Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Dalian

Dalian

Overview

Dalian (tɑ˥˩li̯ɛn˧˥) is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

 province, Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

. It faces Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 to the south, the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 to the east and the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

 to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's northernmost warm water port. The second largest city in Liaoning province, next only to the capital (Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

), the city has a significant history of being used by foreign powers as a port.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Dalian'
Start a new discussion about 'Dalian'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia

Dalian (tɑ˥˩li̯ɛn˧˥) is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

 province, Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

. It faces Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

 to the south, the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 to the east and the Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

 to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's northernmost warm water port. The second largest city in Liaoning province, next only to the capital (Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

), the city has a significant history of being used by foreign powers as a port. Today it serves as a regional financial base and an important international shipping centre and logistics hub in Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia and Northeastern Asia refers to the northeastern subregion of Asia. Though the precise definition of Northeast Asia changes according to context, it always includes Japan and the Korean Peninsula, and is sometimes used to refer to these two regions exclusively.-Definitions:The...

.

Names


Modern Dalian originated as Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao is the downtown area of Dalian, Liaoning, China, located front of the Dalian Railway Station. The area gives its name to a subdistrict in Zhongshan District, Qingni Subdistrict -History:...

  was a small fishing village near where the Russians chose to build their commercial town for the Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

 after assuming control in 1898.

During the period of Russian control (1898–1905), the city of Dalny was founded and built on the site of Qingniwaqiao. Under Japanese rule (1905–1945), the city was renamed Dairen (大連 / だいれん) after the Chinese name for Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay , is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to the Yellow Sea in the east. Downtown Dalian lies along the southern shore of the bay...

 (大連灣). During this period, the city was also called Dairen in English from the Japanese.

In 1950, Dalian was merged with nearby Lüshun (Port Arthur) to form the city of Lüda , a name formed from the first character of each constituent's name and usually rendered as Lü-ta in English during that time. The city's name was changed from Lüda to Dalian (大連, the same Chinese characters as Japanese Dairen) on 5 March 1981, after the State Council
State Council
State Council may refer to:In politics:* State Council of the Soviet Union, was the chief administrative authority of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics...

 approved it on 9 February.

Ancient


In the Qin
Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of China, lasting from 221 to 207 BC. The Qin state derived its name from its heartland of Qin, in modern-day Shaanxi. The strength of the Qin state was greatly increased by the legalist reforms of Shang Yang in the 4th century BC, during the Warring...

 and Han
Han Dynasty
The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms . It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han. It was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty of the former regent Wang Mang...

 periods (221 B.C.-A.D. 220), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county, becoming a strategic point from which the Han Dynasty colonized northern Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

. During the 3rd century through 5th century, when China was split into Sixteen Kingdoms
Sixteen Kingdoms
The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereign states in China proper and its neighboring areas from 304 to 439 AD after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties...

, the neighboring kingdom of Goguryeo
Goguryeo
Goguryeo or Koguryŏ was an ancient Korean kingdom located in present day northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula, southern Manchuria, and southern Russian Maritime province....

 maintained control of this region. In the early Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire...

 (618–907), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Andong Prefecture in Jili state, and during the Liao Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
The Liao Dynasty , also known as the Khitan Empire was an empire in East Asia that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper between 9071125...

 (916–1125), it was under the jurisdiction of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of Wei
Wei
-States:* Northern Wei , during Southern and Northern Dynasties* Wei , during the Spring and Autumn Period* Wei , during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period...

Jin
Jin
Jīn can mean either "muscle" or "tendon" . Exercises designed to develop Jīn are known as Jīngōng . In the context of Chinese martial arts, such exercises develop the ability to recruit the tendons at the beginning and end of a movement as a means of enhancing and delivering the force generated by...

 (220–420), San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 (1368–1644), and Qingniwakou in the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It was preceded by the Ming Dynasty and followed by the Republic of China....

 (1644–1911).

Qing Dynasty


In the 1880s, the Qing government constructed loading bridges and fortifications with built-in cannons, and set up mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay , is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to the Yellow Sea in the east. Downtown Dalian lies along the southern shore of the bay...

 near what would become the center of Dalian, and it became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao is the downtown area of Dalian, Liaoning, China, located front of the Dalian Railway Station. The area gives its name to a subdistrict in Zhongshan District, Qingni Subdistrict -History:...

. At that time, Jinzhou, north of downtown Dalian, now Jinzhou District, was a walled town and the center of political and economic activities of this area.

British, Russian, and Japanese occupations



The settlement of Qingniwa was occupied by the British in 1858, returned to the Chinese in the 1880s, and then occupied by Japan in 1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was fought between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, primarily over control of Korea...

. Nearby Port Arthur took its name from a Royal Navy
Royal Navy
The Royal Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Founded in the 16th century, it is the oldest service branch and is known as the Senior Service...

 Lieutenant named William C. Arthur
William C. Arthur
William C. Arthur was a Royal Navy Lieutenant who was the namesake of the English name for Lüshunkou, Port Arthur, which changed hands between China, Imperial Russia, Japan, and the Soviet Union between 1894 and 1945....

, but was known to the Chinese as Lüshun.

While Japan's intention to lease Port Arthur and its surrounding areas, based on the Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
The Treaty of Shimonoseki , known as the Treaty of Maguan in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan and Qing Empire of China, ending the First Sino-Japanese War. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895...

