithridates IV
Mithridates IV of Parthia
Mithridates IV of Parthia ruled the western Parthian Empire from 129 to 140. He was the brother of Osroes I of Parthia . He was the youngest son of the Parthian King Vonones II. During the invasion of Mesopotamia by the Roman emperor Trajan in 116 he and his son Sanatruces II took up the diadem...

 (or VII)
216 Arsaces XLVI Vologases V
Vologases V of Parthia
Vologases V of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 to 208. He was the son of Vologases IV . His succession was not uncontested; a rival King Osroes II had already set himself up in Media before the death of the previous ruler, but Vologases V appears to have quickly put him down.Vologases...

 (or VI)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 208 191 208 Son of Vologases IV
Vologases IV of Parthia
Vologases IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191. The son of Mithridates IV of Parthia , he united the two halves of the empire which had been split between his father and Vologases III of Parthia...

 (or V)
217 Arsaces XLVII Osroes II
Osroes II of Parthia
Osroes II of Parthia was a claimant of the throne of the Parthian Empire c. 190. He is unknown to history except for the coins he issued. The date of his reign suggests that he rebelled against Vologases IV but was unable to maintain himself against Vologases V. His coins were issued by the mint at...

King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - ? c. 190 c. 195 Probably son of Vologases IV
Vologases IV of Parthia
Vologases IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191. The son of Mithridates IV of Parthia , he united the two halves of the empire which had been split between his father and Vologases III of Parthia...

 (or V)
218 Arsaces XLVIII Vologases VI
Vologases VI of Parthia
]Vologases VI of Parthia succeeded his father Vologases V of Parthia to the throne of the Parthian Empire in 208. Soon after his accession his brother Artabanus IV rebelled against him, and became master of the greater part of the empire...

 (or VII)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene 181 - 228 208 228 Son of Vologases V
Vologases V of Parthia
Vologases V of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 to 208. He was the son of Vologases IV . His succession was not uncontested; a rival King Osroes II had already set himself up in Media before the death of the previous ruler, but Vologases V appears to have quickly put him down.Vologases...

 (or VI)
Killed by Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

219 Arsaces XLIX Artabanus IV
Artabanus IV of Parthia
Artabanus IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire . He was the younger son of Vologases V who died in 208. Artabanus rebelled against his brother Vologases VI, and soon gained the upper hand, although Vologases VI maintained himself in a part of Babylonia until about 228.The Roman emperor...

 (or VI)
King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - 226 213 226 Son of Vologases V
Vologases V of Parthia
Vologases V of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 191 to 208. He was the son of Vologases IV . His succession was not uncontested; a rival King Osroes II had already set himself up in Media before the death of the previous ruler, but Vologases V appears to have quickly put him down.Vologases...

 (or VI)
Killed by Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

220 Arsaces L Tiridates IV King of Kings, Dikaios, Epiphanes, Philhellene ? - ? 217 222 Son of Vologases IV
Vologases IV of Parthia
Vologases IV of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191. The son of Mithridates IV of Parthia , he united the two halves of the empire which had been split between his father and Vologases III of Parthia...

 (or V)
He was also king of Armenia
Sassanid dynasty
Sassanid Empire
The Sassanid Empire , known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān in Middle Persian and resulting in the New Persian terms Iranshahr and Iran , was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty from 224 to 651...

, 224-c. 670 AD
221 Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

Shahanshah ? - sept. 241 April 28, 224 sept. 241 Son of Papak son of Sasan
Sasan
Sāsān , considered the eponymous ancestor of the Sasanians, was "a great warrior and hunter" and a Zoroastrian high priest in south western Iran and living sometime near the fall of the Arsacid Empire.-Identity of Sasan:...

222 Shapur I
Shapur I
Shapur I or also known as Shapur I the Great was the second Sassanid King of the Second Persian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 - 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242 .-Early years:Shapur was the son of Ardashir I...

Shahanshah 215 - April 273 April 12, 240 April 273 Son of Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

223 Hormizd I
Hormizd I
Hormizd I was the third Sassanid King of Persia from 270/72 to 273.He was the youngest son of Shapur I , under whom he was governor of Khorasan, and appears in his wars against Rome Hormizd I was the third Sassanid King of Persia from 270/72 to 273.He was the youngest son of Shapur I...

Hormozd-Ardashir Shahanshah, Vozorg Armananshah ? - April 274 April 273 April 274 Son of Shapur I
Shapur I
Shapur I or also known as Shapur I the Great was the second Sassanid King of the Second Persian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 - 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242 .-Early years:Shapur was the son of Ardashir I...

224 Bahram I
Bahram I
Bahram I was the fourth Sassanid emperor of the second Persian Empire. He was the eldest son of Shapur I and succeeded his brother Hormizd I , who had reigned for only a year....

Shahanshah, Gilanshah ? - July 277 April 274 July 277 Son of Shapur I
Shapur I
Shapur I or also known as Shapur I the Great was the second Sassanid King of the Second Persian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 - 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242 .-Early years:Shapur was the son of Ardashir I...

225 Bahram II
Bahram II
Bahram II was the fifth Sassanid King of Persia in 276–293. He was the son of Bahram I .Bahram II is said to have ruled at first tyrannically, and to have greatly disgusted all his principal nobles, who went so far as to form a conspiracy against him, and intended to put him to death...

Shahanshah ? - 294 July 277 293 Son of Bahram I
Bahram I
Bahram I was the fourth Sassanid emperor of the second Persian Empire. He was the eldest son of Shapur I and succeeded his brother Hormizd I , who had reigned for only a year....

226 Bahram III
Bahram III
Bahram III was the sixth Sassanid King of Persia and son of Bahram II. He was appointed viceroy to the region of Sakasthan after Bahram II's conquest of it sometime in the 280's CE....

Shahanshah, Sakanshah ? - 293 293 293 Son of Bahram II
Bahram II
Bahram II was the fifth Sassanid King of Persia in 276–293. He was the son of Bahram I .Bahram II is said to have ruled at first tyrannically, and to have greatly disgusted all his principal nobles, who went so far as to form a conspiracy against him, and intended to put him to death...

Deposed
227 Narseh I
Narseh
Narseh was the seventh Sassanid King of Persia , and son of Shapur I ....

Shahanshah, Vozorg Armananshah ? - 302 293 302 Son of Shapur I
Shapur I
Shapur I or also known as Shapur I the Great was the second Sassanid King of the Second Persian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 - 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent prior to his father's death in 242 .-Early years:Shapur was the son of Ardashir I...

228 Hormizd II
Hormizd II
Hormizd II, was the eighth Persian king of the Sassanid Empire, and reigned for seven years and five months, from 302 to 309. He was the son of Narseh .Almost nothing is known of his reign...

Shahanshah ? - feb. 310 302 feb. 310 Son of Narseh I
Narseh
Narseh was the seventh Sassanid King of Persia , and son of Shapur I ....

Killed in battle with Arabs
229 Narseh II Adur-narseh Shahanshah ? - March 310 Feb. 310 March 310 Son of Hormizd II
Hormizd II
Hormizd II, was the eighth Persian king of the Sassanid Empire, and reigned for seven years and five months, from 302 to 309. He was the son of Narseh .Almost nothing is known of his reign...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
230 Shapur II
Shapur II
Shapur II the Great was the ninth King of the Persian Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 and son of Hormizd II. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first golden era since the reign of Shapur I...

Shahanshah, Huyah Sonba March 310 - 379 March 310 379 Son of Hormizd II
Hormizd II
Hormizd II, was the eighth Persian king of the Sassanid Empire, and reigned for seven years and five months, from 302 to 309. He was the son of Narseh .Almost nothing is known of his reign...

231 Ardashir II
Ardashir II
Ardashir II was the tenth Sassanid King of Persia from 379 to 383.He is believed by some to be the son and by others to be the brother of his predecessor, Shapur II...

Shahanshah ? - 383 379 383 Son of Shapur II
Shapur II
Shapur II the Great was the ninth King of the Persian Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 and son of Hormizd II. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first golden era since the reign of Shapur I...

232 Shapur III
Shapur III
Shapur III was the eleventh Sassanid King of Persia from 383 to 388. Shapur III succeeded his father Ardashir II in the year 383.- Treaty with Rome :...

Shahanshah ? - Dec. 388 383 Dec. 388 Son of Shapur II
Shapur II
Shapur II the Great was the ninth King of the Persian Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 and son of Hormizd II. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first golden era since the reign of Shapur I...

233 Bahram IV
Bahram IV
Bahram IV was twelfth Sassanid King of Persia , son and successor of Shapur III of Persia , under whom he had been governor of Kerman; therefore he was called Kermanshah Bahram IV was twelfth Sassanid King of Persia (388–399), son and successor of Shapur III of Persia (383–388), under whom he had...

Shahanshah, Kermanshah ? - 399 Dec. 388 399 Son of Shapur II
Shapur II
Shapur II the Great was the ninth King of the Persian Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379 and son of Hormizd II. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first golden era since the reign of Shapur I...

234 Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I, or Izdekerti , was the thirteenth Sassanid king of Persia and ruled from 399 to 421. He is believed by some to be the son of Shapur III and by others to be son of Bahram IV...

Shahanshah 363 - Jan. 21, 421 399 Jan. 21, 421 Son of Shapur III
Shapur III
Shapur III was the eleventh Sassanid King of Persia from 383 to 388. Shapur III succeeded his father Ardashir II in the year 383.- Treaty with Rome :...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
235 Shapur IV Shahanshah, Armananshah ? - Feb. 421 Feb. 421 Feb. 421 Son of Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I, or Izdekerti , was the thirteenth Sassanid king of Persia and ruled from 399 to 421. He is believed by some to be the son of Shapur III and by others to be son of Bahram IV...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
236 Bahram V
Bahram V
Bahram V was the fourteenth Sassanid King of Persia . Also called Bahram Gur or Bahramgur , he was a son of Yazdegerd I , after whose sudden death he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of Mundhir, the Arab dynast of al-Hirah.- Reign and war with Rome :Bahram V...

Shahanshah, Goor 391 - June 20, 439 421 June 20, 439 Son of Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I
Yazdegerd I, or Izdekerti , was the thirteenth Sassanid king of Persia and ruled from 399 to 421. He is believed by some to be the son of Shapur III and by others to be son of Bahram IV...

237 Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II was the fifteenth Sassanid King of Persia. He was the son of Bahram V and reigned from 438 to 457....

Shahanshah ? - Dec. 15, 456 June 20, 439 Dec. 15, 456 Son of Bahram V
Bahram V
Bahram V was the fourteenth Sassanid King of Persia . Also called Bahram Gur or Bahramgur , he was a son of Yazdegerd I , after whose sudden death he gained the crown against the opposition of the grandees by the help of Mundhir, the Arab dynast of al-Hirah.- Reign and war with Rome :Bahram V...

238 Hormizd III
Hormizd III
Hormizd III, sixteenth Sassanid King of Persia, son of Yazdegerd II , succeeded his father in 457.Hormizd, the older son of Yazdegerd II, was kept near Ctesiphon, while his younger brother, Peroz, was stationed in Sistan. Following his father's death, Hormizd became ruler of the Sassanian Empire...

Shahanshah 399 - 459 457 459 Son of Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II was the fifteenth Sassanid King of Persia. He was the son of Bahram V and reigned from 438 to 457....

