Qajar dynasty

Qajar dynasty

Overview
The Qajar dynasty ( - or دودمان قاجار, also anglicized as Ghajar or Kadjar) was an Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia (Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

) from 1785 to 1925.
The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.- Karim Khan Zand :The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe which was Lur or Lak deportees. Modern scholarships such as Wadie Jwaideh suggested his Kurdishness. He became one of Nader Shah's generals...

, and re-asserted Persian sovereignty over parts of the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

.
In 1796 Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Agha Muḥammad Khān Qājār ‎‎ was the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty...

 was formally crowned as shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

.

The Qajar (or Ghajar) rulers were members of the Karagoz of the Qajars
Kajars
The Kajars are a Turkic people of the Oghuz Turks who lived variously, with other tribes, in the area that is now northeastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. They are often considered a branch of the Azeri...

, originally themselves members of the Qarapapaqs
Karapapak
The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic-speaking people who mainly live in Azerbaijan, in Georgia, in the northeast of Turkey near the border with Georgia and Armenia, primarily in the provinces of Ardahan , Kars and Iğdır, and in Iran...

 of the larger Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 peoples.
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The Qajar dynasty ( - or دودمان قاجار, also anglicized as Ghajar or Kadjar) was an Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ian royal family of Turkic descent who ruled Persia (Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

) from 1785 to 1925.
The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.- Karim Khan Zand :The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe which was Lur or Lak deportees. Modern scholarships such as Wadie Jwaideh suggested his Kurdishness. He became one of Nader Shah's generals...

, and re-asserted Persian sovereignty over parts of the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

.
In 1796 Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Agha Muḥammad Khān Qājār ‎‎ was the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty...

 was formally crowned as shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

.

Origins


The Qajar (or Ghajar) rulers were members of the Karagoz of the Qajars
Kajars
The Kajars are a Turkic people of the Oghuz Turks who lived variously, with other tribes, in the area that is now northeastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and northwestern Iran. They are often considered a branch of the Azeri...

, originally themselves members of the Qarapapaqs
Karapapak
The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic-speaking people who mainly live in Azerbaijan, in Georgia, in the northeast of Turkey near the border with Georgia and Armenia, primarily in the provinces of Ardahan , Kars and Iğdır, and in Iran...

 of the larger Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 peoples. Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

. The Safavids
Safavid dynasty
The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires since the Muslim conquest of Persia and established the Twelver school of Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning...

 "left Arran
Arran (Azerbaijan)
Arran , also known as Aran, Ardhan , Al-Ran , Aghvank and Alvank , or Caucasian Albania , was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and...

 (present-day Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...

) to local Turkic speaking
Oghuz Turks
The Turkomen also known as Oghuz Turks were a historical Turkic tribal confederation in Central Asia during the early medieval Turkic expansion....

 khans", and, "in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, whose family came to govern Karabakh
Karabakh
The Karabakh horse , also known as Karabakh, is a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse. It is named after the geographic region where the horse was originally developed, Karabakh in the Southern Caucasus, an area that is de jure part of Azerbaijan but the highland part of which is currently...

 in southern Arran".

Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16-17th centuries for the Safavids. The Qajars were resettled by Shah Abbas I throughout Persia. The great number of them also settled in Astarabad (present-day Gorgan
Gorgan
Gorgan Some east of Gorgan is the Golestan National Park. The city has a regional airport and several universities. Gorgan Airport was opened in September 2005.-Etymology:...

, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

) near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The sea has a surface area of and a volume of...

, and it would be this branch of Qajars that would rise to power. The immediate ancestor of Qajars, Shah Qoli Khan Qajar Ghovanloo (also spelled Quvanlu) of the Ghovanloo of Ganja, married into the Ghovanloo Qajars of Astarabad. His son, Fath Ali Khan
Fath Ali Khan
Fath Ali Khan Qajar , was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Husayn and Tahmasp II. He was killed on the orders of Nader Shah in 1726....

 Qajar, born circa 1685-1693, was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Husayn
Husayn (Safavid)
Sultan Husayn was a Safavid king of Iran . He ruled from 1694 until he was overthrown in 1722 by Shah Mahmud Hotaki, an Afghan warrior of Pashtun ethnic background...

 and Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II was one of the last Safavid rulers of Persia . Tahmasp was the son of Husayn , the Shah of Iran at that time. When Husayn was forced to abdicate by the Afghans in 1722, Prince Tahmasp wished to claim the throne. He fled to Tabriz where he established a government...

