Abbasid

Abbasid

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{{History of the Arab States}} The '''Abbasid Caliphate''' or, more simply, the '''Abbasids''' ({{lang-ar|العبّاسيّون}} / [[ISO 233]]: {{transl|ar|ISO 233|al-‘abbāsīyūn}}), was the third of the [[Islam]]ic [[caliphate]]s. It was ruled by the Abbasid [[dynasty]] of [[caliph]]s, who built their capital in [[Baghdad]] after overthrowing the [[Umayyad caliphate]] from all but the [[al-Andalus]] region. The Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of the [[Prophets in Islam|Islamic prophet]] [[Muhammad]]'s youngest uncle, [[‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib]], in [[Harran]] in [[750]] CE and shifted its capital in [[762]] to [[Baghdad]].
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{{History of the Arab States}} The '''Abbasid Caliphate''' or, more simply, the '''Abbasids''' ({{lang-ar|العبّاسيّون}} / [[ISO 233]]: {{transl|ar|ISO 233|al-‘abbāsīyūn}}), was the third of the [[Islam]]ic [[caliphate]]s. It was ruled by the Abbasid [[dynasty]] of [[caliph]]s, who built their capital in [[Baghdad]] after overthrowing the [[Umayyad caliphate]] from all but the [[al-Andalus]] region. The Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of the [[Prophets in Islam|Islamic prophet]] [[Muhammad]]'s youngest uncle, [[‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib]], in [[Harran]] in [[750]] CE and shifted its capital in [[762]] to [[Baghdad]]. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the [[Turkic peoples|Turkish]] army it had created, the [[Mamluk]]s. Within 150 years of gaining control of [[Persia]], the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic [[emir]]s who only nominally acknowledged their authority. The caliphate also lost the Western provinces of al-Andalus, [[Maghreb]] and [[Ifriqiya]] to an Umayyad prince, the [[Aghlabids]] and the [[Fatimid Caliphate]], respectively. The Abbasids' rule was briefly ended for three years in 1258, when [[Hulagu Khan]], the [[Mongols|Mongol]] khan, [[Siege of Baghdad (1258)|sacked Baghdad]], resuming in Mamluk [[Egypt]] in 1261, from where they continued to claim authority in religious matters until 1519, when power was formally transferred to the [[Ottoman Empire]] and the capital relocated to [[Constantinople]]. ==Rise== The Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–662), one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad, because of which they considered themselves the true successor of Muhammad as opposed to the [[Umayyads]]. The Umayyads were descended from [[Umayya ibn Abd Shams|Umayya]], and were a clan separate from Muhammad's in the [[Quraysh (tribe)|Quraish]] tribe. They won the backing of Shiites (i.e., the [[Hashimiyya]] sub-sect of the [[Kaysanites Shia]]) against the Umayyads by temporarily converting to [[Shia Islam]]{{Citation needed|date=June 2010}} and joining their fight against Umayyad rule. [[File:Abbasids Baghdad Iraq 765.jpg|thumb|left|Coin of the Abbasids, [[Baghdad]], [[Iraq]], 765.]] The Abbasids also distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to [[Ira Lapidus]], "The Abbasid revolt was supported largely by Arabs, mainly the aggrieved settlers of Marw with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their [[Mawali]]". The Abbasids also appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as ''mawali'', who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. [[Mohammad ibn Ali Abbasi|Muhammad ibn 'Ali]], a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign for the return of power to the family of Muhammad, the Hashimites, in [[Iran|Persia]] during the reign of [[Umar II]]. During the reign of [[Marwan II]], this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasan]], [[Iran]], he achieved considerable success, but was captured in the year 747 and died in prison; some hold that he was assassinated.{{citation needed|date=October 2010}} The quarrel was taken up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas [[as-Saffah]], who defeated the Umayyads in 750 in the [[Battle of the Zab]] near the [[Great Zab]] and was subsequently proclaimed [[caliph]]. Immediately after their victory, Abu al-'Abbas [[as-Saffah]] sent his forces to [[North Africa]] and [[Central Asia]], where his forces fought against [[Tang Dynasty|Tang]] expansion during the [[Battle of Talas]] (the Abbasids were known to their opponents as the: "Black robed Tazi" ("Tazi", [[Chinese language|Chinese]]: 大食 is borrowed from Persian.) {{citation needed|date=October 2010}}). Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad; introduced the world's first recorded [[paper mill]] in [[Baghdad]], thus beginning a new era of intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain. Within 10 years, the Abbasids built another renowned paper mill in the [[Umayyad]] capital of [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]] in [[Spain]]. ==Power== The first change the Abbasids made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. This was to both appease as well to be closer to the Persian ''mawali'' support base that existed in this region more influenced by Persian history and culture, and part of the Persian mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. [[Baghdad]] was established on the [[Tigris River]] in 762. A new position, that of the [[vizier]], was also established to delegate central authority, and even greater authority was delegated to local emirs. Eventually, this meant that many Abbasid caliphs were relegated to a more ceremonial role than under the Umayyads, as the [[vizier]]s began to exert greater influence, and the role of the old Arab aristocracy was slowly replaced by a Persian bureaucracy. The Abbasids had depended heavily on the support of Persians {{Citation needed|date=November 2008}} in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, [[Al-Mansur]], moved their capital from [[Damascus]] to the new city of [[Baghdad]] and welcomed non-Arab Muslims to their court. While this helped integrate Arab and Persian cultures, it alienated many of their Arab supporters, particularly the [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasanian]] Arabs who had supported them in their battles against the Umayyads. [[File:Al-Mu'tamid-coin.jpg|right|thumb|120px|Abbasid coins during [[Al-Mu'tamid]]'s reign]] These fissures in their support led to immediate problems. The Umayyads, while out of power, were not destroyed. The only surviving member of the Umayyad royal family, which had been all but annihilated, ultimately made his way to Spain where he established himself as an independent [[Emir]] ([[Abd ar-Rahman I]], 756). In 929, [[Abd ar-Rahman III]] assumed the title of Caliph, establishing [[Al Andalus]] from [[Córdoba, Spain|Córdoba]] as a rival to Baghdad as the legitimate capital of the Islamic Empire. ==Golden Age== {{Main|Islamic Golden Age}} {{See|Early Islamic philosophy|Inventions in the Muslim world}} [[File:ManuscriptAbbasid.jpg|thumb||300px|right|A manuscript written during the Abbasid Era.]] {{quote|"In virtually every field of endeavor -in astronomy, alchemy, mathematics, medicine, optics and so forth- Arab scientists were in the forefront of scientific advance."}} The [[Islamic Golden Age]] was inaugurated by the middle of the 8th century by the ascension of the Abbasid [[Caliphate]] and the transfer of the capital from [[Damascus]] to [[Baghdad]]. The Abbassids were influenced by the [[Qur'an]]ic injunctions and [[hadith]] such as "the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr" stressing the value of knowledge. During this period the Muslim world became an intellectual center for science, philosophy, medicine and education as the Abbasids championed the cause of knowledge and established the [[House of Wisdom]] in Baghdad; where both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars sought to translate and gather all the world's knowledge into [[Arabic language|Arabic]]. Many classic works of antiquity that would otherwise have been lost were translated into Arabic and Persian and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew and Latin. During this period the Muslim world was a cauldron of cultures which collected, synthesized and significantly advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient [[Ancient Rome|Roman]], [[China|Chinese]], [[History of India|Indian]], [[Persian Empire|Persian]], [[Ancient Egypt|Egyptian]], [[North Africa]]n, [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] and [[Byzantine]] civilizations. ===Science=== {{Main|Science in the medieval Islamic world}} {{See|Alchemy (Islam)|Islamic astronomy|Islamic mathematics|Islamic medicine|Timeline of science and technology in the Islamic world}} [[File:Mustansiriya University CPT.jpg|thumb|right|[[Mustansiriya University]] in [[Baghdad]].]] The