Killed by Peroz I
Peroz I
Peroz I Peroz I Peroz I (also Pirooz; Peirozes (Priscus, fr. 33); Perozes (Procopius, De Bello Pers. I. 3 and Agathias iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457...

239 Peroz I
Peroz I
Peroz I Peroz I Peroz I (also Pirooz; Peirozes (Priscus, fr. 33); Perozes (Procopius, De Bello Pers. I. 3 and Agathias iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457...

Shahanshah ? - Jan. 484 457 Jan. 484 Son of Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II was the fifteenth Sassanid King of Persia. He was the son of Bahram V and reigned from 438 to 457....

Killed in battle with Hephthalites
240 Balash
Balash
Balash , the eighteenth Sassanid King of Persia in 484–488, was the brother and successor of Peroz I of Persia , who had died in a battle against the Hephthalites who invaded Persia from the east.- Reign of Balash :Balash was made King of Persia following the death of his...

Shahanshah ? - 488 Feb. 484 488 Son of Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II
Yazdegerd II was the fifteenth Sassanid King of Persia. He was the son of Bahram V and reigned from 438 to 457....

241 Kavadh I
Kavadh I
Kavad or Kavadh I was the son of Peroz I and the nineteenth Sassanid king of Persia, reigning from 488 to 531...

Shahanshah 449 - 531 488 496 Son of Peroz I
Peroz I
Peroz I Peroz I Peroz I (also Pirooz; Peirozes (Priscus, fr. 33); Perozes (Procopius, De Bello Pers. I. 3 and Agathias iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457...

Deposed
242 Djamasp
Djamasp
Djamasp was a Sassanid king who ruled from 496 to 498. He was a younger brother of king Kavadh I and was installed on the Sassanid throne upon the deposition of the latter by members of the nobility....

Shahanshah ? - 502 496 498 Son of Peroz I
Peroz I
Peroz I Peroz I Peroz I (also Pirooz; Peirozes (Priscus, fr. 33); Perozes (Procopius, De Bello Pers. I. 3 and Agathias iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457...

Deposed
241 Kavadh I
Kavadh I
Kavad or Kavadh I was the son of Peroz I and the nineteenth Sassanid king of Persia, reigning from 488 to 531...

Shahanshah 449 - Sept. 13, 531 498 Sept. 13, 531 Son of Peroz I
Peroz I
Peroz I Peroz I Peroz I (also Pirooz; Peirozes (Priscus, fr. 33); Perozes (Procopius, De Bello Pers. I. 3 and Agathias iv. 27; the modern form of the name is Perooz, Piruz, or the Arabized Ferooz, Firuz; Persian: پیروز "the Victor"), was the seventeenth Sassanid King of Persia, who ruled from 457...

243 Khosrau I
Khosrau I
Khosrau I , also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just Khosrau I (also called Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan or Anushirwan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just...

Shahanshah, Anushiravan, The Just 500 - Jan. 31 579 Sept. 13, 531 Jan. 31 579 Son of Kavadh I
Kavadh I
Kavad or Kavadh I was the son of Peroz I and the nineteenth Sassanid king of Persia, reigning from 488 to 531...

244 Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari. His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests...

Shahanshah, Torkzad 528 - 590 Jan. 31 579 Sept. 5, 590 Son of Khosrau I
Khosrau I
Khosrau I , also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just Khosrau I (also called Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan or Anushirwan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just...

Killed by Vistahm
245 Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

Shahanshah, Aparviz 550 - 628 Sept. 590 Sept. 590 Son of Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari. His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests...

Deposed and went to Rome
246 Bahram VI Shahanshah, Chubineh ? - 592 Sept. 590 Jan. 591 Son of Bahram-Goshnasp from House of Mihran
House of Mihran
The House of Mihrān was a leading Iranian noble family , one of the Seven Great Houses of the Sassanid Persian Empire which claimed descent from the earlier Arsacid dynasty...

Killed by Turks
245 Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

Shahanshah, Aparviz 550 - 628 Jan. 591 Feb. 25, 628 Son of Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari. His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests...

Killed by Kavadh II
Kavadh II
Kavadh II , twenty-third Sassanid King of Persia, son of Khosrau II , was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius...

247 Vistahm Shahanshah, Peroz ? - 596 592 596 Son of Shapur from House of Espandyad. He was uncle of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

 & husband of Gorduyah sister of Bahram VI
Killed by his wife Gorduyah sister of Bahram VI
248 Hormizd V
Hormizd V
Hormizd V was briefly the ruler of the Sassanid Empire. Described as a usurper, he was one of many pretenders who rose after the temporary deposition of Chosroes II by Bahram Chobin....

Shahanshah ? - ? ?593 ?593 Probably son of Vistahm & Gorduyah sister of Bahram VI
249 Kavadh II
Kavadh II
Kavadh II , twenty-third Sassanid King of Persia, son of Khosrau II , was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius...

Shiruyah Shahanshah ? - Sept. 15, 628 Feb. 25, 628 Sept. 15, 628 Son of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

250 Ardashir III
Ardashir III
Ardashir III was the twenty-fourth Sassanid King of Persia from 628 to 630.He was a son of Kavadh II/Shiroes and "Anzoy the Roman". His mother was probably from the Byzantine Empire. He was raised to the throne as a boy of seven years, but was killed 18 months later by his general, Shahrbaraz .-...

Shahanshah 598 - April 27, 630 Sept. 15, 628 April 27, 630 Son of Kavadh II
Kavadh II
Kavadh II , twenty-third Sassanid King of Persia, son of Khosrau II , was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius...

Killed by Farrokhan
Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz or Shahrwaraz was a general, with the rank of Eran Spahbod under Khosrau II . His name was Farrokhan, and Shahrbaraz was his title...

251 Farrokhan
Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz or Shahrwaraz was a general, with the rank of Eran Spahbod under Khosrau II . His name was Farrokhan, and Shahrbaraz was his title...

Shahanshah, Shahrvaraz, Rumi-zan ? - June 9, 630 April 27, 630 June 9, 630 Son of Ardashir from House of Varaz. He was husband of Boran daughter of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
252 Khosrau III Shahanshah ? - ? May 630 after July 635 Son of Kavadh son of Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as the twenty-first King of Persia from 579 to 590.He seems to have been imperious and violent, but not without some kindness of heart. Some very characteristic stories are told of him by Tabari. His father's sympathies had been with the nobles and the priests...

253 Boran Shahbano 590 - Oct. 631 June 630 Oct. 631 Daughter of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

 & Wife of Farrokhan
Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz or Shahrwaraz was a general, with the rank of Eran Spahbod under Khosrau II . His name was Farrokhan, and Shahrbaraz was his title...

254 Peroz II Goshnasp-Bandeh Shahanshah ? - Dec. 631 Oct. 631 Dec. 631 Son of Mihran-Goshnasp & Chaharbakht who was daughter of Yazdandad son of Khosrau I
Khosrau I
Khosrau I , also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just Khosrau I (also called Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anushirvan or Anushirwan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anushiravan the Just or Anushirawan the Just...

. Probably he was also husband of Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht was the twenty-seventh Sassanid Monarch of Persia, and daughter of Khosrau II. She ruled Persia after her sister Purandokht.After the death of her father Khosrau II anarchy spread in the Sassanid empire. The subsequent rulers could stay for only a relatively brief time on the throne,...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
255 Khosrau IV Shahanshah ? - Dec. 631 Dec. 631 Dec. 631 Brother of Peroz II Killed by Iranian aristocrats
256 Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht was the twenty-seventh Sassanid Monarch of Persia, and daughter of Khosrau II. She ruled Persia after her sister Purandokht.After the death of her father Khosrau II anarchy spread in the Sassanid empire. The subsequent rulers could stay for only a relatively brief time on the throne,...

Shahbano ? - April 632 Dec. 631 April 632 Daughter of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

 & probably wife of Peroz II
Killed by Iranian aristocrats
257 Hormizd VI
Hormizd VI
Hormizd VI or V, twenty-eighth Sassanid King of Persia, was one of the many pretenders who rose after the murder of Khosrau II in 628. He maintained himself about two years in the district of Nisibis. There was also a brief usurper king, not always numbered among the monarchs, called Hormizd V in...

Shahanshah ? - ? April 632 after July 633 Son of Kavadh II
Kavadh II
Kavadh II , twenty-third Sassanid King of Persia, son of Khosrau II , was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
258 Khosrau V Farrokhzad Shahanshah ? - Oct. 632 April 632 Oct. 632 Son of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

Killed by Iranian aristocrats
259 Yazdegerd III Shahanshah ? - 652 Oct. 632 652 Son of Shahryar son of Khosrau II
Khosrau II
250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II 250px|thumb|Khosrau II (Khosrow II, Chosroes II, or Xosrov II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the Ever Victorious" – (in Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia, reigning from 590 to 628...

Killed
262 Peroz III Shahanshah ? - before 673 652 after 670 Son of Yazdegerd III

Arab Caliphs, 641-946 AD


For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Rashidun
Rashidun
The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs who established the Rashidun Caliphate. The concept of "Rightly Guided Caliphs" originated with the Abbasid Dynasty...

 Caliphs, 641-692 AD
260 Umar I
Umar
`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c. 2 November , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad who later became the second Muslim Caliph after Muhammad's death....

Abu Hafş, Al-Farouq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 590 - 644 641 644 son of Khattab. Also he was father of Hafşa wife of Muhammad Second caliph in Medina from 633 AD. Killed
261 Uthman Abu Amr, Zonnurain, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 579 - 656 644 656 son of Affan of Umayyad clan of Quraish Killed
263 Ali Ab ol-Hasan, Al-Mortaza, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam 598 - 661 656 661 son of Abu Talib. He was also son-in-law of Muhammad Killed
264 Hasan
Hasan ibn Ali
Al-Hasan ibn ‘Alī ibn Abī Tālib ‎ is an important figure in Islam, the son of Fatimah the daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib. Hasan is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt and Ahl al-Kisa...

Abu Mohammad, Al-Mojtaba, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin, Great Imam 625 - 670 661 661 son of Imam Ali Abdicated
268 Abdollah Caliph 624 - 692 684 692 son of Zubayr son of Safiah aunt of Muhammad killed by Hajjaj ibn Yusif
Umayyad
Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the...

 Caliphs, 661–750
265 Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

Abu Abdollah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 661 680 son of Abu Sofyan cousin of Muhammad
266 Yazid I
Yazid I
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya ibn Abī Sufyān , commonly known as Yazid I, was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate . He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE. Many Muslims condemn Yazid's rule as contentious and unjust...

Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 680 683 son of Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

267 Muawiya II
Muawiya II
Muawiyah II was an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father Yazīd...

Abu Abd or-Rahman, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 683 684 son of Yazid I
Yazid I
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya ibn Abī Sufyān , commonly known as Yazid I, was the second Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate . He ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE. Many Muslims condemn Yazid's rule as contentious and unjust...

Abdicated (?)
269 Marwan I
Marwan I
Marwan ibn al-Hakam was the fourth Umayyad Caliph, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya...

Abu Abd ol-Malik, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 684 685 son of Hakam cousin of Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I
Muawiyah I was the first Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH...

Killed by his wife
270 Abd ol-Malik Ab ol-Walid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 685 705 son of Marwan I
Marwan I
Marwan ibn al-Hakam was the fourth Umayyad Caliph, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya...

271 Walid I Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 705 715 son of Abd ol-Malik
272 Suleiman Ab Ayyub, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 715 717 son of Abd ol-Malik
273 Umar II Abu Hafş, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 717 720 son of Abd ol-Aziz son of Marwan I
Marwan I
Marwan ibn al-Hakam was the fourth Umayyad Caliph, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya...