. He was killed on the orders of Tahmasp Qoli Khan Afshar (Nader Shah
Nader Shah
Nāder Shāh Afshār ruled as Shah of Iran and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as the Napoleon of Persia or the Second Alexander...

) in 1726. Fath Ali Khan's son Mohammad Hassan Khan Qajar (1722–1758) was killed at the behest of Karim Khan Zand, and was the father of Agha Mohammad Khan and Hossein Qoli Khan (Jahansouz Shah) Qajar (father of "Baba Khan," the future Fath Ali Shah Qajar).

Within 126 years between the demise of the Safavid state and the rise of Nasir al-Din Shah, the Qajars evolved from a Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Persia into a Persian dynasty with all the trappings of a Persian monarchy.

Rise to power


According to scholar Nikki R. Keddie, "Like virtually every dynasty that ruled Persia since the 11th century, the Qajars came to power with the backing of Turkic
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

 tribal forces, while using educated Persians in their bureaucracy". In 1779, after brutally murdering Lotf Ali Khan
Lotf Ali Khan
Lutf or Lotf Ali Khan was the last Shah of Persia of the Zand dynasty.Lotf Ali Khan Zand came to power after a decade of infighting among a succession of violent and inept Zand chiefs following the death in 1779 of the dynasty's founder, Karim Khan Zand...

, of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
The Zand dynasty ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.- Karim Khan Zand :The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan, chief of the Zand tribe which was Lur or Lak deportees. Modern scholarships such as Wadie Jwaideh suggested his Kurdishness. He became one of Nader Shah's generals...

, ruler of southern Persia, Agha Mohammad Khan, the leader of the Qajar tribe, set out to reunify Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. In his quest for power, he razed cities, massacred entire populations, and blinded some 20,000 men in the city of Kerman
Kerman
- Geological characteristics :For the Iranian paleontologists, Kerman has always been considered a fossil paradise. Finding new dinosaur footprints in 2005 has now revealed new hopes for paleontologists to better understand the history of this area.- Economy :...

 because the local populace had chosen to defend the city against his siege.

The Qajar armies were composed of a small Turkoman bodyguard and Georgian slaves. By 1794, Agha Mohammad Khan had eliminated all his rivals, including Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty. He reestablished Persian control over the territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
The Caucasus, also Caucas or Caucasia , is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia, and situated between the Black and the Caspian sea...

. Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy
Rey, Iran
Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

. In 1796 he was formally crowned as shah
Shah
Shāh is the title of the ruler of certain Southwest Asian and Central Asian countries, especially Persia , and derives from the Persian word shah, meaning "king".-History:...

. In 1797 Agha Mohammad was assassinated in Shusha
Shusha
Shusha , also known as Shushi is a town in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh in the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic since its capture in 1992 during the Nagorno-Karabakh War...

, the capital of Karabakh khanate
Karabakh khanate
The Karabakh khanate was a semi-independent khanate on the territories of modern Azerbaijan and Armenia established in about 1750 under Persian suzerainty in Karabakh and adjacent areas. The Karabakh khanate existed until 1805, when the Russian Empire gained control over it from Persia...

, and was succeeded by his nephew, Fath Ali Shah Qajar.

War with Russia



In 1803, under Fath Ali Shah, Qajars set out to fight against the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, in what was known as Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813
Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
The 1804-1813 Russo-Persian War, one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, began like many wars as a territorial dispute. The Persian king, Fath Ali Shah Qajar, wanted to consolidate the northernmost reaches of his Qajar dynasty by securing land near the Caspian Sea's...