, met with the Tripartite Intervention
Triple Intervention
The was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.-Treaty of Shimonoseki:...

 by France, Germany and Russia, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 in 1898 succeeded in leasing the peninsula from the Qing Dynasty, and a modern city was laid out with the name of Dalny (Дальний). Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

's branch line, Dalny became Russia's primary port-city in Asia. The Russian government contributed more than 10 million golden rubles
Chervonets
.Chervonets is a former currency of the Russian Empire and Soviet Union. Originally a term for coins of purer alloy the name was later applied to various sums in Russian rubles.Before the reign of Peter I, the name chervonets was applied to various foreign...

 (equivalent to 11.5 billion of today's rubles
Russian ruble
The ruble or rouble is the currency of the Russian Federation and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Formerly, the ruble was also the currency of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union prior to their breakups. Belarus and Transnistria also use currencies with...

) into the city foundation and building.

Both Dalny (Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao
Qingniwaqiao is the downtown area of Dalian, Liaoning, China, located front of the Dalian Railway Station. The area gives its name to a subdistrict in Zhongshan District, Qingni Subdistrict -History:...

 of Zhongshan District, Dalian
Zhongshan District, Dalian
Zhongshan District is a District of Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. Its area is and its population is about 370,000.-Administrative Divisions:There are 8 subdistricts within the district.Subdistricts:...

) and Port Arthur (Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou is a district in the municipality of Dalian, Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City or Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun....

) were developed and heavily fortified by the Russians in the period prior to 1904. Dalny was the main battlefield of the Russo-Japanese War (1905). Consequently, some historians blame Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff for the fall of Port Arthur during the siege of Port Arthur
Siege of Port Arthur
The Siege of Port Arthur , 1 August 1904 – 2 January 1905, the deep-water port and Russian naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula in Manchuria, was the longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War....

 on 2 January 1905 due to his failure to concentrate on the naval base and its fortifications, instead splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles across the single tracked Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

 and Manchurian railways.

After the Russo-Japanese war
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

, Port Arthur was yielded to Japan (Treaty of Portsmouth
Treaty of Portsmouth
The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine in the USA.-Negotiations:...

), who set up the Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

 or Guandongzhou, which was roughly the southern half (Jinzhou District and south) of the present-day Dalian. After the foundation of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

 in 1932, the sovereignty of the territory moved from China to Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

. Japan still leased it from Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

. In 1937, the current area of Dalian was enlarged and modernized by the Japanese as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun (Port Arthur or Lüshun).

Post-World War II


With the unconditional surrender of Japan
Surrender of Japan
The surrender of Japan in 1945 brought hostilities of World War II to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent...

 in August 1945, Dairen passed to the Soviets
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, who had liberated the city in advance of the end of hostilities and governed the city until 1950. During this period the Soviets and Chinese Communists cooperated in the further development of the city, its industrial infrastructure, and especially the port, which remained as the freeport rented by the Soviet government. The city had been relatively undamaged during the war.

In 1950, the USSR
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 presented the city to the Chinese Communist government without any compensation and, on 1 December 1950, the city was amalgamated with Lüshun (Port Arthur) as Lüda in 1950 although the first Chinese Communist mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (旅大行政公署) had been appointed in 1945. From 12 March 1953 to 1 August 1954 it was a direct-controlled municipality and not part of Liaoning. Soviet troops left the city in 1955. After the departure of the Soviets, the PRC converted Lüda into a major shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that traces its roots to before recorded history.Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both...

 center and, in 1981, the name Dalian was given to the city with Lüshun becoming a constituent district.

In 1984, the Chinese Government designated the city a Special Economic Zone. At the time, Dalian was China's largest foreign trade port.

Post 1990


The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 to a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

 in May 1994, with no change in its administrative subdivisions. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai
Bo Xilai is the Communist Party of China Chongqing Committee Secretary, first-in-charge of the Western interior municipality and a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China...

 (currently the Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both mayor of the city and provincial party official, who, among other things, banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles. He also preserved much of Dalian's interesting and attractive Japanese
Japanese architecture
' originated in prehistoric times with simple pit-houses and stores that were adapted to a hunter-gatherer population. Influence from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores and ceremonial burial chambers....

 and Russian
Russian architecture
Russian architecture follows a tradition whose roots were established in the Eastern Slavic state of Kievan Rus'. After the fall of Kiev, Russian architectural history continued in the principalities of Vladimir-Suzdal, Novgorod, the succeeding states of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire,...

 architectural heritage. He is the former Minister of Commerce
Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China , formerly Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Co-operation is an executive agency of the State Council of China...

 of the PRC.

In 2008, about 1000 people protested and blocked traffic as part of the 2008 Tibetan anti-Chinese protests. and forced the temporary closure of the local Carrefour
Carrefour
Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain headquartered in Levallois-Perret, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world...

 store.

In 2010, the worst recorded oil spill in China's history occurred in Dalian.

In September 2011, Dalian hosted the World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum is a Swiss non-profit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, best known for its annual meeting in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland....

.

Geography


One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian City today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou is a district in the municipality of Dalian, Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City or Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun....

 (formerly Lüshun city, known in western and Russian historic references as Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles farther along the Liaodong Peninsula. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalny (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay , is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to the Yellow Sea in the east. Downtown Dalian lies along the southern shore of the bay...

 was 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) from Port Arthur/Lüshun (known today as Lüshunkou or literally, Lüshun Port).