274 Yazid II
Yazid II
Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.According to the medieval Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Yazid came to power on the death of Umar II on February 10, 720. His forces engaged in battle the Kharijites with whom Umar...

Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 720 724 son of Abd ol-Malik
275 Hisham
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik 10th Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father....

Ab ol-Walid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 724 743 son of Abd ol-Malik
276 Walid II
Al-Walid II
Walid ibn Yazid or Walid II was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 743 until 744. He succeeded his uncle, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik....

Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 743 744 son of Yazid II
Yazid II
Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.According to the medieval Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Yazid came to power on the death of Umar II on February 10, 720. His forces engaged in battle the Kharijites with whom Umar...

277 Yazid III
Yazid III
Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn 'Abd al-Malik or Yazid III was an Umayyad caliph. He reigned for six months, from April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744; and died in that office....

Abu Khalid, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 744 son of Walid I and Shahfarand daughter of Peroz III Killed
278 Ebrahim Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 744 son of Walid I Killed
279 Marwan II
Marwan II
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus.In A.H. 114 Caliph Hisham appointed Marwan governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan. In A.H...

Abu Abd ol-Malik, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 744 750 son of Mohammad son of Marwan I
Marwan I
Marwan ibn al-Hakam was the fourth Umayyad Caliph, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II abdicated in 684. Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya...

Ruled from Harran
Harran
Harran was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 24 miles southeast of Şanlıurfa...

 in the Jazira
Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey which is known by the traditional Arabic name of Al-Jazira , variously transliterated into Roman script as Djazirah, Djezirah and Jazirah...

. Killed by Saffah
As-Saffah
Abu al-`Abbās `Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad as-Saffāh, or Abul `Abbas al-Saffah , was the first Abbasid caliph .As-Saffah was the head of one branch of the Banu Hashim, who traced their lineage to Hashim, a great-grandfather of...

Abbasid
Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

 Caliphs, 750–946
280 Saffah
As-Saffah
Abu al-`Abbās `Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad as-Saffāh, or Abul `Abbas al-Saffah , was the first Abbasid caliph .As-Saffah was the head of one branch of the Banu Hashim, who traced their lineage to Hashim, a great-grandfather of...

Abdollah Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 750 754 son of Mohammad son of Ali son of Abdollah, a cousin of Muhammad
281 Mansur
Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur, Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH .-Biography:...

Abdollah Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 754 775 brother of Saffah
As-Saffah
Abu al-`Abbās `Abdu'llāh ibn Muhammad as-Saffāh, or Abul `Abbas al-Saffah , was the first Abbasid caliph .As-Saffah was the head of one branch of the Banu Hashim, who traced their lineage to Hashim, a great-grandfather of...

282 Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi , was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 158 AH to 169 AH . He succeeded his father, al-Mansur....

Mohammd Abu Abdellah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 775 785 son of Mansur
Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur, Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH .-Biography:...

283 Hadi
Al-Hadi
Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi was the fourth Abbasid caliph who succeeded his father Al-Mahdi and ruled from 169 AH until his death in 170 AH ....

Musa Abu Mohammd, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 785 786 son of Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi , was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 158 AH to 169 AH . He succeeded his father, al-Mansur....

284 Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Hārūn al-Rashīd was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph in Iraq. He was born in Rey, Iran, close to modern Tehran. His birth date remains a point of discussion, though, as various sources give the dates from 763 to 766)....

Harun Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 786 809 son of Mahdi
Al-Mahdi
Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi , was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 158 AH to 169 AH . He succeeded his father, al-Mansur....

285 Amin
Al-Amin
Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin , Abbasid Caliph. He succeeded his father, Harun al-Rashid in 809 and ruled until he was killed in 813.-Caliph:...

Mohammad Abu Abdollah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 809 813 son of Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Hārūn al-Rashīd was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph in Iraq. He was born in Rey, Iran, close to modern Tehran. His birth date remains a point of discussion, though, as various sources give the dates from 763 to 766)....

Killed by Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
Abū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Māʾmūn ibn Harūn was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833...

286 Ma'mun
Al-Ma'mun
Abū Jaʿfar Abdullāh al-Māʾmūn ibn Harūn was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833...

Abdollah Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 813 833 son of Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Hārūn al-Rashīd was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph in Iraq. He was born in Rey, Iran, close to modern Tehran. His birth date remains a point of discussion, though, as various sources give the dates from 763 to 766)....

287 Mo'tasem
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

Mohammad Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 833 842 son of Rashid
Harun al-Rashid
Hārūn al-Rashīd was the fifth Arab Abbasid Caliph in Iraq. He was born in Rey, Iran, close to modern Tehran. His birth date remains a point of discussion, though, as various sources give the dates from 763 to 766)....

288 Wathiq
Al-Wathiq
Al-Wathiq ibn Mutasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 842 until 847 AD .-Biography:...

Harun Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 842 847 son of Mo'tasem
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

289 Motevakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

Ja'far Ab ol-Fazl, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 847 861 son of Mo'tasem
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

Killed by Montaser
Al-Muntasir
Al-Muntasir was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 861 to 862. His pious title means He that Triumphs in the Lord.Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari records that in A.H. 236 al-Muntasir led the pilgrimage. The previous year al-Mutawakkil had named his three son's heirs and seeming to favour al-Muntasir...

290 Montaser
Al-Muntasir
Al-Muntasir was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 861 to 862. His pious title means He that Triumphs in the Lord.Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari records that in A.H. 236 al-Muntasir led the pilgrimage. The previous year al-Mutawakkil had named his three son's heirs and seeming to favour al-Muntasir...

Mohammad Abu Ja'far, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 861 862 son of Motevakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

291 Mosta'in
Al-Musta'in
Al-Musta'in was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 862 to 866. After the death of previous Caliph, al-Muntasir, the Turkish chiefs held a council to select his successor; they would have none of al-Mu'tazz, nor his brothers; so they elected him, another grandson of al-Mu'tasim.The Arabs and...

Ahmad Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 862 866 son of Mohammad son of Mo'tasem
Al-Mu'tasim
Abu Ishaq 'Abbas al-Mu'tasim ibn Harun was an Abbasid caliph . He succeeded his half-brother al-Ma'mun...

Deposed and later killed
292 Mo'taz
Al-Mu'tazz
Al-Mu'tazz was the title of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 866 to 869. Placed upon the throne by the Turks, he proved but too apt a pupil of his Turkish masters.He became the caliph at 19 he was the youngest Abbasaid Caliph to assume power. He was surrounded by parties each jealous of the other...

Zobayr Abu Abdellah, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 866 869 son of Motevakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

Deposed and later killed
293 Mohtadi
Al-Muhtadi
Al-Muhtadi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 869 to 870.After the death of al-Mu'tazz, the Turks chose his cousin, al-Muhtadi, son of al-Wathiq by a Grecian slave-girl, as the new Caliph. Al-Muhtadi turned out be firm and virtuous compared to the last few Caliphs...

Mohammad Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 869 870 son of Wathiq
Al-Wathiq
Al-Wathiq ibn Mutasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 842 until 847 AD .-Biography:...

294 Mo'tamed
Al-Mu'tamid
This article is about the Abbasid Caliph al-Mu'tamid of Baghdad. For the Andalusi Arabic poet who was also the Abbadid king of Seville, see Muhammad Ibn Abbad Al Mutamid...

Ahmad Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 870 892 son of Motevakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

295 Mo'tazed
Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Mu'tadid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 to 902. As the son and heir of the powerful vizier and virtual regent Al-Muwaffaq , Mu'tadid was already in possession of supreme power even before he was appointed Caliph, and continued as Caliph to ably administer the Government...

Ahmad Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 892 902 son of Talhat el-Movaffaq son of Motevakkil
Al-Mutawakkil
Al-Mutawakkil ʻAlā Allāh Jaʻfar ibn al-Muʻtasim was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861...

296 Moktafi
Al-Muktafi
Al-Muktafi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 902 to 908. He was the son of the previous Caliph, al-Mu'tadid, by a Turkish slave-girl. In command of ar Raqqah at the time of his father's death, he at once returned to the Capital, where he became a favorite of the people for his generosity,...

Ali Abu Mohammad, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 902 908 son of Mo'tazed
Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Mu'tadid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 to 902. As the son and heir of the powerful vizier and virtual regent Al-Muwaffaq , Mu'tadid was already in possession of supreme power even before he was appointed Caliph, and continued as Caliph to ably administer the Government...

297 Moqtader
Al-Muqtadir
Al-Muqtadir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 AD to 932 AD .After the previous Caliph, al-Muktafi, was confined for several months to his sick-bed, intrigue was made for some time as to his successor...

Ja'far Ab ol-Fazl, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 908 932 son of Mo'tazed
Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Mu'tadid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 to 902. As the son and heir of the powerful vizier and virtual regent Al-Muwaffaq , Mu'tadid was already in possession of supreme power even before he was appointed Caliph, and continued as Caliph to ably administer the Government...

Killed
298 Qaher
Al-Qahir
Al-Qahir bi'llah Abu Mansour Muhammad Al Qahir Bellah was the 19th Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 932 to 934. He was born 286 Hijri and 899 C.E...

Mohammad Abu Mansur, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 932 934 son of Mo'tazed
Al-Mu'tadid
Al-Mu'tadid was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 to 902. As the son and heir of the powerful vizier and virtual regent Al-Muwaffaq , Mu'tadid was already in possession of supreme power even before he was appointed Caliph, and continued as Caliph to ably administer the Government...

Deposed and blinded
300 Razi
Ar-Radi
Ar-Radi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 934 to his death at the age of thirty-three in 940.The seven years' reign of ar-Radi, son of al-Muqtadir, was but a succession of misfortune. Praised for his piety, he became the mere tool of the chief minister of the day. The authority of the Caliph...

Mohammad Ab ol-Abbas, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 934 940 son of Moqtader
Al-Muqtadir
Al-Muqtadir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 AD to 932 AD .After the previous Caliph, al-Muktafi, was confined for several months to his sick-bed, intrigue was made for some time as to his successor...

302 Mottaqi
Al-Muttaqi
Al-Muttaqi was the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad from 940 to 944.Of such little importance the Caliphate had become by now that when the previous Caliph al-Radi died, Bajkam, Amir al-Umara , contented himself with despatching to Baghdad his secretary, who assembled the chief men to elect a successor...

Ebrahim Abu Is'haq, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 940 944 son of Moqtader
Al-Muqtadir
Al-Muqtadir was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 AD to 932 AD .After the previous Caliph, al-Muktafi, was confined for several months to his sick-bed, intrigue was made for some time as to his successor...

Deposed and blinded
304 Mostakfi
Al-Mustakfi
Al-Mustakfi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 944 to 946. He was installed by Tuzun, a Turkish general who disposed and blinded the previous Caliph al-Muttaqi....

Abdollah Ab ol-Qasem, Caliph, Amir al-Mu'minin 944 946 son of Moktafi
Al-Muktafi
Al-Muktafi was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 902 to 908. He was the son of the previous Caliph, al-Mu'tadid, by a Turkish slave-girl. In command of ar Raqqah at the time of his father's death, he at once returned to the Capital, where he became a favorite of the people for his generosity,...

