Liaoning

Liaoning

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Encyclopedia
is a province of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, located in the northeast
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

 of the country. Its one-character
Chinese character
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese , less frequently Korean , formerly Vietnamese , or other languages...

 abbreviation is "辽" (pinyin: liáo), a name taken from the Liao River
Liao River
The Liao River is the principal river in northeast China . The province of Liaoning and the Liaodong Peninsula derive their names from the river....

 that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace". The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian province (奉天 pinyin
Pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

: Fèngtiān; Postal map spelling: Fengtien) and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

 regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945.

Liaoning is located in the southern part of the Northeast, and is often called "the Golden Triangle" because of its superior geographical location, with the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 (Korea Bay
Korea Bay
The Korea Bay is a northern extension of the Yellow Sea, between Liaoning Province of China and North P'yŏngan Province of North Korea.It is separated from the Bohai Sea by the Liaodong Peninsula, with Dalian at its southernmost point...

) and the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

 in the south, North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

 in the southeast, Jilin
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

 province to the northeast, Hebei
Hebei
' is a province of the People's Republic of China in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "" , named after Ji Province, a Han Dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei...

 province to the west, and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

 to the northwest. The Yalu River
Yalu River
The Yalu River or the Amnok River is a river on the border between North Korea and the People's Republic of China....

 marks the border between North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

 and the province. It empties into the Korea Bay between Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

, Liaoning and Sinŭiju
Sinuiju
Sinŭiju is a city in North Korea, neighboring with Dandong City, China via international border and is the capital of North P'yŏngan Province...

, North Korea.

Quick Facts

  • Between 2006 and 2010 the province expects to create 10 cities with a population of 200,000-500,000, and 10 with a population of 100,000-200,000, taking its urbanization rate to 63 percent in the upcoming years.
  • Liaoning ranks seventh in China in terms of GDP since 2009.
  • Major cities include Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

    , the provincial capital and one of the largest cities in China, Anshan, the third largest city in the province, Benxi
    Benxi
    Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province in Northeast China, south-southeast of Shenyang. Its population is 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 959,610 in the built up area It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915...

    , Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

    , a flourishing port city once controlled by Japan and Russia, Dandong
    Dandong
    Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

    , border city with North Korea, Fushun
    Fushun
    Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

     and Jinzhou
    Jinzhou
    Jinzhou , is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" , which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West...

    .

History


Liaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

. The governments headed by various people such as the Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon
Gojoseon
Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. Go , meaning "ancient," distinguishes it from the later Joseon Dynasty; Joseon, as it is called in contemporaneous writings, is also romanized as Chosŏn....

, Goguryeo
Goguryeo
Goguryeo or Koguryŏ was an ancient Korean kingdom located in present day northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula, southern Manchuria, and southern Russian Maritime province....

, Balhae
Balhae
Balhae was a Manchurian kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. After Goguryeo's capital and southern territories fell to Unified Silla, Dae Jo-yeong, a Mohe general, whose father was Dae Jung-sang, established Jin , later called Balhae.Balhae occupied southern parts of Manchuria and...

, the Chinese as Yan (state)
Yan (state)
Yān was a state during the Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods of Chinese history. Its capital was Ji...

, Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

, and the Nomadic peoples as Donghu, Xianbei
Xianbei
The Xianbei were a significant Mongolic nomadic people residing in Manchuria, Inner Mongolia and eastern Mongolia. The title “Khan” was first used among the Xianbei.-Origins:...

, Khitan
Khitan people
thumb|250px|Khitans [[Eagle hunting|using eagles to hunt]], painted during the Chinese [[Song Dynasty]].The Khitan people , or Khitai, Kitan, or Kidan, were a nomadic Mongolic people, originally located at Mongolia and Manchuria from the 4th century...

 and Jurchen ruled Liaoning.
The Ming Empire
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Around 1442, a defense wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of the province from a potential threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan (who were Ming's tributaries). In 1467-68 the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks from Jianzhou Jurchens
Jianzhou Jurchens
The Jianzhou Jurchens were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the southernmost group of the Jurchen people The Jianzhou Jurchens (Chinese:建州女真) were a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty. They were the...

 (who were later to become known as the Manchu people). Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in northern China, built originally to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire against intrusions by various nomadic groups...

, this "Liaodong Wall" was of a lower-cost design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.


Despite the Liaodong Wall, the Ming Liaodong was conquered by the Manchus in the early 17th century, decades before the rest of China fell to them. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616-1621 in Xingjing (兴京), which was located outside of the Liaodong Wall in the eastern part of the modern Liaoning Province (near today's Xilaocheng Village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County
Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County
Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County , or simply Xinbin County , is one of the three counties under the administration of Fushun City, in the east of Liaoning Province, Northeast China...

 (新宾满族自治县), part of Fushun
Fushun
Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

 City). It was moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

, Liaoning), and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

 after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.

The Qing conquest of Liaodong resulted in a significant population loss in the area, as many local Chinese residents were either killed during fighting, or fled south of the Great Wall, many cities being destroyed by the retreating Ming forces themselves. As late as 1661, the Civil Governor (Fuyin) of Fengtian Province, Zhang Shangxian reported that, outside of Fengtian City (Shenyang), Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

, and Haicheng, all other cities east of the Liaohe were either abandoned, or hardly had a few hundred residents left. In the Governor's words, "Tieling
Tieling
Tieling is a prefecture-level city in Liaoning province of the People's Republic of China.The population is 3 million at the 2nd of 2004. Tieling is a city where coal mining is an important industry.The mayor of Tieling is Li Wenke...

 and Fushun
Fushun
Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

 only have a few vagrants". West of the Liaohe, only Ningyuan, Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Jinzhou , is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" , which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West...