, due to concerns about the Russian expansion into Caucasus which was an Iranian domain, although some of the Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus were Persian ruled principalities on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan from the Safavid dynasty era to 1806. These principalities arose during the domination of Iran. During the period of Iranian domination, head of principality was a Khan...

 were considered independent or semi-independent by the time of Russian expansion in 19th century, this period marked the first major economic and military encroachments on Iranian interests during the colonial
Colonialism
Colonialism is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition and expansion of colonies in one territory by people from another territory. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by...

 era. Qajar army suffered a major military defeat in the war and under the terms of the Treaty of Gulistan in 1813, Persia recognized Russian annexation of Georgia and most of the Caucasus region. The second Russo-Persian War of the late 1820s ended even more disastrously for Qajar Iran with temporary occupation of Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

 and the signing of Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay
The Treaty of Turkmenchay was a treaty negotiated in Turkmenchay by which the Qajar Empire recognized Russian suzerainty over the Erivan khanate, the Nakhchivan khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh khanate, establishing the Aras River as the common boundary between the empires, after its...

 in 1828, acknowledging Russian
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 sovereignty over the entire South Caucasus
South Caucasus
The South Caucasus is a geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia also referred to as Transcaucasia, or The Trans-Caucasus...

, the area north of the Aras River.

Fath Ali Shah's reign saw increased diplomatic contacts with the West and the beginning of intense European diplomatic rivalries over Iran. His grandson Mohammad Shah
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

, under Russian influence, made two unsuccessful attempts to capture Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

, succeeded him in 1834. When Mohammad Shah died in 1848 the succession passed to his son Nasser-e-Din, who proved to be one of the ablest and most successful of the Qajar sovereigns.

Development and decline



The defeat of Persia by the emerging Great Power
Great power
A great power is a nation or state that has the ability to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength and diplomatic and cultural influence which may cause small powers to consider the opinions of great powers before taking actions...

 that was Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, and the humiliating terms imposed by the Treaty of Gulistan, was indicative of the way in which the empire had fallen behind the rest of the world. Naser al-Din Shah Qajar thus began to institute a kind of "defensive mondernization", aimed at introducing Western science, technology, and educational methods, while maintaining traditional cultural and religious norms. The Shah tried to exploit the mutual competition between Britain
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 over the Persian resources and sphere of influence, while educating the nobility and emerging middle-class after the manner of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 - including a fully Francophone
Francophone
The adjective francophone means French-speaking, typically as primary language, whether referring to individuals, groups, or places. Often, the word is used as a noun to describe a natively French-speaking person....

 Polytechnique educational model.

Nevertheless, as Abrahamian notes, "the Qajar attempts at “defensive modernization” did not amount to much – and that little was confined to a few showpieces in the capital. The Cossack Brigade, the most visible example, could muster no more than 2,000 men. Nazmieh, the Tehran police force, had fewer than 4,600 men."
Foreign concessions and territorial encroachment increased under his rule, and he contracted foreign loans to finance unpopular and expensive trips to Europe.

In 1856, during the Anglo-Persian War
Anglo-Persian War
The Anglo-Persian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857, and was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Persia . In the war, the British opposed an attempt by Persia to reacquire the city of Herat...

, Britain prevented Persia from reasserting control over Herat
Herat
Herāt is the capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. It is the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of about 397,456 as of 2006. It is situated in the valley of the Hari River, which flows from the mountains of central Afghanistan to the Karakum Desert in Turkmenistan...

. The city had been part of Persia in Safavid times, but Herat had been under non-Persian rule since the mid-18th century. Britain also extended its control to other areas of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 during the 19th century. Meanwhile, by 1881, Russia had completed its conquest of present-day Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

 and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

, bringing Russia's frontier to Persia's northeastern borders and severing historic Persian ties to the cities of Bukhara
Bukhara
Bukhara , from the Soghdian βuxārak , is the capital of the Bukhara Province of Uzbekistan. The nation's fifth-largest city, it has a population of 263,400 . The region around Bukhara has been inhabited for at least five millennia, and the city has existed for half that time...

 and Samarkand
Samarkand
Although a Persian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran most of the times between the disintegration of the Seleucid Empire and the Arab conquest . In the 6th century it was within the domain of the Turkic kingdom of the Göktürks.At the start of the 8th century Samarkand came...

. Several trade concessions by the Persian government put economic affairs largely under British
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n control.


Reforms of Amir Kabir


Mirza Taqi Khan
Amir Kabir
Amir Kabir , also known as Mirza Taghi Khan Amir-Nezam , also known by the titles of Atabak and Amir-e Nezam; chief minister to Naser al-Din Shah Qajar for the first three years of his reign and one of the most capable and innovative figures to appear in the whole Qajar period...

 was the young prince Naser al-Din's advisor and constable. With the death of Mohammad Shah in 1848, Mirza Taqi was largely responsible for ensuring the crown prince's succession to the throne. When Naser al-Din succeeded to the throne, he was awarded the position of prime minister and the title of Amir Kabir "Great Ruler".