reigns of [[Harun al-Rashid]] (786–809) and his successors fostered an age of great intellectual achievement. In large part, this was the result of the schismatic forces that had undermined the [[Umayyad]] regime, which relied on the assertion of the superiority of Arab culture as part of its claim to legitimacy, and the Abbasids' welcoming of support from non-Arab Muslims. It is well established that the Abbasid caliphs modeled their administration on that of the [[Sassanid]]s. Harun al-Rashid's son, [[Al-Ma'mun]] (whose mother was [[Persian people|Persian]]), is even quoted as saying: :''"The Persians ruled for a thousand years and did not need us Arabs even for a day. We have been ruling them for one or two centuries and cannot do without them for an hour."'' A number of medieval thinkers and scientists living under Islamic rule played a role in transmitting [[Islamic science]] to the Christian West. They contributed to making [[Aristotle]] known in Christian Europe. In addition, the period saw the recovery of much of the [[Alexandria]]n mathematical, geometric and astronomical knowledge, such as that of [[Euclid]] and Claudius [[Ptolemy]]. These recovered mathematical methods were later enhanced and developed by other Islamic scholars, notably by [[Persian people|Persian]] scientists [[Al-Biruni]] and [[Abu Nasr Mansur]]. [[Algebra]] was significantly developed by Persian scientist [[Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī]] during this time in his landmark text, ''[[The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing|Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabala]]'', from which the term ''algebra'' is derived. He is thus considered to be the father of algebra by some, although the Greek mathematician [[Diophantus]] has also been given this title. The terms [[algorism]] and [[algorithm]] are derived from the name of al-Khwarizmi, who was also responsible for introducing the [[Arabic numerals]] and [[Hindu-Arabic numeral system]] beyond the [[Indian subcontinent]]. [[Ibn al-Haytham]] (Alhazen) developed an early [[scientific method]] in his ''[[Book of Optics]]'' (1021). The most important development of the scientific method was the use of [[experiment]]s to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally [[empiricism|empirical]] orientation, which began among Muslim scientists. Ibn al-Haytham's [[empirical]] proof of the intromission theory of light (that is, that light rays entered the eyes rather than being [[emission theory (vision)|emitted by them]]) was particularly important. Bradley Steffens described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first [[scientist]]" for his development of scientific method. [[Medicine in medieval Islam]] was an area of science that advanced particularly during the Abbasids' reign. During the ninth century, Baghdad contained over 800 doctors, and great discoveries in the understanding of anatomy and diseases were made. The clinical distinction between measles and smallpox was described during this time. Famous Persian scientist [[Ibn Sina]] (known to the West as [[Avicenna]]) produced treatises and works that summarized the vast amount of knowledge that scientists had accumulated, and was very influential through his encyclopedias, ''[[The Canon of Medicine]]'' and ''[[The Book of Healing]]''. The work of him and many others directly influenced the research of European scientists during the Renaissance. [[Astronomy in medieval Islam]] was advanced by [[Al-Battani]], who improved the precision of the measurement of the [[precession]] of the Earth's axis. The corrections made to the [[geocentric model]] by al-Battani{{Citation needed|date=August 2011}}, [[Averroes]]{{Citation needed|date=August 2011}}, [[Nasir al-Din al-Tusi]], [[Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi]] and [[Ibn al-Shatir]] were later incorporated into the [[Copernican heliocentrism|Copernican heliocentric]] model. The [[astrolabe]], though originally developed by the Greeks, was developed further by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and subsequently brought to medieval Europe. [[Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam|Muslim alchemists]] influenced medieval European alchemists, particularly the writings attributed to [[Jābir ibn Hayyān]] (Geber). A number of [[chemical process]]es such as [[distillation]] techniques were developed in the Muslim world and then spread to Europe. ===Literature=== [[File:Ali-Baba.jpg|right|thumb|"[[Ali Baba]]" by [[Maxfield Parrish]].]] {{Main|Islamic literature|Arabic literature|Arabic epic literature|Persian literature}} {{See|Islamic poetry|Arabic poetry|Turkish poetry|Persian poetry}} The most well known [[fiction]] from the Islamic world was ''[[The Book of One Thousand and One Nights]]'' (''Arabian Nights''). The original concept is derived from pre-Islamic [[Iran]]ian (Persian) prototype with reliance on Indian elements. It also includes stories from the rest of the Middle-Eastern and North African nations. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. All Arabian [[fantasy]] tales were often called "Arabian Nights" when translated into [[English language|English]], regardless of whether they appeared in ''The Book of One Thousand and One Nights''. This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by [[Antoine Galland]]. Many imitations were written, especially in France. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as [[Aladdin]], [[Sinbad]] and [[Ali Baba]]. A famous example of [[Persian poetry]] on [[romance (love)|romance]] is ''[[Layla and Majnun]]'', dating back to the [[Umayyad]] era in the 7th century. It is a [[Tragedy|tragic]] story of undying [[love]] much like the later ''[[Romeo and Juliet]]''. {{Dead link|date=April 2011}} Arabic poetry reached its greatest heights in the Abbasid era, especially before the loss of central authority and the rise of the Persianate dynasties. Writers like [[Abu Tammam]] and [[Abu Nuwas]] were closely connected to the caliphal court in Baghdad during the early 9th century, while others such as [[al-Mutanabbi]] received their patronage from regional courts. ===Philosophy=== {{Main|Islamic philosophy|Early Islamic philosophy}} {{See|Logic in Islamic philosophy|Kalam|Avicennism|Averroism|Illuminationist philosophy|Transcendent Theosophy}} One of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture." Islamic philosophy, in this definition is neither necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor is exclusively produced by Muslims. Their works on [[Aristotle]] was a key step in the transmission of learning from ancient Greeks to the Islamic world and the West. They often corrected the philosopher, encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of [[ijtihad]]. They also wrote influential original philosophical works, and their thinking was incorporated into [[Christian philosophy]] during the Middle Ages, notably by [[Thomas Aquinas]].{{Citation needed|date=April 2011}} Three speculative thinkers, [[al-Kindi]], [[al-Farabi]], and [[Avicenna]], combined [[Aristotelianism]] and [[Neoplatonism]] with other ideas introduced through Islam, and [[Avicennism]] was later established as a result. Other influential Muslim philosophers in the Caliphates include [[al-Jahiz]], and [[Ibn al-Haytham]] (Alhacen). ===Technology=== {{Main|Inventions in medieval Islam|Muslim Agricultural Revolution|Timeline of Islamic science and technology}} [[File:Abbasids Baghdad Iraq 1244.JPG|thumb|Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, Iraq, 1244.]] {{Expert-verify|date=April 2011}} In technology, the Muslim world adopted [[papermaking]] from China. The knowledge of [[gunpowder]] was also transmitted from China via Islamic countries, where the formulas for pure [[potassium nitrate]] and an [[explosive]] gunpowder effect were first developed. Advances were made in [[irrigation]] and farming, using new technology such as the [[windmill]]. Crops such as [[almond]]s and [[citrus]] fruit were brought to Europe through [[al-Andalus]], and [[sugar]] cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. Arab merchants dominated trade in the [[Indian Ocean]] until the arrival of the [[Portugal|Portuguese]] in the 16th century. [[Ormus|Hormuz]] was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the [[Mediterranean]], along which Muslim countries traded with each other and with European powers such as [[Venice]], [[Genoa]] and [[Catalonia]]. The [[Silk Road]] crossing [[Central Asia]] passed through Muslim states between China and Europe. Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative [[Industry|industrial]] uses of [[hydropower]], and early industrial uses of [[tidal power]], [[wind power]], and [[petroleum]] (notably by distillation into [[kerosene]]). The industrial uses of [[watermill]]s in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-[[Water wheel|wheeled]] and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. By the time of the Crusades, every province throughout the Islamic world had mills in operation, from [[al-Andalus]] and [[North Africa]] to the [[Middle East]] and [[Central Asia]]. These mills performed a variety of agricultural and industrial tasks. Muslim engineers also developed machines (such as pumps) incorporating [[crankshaft]]s, employed [[gear]]s in mills and water-raising [[machine]]s, and used [[dam]]s to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. Such advances made it possible for many industrial tasks that were previously driven by [[manual labour]] in [[ancient times]] to be [[Mechanization|mechanized]] and driven by [[machine]]ry instead in the medieval Islamic world. It has been argued that the industrial use of waterpower had spread from Islamic to Christian Spain, where fulling mills, paper mills, and forge mills were recorded for the first time in [[Catalonia]]. A number of industries were generated during the [[Arab Agricultural Revolution]], including early industries for textiles, sugar, rope-making, matting, silk, and paper. [[Latin translations of the 12th century]] passed on knowledge of chemistry and instrument making in particular. The [[agricultural]] and [[handicraft]] industries also experienced high levels of growth during this period. ==Evolution of Islamic Identity== While the Abbasids originally gained power by exploiting the social inequalities against non-Arabs in the Umayyad Empire, ironically during Abbasid rule the empire rapidly Arabized. As knowledge was shared in the Arabic language throughout the empire, people of different nationalities and religions began to speak Arabic in their everyday lives. Resources from other languages began to be translated into Arabic, and a unique Islamic identity began to form that fused previous cultures with Arab culture, creating a level of civilization and knowledge that was considered a marvel in Europe. == Fracture and Revival of Central Authority== {{Ref improve section|date=February 2011}} [[File:Shattering isochamend.png|thumb|left|300px|An anachronistic map of the various ''de facto'' independent emirates after the Abbasids lost their military dominance (c. 950).]] ===Causes=== *'''Rift with the Shia''' Abbasids found themselves at odds with the [[Shia]] Muslims, most of whom had supported their war against the Umayyads, since the Abbasids and the Shias claimed legitimacy by their familial connection to Muhammad. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced [[Sunni]] Islam and disavowed any support for Shi'a beliefs. That led to numerous conflicts, culminating in an uprising in [[Mecca]] in 786, followed by widespread bloodshed and the flight of many Shi'a to the [[Maghreb]], where the survivors established the [[Idrisid]] kingdom. The Abbasids also executed the direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who were also the Shia Imams, which includes Imam [[Jafar Sadiq]] and other respected nobles.{{Citation needed|date=August 2011}} Shortly thereafter, Berber [[Kharijite]]s set up an independent state in North Africa in 801. Within 50 years the [[Idrisid]]s in the [[Maghreb]] and [[Aghlabid]]s of [[Ifriqiya]] and a little later the [[Tulunid]]s and [[Ikshidid]]s of [[History of Muslim Egypt|Misr]] were effectively independent in Africa. *'''Conflict of Army Generals''' The direct reason for the sudden deterioration of the Abbasid authority was: the conflicts which provoked between their Turkic Army generals during the reign of [[al-Radi]], a thing that put the power of the Caliphate into decay, those dynasties that were already de-facto independent now quit paying the Caliphate, even provinces close to Baghdad began to seek local dynastic rule. === Fracture to Autonomous Dynasties === The Abbasid leadership had to work hard in the last half of the eighth century (750–800), under several competent caliphs and their viziers to overcome the political challenges created by the far flung nature of the empire, and the limited communication across it and usher in the administrative changes to keep order. While the [[Byzantine Empire]] was fighting Abbasid rule in [[Syria]] and [[Anatolia]], military operations during this period were minimal, as the caliphate focused on internal matters as local governors, who, as a matter of procedure, operated