Deposed and blinded by Mo'ez o-dowleh

Buyid Empire, 933-1062 AD


For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Diylamids of Fars, 933–1062 AD
299 Emad od-Dowleh Ali Abolhasan, Emir ?892 - 949 933 949 son of Buyeh
305 Azad od-Dowleh Panah Khosrow Abushoja', Emir 937 - 982 949 982 son of Rokn od-Dowleh
309 Sharaf od-Dowleh Shirdel Abolfavares, Emir 962 - 989 982 989 son of Azad od-Dowleh
313 Shams od-Dowleh Abuali, Emir ? - 989 989 989 son of Sharaf od-Dowleh
310 Samsam od-Dowleh Marzban Abukalijar, Emir 964 - 998 989 998 son of Azad od-Dowleh
316 Nur od-Dowleh Salar Emir ? - 1000? 998 999 son of Izz od-Dowleh
'Izz al-Daula
Izz al-Daula was the Buyid amir of Iraq . He was born Bakhtiyar, and was the son of Mu'izz al-Daula.In the spring of 955, Mu'izz al-Daula became very ill and decided to name his son as his successor. Five years later, the caliph officially recognized this by granting Bakhtiyar the title of "'Izz...

312 Baha' od-Dowleh Firuz Abunasr, Emir 970 - 1012 999 1012 son of Azad od-Dowleh
317 Soltan od-Dowleh Abushoja', Emir 992 - 1024 1012 1024 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
320 Qavam od-Dowleh Shirdel Abolfavares, Emir 999 - 1028 1024 1026 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
322 Emad od-Din Marzban Abukalijar, Emir ?1011 - 1048 1026 1048 son of Soltan od-Dowleh
325 Fuladsotun Abumansur, Emir ? - ? 1048 1048 son of Emad od-Din
326 Malek or-Rahim Khosrow Firuz Abunasr, Emir ? - 1058 1048 1050 son of Emad od-Din
325 Fuladsotun Abumansur, Emir ? - ? 1050 1051 son of Emad od-Din
327 Khosrow Shah Abusa'id, Emir ? - ? 1051 1053 son of Emad od-Din
325 Fuladsotun Abumansur, Emir ? - ? 1053 1062 son of Emad od-Din
Diylamids of Rey, Isfahan, and Hamedan, 935–c. 1038 AD
301 Rokn od-Dowleh Hasan Abuali, Emir 898 - 976 935 976 son of Buyeh
307 Mo'ayyed od-Dowleh Buyeh Abumansur, Emir 941 - 983 976 983 son of Rokn od-Dowleh
308 Fakhr od-Dowleh Ali Abolhasan, Emir 952 - 997 976 997 son of Rokn od-Dowleh From 976 to 979 only in Rey. From 979 to 983 in exile.
314 Majd od-Dowleh Rostam Abutaleb, Emir 993 - 1029 997 1029 son of Fakhr od-Dowleh Only in Rey
315 Shams od-Dowleh Shah Khosrow Abutaher, Emir ? - 1021 997 1021 son of Fakhr od-Dowleh Only in Isfahan and Hamedan
319 Sama' od-Dowleh Ali Abolhasan, Emir ? - 1023 1021 1023 son of Shams od-Dowleh Only in Hamedan
324 Panah Khosrow Abukalijar, Emir ? - ? c. 1036 c. 1038 son of Majd od-Dowleh Only in Rey
Diylamids of Iraq and Khuzistan, 945–c. 1055 AD
303 Mo'ez od-Dowleh Ahmad Abolhosein, Emir 915 - 966 945 966 son of Buyeh
306 Izz od-Dowleh
'Izz al-Daula
Izz al-Daula was the Buyid amir of Iraq . He was born Bakhtiyar, and was the son of Mu'izz al-Daula.In the spring of 955, Mu'izz al-Daula became very ill and decided to name his son as his successor. Five years later, the caliph officially recognized this by granting Bakhtiyar the title of "'Izz...

Bakhtiar Abumansur, Emir 943 - 977 966 977 son of Mo'ez od-Dowleh
305 Azad od-Dowleh Panah Khosrow Abushoja', Emir 937 - 982 977 982 son of Rokn od-Dowleh
310 Samsam od-Dowleh Marzban Abukalijar, Emir 964 - 998 982 986 son of Azad od-Dowleh
311 Sharaf od-Dowleh Shirdel Abolfavares, Emir 962 - 989 986 989 son of Azad od-Dowleh
312 Baha' od-Dowleh Firuz Abunasr, Emir 970 - 1012 989 1012 son of Azad od-Dowleh
317 Soltan od-Dowleh Abushoja', Emir 992 - 1024 1012 1021 son of Baha od-Dowleh
318 Mosharraf od-Dowleh
Musharrif al-Daula
Abu 'Ali was the Buyid amir of Iraq . He was the youngest son of Baha' al-Daula.In 1021 the Turkish establishment in Baghdad, which had become upset over the influence of amir Sultan al-Daula's Daliam troops, raised Abu 'Ali to power. Given the title "Musharrif al-Daula", he decided to negotiate...

Hasan Abuali, Emir 1002–1025 1021 1025 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
321 Jalal od-Dowleh
Jalal al-Daula
Abu Tahir Jalal al-Daula was the Buyid amir of Iraq . He was the son of Baha' al-Daula.In 1012 Jalal al-Daula's father died. His brother, Sultan al-Daula came to the throne and appointed him as governor of Basra. He ruled there up until Musharrif al-Daula, who had taken control of Iraq, died in...

Shirdel (or Firuz Khosrow) Abutaher, Emir 994 - 1043 1025 1025 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
322 Emad od-Din Marzban Abukalijar, Emir ?1011 - 1048 1025 1027 son of Soltan od-Dowleh
321 Jalal od-Dowleh
Jalal al-Daula
Abu Tahir Jalal al-Daula was the Buyid amir of Iraq . He was the son of Baha' al-Daula.In 1012 Jalal al-Daula's father died. His brother, Sultan al-Daula came to the throne and appointed him as governor of Basra. He ruled there up until Musharrif al-Daula, who had taken control of Iraq, died in...

Shirdel (or Firuz Khosrow) Abutaher, Emir 994 - 1043 1027 1043 son of Baha' od-Dowleh
322 Emad od-Din Marzban Abukalijar, Emir ?1011 - 1048 1043 1048 son of Soltan od-Dowleh
326 Malek or-Rahim Khosrow Firuz Abunasr, Emir ? - 1058 1048 1055 son of Emad od-Din

Seljuq Empire, 1029–1194


For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Seljuq Empire, 1029–1194
323 Toğrül I Mohammad Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Beg, Sultan 995 - 1063 1029 1063 son of Mikayil son of Seljuq
328 Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan was the third sultan of the Seljuq dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty...

Mohammad Azad od-Dowleh, Abushoja', Sultan 1039–1072 1063 1072 son of Chaghri Beg Dawud brother of Toğrül I Killed by a captured soldier
329 Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
Jalāl al-Dawlah Malik-shāh was born in 1055, succeeded Alp Arslan as the Seljuq Sultan in 1072, and reigned until his death in 1092....

Hasan Jalal od-Dowleh, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1055–1092 1072 1092 son of Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan was the third sultan of the Seljuq dynasty and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty...

Killed by Assassins
330 Mahmud I Nasir od-Din, abolqasem, Sultan 1086–1094 1092 1094 son of Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
Jalāl al-Dawlah Malik-shāh was born in 1055, succeeded Alp Arslan as the Seljuq Sultan in 1072, and reigned until his death in 1092....

331 Barkiyaruq
Barkiyaruq
Abu al-Muzaffar Rukn ud-Dīn Barkyāruq bin Malikšāh was the sultan of Great Seljuq from 1094-1105.He was a son of Malik Shah I and participated in the succession wars against his three brothers, Mahmud I, Ahmed Sanjar, and Mehmed I....

Mohammad Rukn od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan 1080–1105 1094 1105 son of Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
Jalāl al-Dawlah Malik-shāh was born in 1055, succeeded Alp Arslan as the Seljuq Sultan in 1072, and reigned until his death in 1092....

333 Malik Shah II
Malik Shah II
Mu'izz ad-Din Malik Shah II Was Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad during 1105. He was the grandson of Malik Shah I, and was theoretically the head of the dynasty, although his relative Ahmed Sanjar in Khorasan probably held more effective power....

Mu'izz od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1101 - ? 1105 1105 son of Barkiyaruq
Barkiyaruq
Abu al-Muzaffar Rukn ud-Dīn Barkyāruq bin Malikšāh was the sultan of Great Seljuq from 1094-1105.He was a son of Malik Shah I and participated in the succession wars against his three brothers, Mahmud I, Ahmed Sanjar, and Mehmed I....

Deposed & blinded by Mehmed I
334 Mehmed I Tapar Ghiyath od-Din, Abushoja', Sultan 1082–1118 1105 1118 son of Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
Jalāl al-Dawlah Malik-shāh was born in 1055, succeeded Alp Arslan as the Seljuq Sultan in 1072, and reigned until his death in 1092....

332 Sanjar
Ahmed Sanjar
Ahmad Sanjar Ahmad Sanjar Ahmad Sanjar (Mu'iz ud-Dīn Ahmad-e Sanjar; was the sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire from 1118 to 1153. He was initially the sultan of Khorasan until he gained the rest of the territory upon the death of Muhammad I....

Ahmad Mu'izz od-Din, Abolhareth, Sultan 1087–1157 1097 1157 son of Malik Shah I
Malik Shah I
Jalāl al-Dawlah Malik-shāh was born in 1055, succeeded Alp Arslan as the Seljuq Sultan in 1072, and reigned until his death in 1092....

335 Mahmud II Moghith od-Din, Sultan 1104–1131 1118 1131 son of Mehmed I
336 Dawud Moghith od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ? - 1132 1131 1132 son of Mahmud II
337 Toğrül II Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Sultan 1109–1134 1132 1134 son of Mehmed I
338 Mas'ud Ghiath od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan 1109–1152 1134 1152 son of Mehmed I
339 Malik Shah III Moghith od-Din, Sultan 1128–1160 1152 1153 son of Mahmud II
340 Mohammad II Ghith od-Din, Abushoja', Sultan 1128–1160 1153 1160 son of Mahmud II
343 Süleyman Shah Mu'izz od-Din, Abolhareth, Sultan 1118–1162 1160 1161 son of Mehmed I Deposed
344 Arsalan Rukn od-Din, Sultan 1134–1176 1161 1176 son of Toğrül II
347 Toğrül III Rukn od-Din, Abutaleb, Sultan ? - 1194 1176 1194 son of Arsalan Killed

Khwārazm-Shāh Empire, 1153–1231


An empire built from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia, is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, which borders to the north the Aral Sea, to the east the Kyzylkum desert, to the south the Karakum desert and to the west the Ustyurt Plateau...

, covering part of Iran and neighbouring Central Asia.
For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Khwārazm-Shāh Empire, 1153–1231
341 Atsiz
Atsiz
Atsïz was Khwarazm Shah from 1127 until his death. He was the son of Qutb ad-Din Muhammad.Atsïz gained his position following his father's death in 1127. During the early part of his reign he focused on securing Khwarazm against nomad attacks. In 1138 he rebelled against his suzerain, the Seljuk...

Ala' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan ? - 1156 1153 1156 son of Muhammad I of Khwarazm
Muhammad I of Khwarazm
Qutb al-Din Muhammad was Khwarazm Shah from 1097 until his death. He was the son of Anush Tigin.In around 1097 Qutb al-Din Muhammad was appointed governor of Khwarazm by the Seljuk sultan Barkiyaruq's military commander, Habashi ibn Altun-Taq...