At that time, Persia was nearly bankrupt. Over the next two and a half years, Amir Kabir initiated important reforms in virtually all sectors of society. Government expenditure was slashed, and a distinction was made between the private and public purses. The instruments of central administration were overhauled and Amir Kabir assumed responsibility for all areas of the bureaucracy. Foreign interference in Persia's domestic affairs was curtailed and foreign trade was encouraged. Public works such as the bazaar in Tehran were undertaken. Amir Kabir issued an edict banning ornate and excessively formal writing in government documents; the beginning of a modern Persian prose style dates from this time.
One of the greatest achievements of Amir Kabir was the building of Dar ul-Funun, the first modern university in Persia and the Middle East. Daru l-Funun was established for training a new cadre of administrators and acquainting them with Western techniques. Amir Kabir ordered the school to be built on the edge of the city so it could be expanded as needed. He hired French and Russian instructors as well as Persians to teach subjects as different as language, medicine, law, geography, history, economics and engineering. Unfortunately, Amir Kabir did not live long enough to see his greatest monument completed, but it still stands in Tehran as a sign of a great man's ideas for the future of his country.

Through his marriage to Princess Ezzatoddowleh, Amir Kabir had been the brother-in-law of the Shah. His reforms antagonized various notables who had been excluded from the government and view him as a social upstart and a threat to their interests. They formed a coalition against Amir Kabir in which Queen Mother Malakeh Jahan was active. She convinced the young Shah that Amir Kabir wanted to usurp the throne. In October 1851 the Shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan
Kashan
Kashan is a city in and the capital of Kashan County, in the province of Isfahan, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 248,789, in 67,464 families....

, where he was murdered on the Shah's orders.

Constitutional Revolution




When Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was assassinated by Mirza Reza Kermani
Mirza Reza Kermani
Mirza Reza Kermani , born in Kerman, Iran and died on August 10, 1896 in Tehran, was an adherent of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and an Iranian revolutionary....

 in 1896, the crown passed to his son Mozaffar-e-din. Mozaffar-e-din Shah was a moderate and kind, but also not a very effective ruler. Royal extravagance and the absence of incoming revenues exacerbated financial problems. The shah quickly spent two large loans from Russia, partly on trips to Europe. Public anger fed on the shah's propensity for granting concessions to Europeans in return for generous payments to him and his officials. People began to demand a curb on royal authority and the establishment of the rule of law as their concern over foreign, and especially Russian, influence grew.

The shah's failure to respond to protests by the religious establishment, the merchants, and other classes led the merchants and clerical leaders in January 1906 to take sanctuary from probable arrest in mosques in Tehran and outside the capital. When the shah reneged on a promise to permit the establishment of a "house of justice", or consultative assembly, 10,000 people, led by the merchants, took sanctuary in June in the compound of the British legation in Tehran. In August the shah, through the issue of a decree promised a constitution. In October an elected assembly convened and drew up a constitution that provided for strict limitations on royal power, an elected parliament, or Majles, with wide powers to represent the people, and a government with a cabinet subject to confirmation by the Majles. The shah signed the constitution on December 30, 1906, but refusing to forfeit all of his power to the Majles, attached a caveat that made his signature on all laws required for their enactment. He died five days later. The Supplementary Fundamental Laws approved in 1907 provided, within limits, for freedom of press, speech, and association, and for security of life and property. The hopes for constitutional rule were not realized, however.
Mozaffar-e-din Shah's son Mohammad Ali Shah (reigned 1907–09), who, through his mother, was also the grandson of Prime-Minister Amir Kabir (see before), with the aid of Russia, attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis, in June 1908 he used his Russian-officered Persian Cossacks Brigade
Persian Cossack Brigade
The Persian Cossack Brigade was an elite cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Iran. During much of their history they were the only functional, effective military unit of the Qajar Dynasty...

 to bomb the Majlis building, arrest many of the deputies, and close down the assembly. Resistance to the shah, however, coalesced in Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

, Isfahan
Isfahan (city)
Isfahan , historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. It has a population of 1,583,609, Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad...