, and Guangning had any significant populations remaining.


In the last half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653) the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning). Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 for most of the Manchu era. To prevent the migration of Chinese to those regions (today's Jilin
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

 and Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

, as well as the adjacent parts of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

), the so-called Willow Palisade
Willow Palisade
Willow Palisade was a system of ditches and embankments planted with willows intended to restrict movement into Manchuria, built by the Qing Dynasty during the later 17th century...

 was constructed (ca. 1638 - ca. 1672). The Palisade encircled the agricultural heartlands of Fengtian, running in most areas either somewhat outside the old Ming Liaodong Wall, or reusing it, and separating it from the Manchu forests to the northeast and the Mongol grazing lands to the northwest.

Later on, the Qing government tried to stop the migrants flow to Fengtian or even to make some settlers return to their original places of residence - or, failing that, to legalize them. E.g. an edict issued in 1704 commented on the recent Han Chinese settlers in Fengtian having failed to comply with earlier orders requiring them to leave, and asked them to either properly register and to join a local defense group (保, bao), or to leave the province for their original places within the next 10 years. Ten years later, naturally, another edict appeared, reminding of the necessity to do something with illegal migrants... In any event, the restrictive policy was not as effective as desired by the officials in Beijing, and Fengtian's population doubled between 1683 and 1734.

During the Qing Dynasty, Manchuria was ruled by three generals, one of whom, the General of Shengjing, ruled much of modern Liaoning.

In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.

In the twentieth century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur
Battle of Port Arthur
The Battle of Port Arthur was the starting battle of the Russo-Japanese War...

 and the Battle of Mukden
Battle of Mukden
One of the largest land battles to be fought before World War I, the , the last major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War, was fought from 20 February to 10 March 1905 between Japan and Russia near Mukden in Manchuria...

, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought.

During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique
Fengtian clique
The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's warlord era. It was named for Fengtian Province and led by Zhang Zuolin...

, including Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928 . He successfully invaded China proper in October 1924 in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. He gained control of Peking, including China's internationally recognized government, in April 1926...

 and his son Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsüeh-liang , occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang in English, nicknamed the Young Marshal , was the effective ruler of Manchuria and much of North China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928...

; in 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese-controlled puppet state
Puppet state
A puppet state is a nominal sovereign of a state who is de facto controlled by a foreign power. The term refers to a government controlled by the government of another country like a puppeteer controls the strings of a marionette...

 of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

. The Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war fought between the Kuomintang , the governing party of the Republic of China, and the Communist Party of China , for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China and People's Republic of...

 that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign
Liaoshen Campaign
Liaoshen Campaign , literally the abbreviation of Liaoning-Shenyang Campaign, was part of the three major campaigns launched by the People's Liberation Army during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War. This engagement is known in the Nationalist government as the Battle of Liaoshi...

) in and around Liaoning.


At the founding of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun
Fushun
Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

, and Benxi
Benxi
Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province in Northeast China, south-southeast of Shenyang. Its population is 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 959,610 in the built up area It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915...

. These were all merged together into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

, though this was reversed later.

Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry
Heavy industry
Heavy industry does not have a single fixed meaning as compared to light industry. It can mean production of products which are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production. In general, it is a popular term used within the name of many Japanese and Korean firms, meaning...

 has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.

Politics



The politics of Liaoning is structured in a single party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Liaoning (辽宁省省长) is the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Liaoning. However, in the province's single party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Liaoning Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 Provincial Committee Secretary (辽宁省委书记), colloquially termed the "Liaoning CCP Party Chief".

Previous to 1949 and the takeover of the Communist forces, Liaoning was governed by the Fengtian clique
Fengtian clique
The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's warlord era. It was named for Fengtian Province and led by Zhang Zuolin...

 of warlords and interchangeably officials of the Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th century China. He is known as Jiǎng Jièshí or Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng in Mandarin....

 bureaucracy. During the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 Liaoning was known as the province of Fengtian
Fengtian
Fengtian is:* The name of an old prefecture under which Shenyang city was administered. Abolished in 1910.* The former name of Liaoning province from 1907 to 1929. Under the Manchukuo regime, the name was revived, but was again abolished in 1945....

, and was governed by a zongdu or Viceroy (The Viceroy of the Three Eastern Provinces), along with the provinces of Jilin
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

 and Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

. The province itself also had a governor (xunfu).

Geography



It is possible to think of Liaoning as three approximate geographical regions: the highlands in the west, plain
Plain
In geography, a plain is land with relatively low relief, that is flat or gently rolling. Prairies and steppes are types of plains, and the archetype for a plain is often thought of as a grassland, but plains in their natural state may also be covered in shrublands, woodland and forest, or...

s in the middle, and hills in the east.

The highlands in the west are dominated by the Nulu'erhu Mountains, which roughly follow the border between Liaoning and Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the northern region of the country. Inner Mongolia shares an international border with the countries of Mongolia and the Russian Federation...

. The entire region is dominated by low hills.

The central part of Liaoning consists of the watersheds
Drainage basin
A drainage basin is an extent or an area of land where surface water from rain and melting snow or ice converges to a single point, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another waterbody, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean...

 of rivers such as the Liao
Liao River
The Liao River is the principal river in northeast China . The province of Liaoning and the Liaodong Peninsula derive their names from the river....

, Daliao, and their tributaries. This region is mostly flat and at low altitudes.