Dalian is located west of the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

 and east of Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea
Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China. It is approximately 78,000 km2 Bohai Sea , also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai, is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of...

 roughly in the middle of the Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus
Isthmus
An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas usually with waterforms on either side.Canals are often built through isthmuses where they may be particularly advantageous to create a shortcut for marine transportation...

. With a coastline of 1906 kilometres (1,184.3 mi), it governs the entire Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River
Yalu River
The Yalu River or the Amnok River is a river on the border between North Korea and the People's Republic of China....

, and its harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay
Dalian Bay , is a bay on the southeast side of the Liaodong Peninsula of Northeast China, open to the Yellow Sea in the east. Downtown Dalian lies along the southern shore of the bay...

.

Climate


Dalian has a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dwa), characterised by humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the Liaodong Peninsula. Average temperatures range from -3.9 °C in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August. Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal temperature variation
Diurnal temperature variation
Diurnal temperature variation is a meteorological term that relates to the variation in temperature that occurs from the highs of the day to the cool of nights.-Temperature lag:Temperature lag is an important factor in diurnal temperature variation...

 annually is small, at 6.75 C-change. Sunshine is generous year-round, with an annual total of 2740 hours. The annual mean temperature is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F).

Environmental issues


In 2001, The United Nations Environment Programme awarded the Dalian Municipal Government for its outstanding contributions to the protection of the environment.

The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days with air pollution index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108 excellent days with Class Ⅰ(Superior). Dalian frequently ranks Grade 2 for air pollution according to SEPA. However, the environmental effects of economic growth are of concern, according to Dalian Environmental Protection Agency, during the first half of 2011, respirable particles in the air increased significantly, with an average 40% higher than last year.

The water quality of offshore marine space maintained stable overall. The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality met Class-II of the national seawater quality standard, except Inorganic Nitrogen in Dalian Bay and southern coast. The water quality of drinking water sources maintained good and complied with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water. Dalian won 6th Kitakyushu Environment Award.

Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In July 2010, an accidental explosion in which two petroleum pipelines exploded released, according to official statements, 11,000 barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea. However, Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with Greenpeace, cites that the figure could be upwards of 400,000. It was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China, and involved 2,000 firefighters. The oil spill stretched for at least 50 square kilometres (19.3 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were mobilised for the cleanup. The incident caused President Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao
Hu Jintao is the current Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China. He has held the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the People's Republic of China since 2003, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission since 2004, succeeding Jiang...

 and Premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy...

 to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang
Zhang Dejiang
Zhang Dejiang is a current Vice-Premier and a prominent leader of the Communist Party of China, a member of its Politburo.-Biography:Zhang, a native of Tai'an, Liaoning, attended Yanbian University, where he studied the Korean language. Beginning in August 1978 Zhang attended Kim Il-sung...

 moved in to help direct the rescue work A researcher with the China Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact on marine life and on humans -- as the pollution enters the food chain - could last 10 years."

In August 2011, a dike protecting the petrochemical Fujia factory in Jinzhou District was breached due to a typhoon. Authorities have ordered the plant to be shut down. Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move leaving taxpayers to foot the cost of relocation. Around 12,000 residents protested as the factory, which originally was intended to be based in Xiamen, did not receive official approval to operate in Dalian. Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move leaving taxpayers to pay the expensive cost of relocation.

Concerns have been raised over mounting traffic due to "bad urban design" and that the growing rate of car ownership is affecting air quality. The United States National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering
The National Academy of Engineering is a government-created non-profit institution in the United States, that was founded in 1964 under the same congressional act that led to the founding of the National Academy of Sciences...

 have raised concern about rising traffic in Dalian stating that "rapid growth of traffic in Dalian and in similar Chinese cities will repeat the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of Los Angeles and other U.S. cities, if not better managed."
Aquatic pollution has affected the city's fishing industry.

Administration



Dalian is the second largest city of Liaoning province, after Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

, the provincial capital. Dalian City is governed by the Mayor and its Dalian Municipal People's Government.

Municipal government


The municipal government is located in the main building on the north side of People's Square on Zhongshan Road, originally built as the Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory
Kwantung Leased Territory
The Kwantung Leased Territory was a territory in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Inner Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945. It was one of the numerous territorial concessions that the Empire of China was compelled to award to foreign countries at the end of the 19th century...

, and other buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy & Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science & Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level.

There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (对外开放先导区):
  • The Development Zone (开发区)
  • The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
  • The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
  • The Golden Pebble Beach National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)

Administrative divisions


(see Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China)

The city administers 6 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

 (市 shi), and 1 county  (县 xian) :
  • There are 92 sub-districts and 69 towns and townships.
  • Ganjingzi, Zhongshan, Xigang, and Shahekou Districts make up the urban centre. Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula.

Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(est. 2007)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
City proper
1 Xigang District
Xigang District
Xigang District is a District under the administration of the city of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 320,000 people...

西岗区 Xīgǎng Qū 307,000 26 11,808
2 Zhongshan District
Zhongshan District, Dalian
Zhongshan District is a District of Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. Its area is and its population is about 370,000.-Administrative Divisions:There are 8 subdistricts within the district.Subdistricts:...

中山区 Zhōngshān Qū 354,000 43 8,233
3 Shahekou District
Shahekou District
Shahekou District is a District under the administration of the city of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is located in the western portion of the city. The district has a total area of , and a population of approximately 610,000 people...