, Rasht
Rasht
Rasht is a city in and the capital of Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 551,161, in 159,983 families.Rasht is the largest city on Iran's Caspian Sea coast. It is a major trade center between Caucasia, Russia and Iran using the port of Bandar-e Anzali...

, and elsewhere. In July 1909, constitutional forces marched from Rasht to Tehran led by Mohammad Vali Khan Sepahsalar Khalatbari Tonekaboni, deposed the Shah, and re-established the constitution. The ex-shah went into exile in Russia. Mohammad Ali Shah died in San Remo, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 in April 1925 . As fate would have it, every future Shah of Iran would also die in exile.

On July 16, 1909, the Majles voted to place Mohammad Ali Shah's 11 year old son, Ahmad Shah
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

 on the throne. Although the constitutional forces had triumphed, they faced serious difficulties. The upheavals of the Constitutional Revolution and civil war had undermined stability and trade. In addition, the ex-shah, with Russian support, attempted to regain his throne, landing troops in July 1910. Most serious of all, the hope that the Constitutional Revolution would inaugurate a new era of independence from the great powers ended when, under the Anglo-Russian Agreement of 1907
Anglo-Russian Entente
Signed on August 31, 1907, in St. Petersburg, Russia, the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 brought shaky British-Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet...

, Britain and Russia agreed to divide Persia into spheres of influence. The Russians were to enjoy exclusive right to pursue their interests in the northern sphere, the British in the south and east; both powers would be free to compete for economic and political advantage in a neutral sphere in the center. Matters came to a head when Morgan Shuster
Morgan Shuster
William Morgan Shuster , American lawyer, civil servant, and publisher, who is best known as the treasurer-general of Persia by appointment of the Iranian parliament, or Majles, from May to December 1911.-Background:Shuster was born in Washington, DC and educated in the Columbian University and Law...

, a United States administrator hired as treasurer general by the Persian government to reform its finances, sought to collect taxes from powerful officials who were Russian protégés and to send members of the treasury gendarmerie, a tax department police force, into the Russian zone. When in December 1911 the Majlis unanimously refused a Russian ultimatum demanding Shuster's dismissal, Russian troops, already in the country, moved to occupy the capital. To prevent this, on December 20 Bakhtiari chiefs and their troops surrounded the Majles building, forced acceptance of the Russian ultimatum, and shut down the assembly, once again suspending the constitution.

Fall of the dynasty


Soltan Ahmad Shah
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

 was born 21 January 1898 in Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz is the fourth largest city and one of the historical capitals of Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former...

, and succeeded to the throne at age 11. However, the occupation of Persia during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 by Russian
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, British, and Ottoman
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 troops was a blow from which Ahmad Shah never effectively recovered.

In February 1921, Reza Khan
Reza Shah
Rezā Shāh, also known as Rezā Shāh Pahlavi and Rezā Shāh Kabir , , was the Shah of the Imperial State of Iran from December 15, 1925, until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on September 16, 1941.In 1925, Reza Shah overthrew Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar...

, commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade
Persian Cossack Brigade
The Persian Cossack Brigade was an elite cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Iran. During much of their history they were the only functional, effective military unit of the Qajar Dynasty...

, staged a coup d'état
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

, becoming the effective ruler of Iran. In 1923, Ahmad Shah went into exile in Europe. Reza Khan induced the Majles to depose Ahmad Shah in October 1925, and to exile the Qajar dynasty permanently. Reza Khan was subsequently proclaimed Shah as Reza Shah Pahlavi, reigning from 1925 to 1941.

Ahmad Shah died on 21 February 1930 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

.

Shahs of Persia, 1794-1925

Name Portrait Family Relations Born-Died Entered office Left office
1 Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Agha Muḥammad Khān Qājār ‎‎ was the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty...

Son of Mohammad-Hassan Khan 1742–1797 20 March 1794 17 June 1797
2 Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Nephew of Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Agha Muḥammad Khān Qājār ‎‎ was the chief of the Qajar tribe, succeeding his father Mohammad Hassan Khan, who was killed on the orders of Adil Shah. He became the Emperor/Shah of Persia in 1794 and established the Qajar dynasty...