mostly independently of central authority. The problem that the caliphs faced was that these governors had begun to exert greater autonomy, using their increasing power to make their positions hereditary. At the same time, the Abbasids faced challenges closer to home. Former supporters of the Abbasids had broken away to create a separate kingdom around Khorosan in northern Persia. [[Harun al-Rashid]] (786–809) turned on the [[Barmakids]], a Persian family that had grown significantly in power within the administration of the state and killed most of the family. During the same period, several factions began either to leave the empire for other lands or to take control of distant parts of the empire away from the Abbasids. [[File:TajikistanP19-100Somoni-1999(2000)-donatedeh f.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Image of the [[Amir]] of [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasan]] [[Ismail Samani|Isma'il ibn Ahmad]] on the [[Tajikistani somoni]] who exercised independent authority from the Abassids]] Even by 820, the [[Samanid]]s had begun the process of exercising independent authority in [[Transoxiana]] and [[Greater Khorasan]], as had the Shia [[Hamdanid]]s in Northern Syria, and the succeeding [[Tahirid]] and [[Saffarid]] dynasties of Iran. By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control of Iraq to various [[amir]]s, and the caliph [[al-Radi]] was forced to acknowledge their power by creating the position of "Prince of Princes" (''amir al-umara''). Shortly thereafter, the Persian faction known as the [[Buwayhids]] from [[Daylam]] swept into power and assumed control over the bureaucracy in Baghdad. According to the history of [[Miskawayh]], they began distributing [[iqta]]s ([[fief]]s in the form of tax farms) to their supporters. Outside Iraq, all the autonomous provinces slowly took on the characteristic of [[de facto]] states with hereditary rulers, armies, and revenues and operated under only nominal caliph suzerainty, which may not necessarily be reflected by any contribution to the treasury, such as the [[Soomro]] [[Emir]]s that had gained control of [[Sindh]] and ruled the entire province from their capital of [[Mansura, Sindh|Mansura]]. [[Mahmud of Ghazni]] took the title of sultan, as opposed to the [[Emir|"amir"]] that had been in more common usage, signifying the [[Ghaznavid Empire]]'s independence from caliphal authority, despite Mahmud's ostentatious displays of Sunni orthodoxy and ritual submission to the caliph. In the 11th century, the loss of respect for the caliphs continued, as some Islamic rulers no longer mentioned the caliph's name in the Friday [[khutba]], or struck it off their coinage. {{Sunni Islam}} The [[Ismaili]] [[Fatimid]] dynasty of Cairo contested the Abbasids for even the titular authority of the Islamic [[ummah]]. They commanded some support in the Shia sections of Baghdad (such as [[Karkh]]), although Baghdad was the city most closely connected to the caliphate, even in the Buwayhid and Saljuq eras. The Fatimids' white banners contrasted with Abbasids' black, and the challenge of the Fatimids only ended with their downfall in the 12th century. *'''Fractured Entities''': *[[Idrisid dynasty]] (780) AD => [[Almoravid]] => [[Almohad]]s *[[Tulunids]] established (868) AD - Restored in 905 *[[Buyid dynasty]] (934) AD => [[Seljuks]] => [[Mongol Empire]] *[[Uqaylid Dynasty]] (990) => [[Seljuks]] => [[Mongol Empire]] *[[Samanids]] (819) AD => [[Ghaznavids]] => [[Seljuks]] => [[Mongol Empire]] *[[Aghlabids]] (800) => to the [[Fatimid]]s => [[Ayyubid dynasty]] => [[Mamluks]] *[[Hamdanid dynasty|Hamdanids]] (890) AD => to the [[Fatimid]]s => [[Ayyubid dynasty]] => [[Mamluks]] ===Buayhid and Saljuq Military control (978-1118)=== '''Buayhid''' Despite the power of the Buwayhid amirs, the Abbasids retained a highly ritualized court in Baghdad, as described by the Buwayhid bureaucrat [[Hilal al-Sabi']], and they retained a certain influence over Baghdad as well as religious life. As Buwayhid power waned after the death of [[Baha' al-Daula]], the caliphate was able to regain some measure of strength. The caliph [[al-Qadir]], for example, led the ideological struggle against the Shia with writings such as the [[Baghdad Manifesto]]. The caliphs kept order in Baghdad itself, attempting to prevent the outbreak of {{Disambiguation needed|fitna|date=June 2011}}s in the capital, often contending