沙河口区 Shāhékǒu Qū 643,000 49 13,122
4 Ganjingzi District
Ganjingzi District
Ganjingzi is a District of the city of Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. Its area is 491 square kilometres, population 580,000, and postal code 116033.-Administrative Divisions:There are 14 subdistricts in the district.Subdistricts:...

甘井子区 Gānjǐngzi Qū 704,000 491 1,434
Suburban
5 Lüshunkou District 旅顺口区 Lǚshùnkǒu Qū 209,000 506 413
6 Jinzhou District 金州区 Jīnzhōu Qū 717,000 1,390 516
Satellite cities
7 Wafangdian
Wafangdian
Wafangdian is one of the three "Northern Cities" of Dalian, located in the south of Liaoning province in Northeast China. The city is famous for its ball bearing industry. Wafangdian Bearing Factory is the largest bearing manufacturer in Asia and was initially built by the Japanese during World...

瓦房店市 Wǎfángdiàn Shì 1,025,000 3,791 270
8 Pulandian
Pulandian
Pulandian is one of the "three northern cities" of Greater Dalian, Liaoning Province, the other two being Wafangdian and Zhuanghe.-Geography:...

普兰店市 Pǔlándiàn Shì 827,000 2,923 283
9 Zhuanghe
Zhuanghe
Zhuanghe , is a city in southern Liaoning province of Northeast China, located on the coast of the Korea Bay. It is one of the three county-level cities under the administration of Dalian, the other two being Pulandian and Wafangdian.-Geography:...

庄河市 Zhuānghé Shì 921,000 3,900 236
Rural
10 Changhai County
Changhai County
Changhai County is a county under the administration of Dalian city in Liaoning Province of the People's Republic of China. It consists of several islands in the Yellow Sea and is located offshore of the Liaodong Peninsula. There are 112 small islands and reefs in the county, traditionally called...

长海县 Chánghǎi Xiàn 74,000 119 622

Demographics


Permanent population of Dalian at the end of 2008 totaled 6.13 million.
The total registered population on household was 58,337 thousand, with a net increase of 51.8 thousand over the previous year, of which, non-farming population was 34,783 thousand, accounting for 59.6 percent; farming population 23,554 thousand, accounting for 40.4 percent.

Economy



The city has had a continuous annual double-digit percentage increase in GDP since 1992. In 2009, the city's GDP registered a 15 percent increase, reaching RMB441.77 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB71,833. According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau of Statistics, Dalian ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of overall strength. The city’s main industries include machine manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.

Agriculture and aquaculture


Dalian was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area, which, after the opening of the ferry between Yantai and Lüshun during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers and fishermen of Shandong
Shandong
' is a Province located on the eastern coast of the People's Republic of China. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese...

, across the Yellow Sea
Yellow Sea
The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. It is located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula. Its name comes from the sand particles from Gobi Desert sand storms that turn the surface of the water golden...

. Corn, vegetables, fruit such as apples, cherries and pears are Dalian's typical agricultural products. Aquaculture is well developed in Dalian, exporting seaweed, scallops, sea urchins and others to Japan, Korea and other countries.

Heavy, light and distribution industries


Even before and during the Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding and locomotives industries were a thriving industry , such as the companies which later became Dalian Shipbuilding Co. and Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works (DLoco). After the War, Dalian became an important center of the heavy and light industries, including companies such as Dalian Heavy Industry Co., Dalian Chemical Group, and Wafangdian Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry, including such as Dashang Group. Overseas retailing giants, such as Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

 from the US., Carrefour
Carrefour
Carrefour S.A. is an international hypermarket chain headquartered in Levallois-Perret, France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world...

 from France and Metro from Germany have recently opened stores in Dalian. Mycal, the Japanese retailing chain store, was bought out by its Chinese partner, Dashang Group, and is operated as Mykal.

Dalian Port is emerging as a very important port for international trade. A new harbor for oil tankers, at the terminus of an oil pipeline
Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquids and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air are also used....

 from the Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian is the 6th largest port in China. Accordingly, Dalian is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production.

Also completed recently is a newer port on Dagushan Peninsula on the northern suburbs, specializing in import/export of mining and oil products. Together with its Dalian Railroad Station, Dalian International Airport and two major express roads to Shenyang (Shenda Expressway)-Changchun(Changda Expressway)-Harbin (Hada Expressway) in the north and to Dandong to the east, Dalian has become an important distribution center.

Industrial zones


Dalian has been given many benefits by the PRC government, including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive considerable foreign investment (see Special Economic Zone
Special Economic Zone
A Special Economic Zone is a geographical region that has economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws...

). The Development Zone was established in Jinzhou District, to which many Japanese manufacturing companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric
Mitsubishi Electric
is a multinational electronics and information technology company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is one of the core companies of the Mitsubishi Group....

, Nidec, Sanyo Electric and Toshiba
Toshiba
is a multinational electronics and electrical equipment corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is a diversified manufacturer and marketer of electrical products, spanning information & communications equipment and systems, Internet-based solutions and services, electronic components and...

, followed by Korean, American and European companies (such as Pfizer
Pfizer
Pfizer, Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation. The company is based in New York City, New York with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut, United States...

). In March 2007, Intel announced plans to build a semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an entirely new site in over 15 years. The fab at Dalian will make the chip sets that support Intel's microprocessors and is expected to begin operation in the first half of 2010.