The eastern part of Liaoning is dominated by the Changbai
Changbai Mountains
The Changbai Mountain Range or Jangbaek Mountain Range are a mountain range on the border between China and North Korea...

 Shan and Qianshan ranges, which extends into the sea to form the Liaodong Peninsula. The highest point in Liaoning, Mount Huabozi (1336 m), is found in this region.

Liaoning has a continental
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

 monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 climate, and rainfall averages to about 440 to 1130 mm annually. Summer is rainy while the other seasons are dry.

Major cities:
  • Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

  • Anshan
  • Liaoyang
    Liaoyang
    Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

  • Fushun
    Fushun
    Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

  • Dandong
    Dandong
    Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

  • Jinzhou
    Jinzhou
    Jinzhou , is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" , which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West...

  • Yingkou
    Yingkou
    Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...


Administrative divisions


Liaoning is composed of fourteen prefecture-level cities:
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat Population (2010
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010....

)
— Sub-provincial city —
1 Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

沈阳市 Shěnyáng Shì Shenhe District
Shenhe District
Shenhe District is a district of Shenyang, the capital of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 10 subdistricts within the district.Subdistricts:...

8,106,171
2 Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

大连市 Dàlián Shì Xigang District
Xigang District
Xigang District is a District under the administration of the city of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 320,000 people...

6,690,432
Prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 —
3 Anshan 鞍山市 Ānshān Shì Tiedong District
Tiedong District, Anshan
Tiedong District is a district of the city of Anshan, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 12 subdistricts.Subdistricts:...

3,645,884
4 Benxi
Benxi
Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province in Northeast China, south-southeast of Shenyang. Its population is 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 959,610 in the built up area It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915...

本溪市 Běnxī Shì Pingshan District
Pingshan District
Pingshan District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 350,000 people as of 2002.-Administrative Divisions:...

1,709,538
5 Chaoyang 朝阳市 Cháoyáng Shì Shuangta District
Shuangta District
Shuangta District is a district of Chaoyang City, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 10 subdistricts, 2 towns, and 2 townships in the district.Subdistricts:...

3,044,641
6 Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

丹东市 Dāndōng Shì Zhenxing District
Zhenxing District
Zhenxing District is a district of the city of Dandong, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 9 subdistricts and 1 town in the district.Subdistricts:...

2,444,697
7 Fushun
Fushun
Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

抚顺市 Fǔshùn Shì Shuncheng District
Shuncheng District
Shuncheng District , is one of the four districts under the administration of Fushun City, in Liaoning Province, China. It has a population of about 420,000, covering an area of .-Administrative Divisions:...

2,138,090
8 Fuxin
Fuxin
-Economy:Fuxin is a mining center in an agricultural region.The city suffers from the over-mining of coal, which is low in supply while fundamental in Fuxin's economy. As the coal mines run dry, Fuxin is trying to find other industries to keep its economy going...

阜新市 Fùxīn Shì Haizhou District
Haizhou District, Fuxin
-Administrative Divisions:There are 8 subdistricts and 1 town within the district.Subdistricts:*Heping Subdistrict , Xinxing Subdistrict , Xishan Subdistrict , Hebei Subdistrict , Zhanqian Subdistrict , West Fuxin Subdistrict , Wulong Subdistrict , Gongrencun Subdistrict The only town is Hanjiadian...

1,819,339
9 Huludao
Huludao
Huludao is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Liaoning Province, China. It is one of the two principal cities in the Liaoxi Corridor . Known as Jinxi until 1994, Huludao has a total area of 10,415 square kilometers and a population of 2.87 million, of which some 531,000 live in the city proper...

葫芦岛市 Húludǎo Shì Longgang District
Longgang District, Huludao
Longgang District is a district of Huludao, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is by far the smallest division of Huludao City with an area of just , and along with Lianshan District is one of the two districts within which Huludao city itself is situated.Longgang district encompasses the...

2,623,541
10 Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Jinzhou , is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" , which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West...

锦州市 Jǐnzhōu Shì Taihe District
Taihe District
Taihe District is a district of the city of Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 6 subdistricts and 5 townships within the district.Subdistricts:...

3,126,463
11 Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

辽阳市 Liáoyáng Shì Baita District
Baita District
-Administrative Divisions:There are 8 subdistricts within the district.Subdistricts:*Xuwangzi Subdistrict , Baitangfang Subdistrict , Weiguo Road Subdistrict , Xinghuo Subdistrict , Zhanqian Subdistrict , Wayaozi Subdistrict , Shengli Subdistrict , Yuejin Subdistrict -External links:...

1,858,768
12 Panjin
Panjin
Panjin is a prefecture-level city and a major oil-producing city in Liaoning Province, China. It is between 40°40' -41°27' in north latitude and 121°31' -122 °28' in east longitude. It has four distinct seasons, an annual average temperature of 8.6℃ and receives over 2700 hours of sunshine a year...

盘锦市 Pánjǐn Shì Xinglongtai District
Xinglongtai District
Xinglongtai District is a district under the administration of the city of Panjin, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 370,000 people...

1,392,493
13 Tieling
Tieling
Tieling is a prefecture-level city in Liaoning province of the People's Republic of China.The population is 3 million at the 2nd of 2004. Tieling is a city where coal mining is an important industry.The mayor of Tieling is Li Wenke...

铁岭市 Tiělǐng Shì Yinzhou District
Yinzhou District, Tieling
Yinzhou District is a district of Tieling, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 7 subdistricts and 1 township within the district.Subdistricts:...