1772–1834 17 June 1797 23 October 1834
3 Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

Grandson of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar 1808–1848 23 October 1834 5 September 1848
_ Mahd-e Olia
Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia
Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia, or Mahd-i-'Aliua , was a Persian princess of the Qajar dynasty, consort of Sultan Mohammad Shah Qajar of Persia and the mother of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar. She was the granddaughter of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar of Persia and the cousin of her spouse, Mohammad Shah...

 (Regent)
Wife of Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

1805-1873 5 September 1848 5 October 1848
4 Naser al-Din Shah Qajar Son of Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar
Mohammad Shah Qajar was king of Persia from the Qajar dynasty .- Rise to power :...

 and Mahd-e Olia
1831–1896 5 October 1848 1 May 1896
5 Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar Son of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar 1853–1907 1 May 1896 3 January 1907
6 Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.-Biography:He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah...

Son of Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar 1872–1925 3 January 1907 16 July 1909
7 Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

Son of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.-Biography:He was against the constitution that was ratified during the reign of his father, Mozzafar-al-Din Shah...

1898–1930 16 July 1909 15 December 1925

Qajar Royal Family


The Qajar Imperial Family in exile is currently headed by the eldest descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah, Soltan Ali Mirza Qajar
Ali Mirza Qajar
Prince Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar was an Iranian Prince of Qajar Dynasty and the son of Soltan Majid Mirza Qajar and Homadokht Kian and the grandson of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar. He was the Head of the Qajar Imperial Family...

, while the Heir Presumptive to the Qajar throne is Mohammad Hassan Mirza II
Mohammad Hassan Mirza II
Prince Mohammad Hasan Mirza II Qajar is the son of Hamid Mirza and a grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza the last Crown Prince of Iran from the rule of the Qajar dynasty. As heir apparent, he is considered the Qajar pretender to the Peacock Throne. He currently lives in Dallas, Texas, in the United...

, the grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza
Mohammad Hassan Mirza
Mohammad Hassan Mirza , brother of Ahmed Shah Qajar of Iran, and former Crown Prince of the Qajar dynasty. Soon after Reza Shah deposed the Qajar dynasty and made himself Shah of Iran in 1925, Prince Mohammad Hassan and his family were sent into permanent exile to England...

, Soltan Ahmad Shah's brother and heir. Mohammad Hassan Mirza died in England in 1943, having proclaimed himself shah in exile in 1930 after the death of his brother in France.

Today, the descendants of the Qajars often identify themselves as such and hold reunions to stay socially acquainted through the Qajar (Kadjar) Family Association.

Qajar dynasty since 1925


Heads of the Qajar Imperial Family
The headship of the Imperial Family is inherited by the eldest male descendant of Mohammad Ali Shah.
  • Soltan Ahmad Shah Qajar
    Ahmad Shah Qajar
    Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

     (1925–1930)
  • Fereydoun Mirza
    Fereydoun Mirza Qajar
    Shahzada Freydoun Kadjar ‎ was Prince of the Qajar dynasty.-Biography :...

     (1930–1975)
  • Soltan Hamid Mirza
    Hamid Mirza
    Prince Soltan Hamid Mirza Qajar was the head and heir presumptive of the Qajar dynasty the former ruling dynasty of Iran and the son of the last Qajar Crown Prince of Iran.-Early life:...

     (1975–1988)
  • Soltan Mahmoud Mirza
    Mahmoud Mirza
    Mahmoud Mirza Iranian prince of Qajar Dynasty, was the son of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.He was head of the Qajar dynasty from the death of his nephew Hamid Mirza on 5 May 1988 until his own death on the 2 July 1988.-Offspring:...

     (1988)
  • Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar
    Ali Mirza Qajar
    Prince Soltan Ali Mirza Kadjar was an Iranian Prince of Qajar Dynasty and the son of Soltan Majid Mirza Qajar and Homadokht Kian and the grandson of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar. He was the Head of the Qajar Imperial Family...

     (1988–2011)
  • Mohammad Ali Mirza Qajar (2011–present)


Heirs Presumptive of the Qajar dynasty
The Heir Presumptive is the Qajar heir to the Persian throne.
  • Soltan Ahmad Shah Qajar
    Ahmad Shah Qajar
    Ahmad Shah Qajar ‎ was Shah of Iran from July 16, 1909, to October 31, 1925 and the last of the Qajar dynasty.- Reign :...