Other zones in the city include the Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone, Dalian Export Processing Zone, Dalian Free Trade Zone, and Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.

Financial and IT industry


Dalian is the financial center of Northeast China. There are the Dalian branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China
Bank of China
Bank of China Limited is one of the big four state-owned commercial banks of the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1912 by the Government of the Republic of China, to replace the Government Bank of Imperial China. It is the oldest bank in China...

, Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank
China Construction Bank
China Construction Bank is one of the 'big four' banks in the People's Republic of China. To date, it is ranked as the nation's second largest and the second largest bank in the world by market capitalization and 12th largest company in the world. The bank has approximately 13,629 domestic branches...

, Bank of Communications
Bank of Communications
Bank of Communications Limited , founded in 1908, is one of the largest banks in China.-Before 1949:The Bank of Communications was founded in 1908 and emerged as one of the first few major national and note-issuing banks in the early days of the Republic of China...

, and Agricultural Bank of China
Agricultural Bank of China
Agricultural Bank of China Limited , also known as AgBank, is one of the "Big Four" banks in the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1951, and has its headquarters in Beijing...

. Dalian Commercial Bank is now called Dalian Bank
Dalian Bank
Dalian Bank is a commercial bank, with its headquarters in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. It was established in 1998 as Dalian City Commercial Bank, opened its branches in Dalian City only, but changed its name to Dalian Bank in 2007 and has since opened branches in Tianjin and Beijing...

, which among other things handles processing of the Dalian Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation.

Dalian Commodity Exchange
Dalian commodity exchange
The Dalian Commodity Exchange is a Chinese futures exchange based in Dalian. It is a non-profit, self-regulating and membership legal entity established on February 28, 1993....

 is the only one of its kind in China, expanding the futures market beyond soybeans.

Since the 1990s, Dalian City has emphasized the development of the IT industry, especially in Dalian Hi-Tech Zone and Dalian Software Park
Dalian Software Park
Dalian Software Park is an industrial zone, created in 1998 in the western suburbs of Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, where many of the world's large and medium-sized IT-related companies have set up shop to do software development and information services...

 in the western suburbs near Dalian University of Technology
Dalian University of Technology
Dalian University of Technology , colloquially known in Chinese as Dagong , is located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China and directly administered by the state Ministry of Education.-Introduction:...

. Not only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC
Dalian Hi-Think Computer
Dalian Hi-Think Computer Technology Corporation , often called DHC, is an outsourcing company headquartered in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. It was established in 1996 as an outgrowth of Dalian City Computer Center, and now receives outsourcing work from other companies in Japan and other...

, Hisoft
HiSoft Technology International
hiSoft, or hiSoft Technology International Limited, is an information technology and business process outsourcing company. On June 30, 2010, hiSoft became the 144th Chinese company to be listed on the NASDAQ public exchange ....

 and Neusoft Group
Neusoft Group
Neusoft Corporation or Neusoft Group Ltd. is the largest software development and IT Services company in China, founded in 1991. As of January 2009, Neusoft employed over 15,000 employees...

, but also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies are located there. Currently, the "Lushun South Road
Lushun South Road
Lushun South Road is one of the three highways connecting the Nsval Port in Lushun, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, with downtoan Dalian. It is the last part of China National Highway 202, which runs from Hegang to Lushun via Jiamusi, Tonghua and Dandong, and is about 32 kilometers long...

 Software Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including Dalian Software Park Phase 2.

Intel's Fab 68 is located in Dalian. The plan was announced on 26 March 2007, and operations started on 26 October 2010. It is Intel's first chip-manufacturing fabrication in East Asia.

Tourism


Dalian is a popular destination among domestic tourists and foreign visitors, especially from Japan, South Korea and Russia. Its mild climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern history of China have attracted tourists. Some of the most famous beaches are Tiger beach, Xinghai beach, Jinshitan beach and Fujiazhuang beach. It was named as one of the three Best Tourism Cities in 2007, along with Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

 and Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

, recognized by the National Tourism Administration.

Four inner-city districts

  • ZhongShan District: Zhongshan Square (Dalian)
    Zhongshan Square (Dalian)
    Zhongshan Square in Dalian, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, is the best known of the many squares in Dalian. Originally designed by Russians in the 19th century, it is especially noted for the several classical buildings located on the square built during the first half of the 20th...

     (including the Modern Buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian
    Modern Buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian
    The modern buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian refer to the buildings that are on Zhongshan Square, Dalian, China, built mostly in the first half of the twentieth century, during the time when Dalian was Japan's leased territory....

    ) and Friendship Square It is also the economics center. Zhongshan Park
    Zhongshan Park (Dalian)
    Dalian Zhongshan Park is a public park in the Shahekou District, of Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China, named after Sun Zhongshan, the first president of the Republic of China....

  • Laohutan, Fujiazhuang Beach and Discovery Land
Laohutan is noted for its natural scenery. There is the Underwater World, the Bird Park and the recently completed Polar Region Zoo. The dolphin show is a major attraction for the Polar Region Zoo.
Discovery land is a theme park which contains six different major scenic spots.
  • Shahekou District: Xinghai Square, Xingghai Park and Heishijiao. Xinghai Square
    Xinghai Square
    Xinghai Square, or Xinghai Plaza , is a city square in Dalian, China. It is located to the north of Xinghai Bay. Its total area is 45,000 m². Its name literally means "the Sea of Stars"....

     was built at the centennial of the City of Dalian (1998) and is slated to be East Asia's largest square. Xinghai beach is in side Xinghai Park. It is about 800m long and is an excellent place for swimming.
  • Victory Square, an underground shopping mall which is 4 floors underground.

