Seleucid dynasty

Seleucid dynasty

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The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from , ) was a Greek
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

 ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Kingdom centered in the Near East
Near East
The Near East is a geographical term that covers different countries for geographers, archeologists, and historians, on the one hand, and for political scientists, economists, and journalists, on the other...

 and regions of the Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

n part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic era describes the time which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. It was so named by the historian J. G. Droysen. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia...

.

History


Seleucus
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

 was an officer of Alexander the Great, commander of the élite infantry corps in the Macedonian army, the "Shield-bearers" (Hypaspistai), later known as the "Silvershields". After the death of Alexander, Seleucus was nominated as the satrap
Satrap
Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sassanid Empire and the Hellenistic empires....

 of Babylon
Babylon
Babylon was an Akkadian city-state of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babil Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers south of Baghdad...

 in 320 BCE. Antigonus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus , son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. During his early life he served under Philip II, and he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king in 306 BC and...

 forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy
Ptolemy I Soter
Ptolemy I Soter I , also known as Ptolemy Lagides, c. 367 BC – c. 283 BC, was a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great, who became ruler of Egypt and founder of both the Ptolemaic Kingdom and the Ptolemaic Dynasty...

, he was able to return in 312 BCE. Seleucus' later conquests include Persia and Media
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

. He formed an alliance with the Indian King Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya , was the founder of the Maurya Empire. Chandragupta succeeded in conquering most of the Indian subcontinent. Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and its first genuine emperor...

. Seleucus defeated Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
The Battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the Diadochi in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia...

 in 301 BCE and Lysimachus
Lysimachus
Lysimachus was a Macedonian officer and diadochus of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.-Early Life & Career:...

 in the battle of Corupedium
Battle of Corupedium
The Battle of Corupedium, also called Corupedion or Curupedion is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great. It was fought in 281 BC between the armies of Lysimachus and Seleucus I Nicator. Lysimachus had ruled Thrace for decades and parts of modern...

 in 281 BCE. He was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus during the same year. His successor was his son Antiochus I.

Seleucid rulers


Seleucid Rulers
King |Consort(s) |Comments
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

 
Satrap
Satrap
Satrap was the name given to the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as the Sassanid Empire and the Hellenistic empires....

 311-305 BCE
King 305 BCE-281 BCE
Apama
Apama
Apama , sometimes known as Apama I or Apame I was the wife of the first ruler of the Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator. They married at Susa in 324 BC...

 
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter
Antiochus I Soter , was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 BC - 261 BC....

 
co-ruler from 291, ruled 281-261 BCE Stratonice of Syria
Stratonice of Syria
For other persons with the same name, see StratoniceStratonice of Syria was the daughter of king Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, the daughter of Antipater...

 
Co-ruler with his father for 10 years
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom who reigned 261 BC – 246 BC). He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC...

 
261-246 BCE Laodice I
Laodice I
Laodice I was an Anatolian noblewoman who was a close relative of the early Seleucid Dynasty and was the first wife of the Seleucid Greek King Antiochus II Theos. -Family Background:...

 
Berenice
Berenice (Seleucid queen)
Berenice, also called Berenice Syra, was the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his first wife Arsinoe I of Egypt.In 261 BC she married the Seleucid monarch Antiochus II Theos, who, following an agreement with Ptolemy , had divorced his wife Laodice I and transferred the succession to...

 
Berenice was a daughter of Ptolemy II
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Ptolemy II Philadelphus was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 BCE to 246 BCE. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice, and was educated by Philitas of Cos...

 of Egypt. Laodice I had her and her son murdered.
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus
Seleucus II Callinicus or Pogon , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC...

 
246-225 BCE Laodice II
Laodice II
Laodice , wife of her cousin Seleucus II Callinicus, was, according to the express statement of Polybius, she was the daughter of Andromachus and sister of Seleucid General Achaeus. Laodice II bore Seleucus II five children, among them were: Antiochis, Seleucus III Ceraunus and Antiochus III the...