2,717,732
14 Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

营口市 Yíngkǒu shì Zhanqian District
Zhanqian District
Zhanqian District is a district of the city of Yingkou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.-Administrative Divisions:There are 7 subdistricts within the district.Subdistricts:...

2,428,534


These prefecture-level cities are in turn divided into 100 county-level divisions (17 county-level cities, 19 counties, eight autonomous counties, and 56 districts), which are then further subdivided into 1511 township-level divisions (613 towns, 301 townships, 77 ethnic townships, and 520 subdistrict
Subdistrict
Subdistrict is a low level administrative division of a country. In Thailand it may refer to the King Amphoe or to the Tambon. In England and Wales it was part of a Registration district....

s).

See List of administrative divisions of Liaoning for a complete list of county-level divisions.

Economy


Liaoning has the largest economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2010 was 1.83 trillion yuan (ca. US$270 billion) making it the 7th largest in China. Its per capita GDP was 41,782 yuan (US$6,172). Among the three provinces of Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP.

In 2008, Liaoning was the region with the highest GDP growth among global G8x8, the eight provinces or states below national level with the highest GDP of the top eight GDP nations. According to preliminary statistics, Liaoning maintained its GDP growth rate of 13.1 percent in 2009 and held its position as the province with the highest economic growth.

Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance.

Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.

In 2008, its tertiary industry accounted for 34.5 percent of total GDP. In the future, Liaoning will continue its efforts to restructure large and medium-sized state enterprises. Meanwhile, the province will concentrate in developing its four pillar industries – petrochemicals, metallurgy, machinery and electronics.

Agriculture


Main agricultural
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

 products of Liaoning include maize
Maize
Maize known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable...

, sorghum
Sorghum
Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of all continents...

, and soybean
Soybean
The soybean or soya bean is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses...

s. The region around Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

 produces three-quarters of China's exported apple
Apple
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

s and peach
Peach
The peach tree is a deciduous tree growing to tall and 6 in. in diameter, belonging to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach...

es. Cotton
Cotton
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal....

 is also produced.

Liaoning's fruits include apples from Dalian and Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

, golden peaches from Dalian, pear
Pear
The pear is any of several tree species of genus Pyrus and also the name of the pomaceous fruit of these trees. Several species of pear are valued by humans for their edible fruit, but the fruit of other species is small, hard, and astringent....

s from Beizhen of Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Jinzhou , is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" , which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West...

, white pears from Huludao
Huludao
Huludao is a prefecture-level city in southwestern Liaoning Province, China. It is one of the two principal cities in the Liaoxi Corridor . Known as Jinxi until 1994, Huludao has a total area of 10,415 square kilometers and a population of 2.87 million, of which some 531,000 live in the city proper...

 and Suizhong, and apricot
Apricot
The apricot, Prunus armeniaca, is a species of Prunus, classified with the plum in the subgenus Prunus. The native range is somewhat uncertain due to its extensive prehistoric cultivation.- Description :...

s and plum
Plum
A plum or gage is a stone fruit tree in the genus Prunus, subgenus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera in the shoots having a terminal bud and solitary side buds , the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one...

s from Gushan of Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

.

Mining


Liaoning has the most iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

, magnesite
Magnesite
Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. Iron substitutes for magnesium with a complete solution series with siderite, FeCO3. Calcium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel may also occur in small amounts...

, diamond
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

, and boron
Boron
Boron is the chemical element with atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B. Boron is a metalloid. Because boron is not produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust. However, boron is concentrated on Earth by the...

 deposits among all province-level subdivisions of China. Liaoning is also an important source of petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

 and natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

. Salt
Salt
In chemistry, salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base. They are composed of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral...

 is produced along the coast.

Oil


Along with Liaoning's rich mineral reserves, the province also has abundant deposits of crude oil, especially in the Liaohe Oilfield.

Industry


Liaoning is one of China's most important industrial
Industry
Industry refers to the production of an economic good or service within an economy.-Industrial sectors:There are four key industrial economic sectors: the primary sector, largely raw material extraction industries such as mining and farming; the secondary sector, involving refining, construction,...

 bases, covering a wide range of industries, such as machinery, electronics
Electronics
Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

, metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

 refining, petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

, chemical industries, construction
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

 materials, coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

, and so on.

The sea off Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

 abounds with quality seafood
Seafood
Seafood is any form of marine life regarded as food by humans. Seafoods include fish, molluscs , crustaceans , echinoderms . Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are also seafood, and are widely eaten around the world, especially in Asia...

, such as abalone
Abalone
Abalone , from aulón, are small to very large-sized edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis...

s, sea cucumber
Sea cucumber (food)
Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the class Holothuroidea used in fresh or dried form in various cuisines.The creature and the food product is commonly known as bêche-de-mer in French, trepang in Indonesian, namako in Japanese and in the Philippines it is called balatan...

s, scallop
Scallop
A scallop is a marine bivalve mollusk of the family Pectinidae. Scallops are a cosmopolitan family, found in all of the world's oceans. Many scallops are highly prized as a food source...

s, prawn
Prawn
Prawns are decapod crustaceans of the sub-order Dendrobranchiata. There are 540 extant species, in seven families, and a fossil record extending back to the Devonian...

s, crab
Crab
True crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" , or where the reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax...

s, and sea urchin
Sea urchin
Sea urchins or urchins are small, spiny, globular animals which, with their close kin, such as sand dollars, constitute the class Echinoidea of the echinoderm phylum. They inhabit all oceans. Their shell, or "test", is round and spiny, typically from across. Common colors include black and dull...

s. The big fish of Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

, the jellyfish
Jellyfish
Jellyfish are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and refers to any free-swimming jellyfish stages in the phylum Cnidaria...

 of Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

, and the clam
Clam
The word "clam" can be applied to freshwater mussels, and other freshwater bivalves, as well as marine bivalves.In the United States, "clam" can be used in several different ways: one, as a general term covering all bivalve molluscs...

s of Panjin
Panjin
Panjin is a prefecture-level city and a major oil-producing city in Liaoning Province, China. It is between 40°40' -41°27' in north latitude and 121°31' -122 °28' in east longitude. It has four distinct seasons, an annual average temperature of 8.6℃ and receives over 2700 hours of sunshine a year...

 are known worldwide for their good tastes right from the sea and in products made in Liaoning for export domestically and internationally.