Ruling in Khwārazm from 1127
342 Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan was Khwarazm Shah from 1156 until his death. He was the son of Atsïz.In 1152 Il-Arslan was made governor of Jand, an outpost on the Syr Darya which had recently been reconquered, by his father. In 1156 Atsïz died and Il-Arslan succeeded him as Khwarazm-Shah...

Taj od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ? - 1171 1156 1172 son of Atsiz
Atsiz
Atsïz was Khwarazm Shah from 1127 until his death. He was the son of Qutb ad-Din Muhammad.Atsïz gained his position following his father's death in 1127. During the early part of his reign he focused on securing Khwarazm against nomad attacks. In 1138 he rebelled against his suzerain, the Seljuk...

345 Soltanshah
Sultan Shah of Khwarezm
Sultan Shah was a claimant to the title of Khwarazm Shah from 1172 until his death. He was the son of Il-Arslan.In 1172 Il-Arslan died and his sons began fighting over who would succeed him. Sultan Shah was the younger son, but he was considered the formal heir and his mother, Terken Khatun,...

Mahmud Jalal od-Din, Abolqasem, Sultan ? - 1172 1172 1193 son of Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan was Khwarazm Shah from 1156 until his death. He was the son of Atsïz.In 1152 Il-Arslan was made governor of Jand, an outpost on the Syr Darya which had recently been reconquered, by his father. In 1156 Atsïz died and Il-Arslan succeeded him as Khwarazm-Shah...

346 Tekish Ala' od-Din, Abolmozaffar, Sultan ? - 1199 1172 1200 son of Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan
Il-Arslan was Khwarazm Shah from 1156 until his death. He was the son of Atsïz.In 1152 Il-Arslan was made governor of Jand, an outpost on the Syr Darya which had recently been reconquered, by his father. In 1156 Atsïz died and Il-Arslan succeeded him as Khwarazm-Shah...

348 Mohammad
Muhammad II of Khwarezm
Ala ad-Din Muhammad II was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. His ancestor was a Turkic slave who eventually became a viceroy of a small province named Khwarizm. After his father died, Muhammad inherited his father's lands, and it was from there he began expanding outwards...

Ala' od-Din, Qotb od-Din, Abolfat'h, Sultan ? - 1221 1200 1221 son of Tekish
349 Mingburnu Jalal od-Din, Sultan ? - 1231 1220 1231 son of Mohammad II
Muhammad II of Khwarezm
Ala ad-Din Muhammad II was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. His ancestor was a Turkic slave who eventually became a viceroy of a small province named Khwarizm. After his father died, Muhammad inherited his father's lands, and it was from there he began expanding outwards...

Killed

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
The Mongol Empire , initially named as Greater Mongol State was a great empire during the 13th and 14th centuries...

, 1230-1357 AD


For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
The Great Khans, 1221–1256
350 Genghis
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

Temuchin Khan, Qa'an 1162–1227 1221 1227 son of Yesugei Baghatur
Yesugei
Yesügei Baghatur , was major chief of the Kiyad-Borjigin clan and the father of Temüjin , Hasar, Hachiun, Temüge, Temülen, Behter, and Belgutei. Yesügei was the son of Bartan Baghatur, who was the son of Khabul Khan, who was recognized as a khagan by the Jin Dynasty...

Ruling in Mongolia from 1206
Tolui
Tolui
Tolui, was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte...

Khan 1192–1232 August 25, 1227 September 13, 1229 son of Genghis
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

Regent
351 Ögedei
Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan, born Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire by succeeding his father...

Khan, Qa'an c. 1186 – December 11, 1241 September 13, 1229 December 11, 1241 son of Genghis
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan , born Temujin and occasionally known by his temple name Taizu , was the founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death....

Töregene
Töregene Khatun
Töregene Khatun was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.-Background:...

Khatun ? – ? 1242 1246 Wife of Ögedei
Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan, born Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire by succeeding his father...

Regent
352 Güyük
Güyük Khan
Güyük was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. As the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan, he reigned from 1246 to 1248...

Khan, Qa'an c. 1206–1248 1246 1248 son of Ögedei
Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan, born Ögedei was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire by succeeding his father...

 and Töregene
Töregene Khatun
Töregene Khatun was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.-Background:...

Oghul Qaimish
Oghul Qaimish
Oghul Qaimish was the principal wife of Güyük Khan and ruled as regent over the Mongol empire after the death of her husband in 1248. She was a descendant from the Mergid tribe. However, H.H.Howorth believed that she was an Oirat.- Life :...

Khatun ? – ? 1248 1251 Wife of Güyük
Güyük Khan
Güyük was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. As the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan, he reigned from 1246 to 1248...

Regent
353 Möngke
Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan , born Möngke, , was the fourth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire from July 1, 1251 – August 11, 1259. He was the first Great Khan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign...

Khan, Qa'an January 10, 1209 – August 11, 1259 July 1, 1251 August 11, 1259 son of Tolui
Tolui
Tolui, was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte...

Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate , was a Mongol khanate established in Azerbaijan and Persia in the 13th century, considered a part of the Mongol Empire...

, 1256–1357
354 Hulagu
Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu , was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia...

Khan, Ilkhan c. 1217 – 8 February 1265 1256 8 February 1265 son of Tolui
Tolui
Tolui, was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte...

355 Abaqa Khan, Ilkhan 1234–1282 1265 April 1, 1282 son of Hulagu
Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu , was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia...

356 Tekuder
Tekuder
Ahmed Tekuder , also known as Sultan Ahmad , was the sultan of the Persia-based Ilkhanate, son of Hulegu and brother of Abaqa. He was eventually succeeded by Arghun Khan...

Nicholas, Ahmad Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan ? – 1284 1282 1284 son of Hulagu
Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu , was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia...

Killed
357 Arghun
Arghun
Arghun Khan aka Argon was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist...

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan c. 1258 – March 7, 1291 1284 March 7, 1291 son of Abaqa
358 Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu was the fifth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran. He reigned from 1291 to 1295. During his reign, Gaykhatu was a noted dissolute who was addicted to wine, women, and sodomy...

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan ? – 1295 1291 1295 son of Abaqa Killed
359 Baydu
Baydu
Baydu was the sixth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate division in Iran. He succeeded his cousin Gaykhatu as khan of the Ilkhanate state in 1295....

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan ? – 1295 1295 1295 son of Toghay son of Hulagu
Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu , was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia...

Killed
360 Ghazan Mahmud Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan 1271–1304 1295 1304 son of Arghun
Arghun
Arghun Khan aka Argon was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist...

361 Öljaitü
Öljaitü
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit , born Muhammad Khodabandeh , was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler in Iran from 1304 to 1316...

Mohammad Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Khodabandeh 1280 - December 16, 1316 1304 December 16, 1316 son of Arghun
Arghun
Arghun Khan aka Argon was the fourth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate, from 1284 to 1291. He was the son of Abaqa Khan, and like his father, was a devout Buddhist...

362 Abu Sa'id
Abu Sa'id (Ilkhanid dynasty)
Abu Sa'id also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder , was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran ....

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Ala' od-Din, Bahador June 2, 1305 – December 1, 1335 1316 December 1, 1335 son of Öljaitü
Öljaitü
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit , born Muhammad Khodabandeh , was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler in Iran from 1304 to 1316...

363 Arpa
Arpa Ke'un
Arpa Ke'un, also known as Arpa Khan or Gavon or Gawon , was an Ilkhan during the disintegration of the Mongol state in Persia. He was a member of the house of Tolui. His lineage traced back to Arik Boke who was a youngest brother of Mongke, Kublai and Hulegu.Arpa Ke'un came to power following the...

Mahmud Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Kauen, Mo'ezz od-Din ? – 1336 1335 April 10, 1336 son of Suseh son of Munkqan son of Malektemur son of Eriqbuka son of Tolui
Tolui
Tolui, was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte...

Killed
364 Musa
Musa (Ilkhanid dynasty)
Musa Khan was an Ilkhan from 1336 to 1337 and a grandson of Baydu.He was installed to the throne of the Ilkhanate by the governor of Baghdad, 'Ali Padsah, on April 12, two days after the latter had defeated Arpa Ke'un in battle. Musa was meant to be a puppet to 'Ali. However, Musa was challenged by...

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Naser od-Din ? – 1337 April 12, 1336 1337 son of Ali son of Baydu
Baydu
Baydu was the sixth ruler of the Mongol empire's Ilkhanate division in Iran. He succeeded his cousin Gaykhatu as khan of the Ilkhanate state in 1295....

365 Mohammad
Muhammad Khan (Ilkhan)
Muhammad Khan was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate. He was a great-grandson of Mengu Timur, who was a son of Hulegu....

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Mozaffar od-Din ? – 1338 1336 1338 son of Yul Qotloq son of Il Temur son of Ambarji son of Mengu Temur son of Hulagu
Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu , was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia...

366 Sati beg
Sati Beg
Al-sultana al-radila Sati Beg Khan Khallad Allah Mulkaha was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate during the fragmentation of Persia in the mid-14th century. She was the uterine sister of the Ilkhan Abu Sa'id....

Khatun c.1300 – after 1345 1338 1339 daughter of Öljaitü
Öljaitü
Öljeitü, Oljeitu, Olcayto or Uljeitu, Öljaitu, Ölziit , born Muhammad Khodabandeh , was the eighth Ilkhanid dynasty ruler in Iran from 1304 to 1316...

367 Jahan Temur
Jahan Temur
Jahan Temür was a Jalayirid candidate for the throne of the Ilkhanate in the late 1330s. He was the son of Ala-Fireng and the grandson of the Ilkhan Gaykhatu....

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Izz od-Din ? – ? 1339 1340 son of Ala-Fireng son of Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu was the fifth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran. He reigned from 1291 to 1295. During his reign, Gaykhatu was a noted dissolute who was addicted to wine, women, and sodomy...

368 Soleiman Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan ? – ? May 1339 1345 Husband of Sati beg
Sati Beg
Al-sultana al-radila Sati Beg Khan Khallad Allah Mulkaha was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate during the fragmentation of Persia in the mid-14th century. She was the uterine sister of the Ilkhan Abu Sa'id....

. Also he was son of Yusef Shah son of Soga son of Yeshmut son of Hulagu
Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü, Hulegu , was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia...

369 Togha Temür
Togha Temür
Togha Temür , also known as Taghaytimur, was a claimant to the throne of the Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century. Of the many individuals who attempted to become Ilkhan after the death of Abu Sa'id, Togha Temür was the only one who hailed from eastern Iran, and was the last major candidate who was of...

Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan ? – 1353 1335 1353 son of Sudi son of Bababahathor son of Abokan son of Amakan son of Tur son of Jujiqisar son of Yesugei Baghatur
Yesugei
Yesügei Baghatur , was major chief of the Kiyad-Borjigin clan and the father of Temüjin , Hasar, Hachiun, Temüge, Temülen, Behter, and Belgutei. Yesügei was the son of Bartan Baghatur, who was the son of Khabul Khan, who was recognized as a khagan by the Jin Dynasty...

370 Anushirwan Khan, Ilkhan, Soltan, Adel ? – ? 1344 1357 ?

Rival Dynasties, 1332-1501 AD


For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Sarbadars
Sarbadars
The Sarbadars were a mixture of religious dervishes and secular rulers that came to rule over part of western Khurasan in the midst of the disintegration of the Mongol Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century...