 
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus III Ceraunus
Seleucus III Soter, called Seleucus Ceraunus , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Kingdom, the eldest son of Seleucus II Callinicus and Laodice II. His birth name was Alexander and was named after his great uncle the Seleucid official Alexander...

 (or Soter)
225-223 BCE Seleucus III was assassinated by members of his army.
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great
Antiochus III the Great Seleucid Greek king who became the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. Antiochus was an ambitious ruler who ruled over Greater Syria and western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC...

 
223-187 BCE Laodice III
Laodice III
Laodice III , was a Princess of Pontus and a daughter born to King Mithridates II of Pontus and his wife Laodice. Her sister was Laodice of Pontus and her brother was Mithridates III of Pontus....

 
Euboea of Chalcis
Antiochus III was a brother of Seleucus III
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus IV Philopator
Seleucus IV Philopator , ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria , Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran . He was the second son and successor of Antiochus III the Great and Laodice III...

 
187-175 BCE Laodice IV
Laodice IV
Laodice IV was a Greek Princess, Head Priestess and Queen of the Seleucid Empire.-Ancestry, Family & Early Life:...

 
This was a brother-sister marriage.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithridates; he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne....

 
175-163 BCE Laodice IV
Laodice IV
Laodice IV was a Greek Princess, Head Priestess and Queen of the Seleucid Empire.-Ancestry, Family & Early Life:...

 
Antiochus V Eupator  163-161 BCE
Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I Soter
Demetrius I , surnamed Soter , was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire....

 
161-150 BCE Apama ?
Laodice V
Laodice V
Laodice V was a Greek Princess of the Seleucid Empire. Through marriage she was a Queen of the ruling Antigonid dynasty in Macedonia and possibly later of the Seleucid dynasty.-Family and Early Life:...

?
Son of Seleucus IV Philopator and Laodice IV
Alexander I Balas
Alexander Balas
Alexander Balas , ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom 150-146 BC, was a native of Smyrna of humble origin, but gave himself out to be the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Laodice IV and heir to the Seleucid throne...

 
150-145 BCE Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea surnamed Eueteria was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator...

 
Son of Antiochus IV and Laodice IV
Laodice IV
Laodice IV was a Greek Princess, Head Priestess and Queen of the Seleucid Empire.-Ancestry, Family & Early Life:...

Demetrius II Nicator
Demetrius II Nicator
For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair.Demetrius II , called Nicator , was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter, brother of Antiochus VII Sidetes and his mother could have been Laodice V...

 
first reign, 145-138 BCE Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea surnamed Eueteria was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator...

 
Son of Demetrius I
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VI Dionysus
Antiochus VI Dionysus , king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea, daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt....

 (or Epiphanes)
145-140 BCE? Son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea
Diodotus Tryphon
Diodotus Tryphon
Diodotus Tryphon was king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. As a general of the army, he promoted the claims of Antiochus VI Dionysus, the infant son of Alexander Balas, in Antioch after Alexander's death, but then in 142 deposed the child and himself seized power in Coele-Syria where Demetrius...

 
140-138 BCE General who was a regent for Antiochus VI Dionysus. Took the throne after murdering his charge.
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VII Sidetes
Antiochus VII Euergetes, nicknamed Sidetes , ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC. He was the last Seleucid king of any stature....

 (or Euergetes)
138-129 BCE Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea surnamed Eueteria was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator...

 
Son of Demetrius I
Demetrius II Nicator
Demetrius II Nicator
For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair.Demetrius II , called Nicator , was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter, brother of Antiochus VII Sidetes and his mother could have been Laodice V...

 
second reign, 129-126 BCE Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea surnamed Eueteria was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator...

 
Demetrius was murdered at the instigation of his wife Cleopatra Thea.
Alexander II Zabinas
Alexander II Zabinas
Alexander II Zabinas , ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian loss of Mesopotamia to the Parthians. Zabinas was a false Seleucid who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII Sidetes, but in fact seems to have been the son of...

 
129-123 BCE Counter-king who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII Sidetes
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea
Cleopatra Thea surnamed Eueteria was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator...