     (1925–1930)
  • Mohammad Hassan Mirza
    Mohammad Hassan Mirza
    Mohammad Hassan Mirza , brother of Ahmed Shah Qajar of Iran, and former Crown Prince of the Qajar dynasty. Soon after Reza Shah deposed the Qajar dynasty and made himself Shah of Iran in 1925, Prince Mohammad Hassan and his family were sent into permanent exile to England...

     (1930–1943)
  • Fereydoun Mirza
    Fereydoun Mirza Qajar
    Shahzada Freydoun Kadjar ‎ was Prince of the Qajar dynasty.-Biography :...

     (1943–1975)
  • Soltan Hamid Mirza
    Hamid Mirza
    Prince Soltan Hamid Mirza Qajar was the head and heir presumptive of the Qajar dynasty the former ruling dynasty of Iran and the son of the last Qajar Crown Prince of Iran.-Early life:...

     (1975–1988)
  • Mohammad Hassan Mirza II
    Mohammad Hassan Mirza II
    Prince Mohammad Hasan Mirza II Qajar is the son of Hamid Mirza and a grandson of Mohammad Hassan Mirza the last Crown Prince of Iran from the rule of the Qajar dynasty. As heir apparent, he is considered the Qajar pretender to the Peacock Throne. He currently lives in Dallas, Texas, in the United...

     (1988–present)

Notable members of the Qajar family


Politics
  • Prince Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    , Fath Ali Shah's crown prince and military leader.
  • Prince Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan
    Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan
    Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan ("Mass'oud Mirza the Sultan's Shadow (5 January 1850-2 July 1918) was a Persian prince of the Qajar Dynasty; he was known as the "Yamin-al-Dowleh" ("Right Hand of the Government")...

    , Governor of Isfahan province, son of Nasser al-Din Shah
    Nasser al-Din Shah
    Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was the King of Iran from September 17, 1848 to May 1, 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia and the third longest reigning monarch king in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid Dynasty and...

    .
  • Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma
    Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma
    Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza was one of the most prominent Qajar princes, and one of the most influential politicians of his time in Persia. He was born to Prince Nosrat Dowleh Firouz Mirza 1859, and died in November 1939 at the age of 80. He was the 16th grandson of the Qajar crown prince Abbas...

    , Persian prime minister, grandson of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    .
  • Mohammed Mosaddeq, Persian Prime Minister, great-grandson of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    .
  • Prince Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh Farman Farmaian III
    Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh Farman Farmaian III
    Prince Firouz Mirza Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, GCMG eldest son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma and Princess Ezzat-Dowleh. He was born at some time near 1889, and died in April 1937. Grandson of his name-sake, Nosrat Dowleh Firouz Mirza, and of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah Qajar through his mother...

    , renowned politician and diplomat, great-grandson of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    .
  • Prince Soleyman Mirza Eskandari, founder of the Socialist Party of Persia and founding member of the Tudeh Party of Iran
    Tudeh Party of Iran
    The Tudeh Party of Iran is an Iranian communist party. Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddeq's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and his term as prime...

    , great-grandson of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    .
  • Prince Iraj Eskandari
    Iraj Eskandari
    Iraj Eskandari was an Iranian communist politician. A Qajar prince, Eskandari received French education. He was a secretary of the Tudeh Party of Iran and a member of parliament. In the summer of 1946 he was named a Minister of Commerce and Industry in Qavam's coalition cabinet.He belonged to the...

    , founding member, and first secretary of the Tudeh Party of Iran
    Tudeh Party of Iran
    The Tudeh Party of Iran is an Iranian communist party. Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddeq's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and his term as prime...

    , descendant of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

  • Prince Mohammad Ali Mirza Eskandari, founding member of the Adamyat Society, great-grandson of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    .
  • Ali Amini
    Ali Amini
    Ali Amini was an Iranian politician and writer who was the Prime Minister of Iran from May 6, 1961 to July 19, 1962.-Early life:...

    , Persian Prime Minister.


Business
  • Princess Fakhr ol dowleh
    Fakhr ol dowleh
    Iranian Princess Ashraf, titled Fakhr-ol-Dowleh , meaning pride of the state, was one of the most prominent daughters of Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar of the Qajar dynasty, who had a reputably strong character, to the point that she was even willing and able to confront Reza Shah for her patrimony and...