Jinzhou District and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs)

  • Dahei Mountain
    Dahei Mountain
    Dahei Mountain is located in Jinzhou District, Dalian City, Liaoning Province in China. It is 663 metres high above sea level and belongs to the Qianshan Mountains, named after Qian Mountain in Anshan, that extends themselves from the Changbai Mountains....

  • Jinshitan Sightseeing Area
Jinshitan beach, the Golden Pebble Beach is a tourist attraction with splendid coves and rock formations. There is also a golf course (Jinshitan International Golf Course), cross country motorcycling, a theme park (Dalian Discoveryland) and a game forest.

Lüshunkou District (in the western suburbs)

  • Lüshun Museum
  • Lüshun Railroad Station
  • 203 Hill and Shuishiying
    Shuishiying
    Shuishiying were the camp sites or office buildings of the Naval forces during the later days of the Qing Dynasty in China.The most famous Shuishiying was in Lushunkou District, Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, where the cease fire treaty of the Battle of Lushun was signed between Anatoly...

     Meeting Place

The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty, of the Battle of Lüshun during the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 (1904–05).

Three Northern Cities of Greater Dalian

  • Anbo Hotspring and Ski Course, in Pulandian City
  • Zhangxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian City
  • Binyugou Scenic Area and Buyun Mountain Hotspring, in Zhuanghe City

Zoo and museums


Dalian is the home of three zoological parks: Dalian Forest Zoo, Sun Asia Ocean World, and Polar World. The Forest Zoo has a free-range animal section as well as a more traditional zoo. Shengya Ocean World includes an underwater conveyor through a transparent tunnel. Polar World is the only park devoted to polar animals in China. Dalian is also home to a number of public squares, including Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square, or Xinghai Plaza , is a city square in Dalian, China. It is located to the north of Xinghai Bay. Its total area is 45,000 m². Its name literally means "the Sea of Stars"....

.and it also famous for beer festivals.

Local transportation


Dalian is one of the many cities in China where there are no longer many bicycles, and where there are few motorcycles, because their sale is prohibited. The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient Dalian Metro
Dalian Metro
At present, Dalian has no operating subway system, but the Dalian Metro, which is a rapid transit system in the city of Dalian, China. The system opened on 1 May 2003The system currently consists of one full line & one branch line:...

 system, usually called Qinggui , which connects Dalian Development Zone and Jinshitan with downtown Dalian. The Dalian Tram
Trams in Dalian
Dalian, along with Changchun and Hong Kong, represent the three Chinese cities that have had a continuously running tram system. All other Chinese cities with tram lines have since shut theirs down, and of those only Tianjin and Shanghai have reintroduced trams, but using modern rubber tire...

 system is the second oldest in China.

Domestic and international


Dalian has a modern and recently (2006) expanded international airport, Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport
Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport
Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport is the airport serving the city of Dalian in Liaoning Province, China. It is located in Ganjingzi District, about northwest of the city center...

, with direct flights to the most major cities in China, and to the selected cities in Japan and South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

.

The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Shanghai or Beijing. Most of the direct city to city express trains are overnight trips. In August 2007 construction started on a Harbin
Harbin
Harbin ; Manchu language: , Harbin; Russian: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River...

-Dalian high speed passenger railway, which is expected to be completed in 2013, connecting Harbin, Dalian, Changchun
Changchun
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located in the northeast of the People's Republic of China, in the center of the Songliao Plain. It is administered as a sub-provincial city with a population of 7,677,089 at the 2010 census under its jurisdiction, including counties and...

, and Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

.

In addition to local and express bus service to Beijing and other areas in the northeast, Dalian is connected by passenger ship service to neighbouring coastal cities, such as Tianjin
Tianjin
' is a metropolis in northern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China. It is governed as a direct-controlled municipality, one of four such designations, and is, thus, under direct administration of the central government...

 and Yantai
Yantai
Yantai is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the southern coast of the Bohai Sea and the eastern coast of the Laizhou Bay, Yantai borders the cities of Qingdao and Weihai to the southwest and east respectively.The largest fishing...

, as well as Incheon
Incheon
The Incheon Metropolitan City is located in northwestern South Korea. The city was home to just 4,700 people when Jemulpo port was built in 1883. Today 2.76 million people live in the city, making it Korea’s third most populous city after Seoul and Busan Metropolitan City...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

.

Culture


In 2006, Dalian was selected as the most suitable city for living in China according to China Daily
China Daily
The China Daily is an English language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.- Overview :China Daily was established in June 1981 and has the widest print circulation of any English-language newspaper in the country...

.

Dalian dialect


Standard Mandarin
Standard Mandarin
Standard Chinese or Modern Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin or Putonghua, is the official language of the People's Republic of China and Republic of China , and is one of the four official languages of Singapore....

 is usually spoken in Dalian because it is a city with people from various locations. Among the Dalianites, however, the Dalian dialect
Dalian dialect
Dalian dialect is the dialect of Mandarin spoken on the Liaodong Peninsula, including the city of Dalian and parts of Dandong and Yingkou. Dalian dialect shares many similarities with the Qingdao dialect spoken on Shandong Peninsula across Bohai Strait; hence the name Jiao Liao Mandarin...

 is used, which belongs to the Jiao Liao Mandarin subgroup spoken from Shandong Province to Liaoning Province. The majority of the original Dalianites were the poor farmers and fishermen who had come from Shandong Province in a large population move called "Chuang Guandong
Chuang Guandong
Chuang Guandong , means the rush to Manchuria of the Han Chinese, especially from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Previously this region was outside China proper, but sometimes under the control, or at least within...