 
126-123 BCE) Daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt. Married to three kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, and Antiochus VII Sidetes. Mother of Antiochus VI, Seleucus V, Antiochus VIII Grypus, and Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. Coregent with her son Antiochus VIII Grypus.
Seleucus V Philometor
Seleucus V Philometor
The Seleucid king Seleucus V Philometor , ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the eldest son of Demetrius II Nicator and Cleopatra Thea. The epithet Philometor means mother-loving and in the Hellenistic world usually indicated that the mother acted as co-regent for the prince.In 126 BC...

 
126/125 BCE Murdered by his mother Cleopatra Thea
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus VIII Epiphanes/Callinicus/Philometor, nicknamed Grypus , was crowned as ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 125 BC. He was the son of Demetrius II Nicator and Cleopatra Thea.-Biography:...

 
125-96 BCE Tryphaena
Tryphaena
Tryphaena was a Ptolemaic princess. She married the Seleucid king Antiochus VIII Grypus and was queen of Syria .- Life :It is often assumed that Tryphaena also bore the name Cleopatra, but this has not been attested. She was the oldest daughter of the Egyptian king Ptolemy VIII Physcon and his...

 of Egypt
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power , his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname...

 
114-96 BCE Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra IV of Egypt
Cleopatra IV was Queen of Egypt briefly from 116-115 BC, jointly with her husband Ptolemy IX Lathyros. She later became queen consort of Syria as the wife of Antiochus IX Cyzicenus.-Biography:...

 
Cleopatra Selene I of Egypt
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Seleucus VI Epiphanes
Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nikator, ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the oldest son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena. In 96 BC, Seleucus defeated his half-uncle Antiochus IX Cyzicenus in revenge for his father's death...

 Nicator
96-95 BCE
Antiochus X Eusebes
Antiochus X Eusebes
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a contestant in the tangled-up family feuds among the last Seleucids. Beginning his reign in 95 BC his first achievement was to defeat his double half-cousin/second cousin Seleucus VI Epiphanes, thus avenging the recent death...

 Philopator
95-92 BC or 83 BCE Cleopatra Selene I 
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius III Eucaerus
Demetrius III , called Eucaerus and Philopator, was a ruler of the Seleucid kingdom, the son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena.By the assistance of Ptolemy IX Lathyros, king of Egypt, he recovered part of his father's Syrian dominions ca 95 BC, and...

 (or Philopator)
95-87 BCE
Antiochus XI Epiphanes
Antiochus XI Epiphanes
Antiochus XI Epiphanes or Philadelphus, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena. Antiochus XI was a brother of Seleucus VI Epiphanes and a minor participant in the civil wars which clouded the last years of the once glorious Seleucids, now...

 Philadelphus
95-92 BCE
Philip I Philadelphus
Philip I Philadelphus
Philip I Philadelphus , a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the fourth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena. Philip I took the diadem in 95 BC together with his older brother Antiochus XI Ephiphanes, after the eldest son Seleucus VI Epiphanes was killed by their cousin...

 
95-84/83 BCE
Antiochus XII Dionysus
Antiochus XII Dionysus
Antiochus XII Dionysos , a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87–84 BC, was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and Tryphaena to take up the diadem...

 
87-84 BCE
(Tigranes I of Armenia) 83-69 BCE
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Seleucus VII Philometor, was a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom. The last members of the once mighty Seleucid dynasty are shadowy figures; local dynasts with complicated family ties whose identities are hard to ascertain: many of them also bore the same names...

 or Philometor
83-69 BCE
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
Antiochus XIII Dionysus Philopator Kallinikos, known as Asiaticus was one of the last rulers of the Greek Seleucid kingdom.He was son of king Antiochus X Eusebes and the Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene I, who acted as regent for the boy after his father's death sometime between 92 and 85 BC...

 
69-64 BCE
Philip II Philoromaeus
Philip II Philoromaeus
Philip II Philorhomaeus or Barypous , a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus....

 
65-63 BCE

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