Trade


The cities of Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

 and Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

 have been developed as major ports and economic gateways to all of northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

.

Economic and Technological Development Zones


Of the development zones formally recognized by the PRC State Council, 56 are located in Liaoning, including 14 on the national level and 42 on the provincial level. These zones are further grouped into Economic Development Zones, High-Tech Zones, Free Trade and Export Processing Zones, and Special Development Zones.
  • Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone

In October 1995, Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone was approved to be established by State Council. Shenyang Cross-Strait Science Industrial Zone is the only zone established in Hi-Tech Industrial Zone. It has a total area of 5 km2. It welcomes all the investors from the world, especially Taiwan to invest in the zone. Investors can enjoy many preferential policies. It focuses on the development of instruments manufacturing, telecommunication, bio-pharmacy, electronics, new materials. It is an important part of Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.
  • Liaoning Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

     Export Processing Zone

Liaoning Shenyang Zhangshi Export Processing Zone was approved to be established by the state government in June 2005. It is located in National-level Shenyang Economic & Technological Development Zone, with a planned area of 62 km2 and current area of 14.1 km2. It encourages and focuses on the development of auto and auto parts, electronics, precision machinery, new energy, new materials and fine chemical industry.
  • Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

     Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Shenyang
    Shenyang
    Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

     Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Shenyang Hunnan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone used to be called Shenyang Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone. Established in 1988, it is a national hi-tech development zone approved by State Council. The zone is located in the west of Shenyang city with 32 square kilometers. Its encouraged industries include electronic information, new materials, biological engineering, energy saving and environmental protection.
  • Anshan Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
  • Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone

Dalian Economic & Technological Development Zone was established in September 1984, as one of the first of the China National Economic and Technological Development Zones. The zone had a GDP of 70.31 billion yuan in 2007 and the total volume of import and export trade is 14.92 billion dollars, which accounts for a quarter of the whole Liaoning Province's. Most of the enterprises in Dalian ETDZ are factories foreign enterprises, especially from Japan, South Korea and USA, such as Canon, Pfizer, Toshiba and Intel.
  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

     Export Processing Zone

Dalian Export Processing Zone was approved to be set up by State Council in April 2000, with a planned area of 2.95 km2. It is divided into two parts, A zone and B zone. A zone has a construction area of 1.5 km2, and started operation in May 2001. All the basic infrastructure are available, which include road, water, gas, and power supply, telecommunication and so on. In A zone, it encourages several leading industries, such as home appliances, light industry, machinery, construction materials, medicine instruments.
  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

     Free Trade Zone

Dalian Free Trade Zone was approved to be set up by government in May, 1992. Investors can enjoys preferential policies, including duty-free. Inside the zone, all the infrastructures are available. The trade zone enjoys strategic location and convenient traffic. It has formed some leading industries, such as electronics, machinery and plastics.
  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

     Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved to be a national-level development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 35.6 square kilometers. Inside the zone, all the infrastructure are available. It focuses and encourages the following industries: electronic information, bio-pharmacy, and new materials.
  • Dandong
    Dandong
    Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

     Border Economic Corporation Zone

Dandong Border Economic Corporation Zone was approved to be national-level development zone in 1992. It is located in the bank of Yalu River, and opposite the Sinuiju, a Korean city. It has completed the infrastructure. It has formed and encourages the following industries which is electronic information, machinery manufacturing, bio-pharmaceuticals.
  • Yingkou
    Yingkou
    Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

     Economic & Technical Development Zone

Central Liaoning City Cluster (Shenyang Metro Area)


The Central Liaoning city cluster is a Megalopolis
Megalopolis (city type)
A megalopolis is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. The term was used by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book, The Decline of the West, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book, The Culture of Cities, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and...

 centering at Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

 (urban population 4 million). Within its 150 km radius, it has Anshan (urban population 1.3 million), Fushun
Fushun
Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

 (1.3 million), Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

 (1.1 million), Benxi
Benxi
Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province in Northeast China, south-southeast of Shenyang. Its population is 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 959,610 in the built up area It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915...

 (0.95 million), Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

 (0.7 million), and Tieling
Tieling
Tieling is a prefecture-level city in Liaoning province of the People's Republic of China.The population is 3 million at the 2nd of 2004. Tieling is a city where coal mining is an important industry.The mayor of Tieling is Li Wenke...

 (0.4 million).

In April 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China
State Council of the People's Republic of China
The State Council of the People's Republic of China , which is largely synonymous with the Central People's Government after 1954, is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China. It is chaired by the Premier and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency...

 approved a national development strategy for the Shenyang Metro Area. The core of this strategy is innovation in industrial development, integration of the eight cities, integration of urban and rural areas as well as interventions towards more market-oriented development.