, 1332-1386

  1. Abd al-Razzaq ibn Fazlullah (1332–1338)
  2. Wajih ad-Din Masud ibn Fazlullah (1338–1343)
  3. Muhammad Ay Temur (1343–1346)
  4. Kaba Isfendiyar (1346–1347)
  5. Lutf Allah (1347-1348 d.1361)
  6. Khwaja Tadj ad-Din Ali (1348–1353)
  7. Yahya ibn Karawi (1353–1358)
  8. Zahir ad-Din (1358–1359)
  9. Haidar al-Qassab (1359–1360)
  10. Lutf Allah (restored) (1360–1361)
  11. Hasan al-Damghani (1361–1364)
  12. Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud (1364-1376 d.1386)
  13. Rukn ad-Din (1376–1379)
  14. Khwaja 'Ali-yi Mu'ayyad ibn Masud (restored) (1379–1386)

Jalayirids
Jalayirids
The Jalayirids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia in the 1330s....

, 1335–1432

  1. Hasan Buzurg
    Hasan Buzurg
    Shaikh Hasan, called "Buzurg" , was the first of several de facto independent Jalayirid rulers of Iraq and central Iran. He was the son of Husain and Öljetey.-Shaikh Hasan-i Buzurg:...

     (1336–1356)
  2. Shaikh Uvais I
    Shaikh Uvais
    Shaikh Uvais, also known as Uways or Oways , was a Jalayirid ruler of Iraq and Azerbaijan . He was the son of Hasan Buzurg and the Chobanid Delsad Katun.-Life:...

     (1356–1374)
  3. Hasan
    Hasan (Jalayirids)
    Hasan was briefly Jalayirid ruler . He was the eldest son of Shaikh Uvais.After his father died, Hasan succeeded him, but was never popular among the people. Shortly after he began his reign, he was executed by his amirs, who then put his brother Husain on the throne.-References:*Peter Jackson...

     (1374)
  4. Husain I
    Husain (Jalayirids)
    Husain was a Jalayirid ruler . He was the son of Shaikh Uvais.Following the execution of his brother Hasan, the amirs placed Husain on the throne. Almost immediately he had to deal with an invasion by his brother-in-law Shah Mahmud of the Muzaffarids. Shah Mahmud, who was the son-in-law of Shaikh...

     (1374–1382)
  5. Bayazid (1382–1383)
  6. Ahmad
    Ahmad (Jalayirids)
    Sultan Ahmad was a Jalayirid ruler . He was the son of Shaikh Uvais.-Struggle With His Brothers:Ahmad came to power as a result of a plot against his brother Husain. In 1382 he departed from Ardabil, which he had been given control of, and took Tabriz; Husain was captured and executed...

     (1383–1410)
  7. Shah Walad (1410–1411)
  8. Mahmud (1411–1415)
  9. Uwais II
    Uvais II
    Uvais II was a Jalayirid ruler of Basra . He was the son of Shah Walad.In 1415 Uvais succeeded his brother Mahmud as Jalayirid ruler. During his reign, he conducted two campaigns against the Black Sheep Turkmen in an attempt to recover Baghdad for the Jalayirids. While conducting the second...

     (1415–1421)
  10. Mohammed (1421–1422)
  11. Mahmud II (1422–1424)
  12. Husain II (1424–1432)

Injuids
Injuids
The House of Inju was a Mongol dynasty that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD...

, 1335–1357

  1. Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah (1304–1325)
  2. Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau (1336–1338/9)
  3. Amir Jalal al-Din Mas'ud Shah (in opposition to Kai-Khusrau) (c. 1338–c. 1342)
  4. Shams al-Din Muhammad (in opposition to Mas'ud Shah) (1339)
  5. Shaikh Abu Ishaq (c. 1343–1357)

Muzaffarids
Muzaffarids
The Mozaffarids were a family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century.-Rise to Power:The Mozaffaris were a family that settled in Khorasan from the beginning of Caliphal rule there. They stayed in Khorasan up until the Mongol invasion of that province,...

, 1314–1393

  1. Mubariz ad-Din Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar, Emir 1314–1358
  2. Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1335–1364 with...
  3. Qutb Al-Din Shah Mahmud (at Isfahan) ( d. 1375), 1358–1366
  4. Abu'l Fawaris Djamal ad-Din Shah Shuja (at Yazd, 1353 at Shiraz), 1366–1384
  5. Mujahid ad-Din Zain Al-Abidin 'Ali, 1384–1387
    • In 1387 Timur
      Timur
      Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

       captured Isfahan
      Isfahan (city)
      Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

      .
  6. Imad ad-Din Sultan Ahmad (at Kerman), 1387–1391 with...
  7. Mubariz ad-Din Shah Yahya (at Shiraz), 1387–1391 and...
  8. Sultan Abu Ishaq (in Sirajan), 1387–1391
  9. Shah Mansur (at Isfahan), 1391–1393

Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

, 1375–1468

  1. Qara Muhammad Turmush ibn Bairam Khwaja, 1378/9 to c.1388
  2. Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad
    Qara Yusuf
    Abu Nasr Qara Yusuf Nuyan ibn Muhammad was the ruler of the Kara Koyunlu or Black Sheep Turkomans from c.1388 to 1420, although his reign was interrupted by the Timurid invasion .-The Jalayirid vassalage broken:...

    , c.1388 to 1399/1400 and 1405/6 to 1420/1
  3. Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf
    Qara Iskander
    Qara Iskander ibn Yusuf ruled the Kara Koyunlu or Black Sheep Turcoman tribe from 1420-1436. His struggles with the Timurid ruler Shah Rukh show that he was a brave leader, but he was not able to continue developing what he inherited from his father Qara Yusuf and his reign saw the decline and...

    , 1420/1 to 1436
  4. Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf
    Jahan Shah
    Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf ‎ was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu Turkmen tribal federation in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c.1438-1467. During his reign he managed to expand the Kara Koyunlu’s territory to its largest extent, including Western Anatolia, most of present day Iraq,...

    , 1436 to 10 November 1467
  5. Hasan ’Ali ibn Jahan Shah, November 1467 to 1468

Ak Koyunlu
Ak Koyunlu
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans , was an Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled parts of present-day Eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, and Iran from 1378 to 1508.-History:According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu...

, 1378–1508

  1. Kara Yülük Osman
    Kara Osman
    Qara Osman or Kara Osman or Qara Yoluq Osman or sometimes Uthman was a late 14th- and early 15th-century leader of the Turkmen tribal federation of Aq Qoyunlu in what is now Azerbaijan, Iraq, and Turkey...

    , 1378/9 to 1435/6
  2. Hamza, 1435/6 to 1444/5
  3. Nur al-Din ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1435/6 to 1438
  4. M‘uizz al-Din Jihangir ibn ‘Ali ibn Qara Yülük, 1444/5 to 1453/4
  5. Uzun Hasan ibn ‘Ali, 1453/4 to 1478/9
  6. Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan, 1478/9 to 1479/80
  7. Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan, 1479/80 to 1490/1
  8. Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub, 1490/1 to 1491/2
  9. Rustam ibn Maqsud, 1491/2 to 1496/7
  10. Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad, 1496/7 to 1497/8
  11. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1497/8 to 1499/1500
  12. Alwand ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  13. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1499/1500 to 1500/01
  14. Muhammad Mirza ibn Yusuf, 1500/01 to 1501/2
  15. Murad ibn Ya‘qub, 1501/2 to 1508 (second term)

Timurid dynasty
Timurid Dynasty
The Timurids , self-designated Gurkānī , were a Persianate, Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turko-Mongol descent whose empire included the whole of Iran, modern Afghanistan, and modern Uzbekistan, as well as large parts of contemporary Pakistan, North India, Mesopotamia, Anatolia and the...

, 1380–1507

  1. Timur
    Timur
    Timur , historically known as Tamerlane in English , was a 14th-century conqueror of West, South and Central Asia, and the founder of the Timurid dynasty in Central Asia, and great-great-grandfather of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, which survived as the Mughal Empire in India until...

     ("Tamerlane"), 1369–1405, nominally under the authority of the Chagatai Khanate
    Chagatai Khanate
    The Chagatai Khanate was a Turko-Mongol khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan , second son of the Great Khan Genghis Khan, and his descendents and successors...

  2. Pir Muhammad
    Pir Muhammad
    Pir Muhammad was a grandson and appointed successor of Timur. He was the son of Jahangir.In 1392 he received the governorship of Qandahar. His territory extended from the lands west of the Hindu Kush to the Indus River...

    , grandson of Timur, 1392–1407, effectively ruled from Qandahar
  3. Djalal Ud-Din Miran Shah
    Miran Shah
    Miran Shah was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his father's lifetime.Miran Shah's first charge was a vast region centered around Qandahar, which he was granted in 1383. That same year, he destroyed a rebellion against Timurid authority by the Kartids, then vassals of Timur in...

    , son of Timur, 1405–1408, ruled Azerbaijan
    Azerbaijan
    Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

  4. Rustam, 1405–1409, ruled Arabistan
    Arabian Peninsula
    The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

  5. Khalil Sultan (Timurid dynasty), son of Miran Shah, 1405–1409, ruled in Samarkand
    Samarkand
    Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

    , surrendered to Shah Rukh
    Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty)
    Shāhrukh Mīrzā was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur - the founder of the Timurid dynasty - governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447...

    , became governor of Rayy until his death in 1411
  6. Shah Rukh
    Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty)
    Shāhrukh Mīrzā was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur - the founder of the Timurid dynasty - governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447...

    , son of Timur, 1405–1447, ruled first in Transoxiana
    Transoxiana
    Transoxiana is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgystan and southwest Kazakhstan. Geographically, it is the region between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers...

    • Ayyal, 1414, opposed Shah Rukh
    • Ailankar, 1414–1415, opposed Shah Rukh
  7. Bayqara, 1409–1412, ruled in Fars
  8. Iskandar
    Iskandar (Timurid dynasty)
    Iskandar was a ruler of Persia of the Timurid dynasty, ruling from 1412-1414....

    , 1412–1414, ruled first in Fars, then Azerbaijan & Arabistan
    • In 1410 the Turcoman horde Kara Koyunlu
      Kara Koyunlu
      The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

       (Black Sheep) captured Baghdad and their leaders
      Rulers of Kara Koyunlu
      This is the list of rulers of Kara Koyunlu dynasty . The dynasty ruled the territory now part of present-day Iran, Iraq and eastern Turkey. Their capital was the city of Tabriz.-Kara Koyunlu rulers:...

       ruled the western parts of the Timurid realm. In the East however, Shah Rukh
      Shah Rukh (Timurid dynasty)
      Shāhrukh Mīrzā was the ruler of the eastern portion of the empire established by the Central Asian warlord Timur - the founder of the Timurid dynasty - governing most of Persia and Transoxiana between 1405 and 1447...

       was able to secure his rule in Transoxiana
      Transoxiana
      Transoxiana is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgystan and southwest Kazakhstan. Geographically, it is the region between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers...

       and Fars.
  9. Ulugh Beg
    Ulugh Beg
    Ulugh Bek was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan. His commonly-known name is not truly a personal name, but rather a moniker, which can be loosely translated as "Great Ruler" or "Patriarch Ruler" and was the Turkic equivalent of Timur's Perso-Arabic title Amīr-e...