with the [[ayyarun]]. '''Seljuq''' With the Buwayhid dynasty on the wane, a vacuum was created that was eventually filled by the dynasty of [[Oghuz Turks]] known as the [[Saljuqs]]. When the amir and former slave [[Basasiri]] took up the [[Shia]] [[Fatimid]] banner in Baghdad in 1058, the caliph [[al-Qa'im (caliph)|al-Qa'im]] was unable to defeat him without outside help. [[Toghril Beg]], the Saljuq sultan, restored Baghdad to Sunni rule and took Iraq for his dynasty. Once again, the Abbasids were forced to deal with a military power that they could not match, though the Abbasid caliph remained the titular head of the Islamic community. The succeeding sultans [[Alp Arslan]] and [[Malikshah]], as well as their vizier [[Nizam al-Mulk]] took up residence in Persia, but held power over the Abbasids in Baghdad. When the dynasty began to weaken in the 12th century, the Abbasids gained greater independence once again. ===Revival of Military Strength (1118-1258)=== While the Caliph [[al-Mustarshid]] was the first caliph to build an army capable of meeting a Saljuq army in battle, he was nonetheless defeated in 1135 and assassinated. The Caliph [[Al-Muqtafi (Abbasid Caliph)|al-Muqtafi]] was the first Abbasid Caliph to regain the full military independence of the Caliphate, with the help of his vizier [[Ibn Hubayra]]. After nearly 250 years of subjection to foreign dynasties, he successfully defended Baghdad against the Saljuqs in the [[siege of Baghdad (1157)]], thus securing Iraq for the Abbasids. The reign of [[al-Nasir]] (d. 1225) brought the caliphate to power throughout Iraq, based in large part on the [[Sufi]] [[futuwwa]] organizations that the caliph headed. [[Al-Mustansir]] built the [[Mustansiriya School]], in an attempt to eclipse the Saljuq-era [[Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad|Nizamiyya]] built by [[Nizam al-Mulk]]. ===Mongol invasion=== [[Hulagu Khan]] [[Battle of Baghdad (1258)|sacked Baghdad]] on 10 February 1258, causing great loss of life. Muslims feared that a supernatural disaster would strike if the blood of [[Al-Musta'sim]], a direct descendant of [[‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib|Muhammad's uncle]] and the last reigning Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, was spilled. The Shiites of [[Persia]] stated that no such calamity had happened after the deaths of the [[Shiite]] Imam (leader) Hussein; nevertheless, as a precaution and in accordance with a Mongol taboo which forbade spilling royal blood, Hulagu had Al-Musta'sim wrapped in a carpet and trampled to death by horses on 20 February 1258. The Al-Musta'sim family was also executed, with the lone exceptions of his youngest son who was sent to [[Mongolia]], and a daughter who became a slave in the [[harem]] of Hulagu. According to Mongolian historians, the surviving son married and fathered children.{{Clarify|date=November 2009}} === The Abbasid in Bastak === Later in the 1280s, the surviving son of [[Al-Musta'sim]], moved to [[Bastak]], South [[Persia]], where [[Bastak]] and many other small [[Sunni]] villages pledged loyalty to the [[Abbasid]]. The rulers of [[Shiraz]] at the time, the Atabak, gave him protection to pass through their lands as he escaped from the [[Mughal Empire|Moghols]]. Later on the [[Abbasids]] took permission from Atabak to establish a state of their own and rule [[Bastak]] and the surrounding villages and islands. It was said that a few [[Hashimites]] (descendants of Prophet Mohammed) moved to [[Bastak]] from Khonj where they had settled after leaving [[Iraq]] towards [[Persia]]. The [[Abbasids]] carried on the expansion of Bastak's rule until it included more than 60 villages and many islands in the Persian Gulf. Many alliances were formed between the Bastaki rulers and the [[Arab]] rulers The title [[Abbasid]] was changed to [[Khan (title)]] ([[Persian language|Persian]]: خان , [[Arabic]]: الحاكم), a Persian translation for a sovereign or military ruler, and also has equivalent meanings such as commander or leader. Al Khan are also called [[Bastakis]], from Bastak. == Under the Mamluks == In the 9th century, the Abbasids created an army loyal only to their caliphate, drawn mostly from [[Arab]] and [[Turkic peoples|Turkish]] [[slave]]s, known as [[Mamluks]], with some [[Slavs]] and [[Berber people|Berbers]] participating as well. This force, created in the reign of [[al-Ma'mun]] (813–833), and his brother and successor [[al-Mu'tasim]] (833–842), prevented the further disintegration of the empire. The Mamluk army, though often viewed negatively, both helped and hurt the caliphate. Early on, it provided the government with a stable force to address domestic and foreign problems. However, creation of this foreign army and al-Mu'tasim's transfer of the capital from Baghdad to [[Samarra]] created a division between the caliphate and the peoples they claimed to rule. In addition, the power of the Mamluks steadily grew until [[al-Radi]] (934–941) was constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed bin Raik. The Abbasids continued to maintain the presence of authority, yet it was confined to religious matters in [[Egypt]], under the [[Mamluks]]. ==End of Dynasty== The dynasty finally ended with [[Al-Mutawakkil III]], who was taken away as a prisoner, by [[Selim I]], to [[Constantinople]] where he had a ceremonial role until his death in 1543. == List of Abbasid Caliphs == [[File:Abbasids.gif|thumb|400px|right|Genealogic tree of the Abbasid family. In green, the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. In yellow, the Abbasid caliphs of Cairo. Muhammad the Prophet is included (in caps) to show the kinship of the Abbasids with him.]] {| class="wikitable" |- ! Ruler || Reign |-bgcolor="#C0C0C0" |align="center"|'''Caliphs of Baghdad''' || |- | Abu'l Abbas [[As-Saffah]] || 750–754 |- | [[Al-Mansur]] || 754–775 |- | [[Al-Mahdi]] || 775–785 |- | [[Al-Hadi]] || 785–786 |- | [[Harun al-Rashid]] || 786–809 |- | [[Al-Amin]] || 809–813 |- | [[Al-Ma'mun]] || 813–833 |- | [[Al-Mu'tasim]] || 833–842 |- | [[Al-Wathiq]] || 842–847 |- | [[Al-Mutawakkil]] || 847–861 |- | [[Al-Muntasir]] || 861–862 |- | [[Al-Musta'in]] || 862–866 |- | [[Al-Mu'tazz]] || 866–869 |- | [[Al-Muhtadi]] || 869–870 |- | [[Al-Mu'tamid]] || 870–892 |- | [[Al-Mu'tadid]] || 892–902 |- | [[Al-Muktafi]] || 902–908 |- | [[Al-Muqtadir]] || 908–932 |- | [[Al-Qahir]] || 932–934 |- | [[Ar-Radi]] || 934–940 |- | [[Al-Muttaqi]] || 940–944 |- | [[Al-Mustakfi]] || 944–946 |- | [[Al-Muti]] || 946–974 |- | [[At-Ta'i]] || 974–991 |- | [[Al-Qadir]] || 991–1031 |- | [[Al-Qa'im (caliph)|Al-Qa'im]] || 1031–1075 |- | [[Al-Muqtadi]] || 1075–1094 |- | [[Al-Mustazhir]] || 1094–1118 |- | [[Al-Mustarshid]] || 1118–1135 |- | [[Harun al-Rashid (1135)|Ar-Rashid]] || 1135–1136 |- | [[Al-Muqtafi (Abbasid Caliph)|Al-Muqtafi]] || 1136–1160 |- | [[Al-Mustanjid]] || 1160–1170 |- | [[Al-Mustadi]] || 1170–1180 |- | [[An-Nasir]] || 1180–1225 |- | [[Az-Zahir (caliph)|Az-Zahir]] || 1225–1226 |- | [[Al-Mustansir]] || 1226–1242 |- | [[Al-Musta'sim]] || 1242–1258 |-bgcolor="#C0C0C0" |align="center"|'''Caliphs of Cairo''' || |- | [[Al-Mustansir II of Cairo|Al-Mustansir]] || 1261–1262 |- | [[Al-Hakim I (Cairo)]] || 1262–1302 |- | [[Al-Mustakfi I of Cairo]] || 1303–1340 |- | [[Al-Wathiq I]] || 1340–1341 |- | [[Al-Hakim II]] || 1341–1352 |- | [[Al-Mu'tadid I]] || 1352–1362 |- | [[Al-Mutawakkil I]] || 1362–1383 |- | [[Al-Wathiq II]] || 1383–1386 |- | [[Al-Mu'tasim (Cairo)|Al-Mu'tasim]] || 1386–1389 |- | [[Al-Mutawakkil I]] (restored) || 1389–1406 |- | [[Al-Musta'in (Cairo)|Al-Musta'in]] || 1406–1414 |- | [[Al-Mu'tadid II]] || 1414–1441 |- | [[Al-Mustakfi II]] || 1441–1451 |- | [[Al-Qa'im (Cairo)|Al-Qa'im]] || 1451–1455 |- | [[Al-Mustanjid (Cairo)|Al-Mustanjid]] || 1455–1479 |- | [[Al-Mutawakkil II]] || 1479–1497 |- | [[Al-Mustamsik]] || 1497–1508 |- | [[Al-Mutawakkil III]] || 1508–1517 |} == External links == {{Commons category}} {{Collier's Poster|Abbassides}} * [http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/itl/denise/abbasids.htm Abbasids (750-1517)] * [http://www.islamicarchitecture.org/dynasties/abbasids.html Abbasids the 2nd dynasty of caliphs] * [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20060202.shtml Abbasid Caliphs (In Our Time, Radio 4)], in Streaming RealAudio * [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f1/v1f1a052.html Abbasid Caliphate]{{Dead link|date=May 2011}} entry in [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/ Encyclopaedia Iranica] * [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0001_0_00087.html ABBASIDS] * [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Abassid.html The Abassid Caliphate (758-1258)] {{Abbasids}} {{Islam topics|state=collapsed}} {{Iran topics}} {{Iraq topics}} {{Saudi Arabia topics}} {{Caliphate}} {{Empires}} {{coord missing}} {{Use dmy dates|date=June 2011}}