Liaoning Coastal Economic Belt


The Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang
Li Keqiang
Li Keqiang is the First-ranking Vice-Premier and deputy Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, the seventh ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee, the People's Republic of China's de facto highest decision-making body...

, initiated the development of a strategy entitled "5 Points and One Line", which he first proposed on a visit to Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

 in late 2005. Liaoning Province formally launched the development strategy for the entire Liaoning coastline in early 2006, so as to re-invigorate the provincial economy from its traditional status as the "rustbelt" of Chinese State Owned Enterprises.

The "Five Points" indicate five key development areas in the province and cover seven zones: the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in
Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

; Yingkou
Yingkou
Yingkou is located in the northwestern portion of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Daliao River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao...

 Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou
Jinzhou
Jinzhou , is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, China. It is a geographically strategic city located in the "Liaoxi Corridor" , which connects land transportation between North China and Northeast China. Jinzhou is China's northernmost seaport and the coastal economic center of West...

 Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.

The five zones together cover a planned area of nearly 500 square kilometres.

The "One Line" mentioned in the strategy represents a new motorway along the coast. The coastline of 1,433 kilometers will become the connection
between the five above zones, through which 6 provincial cities, 21 counties and 113 towns will be interlinked. The new coastal motorway will directly connect the entire rim of five zones around the Bohai sea, and will be completed by 2009.

Demographics


The population of Liaoning is mostly Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 with minorities of Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

s, Mongols, Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

, Koreans and Xibe
Xibe
The Xibe or Sibo are a Tungusic ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.- History :...

.
Ethnic groups in Liaoning, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage
Han Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

 
35,105,991 83.94%
Manchu
Manchu
The Manchu people or Man are an ethnic minority of China who originated in Manchuria . During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of the Ming dynasty rebels , they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which...

 
5,385,287 12.88%
Mongol  669,972 1.60%
Hui
Hui people
The Hui people are an ethnic group in China, defined as Chinese speaking people descended from foreign Muslims. They are typically distinguished by their practice of Islam, however some also practice other religions, and many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers.In modern People's...

 
264,407 0.632%
Koreans  241,052 0.576%
Xibe
Xibe
The Xibe or Sibo are a Tungusic ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.- History :...

 
132,615 0.317%

Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 in active service.

Source: Department of Population, Social, Science and Technology Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics of China (国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司) and Department of Economic Development of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission of China (国家民族事务委员会经济发展司), eds. Tabulation on Nationalities of 2000 Population Census of China (《2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料》). 2 vols. Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House (民族出版社), 2003. (ISBN 7-105-05425-5)

Culture


Liaoning's culture is the southern part of the culture of Northeast China. See Manchuria#Culture for a detailed description.

In paleontology
Paleontology
Paleontology "old, ancient", ὄν, ὀντ- "being, creature", and λόγος "speech, thought") is the study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments...

, Liaoning is well known for its extraordinary fossil
Fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals , plants, and other organisms from the remote past...

s from the Lower Cretaceous
Cretaceous
The Cretaceous , derived from the Latin "creta" , usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide , is a geologic period and system from circa to million years ago. In the geologic timescale, the Cretaceous follows the Jurassic period and is followed by the Paleogene period of the...

 period; e.g., the early 'placental' mammal
Mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...

 known as Eomaia
Eomaia
Eomaia is an extinct fossil mammal, discovered in rocks that were found in the Yixian Formation, Liaoning Province, China, and dated to the Barremian Age of the Lower Cretaceous about . The fossil is in length and virtually complete. An estimate of the body weight is between . It is exceptionally...

. The first widely acknowledged feathered dinosaur
Dinosaur
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade and superorder Dinosauria. They were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous , when the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event led to the extinction of...

, Sinosauropteryx prima, was discovered in Liaoning and unveiled at a scientific meeting in 1996. Other notable discoveries have been an intact embryo
Embryo
An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination...

 of a pterosaur
Pterosaur
Pterosaurs were flying reptiles of the clade or order Pterosauria. They existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous Period . Pterosaurs are the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight...

, Repenomamus robustus—a cat-sized mammal who ate dinosaurs, and Sinornithosaurus millenii, nicknamed "Dave the Fuzzy Raptor".

Tourism



The Mukden Palace
Mukden Palace
The Mukden Palace or Shenyang Gugong , also known as the Shenyang Imperial Palace, is the former imperial palace of the early Qing Dynasty of China....

 was the palace of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 emperors before they conquered the rest of China and moved their capital to Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

. Though not as large nor as famous as its counterpart (the Forbidden City
Forbidden City
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum...

) in Beijing, the Mukden palace is significant for its representation of palace architecture at the time, and has recently been included on the UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 as an extension of the Imperial Palace site in Beijing.

In addition, three imperial tombs dating from the Qing Dynasty are located in Liaoning. These tomb sites have been grouped with other Ming
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 and Qing Dynasties tombs (such as the Ming Dynasty Tombs
Ming Dynasty Tombs
The Ming Dynasty Tombs are located some 51.35 kilometers due north of central Beijing, within the suburban Changping District of Beijing municipality...

 in Beijing, and the Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum in Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

) as a combined UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Wunu Mountain City, a Goguryeo
Goguryeo
Goguryeo or Koguryŏ was an ancient Korean kingdom located in present day northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula, southern Manchuria, and southern Russian Maritime province....

 site found in Huanren Manchu Autonomous County
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County is located in Benxi City, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is also one of 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties in China. As a county, Huanren was established in 1877, It was reorganised as an autonomous county in 1989...