    , son of Shah Rukh, 1447–1449


Rulers in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
Transoxiana is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgystan and southwest Kazakhstan. Geographically, it is the region between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers...

:
  1. Abd al-Latif ibn Muhammad Taraghay Ulughbek, son of Ulugh Beg, 1449–1450
  2. 'Abdullah Mirza, grandson of Shah Rukh, 1450–1451
  3. Abu Sa'id ibn Muhammad
    Abu Sa'id (Timurid dynasty)
    Abū Saʿīd b. Muḥammad b. Mīrānshāh b. Timūr , was a Timurid Empire ruler in what is today parts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran and Afghanistan and member of the Timurid dynasty....

    , grandson of Miran Shah, 1451–1469, conquered Khurasan
    Greater Khorasan
    Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

     in 1459


Rulers in Khurasan
Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

:
  1. Babur Ibn-Baysunkur
    Babur Ibn-Baysunkur
    Babur Ibn-Baysunkur , also known as Abu'l-Qasim Bābur, was a Timurid ruler in Khurasan . He was the son of Baysunqar, and thus the a grandson of Shāhrukh Mirzā....

    , grandson of Shah Rukh, 1449–1457
  2. Shah Mahmud
    Mahmud (Timurid Dynasty)
    Shah Mahmud was briefly a Timurid ruler of Herat. He was the son of Babur Ibn-Baysunkur, who was a great-grandson of Timur.Shah Mahmud succeeded his father upon his death in 1457 at the age of eleven. Only a few weeks later, his cousin Ibrahim, a son of 'Ala' al-Daula, expelled him from Herat...

    , son of Babur, 1457
  3. Ibrahim
    Ibrahim (Timurid Dynasty)
    Ibrahim was a Timurid ruler of Herat in the fifteenth century. He was the son of 'Ala' al-Daula, a great-grandson of Timur.Ibrahim came to power in Herat in the aftermath of the death of Babur Ibn-Baysunkur. Babur's son Shah Mahmud had succeeded him but, as he was still a boy, his hold on power...

    , 1457
  4. Jahan Shah
    Jahan Shah
    Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf ‎ was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu Turkmen tribal federation in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c.1438-1467. During his reign he managed to expand the Kara Koyunlu’s territory to its largest extent, including Western Anatolia, most of present day Iraq,...

    , leader of the Black Sheep Turcomans
    Kara Koyunlu
    The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

    , 1457–1458


Abu Sa'id
Abu Sa'id (Timurid dynasty)
Abū Saʿīd b. Muḥammad b. Mīrānshāh b. Timūr , was a Timurid Empire ruler in what is today parts of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran and Afghanistan and member of the Timurid dynasty....

, agreed to divide Iran with the Black Sheep Turcomans
Kara Koyunlu
The Kara Koyunlu or Qara Qoyunlu, also called the Black Sheep Turkomans , were a Shi'ite Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled over the territory comprising the present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, north-western Iran, eastern Turkey and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.The Kara Koyunlu Turkomans at one...

 under Jahan Shah
Jahan Shah
Muzaffar al-Din Jahan Shah ibn Yusuf ‎ was the leader of the Kara Koyunlu Turkmen tribal federation in Azerbaijan and Arran who reigned c.1438-1467. During his reign he managed to expand the Kara Koyunlu’s territory to its largest extent, including Western Anatolia, most of present day Iraq,...

, but the White Sheep Turcomans
Ak Koyunlu
The Aq Qoyunlu or Ak Koyunlu, also called the White Sheep Turkomans , was an Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribal federation that ruled parts of present-day Eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, northern Iraq, and Iran from 1378 to 1508.-History:According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, the Aq Qoyunlu...

 under Uzun Hassan
Uzun Hassan
Uzun Hasan or Hassan , Sultan of the Aq Qoyunlu dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen. Hassan ruled in parts of present-day western Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan and Armenia between 1453 and 1478....

 defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id.


After Abu Sa'id's death a fourth era of fragmentation follows. While the White Sheep Turcomans dominated in the western parts until the ascent of the Safavid dynasty, the Timurides could maintain their rule in Samarkand
Samarkand
Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

 and Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

.


Rulers in Samarkand:
  1. Sultan Ahmad
    Sultan Ahmad
    Sultan Ahmad ibn Abu Sa’id was the Timurid ruler of Samarkand from 1469 till 1494. During his rule he successfully repelled at least one invasion attempt by the Kara Koyunlu, and failed in an attempt to conquer Herat from the land of Khurasan from its ruler Husayn Bayqarah. He was succeeded by his...

    , son Abu Sa'id, 1469–1494
  2. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1494–1495
  3. Masud, 1495
  4. Sultan Baysunghur, 1495–1497
  5. Sultan Ali Mirza 1495–1500


conquered by the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...



Rulers in Herat:
  1. Sultan Mahmud, son of Abu Sa'id, 1469
  2. Husayn Bayqarah
    Husayn Bayqarah
    Husayn Bayqarah was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 to 1506, with a brief interruption in 1470. His father was Mansur, a great-grandson of Timur...

    , 1469–1506
  3. Badi' al-Zaman, son of Husayn, 1506–1507, fled to the court of Ismail I
    Ismail I
    Ismail I , known in Persian as Shāh Ismāʿil , was a Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty which survived until 1736. Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, an extremist heterodox Twelver Shi'i militant religious order and unified all of Iran...



conquered by the Uzbeks
Uzbeks
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Pakistan, Mongolia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China...

, later recaptured by the Safavids

Modern Empire, 1501-1979 AD


For more comprehensive lists of kings and sub-kings of this Era see:
  • Muslim dynasties of Iran

Throne Name Original Name Portrait Title Born-Died Entered office Left office Family Relations Note
Safavid dynasty, 1501–1786
1 Ismail I
Ismail I
Ismail I , known in Persian as Shāh Ismāʿil , was a Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty which survived until 1736. Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, an extremist heterodox Twelver Shi'i militant religious order and unified all of Iran...

Shah, Sultan 1487–1524 7 November 1502 23 May 1524 son of Sultan Heidar
2 Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
Tahmasp or Tahmasb I was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty...

Shah, Sahib-i-Qiran, Sultan bar Salatin 1514–1576 23 May 1525 25 May 1576 son of Ismail I
Ismail I
Ismail I , known in Persian as Shāh Ismāʿil , was a Shah of Iran and the founder of the Safavid dynasty which survived until 1736. Isma'il started his campaign in Azerbaijan in 1500 as the leader of the Safaviyya, an extremist heterodox Twelver Shi'i militant religious order and unified all of Iran...

3 Ismail II
Ismail II
Ismail II was the third Safavid Shah of Iran.-Life:Ismail was the son of Shah Tahmasp I by a Turcoman mother, Sultanum Bekum Mawsillu. In 1547, he was appointed governor of the province of Shirvan where he led several expeditions against the Ottomans...

Shah 1537–1577 25 May 1576 24 November 1577 son of Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
Tahmasp or Tahmasb I was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty...

Poisoned (?)
4 Mohammad I
Mohammed Khodabanda
Mohammed Khodābande or Khudābanda, also known as Mohammed Shah or Sultan Mohammed , was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran. He was the son of Shah Tahmasp I by a Turcoman mother, Sultanum Bekum Mawsillu...

Khodabandeh, Ashraf, Soltan 1532–1596 25 May 1576 1 October 1587 son of Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
Tahmasp or Tahmasb I was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty...

Deposed
5 Abbas I
Abbas I of Persia
Shāh ‘Abbās the Great was Shah of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad....

Shahanshah, Sultan, Great 1571–1629 1 October 1587 19 January 1629 son of Mohammad I
Mohammed Khodabanda
Mohammed Khodābande or Khudābanda, also known as Mohammed Shah or Sultan Mohammed , was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran. He was the son of Shah Tahmasp I by a Turcoman mother, Sultanum Bekum Mawsillu...

6 Safi
Safi of Persia
Shah Safi was Shah of Iran from 1629 to 1642. He was the sixth ruler of the Safavid dynasty.Safi was given the name Sam Mirza when he was born. He was the son of Mohammed Baqir Mirza, the eldest son of Shah Abbas I, and Dilaram Khanum, a Georgian wife. In 1615, Abbas had Mohammed Baqir killed,...

Sam Mirza Shah, Mirza 1611–1642 19 January 1629 12 May 1642 son of Mohammd Baqer (Safi) Mirza son of Abbas I
Abbas I of Persia
Shāh ‘Abbās the Great was Shah of Iran, and generally considered the greatest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad....

7 Abbas II
Abbas II of Persia
Shah Abbas II was Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666. He was the seventh Shah of the Safavid Dynasty. He was the son of Shah Safi I and a Circassian, Anna Khanum, and originally bore the name Sultan Muhammed Mirza before his coronation on May 15, 1642...

Shah 1632–1666 12 May 1642 26 October 1666 son of Safi
Safi of Persia
Shah Safi was Shah of Iran from 1629 to 1642. He was the sixth ruler of the Safavid dynasty.Safi was given the name Sam Mirza when he was born. He was the son of Mohammed Baqir Mirza, the eldest son of Shah Abbas I, and Dilaram Khanum, a Georgian wife. In 1615, Abbas had Mohammed Baqir killed,...

8 Suleiman I
Suleiman I of Persia
Suleiman I was a Safavid shah of Persia who reigned between 1666 and 1694. He was the elder son of the previous shah Abbas II and a Circassian slave, Nakihat Khanum....

Safi Mirza Shah, Hakem-ol Hokama 1645–1694 26 October 1666 29 July 1694 son of Abbas II
Abbas II of Persia
Shah Abbas II was Shah of Iran from 1642 to 1666. He was the seventh Shah of the Safavid Dynasty. He was the son of Shah Safi I and a Circassian, Anna Khanum, and originally bore the name Sultan Muhammed Mirza before his coronation on May 15, 1642...

9 Sultan Husayn I Shah, Sultan, Sadr-ol Hakem 1668–1726 29 July 1694 11 September 1722 son of Suleiman I
Suleiman I of Persia
Suleiman I was a Safavid shah of Persia who reigned between 1666 and 1694. He was the elder son of the previous shah Abbas II and a Circassian slave, Nakihat Khanum....

Deposed & then killed by Mahmud
11 Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia . Tahmasp was the son of Husayn , the Shah of Iran at that time. When Husayn was forced to abdicate by the Afghans in 1722, Prince Tahmasp wished to claim the throne. He fled to Tabriz where he established a government...

Shah 1704–1740 11 September 1722 16 April 1732 son of Sultan Husayn I Deposed & then killed by Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

13 Ahmad
Shah Ahmad Marashi
Ahmad Shah Marashi was a Safavid Iranian Shah 1726 –1728 that succeeded Shah Tahmasp II, while the Shah was in the northern provinces fighting with Nader Shah Afshar against the Russians and the Ottomans...

Shah, Sultan 1687–1728 28 September 1726 30 March 1728 son of Mirza Abolqasem son of Shahrbanu Beigom daughter of Suleiman I
Suleiman I of Persia
Suleiman I was a Safavid shah of Persia who reigned between 1666 and 1694. He was the elder son of the previous shah Abbas II and a Circassian slave, Nakihat Khanum....

Killed by Ashraf
14 Abbas III
Abbas III
Abbas III was a son of Shah Tahmasp II of the Safavid dynasty. After the deposition of his father by Nader Khan the infant Abbas was appointed nominal ruler of Iran on 7 September 1732. Nader Khan, who was the real ruler of the country, assumed the positions of deputy of state and viceroy...