    , one of the most prominent daughters of Mozzafar al-Din Shah
    Mozzafar al-Din Shah
    Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, KG was the fifth Qajar king of Iran. He reigned between the years 1896 and 1907.He is credited with the creation of the Iranian constitution, and often wrongly credited with the rise of the Persian Constitutional Revolution which took place immediately after his...

    .


Women rights
  • Princess Mohtaram Eskandari
    Mohtaram Eskandari
    Mohtaram Eskandari was an Iranian intellectual and one of the pioneering figures in Iranian women's movement. She was the first leader of feminist Nesvan e vatankhah association and publisher of its journal for women....

    , first leader of feminist Nesvan e vatankhah association.
  • Princess Tadj es-Saltaneh
    Zahra Khanom Tadj es-Saltaneh
    Zahra Khanoum Tadj es-Saltaneh was a Persian princess and memoirist of the Qajar Dynasty, a daughter of Nasser al-Din Shah by his wife Turan es-Saltaneh...

    , founding member of the Anjoman Horriyyat Nsevan daughter of Nasser al-Din Shah
    Nasser al-Din Shah
    Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was the King of Iran from September 17, 1848 to May 1, 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia and the third longest reigning monarch king in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid Dynasty and...

    .


Literature
  • Prince Iraj Mirza
    Iraj Mirza
    Prince Iraj Mirza , son of prince Gholam Hossein Mirza, was a famous Iranian poet. He was a modern poet and his works are associated with the criticism of traditions. He had translations from the French language....

    , Iranian poet, great grandson of Fath Ali Shah.
  • Shahrnush Parsipur
    Shahrnush Parsipur
    Shahrnush Parsipur is an Iranian novelist. She is the daughter of an attorney in the Iranian Justice Ministry originally from Shiraz.-Biography:...

    , Iranian novelist, great great-grandchild of Abbas Mirza
    Abbas Mirza
    Prince, Field-Marshal Abbas Mirza born Amol city , was a Qajar crown prince of Persia. He developed a reputation as a military commander during wars with Russia and the Ottoman Empire, as an early modernizer of Persia's armed forces and institutions, and for his death before his father, Fath Ali...

    .
  • Nader Naderpour
    Nader Naderpour
    Nader Naderpour was an Iranian-born poet.Among many Iranian poets who shaped up the New Persian Poetry or New Poetry , Ali Esfandiari, aka Nima Yooshij, Parviz Natel Khanlari, Nader Naderpor, Forough Farrokhzad, Mehdi Akhavan Saless, Sohrab Sepehri, Feraydoon Moshiri, Siavosh Kasraii, Ahmad...

    , Iranian poet, descendant of Mohammad Ali Mirza Dolatshah
    Dowlatshahi
    Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah was a famous Persian Prince of Qajar Dynasty. He is also the progenitor of Dowlatshahi Family of Persia. He was born in Mazandaran a Caspian province in the north of Iran...

    .
  • Sadegh Hedayat
    Sadegh Hedayat
    Sadegh Hedayat was Iran's foremost modern writer of prose fiction and short stories.-Life:...

    , Iranian novelist.


Painting
  • Abbas Moayeri, Iranian painter great great-grandchild of Nasser al-Din Shah
    Nasser al-Din Shah
    Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was the King of Iran from September 17, 1848 to May 1, 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahan Khanom, Mahd-e Olia and the third longest reigning monarch king in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid Dynasty and...



Popular culture
  • Sarah Shahi
    Sarah Shahi
    Aahoo Jahansouz "Sarah" Shahi is an American actress and a former NFL Cheerleader. She is probably best known for starring in The L Word as Carmen de la Pica Morales and in Life as Detective Dani Reese...

    , American actress and cheerleader; descendant of Fath Ali Shah
  • Shireen Fathi, Iranian-American actress; descendant of Iranian Qajar.

See also


  • Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

  • History of Iran
    History of Iran
    The history of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, comprising the area from the Danube River in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and Egypt...

  • List of kings of Persia
  • Mirza Kouchek Khan
  • Abdolhossein Teymourtash
  • Qajar art
    Qajar art
    Qajar art refers to the art and art-forms of the Qajar dynasty of the Persian Empire, which lasted from 1781 to 1925. Most notably, Qajar art is recognizable for its distinctive style of portraiture...

  • List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

External links