, is part of a combined UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 that also includes sites in Ji'an
Ji'an, Jilin
Ji'an is a county-level city in southwestern Jilin province, Northeast China. It belongs to the prefecture-level city of Tonghua. Ji'an has an area of and a population of approximately 230,000. The city was established as a city in 1988....

, Jilin
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

.

Benxi
Benxi
Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province in Northeast China, south-southeast of Shenyang. Its population is 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 959,610 in the built up area It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915...

 offers a boat ride though a large stalactite
Stalactite
A stalactite , "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of speleothem that hangs from the ceiling of limestone caves. It is a type of dripstone...

 filled cave and underground river.

Anshan hosts the Anshan Jade Buddha
Anshan Jade Buddha
Anshan Jade Buddha is the largest jade Buddha statue in the world. It is located in a large temple complex of 22,104 square metres situated beside Dongshan Scenic Reserve within 219 park of Anshan City in Liaoning province, China....

, the largest Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

 statue
Statue
A statue is a sculpture in the round representing a person or persons, an animal, an idea or an event, normally full-length, as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size, or larger...

 made of jade
Jade
Jade is an ornamental stone.The term jade is applied to two different metamorphic rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals:...

 in the world.

Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in northeast China, has a number of historical sites, including the White Pagoda (Baita), that dates to the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

.

The port city of Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

, located on the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, is a tourist destination in its own right, with beach
Beach
A beach is a geological landform along the shoreline of an ocean, sea, lake or river. It usually consists of loose particles which are often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles or cobblestones...

es, resort
Resort
A resort is a place used for relaxation or recreation, attracting visitors for holidays or vacations. Resorts are places, towns or sometimes commercial establishment operated by a single company....

s, zoo
Zoo
A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred....

s, seafood
Seafood
Seafood is any form of marine life regarded as food by humans. Seafoods include fish, molluscs , crustaceans , echinoderms . Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are also seafood, and are widely eaten around the world, especially in Asia...

, shopping
Shopping
Shopping is the examining of goods or services from retailers with the intent to purchase at that time. Shopping is an activity of selection and/or purchase. In some contexts it is considered a leisure activity as well as an economic one....

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n- and Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese-era architecture
Architecture
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

, and streetcars, a rare sight in China.

Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

, on the border with North Korea
North Korea
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , , is a country in East Asia, occupying the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Pyongyang. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the buffer zone between North Korea and South Korea...

, is a medium-sized city that offers a cross-river view of the North Korean city of Sinŭiju
Sinuiju
Sinŭiju is a city in North Korea, neighboring with Dandong City, China via international border and is the capital of North P'yŏngan Province...

.

Bijia Mountain
Bijia mountain
Bijia Mountain is an island located in the Liaodong Bay of China's Bohai Sea, south of the coast of the Jinzhou region of the Liaoning province, coastal China. During most times of the day, Bijiashan can only be accessed by boat...

 is a curious island which joins to the mainland at low tide by a land bridge.

Colleges and universities


Under the national Ministry of Education:
  • Northeastern University
    Northeastern University (Liaoning)
    Northeastern University is a public university in the city of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China. With an annual enrollment of over 20,000 students, it is one of China"s high level universities designated for the state key construction of the 211 Project and 985 Project.-History:The university was...

     (东北大学)
  • Dalian University of Technology
    Dalian University of Technology
    Dalian University of Technology , colloquially known in Chinese as Dagong , is located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China and directly administered by the state Ministry of Education.-Introduction:...

     (大连理工大学)


Under various other national agencies:
  • China Criminal Police College
    China Criminal Police College
    China Criminal Police College is a college in Liaoning, China.-External links:*...

     (中国刑警学院)
  • Dalian Maritime University
    Dalian Maritime University
    Dalian Maritime University is a university located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is a key maritime institution under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China.- History :...

     (大连海事大学)
  • Dalian Nationalities University
    Dalian Nationalities University
    Dalian Nationalities University is located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China and directly supervised by the State Ethnic Affairs Commission.-History:...

     (大连民族大学)


Under the provincial government:
  • China Medical University
    China Medical University (PRC)
    China Medical University is a university in the city of Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial and central governments.-History:The China Medical University was the first medical school established by the Chinese Communist Party...

     (中国医科大学)
  • Shenyang Medical College
    Shenyang Medical College
    Shenyang Medical College is a medical institution of higher learning in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, P. R. China. It was formerly known as Shenyang Municipal Advanced Practice Nurse School founded in 1949 and was changed to Shenyang Advanced Medical School directly managed under the provincial...

     (沈阳医学院)
  • Liaoning Normal University
    Liaoning Normal University
    Liaoning Normal University is a teacher training university in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China under the provincial government. Established in 1951 the university is primarily responsible for educating teachers to teach in high schools around the province, though non-teacher training courses are...

     (辽宁师范大学)
  • Liaoning Technical University
    Liaoning Technical University
    Liaoning Technical University is located in Fuxin, Liaoning, China, administered by the provincial government.-Overview:LNTU is classified as one of China's key national universities....

     (辽宁工程技术大学)
  • Liaoning University
    Liaoning University
    Liaoning University is one of the leading universities listed in the nation's "Project 211" and affirmed by the Ministry of Education.It is a university in Liaoning, People's Republic of China...

     (辽宁大学)
  • Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology
    Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology
    Liaoning University of Petroleum and Chemical Technology is a university in Fushun, Liaoning, People's Republic of China under the provincial government, it ranked 123rd in China overall. It was first founded in 1950 at Dalian, which is the first petroleum and chemical technology university of...