Shah 1730–1739 16 April 1732 22 January 1736 son of Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia . Tahmasp was the son of Husayn , the Shah of Iran at that time. When Husayn was forced to abdicate by the Afghans in 1722, Prince Tahmasp wished to claim the throne. He fled to Tabriz where he established a government...

Under control of Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

. Deposed & then killed by Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

16 Sam Shah ?–1743 1743 1743 son of Sultan Husayn I (?) Usurper. Killed by Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

20 Ismail III Mirza Abutorab Shah ?–1772 1749 1749 son of Maryam Beigom (or Khan Agha Beigom) daughter of Sultan Husayn I Under control of Karim Khan Zand. Deposed
21 Suleiman II
Suleiman II of Persia
His real name was Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi he was in charge of the affairs of the Holy Shrine in Mashhad.Young Shahrukh was enthroned at Mashhad in October 1748 by Khorasan nobles and Kurdish, Turkmen, and Bayat chiefs. Two months later Ibrahim proclaimed himself shah; but he was defeated and...

Seyyed Mohammad Shah 1723 or 1725–? 1749 1750 son of Shahrbanu Beigom daughter of Suleiman I
Suleiman I of Persia
Suleiman I was a Safavid shah of Persia who reigned between 1666 and 1694. He was the elder son of the previous shah Abbas II and a Circassian slave, Nakihat Khanum....

Deposed & blinded by Shahrokh
20 Ismail III Mirza Abutorab Shah ?–1772 1752 1756 son of Maryam Beigom (or Khan Agha Beigom) daughter of Sultan Husayn I Under control of Karim Khan Zand. Deposed
23 Sultan Husayn II Shah ?–1753 1753 1753 son of Sultan Husayn I (?) Usurper. Killed
30 Mohammd II Abolfat'h Sultan Muhammd Mirza Shah ?–? 1786 1786 son of Sultan Husayn Mirza son of Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia . Tahmasp was the son of Husayn , the Shah of Iran at that time. When Husayn was forced to abdicate by the Afghans in 1722, Prince Tahmasp wished to claim the throne. He fled to Tabriz where he established a government...

Under control of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar
Hotaki dynasty, 1722–1729
10 Mahmud Shah 1722 1725
12 Ashraf Shah 1725 1729 Killed
Afsharid dynasty, 1736–1796
15 Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

Nadhar Qoli Khan Shah, Sultan, Hakem-ol Hokama, Hazrat-e Ashraf 1698–1747 22 January 1736 19 June 1747 son of Imam Qoli Beig Afshar Before crowning his title was Tahmasp Qoli Khan. Killed
17 Adel
Adil Shah
Adil or Adel Shah Afshar or Ali Qoli was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748.Subsequent to the assassination of Nader Shah in Fathabad , his nephew Ali Qoli declared himself Adil Shah , and shah of Persia...

Ali Qoli Beig Shah 1719/20–1749 19 June 1747 29 July 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

Deposed, blinded & then killed by Ebrahim
Ebrahim Afshar
Ibrahim or Ebrahim Shah Afshar was the Shah of Persia during the Afsharid Empire from July to September of 1748. He was Adil Shah's brother and Nader Shah's nephew. He toppled his brother in order to seize the power, and he blinded him on July 6 1748. However, two months later his own troops...

18 Ebrahim
Ebrahim Afshar
Ibrahim or Ebrahim Shah Afshar was the Shah of Persia during the Afsharid Empire from July to September of 1748. He was Adil Shah's brother and Nader Shah's nephew. He toppled his brother in order to seize the power, and he blinded him on July 6 1748. However, two months later his own troops...

Mohammd Ali Beig Shah 1724–1749 29 July 1748 3 September 1748 son of Mohammad Ebrahim Khan brother of Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

Deposed & then killed by Shahrokh
19 Shahrokh Shah 1734–1796 3 September 1748 1796 son of Reza Qoli Mirza son of Nader
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

. His mother was Fatemeh Soltan Beigom daughter of Sultan Husayn I Safavi
Deposed & blinded by Suleiman II
Suleiman II of Persia
His real name was Mir Sayyed Mohammad Marashi he was in charge of the affairs of the Holy Shrine in Mashhad.Young Shahrukh was enthroned at Mashhad in October 1748 by Khorasan nobles and Kurdish, Turkmen, and Bayat chiefs. Two months later Ibrahim proclaimed himself shah; but he was defeated and...

 (1749), restored (1750) & finally killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar
Zand dynasty, 1751–1794
22 Karim
Karim Khan
Karim Khan Zand, , , was a ruler of Iran, and the founder of the Zand Dynasty.He was born to a family of the Zand tribe of Lur or Lak deportees...

Mohammad Karim Khan, Vakil e-Ra'aayaa 1705–1779 1751 6 March 1779 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
24 Mohammad Ali
Mohammad Ali Khan
Mohammad Ali Khan Zand , was the second Shah of the Zand dynasty. He ruled Persia from March 6, 1779 until June 19, 1779.After the death of Karim Khan in 1779, Iran disintegrated once again. Karim Khan's brother Zaki Khan declared Mohammad `Ali, the second son of Karim Khan who was also his...

Khan 1760–1779 6 March 1779 19 June 1779 son of Karim
Karim Khan
Karim Khan Zand, , , was a ruler of Iran, and the founder of the Zand Dynasty.He was born to a family of the Zand tribe of Lur or Lak deportees...

25 Abolfat'h
Abol Fath Khan
Abol Fath Khan Zand was the third Shah of Zand dynasty, who ruled the Persian Empire from March 6, 1779 until August 22, 1779....

Khan 1755–1787 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Karim
Karim Khan
Karim Khan Zand, , , was a ruler of Iran, and the founder of the Zand Dynasty.He was born to a family of the Zand tribe of Lur or Lak deportees...

26 Zaki Khan ?–22 August 1779 6 March 1779 22 August 1779 son of Budaq Khan & Bay Agha
27 Sadeq Mohammad Sadeq Khan ?–1782 22 August 1779 14 March 1781 son of Inaq Khan & Bay Agha
28 Ali Morad
Ali Murad Khan
Ali Murad Khan Zand the sixth Shah of the Zand dynasty, reigned from March 15, 1781 until February 11, 1785.After the death of Karim Khan Zand, Agha Muhammad Khan who was a hostage--in light of preventing an outbreak of war between the Qajar tribes in the northern Persia and the Zands--escaped...

Khan 1720–1785 14 March 1781 11 February 1785 son of Allah Morad (Qeytas) Khan Zand Hazareh
29 Ja'far
Jafar Khan
Jafar Khan Zand, was a Shah of Persia who reigned from February 18, 1785 - January 23, 1789. He was the seventh king of Zand dynasty.After Jafar Khan's father, Sadiq Khan, was overthrown by Ali Murad Khan, Jafar Khan vowed to avenge his father and thus after four years of reigning, Ali Murad Khan...

Khan ?–1789 18 February 1785 23 January 1789 son of Sadeq
31 Şeyd Morad
Sayed Murad Khan
Sayed Murad Khan Zand, was a Shah of Persia who reigned from January 23, 1789 until May 10, 1789. He was the eighth king of the Zand dynasty. His brief reign is indicative of the ruthless and brutal struggle for power that prevailed among members of the Zand family following the death of Karim Khan...

Khan ?–1789 23 January 1789 10 May 1789 son of Khoda Morad Khan Zand Hazareh
32 Lotf Ali
Lotf Ali Khan
Lutf or Lotf Ali Khan was the last Shah of Persia of the Zand dynasty.Lotf Ali Khan Zand came to power after a decade of infighting among a succession of violent and inept Zand chiefs following the death in 1779 of the dynasty's founder, Karim Khan Zand...

Khan 1769–1794 23 January 1789 20 March 1794 son of Ja'far
Jafar Khan
Jafar Khan Zand, was a Shah of Persia who reigned from February 18, 1785 - January 23, 1789. He was the seventh king of Zand dynasty.After Jafar Khan's father, Sadiq Khan, was overthrown by Ali Murad Khan, Jafar Khan vowed to avenge his father and thus after four years of reigning, Ali Murad Khan...

Deposed, blinded & then killed by Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar
Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925....

, 1794–1925
33 Mohammad
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Agha Muḥammad Khān Qājār ‎‎ was the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty...

Agha Mohammad Khan Khan, Shah, Khaqan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797 Son of Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar Killed
34 Fat'h Ali Baba Khan Shah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834 son of Hosein Qoli Khan Jahansuz brother of Mohammad
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Agha Muḥammad Khān Qājār ‎‎ was the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty...

35 Mohammad
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

Shah, Khaqan 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848 son of Abbas Mirza Nayeb os-Saltaneh son of Fat'h Ali
Mahd-e Olia
Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia
Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia, or Mahd-i-'Aliua , was a Persian princess of the Qajar dynasty, consort of Sultan Mohammad Shah Qajar of Persia and the mother of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar. She was the granddaughter of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar of Persia and the cousin of her spouse, Mohammad Shah...

Mahd-e Olia
Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia
Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia, or Mahd-i-'Aliua , was a Persian princess of the Qajar dynasty, consort of Sultan Mohammad Shah Qajar of Persia and the mother of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar. She was the granddaughter of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar of Persia and the cousin of her spouse, Mohammad Shah...

1814–1888 5 September 1848 5 October 1848 wife of Mohammad
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

Regent
36 Naser ed-Din Shah, Khaqan, Soltane Saheb Qaran 1831–1896 5 October 1848 1 May 1896 son of Mohammad
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

 and Mahd-e Olia
Killed
37 Mozaffar ed-Din Shah, Khaqan 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907 son of Naser ed-Din
38 Mohammd Ali
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.-Biography:He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah...

Shah 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909 son of Mozaffar ed-Din Deposed
39 Ahmad
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

Shah 1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925 son of Mohammd Ali
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.-Biography:He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah...

Deposed
Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty consisted of two Iranian/Persian monarchs, father and son Reza Shah Pahlavi (reg. 1925–1941) and Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi The Pahlavi dynasty ...

, 1925–1979
40 Reza
Reza Shah
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir , , was the Shah of the Imperial State of Iran from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on September 16, 1941.In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar...

Shahanshah 1878–1944 15 December 1925 16 September 1941 Son of Abbas Ali Deposed
41 Mohammad Reza
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, Shah of Persia , ruled Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979...

Shahanshah, Ariamehr, Bozorg Arteshtaran, Khodaygan 1919–1980 16 September 1941 11 February 1979 son of Reza
Reza Shah
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir , , was the Shah of the Imperial State of Iran from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on September 16, 1941.In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar...

Deposed

See also

  • History of Iran
    History of Iran
    The history of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, comprising the area from the Danube River in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and Egypt...

  • Persian Empire
    Achaemenid Empire
    The Achaemenid Empire , sometimes known as First Persian Empire and/or Persian Empire, was founded in the 6th century BCE by Cyrus the Great who overthrew the Median confederation...

  • List of ancient Persians
  • Shahzada
    Shahzada
    Shahzada may refer to:*Shahzada, princely title, crown prince, the son of a shah.*Haji Shahzada , one of the Guantanamo captives whose 2004 CSR Tribunal determined he was not an enemy after all....

  • Shahbanu
    Shahbanu
    Shahbanu means Empress in Persian. It was a title that was only conferred on the third royal consort of Mohammad Reza Shah, Farah Pahlavi, in 1967....