". Among the Dalian dialect's features are a few loanword
Loanword
A loanword is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language. By contrast, a calque or loan translation is a related concept where the meaning or idiom is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself. The word loanword is itself a calque of the German Lehnwort,...

s from Japanese and Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

, reflecting its history of foreign occupation, which is a very rare case in the Chinese language.

Sports


Sports play a big role in the local culture. The city's mayor encouraged a top league football team with foreign aid and a lot of city cash to increase the city's image in the country and bring local fame. They have been caught out several times though and the heyday of the Super Team has passed. The city's football team has dominated the sport in China and Asia by winning 7 titles out of the past 9 years of Chinese professional football league.

The Dalian's football club is Dalian Shide (大连实德), one of fifteen teams in the Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
The Chinese Football Association Super League , commonly known as Chinese Super League or CSL, currently known as the Pirelli Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional association football in China, operating under the auspices of the...

. Prior to 2000, they were known as Dalian Wanda (大连万达).

City-wide festivals


Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square
Xinghai Square, or Xinghai Plaza , is a city square in Dalian, China. It is located to the north of Xinghai Bay. Its total area is 45,000 m². Its name literally means "the Sea of Stars"....

(星海广场), the Xinghai Conference Center, the Dalian World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Rd. are the places where Dalian's major annual events are held: Fireworks Displays (Chinese New Year, 1 May and 1 October), Dalian International Walking Festival (May), Dalian Locust Flower Festival (May), Dalian International Marathon (June), China International Software & Information Service Fair (June), Dalian International Beer Festival (July–August), Dalian International Auto Show (August) and Dalian International Fashion Week (September).

Every September Dalian hosts the Dalian International Fashion Festival (大连国际服装节).

Inter-governmental


Japan maintains a Consulate General office and a JETRO
JETRO
is an independent government agency established by Japan Export Trade Research Organization as a nonprofit corporation in Osaka in February 1951, and reorganized as the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1958 to consolidate Japan's efforts in export promotion...

 office in Dalian, reflecting a relatively large Japanese population.

Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate members. Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian before the War have organized the Dalian Society. There are such voluntary groups as the Lilac Society (for women) and the Dalian Mountaineering Association.

Religion


, Dalian had 27 Protestant churches, 2 Catholic churches, 10 mosques, 34 Buddhist temples, and 7 Taoist temples, according to the statistics of the city government.

Daoist temples can be found in various districts including downtown Dalian (Hua Temple in Zhong Shan Park), in Lushunkou District (Longwang Temple), and in Jinzhou District (Jinlong Temple in Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain
Dahei Mountain
Dahei Mountain is located in Jinzhou District, Dalian City, Liaoning Province in China. It is 663 metres high above sea level and belongs to the Qianshan Mountains, named after Qian Mountain in Anshan, that extends themselves from the Changbai Mountains....

, and Zhenwu Temple in Liangjiadian).

Buddhist temples are in downtown Dalian (Songshan Temple on Tangshan Street), on the northern side of Anzi Mountain (Anshan Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha & 500 Luohan Statues), in Lushunkou District (Hengshan Temple at Longwangtan), and in Jinzhou District 'Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on Dahei Mountain).

Dalian Catholic Church
Dalian Catholic Church
Dalian Catholic Church is a Christian Catholic church located in Dalian, China. It was built in 1926 and is the only Catholic church in Dalian...

 (built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of Dalian Railway Station. Protestant churches are near Zhongshan Square (Yuguang Street Church
Yuguang Street Church
Yuguang Street Church is a Protestant church in Dalian, China It is the former Dalian Anglican Church and its church building is now a Historical Protected Building of Dalian City.-Brief history:...

, the former Dalian Anglican Church, built in 1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of England
Church of England
The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The church considers itself within the tradition of Western Christianity and dates its formal establishment principally to the mission to England by St...

 and Anglican Church of Japan
Nippon Sei Ko Kai
The Nippon Sei Ko Kai , abbreviated as NSKK, or the Anglican Church in Japan, is the religious body in the Province of Japan of the Anglican Communion....

 jointly), on Changjiang Road (Beijing Street Church
Beijing Street Church
Beijing Street Church is a Protestant church located in Dalian, China It is the former Dalian Lutheran Church and its church building is now a Historical Building Protected by Dalian City...

, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on Xi'an Road (Christian Church for the Korean Chinese), east of the airport (the newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou (the newly built Jinzhou Church) and in Lüshunkou District (Lüshun Church, a former Danish Lutheran church). Dalian Mosque is on Beijing Street.

Notable people


, Mifune Toshirō (1 April 1920 – 24 December 1997), Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films; raised in Dalian with his parents and two siblings.
  • Dong Jie
    Dong Jie
    Dong Jie is a Chinese actress and dancer.-Biography:Dong made her debut in Zhang Yimou's Happy Times , where she played a blind girl mistreated by her stepmother. Zhang selected Dong after a casting call on the Internet...