     (辽宁石油化工大学)
  • Shenyang Agricultural University
    Shenyang Agricultural University
    Shenyang Agricultural University is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial government....

     (沈阳农业大学)
  • Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering
    Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering
    Shenyang Aerospace University formerly known as Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering is a comprehensive educational/research university situated in Shenyang, Liaoning, northeast of China...

     (沈阳航空工业学院)
  • Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology
    Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology
    Shenyang Institute of Chemical Technology is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial government.It teaches chemical and computer engineering to both national and foreign students. The university is affiliated with the Canadian Counsel for Professional Engineers ....

     (沈阳化工学院)
  • Shenyang Jianzhu University
    Shenyang Jianzhu University
    Shenyang Jianzhu University is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial government.-External links:* *...

     (沈阳建筑大学)
  • Shenyang Ligong University
    Shenyang Ligong University
    Shenyang Ligong University is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial government.University campus is located in a new district of Hunnan .-External links:*...

     (沈阳理工大学)
  • Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
    Shenyang Pharmaceutical University
    Shenyang Pharmaceutical University is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China. It is the first and one of the most professional research institute in pharmaceutical sciences in China....

     (沈阳药科大学)
  • Shenyang University
    Shenyang University
    Shenyang University is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It has a student body of more than 30,000 students and has about 1260 full-time teachers.- Academics :...

     (沈阳大学)
  • Shenyang University of Technology
    Shenyang University of Technology
    Shenyang University of Technology is a university in Shenyang, Liaoning, China under the provincial government.-History:SUT's predecessor, Shenyang Mechanical and Electrical Engineering College, was founded in 1949. It used to be affiliated with the State Ministry of Mechanical Industry and was...

     (沈阳工业大学)
  • Anshan Normal University
    Anshan Normal University
    Anshan Normal University is a university in the city of Anshan, in Liaoning province, China. It is under the provincial government. The school was founded in 1958 as a teacher training centre but suspended all operations in 1962 at the dawn of the Chinese Cultural Revolution before it was...

     (鞍山师范学院)
  • Bohai University
    Bohai University
    Bohai University is a university in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, northeast China. - External links :*...

     (渤海大学)
  • Dalian Jiaotong University
    Dalian Jiaotong University
    Dalian Jiaotong University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It has its larger campus near downtown Dalian and smaller campus in the High-Tech zone in Lüshun. Until 2004, it was known as Dalian Railway Institute ....

     (大连交通大学)
  • Dalian Medical University
    Dalian Medical University
    Dalian Medical University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It was founded in 1947 in the southern part of Dalian city, China by Mao Ze Dong.....

     (大连医科大学)
  • Dalian University
    Dalian University
    Dalian University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government.-Official website:http://www.dlu.edu.cn/...

     (大连大学)
  • Dalian University of Foreign Languages
    Dalian University of Foreign Languages
    Dalian University of Foreign Languages is a provincial university in Dalian, Liaoning, China.It is now one of the top 8 foreign languages universities in China, and the only fully developed foreign languages institute in Northeast China. DLUFL now provides various bachelor degree and master degree...

     (大连外国语学院)
  • Dongbei University of Finance and Economics
    Dongbei University of Finance and Economics
    Dongbei University of Finance & Economics is a state level university in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China.Located in the northeast of metropolitan Dalian and originally established in 1952 as Dongbei Institute of Finance & Economics , it is one of Dalian's oldest modern universities, and it is...

     (东北财经大学)
  • Liaoning Institute of Technology
    Liaoning Institute of Technology
    The Liaoning Institute of Technology is a university in Jinzhou, Liaoning, northeast China. It was established in 1951. As of 2005 it has some 11,000 students and 1,200 staff and faculty members.- External links :*...

     (辽宁工学院)

Paleontology


Liaoning contains one of the foremost paleontological sites in the world since the discovery of Sinosauropteryx
Sinosauropteryx
Sinosauropteryx was the first genus of dinosaur outside of Avialae to be found with evidence of feathers. They were covered with "furry" coats of very simple filament-like feathers...

, a small feathered meat-eating dinosaur, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation
Yixian Formation
The Yixian Formation is a geological formation in Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, that spans 11 million years during the early Cretaceous period...

. Since the 1990s dozens of groundbreaking finds have been discovered there, including the earliest flower, placental mammal
Mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...

, and marsupial
Marsupial
Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals, characterized by giving birth to relatively undeveloped young. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur in Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands, with the remaining 100 found in the Americas, primarily in South America, but with thirteen in Central...

, as well as several birds and feathered dinosaurs, including one that was found in a sleeping position
Mei (dinosaur)
Mei is a genus of duck-sized troodontid dinosaur first unearthed by paleontologists in Liaoning, China in 2004. Mei lived during the Early Cretaceous Period. Its binomial name, Mei long means sleeping dragon...

. These have added further evidence that birds and dinosaurs may be directly related.

Sports


Professional sports teams based in Liaoning include:
  • Chinese Football Association Super League
    • Liaoning FC
    • Shenyang Jinde
    • Dalian Shide
  • Chinese Football Association Jia League
    Chinese Football Association Jia League
    The China League One is the second tier professional league for Chinese football clubs. The league is under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association. Above the League One is Chinese Super League....

    • Dalian Changbo
  • Chinese Basketball Association
    Chinese Basketball Association
    The Chinese Basketball Association , often abbreviated to the CBA, is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in China.The league is commonly known as the CBA, and this acronym is often used even in Chinese...

    • Liaoning Panpan Hunters

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