    , actress
  • Yu Nan
    Yu Nan
    Yu Nan is a Chinese actress. Born in Dalian, Yu Nan studied at the Beijing Film Academy, where she graduated in 1999.-In China:...

    , actress
  • Wei Son
    Wei Son
    is a Japanese fashion model who has been active in both the professional and commercial modeling fields since the late 2000s. She is particularly known in the gal scene, as a former major contributor to the Popteen magazine and an exclusive model for its sister magazine PopSister...

    , Japanese fashion model who claims to have been born in Dalian.

Education


There were 23 general institutions of higher education (and another 7 privately-run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools, 80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108 thousand.

There are the following schools of higher education and research centers:

Colleges and universities

  • Dalian University of Technology
    Dalian University of Technology
    Dalian University of Technology , colloquially known in Chinese as Dagong , is located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China and directly administered by the state Ministry of Education.-Introduction:...

     (大连理工大学)(Project 985
    Project 985
    Project 985 is a project first announced by CPC General secretary and Chinese President Jiang Zemin at the 100th anniversary of Peking University on May 4, 1998 to promote the development and reputation of the Chinese higher education system...

    Project 211
    Project 211
    Project 211 is a project of National Key Universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development...

  • Dalian Maritime University
    Dalian Maritime University
    Dalian Maritime University is a university located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It is a key maritime institution under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China.- History :...

     (大连海事大学)(Project 211
    Project 211
    Project 211 is a project of National Key Universities and colleges initiated in 1995 by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, with the intent of raising the research standards of high-level universities and cultivating strategies for socio-economic development...

  • Dongbei University of Finance and Economics
    Dongbei University of Finance and Economics
    Dongbei University of Finance & Economics is a state level university in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China.Located in the northeast of metropolitan Dalian and originally established in 1952 as Dongbei Institute of Finance & Economics , it is one of Dalian's oldest modern universities, and it is...

     (东北财经大学)
  • Dalian Medical University
    Dalian Medical University
    Dalian Medical University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It was founded in 1947 in the southern part of Dalian city, China by Mao Ze Dong.....

     (大连医科大学)
  • Liaoning Normal University
    Liaoning Normal University
    Liaoning Normal University is a teacher training university in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China under the provincial government. Established in 1951 the university is primarily responsible for educating teachers to teach in high schools around the province, though non-teacher training courses are...

     (辽宁师范大学)
  • Dalian University
    Dalian University
    Dalian University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government.-Official website:http://www.dlu.edu.cn/...

     (大连大学)
  • Dalian Polytechnic University
    Dalian Polytechnic University
    Dalian Polytechnic University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning.-History:The school was founded in 1958 in Shenyang as the Shenyang Institute of Light Industry . In 1970, it was transferred to Dalian, and renamed as the Dalian Institute of Light Industry...

     (大连工业大学)
  • Dalian Nationalities University
    Dalian Nationalities University
    Dalian Nationalities University is located in Dalian, Liaoning, People's Republic of China and directly supervised by the State Ethnic Affairs Commission.-History:...

     (大连民族学院)
  • Dalian Ocean University
    Dalian Fisheries University
    Dalian Fisheries University is a university located in Dalian, China. Founded in 1952, it is the sole university featuring fisheries science courses in northern China. Over 7,000 students are enrolled there. The institution changed its name to become "Dalian Ocean University" in 2010.-External...

     (大连海洋大学)
  • Dalian Jiaotong University
    Dalian Jiaotong University
    Dalian Jiaotong University is a university in Dalian, Liaoning, China under the provincial government. It has its larger campus near downtown Dalian and smaller campus in the High-Tech zone in Lüshun. Until 2004, it was known as Dalian Railway Institute ....

     (大连交通大学)
  • Dalian University of Foreign Languages
    Dalian University of Foreign Languages
    Dalian University of Foreign Languages is a provincial university in Dalian, Liaoning, China.It is now one of the top 8 foreign languages universities in China, and the only fully developed foreign languages institute in Northeast China. DLUFL now provides various bachelor degree and master degree...

     (大连外国语学院)
  • Neusoft Institute of Information
    Neusoft Institute of Information
    Neusoft Institute of Information is a private university insititution with campuses in Dalian, Guangzhou and Chengdu, China, specializing on information technology.-History:...

     (东北大学东软信息学院)
  • Dalian Naval Academy
    Dalian Naval Academy
    Dalian Naval Academy is one of the higher education institutes of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy and is located in Dalian City, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China....

     of the PLA(中国人民解放军海军大连舰艇学院)


Some universities are undergoing relocations from the metropolitan area to the suburban districts. In 2007, Dalian University of Foreign Languages (except for its Schools of Chinese Studies 汉学院 and Continuous Education 培训部) and Dalian Medical University (except its Hospital) were moved to Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou is a district in the municipality of Dalian, Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City or Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun....

 District, just east of Baiyin Mountain Tunnel (白银山).

Missouri State University Branch Campus Dalian
Missouri State University Branch Campus Dalian
- History :In June 2000, Missouri State University entered into an agreement with Liaoning Normal University of the People's Republic of China. This established the LNU-MSU College of International Business on the campus of LNU...

 is a dual management private school with a western director.

Research centers

  • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics ( or 化物所) Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Chinese Academy of Sciences , formerly known as Academia Sinica, is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It is an institution of the State Council of China. It is headquartered in Beijing, with institutes all over the People's Republic of China...

     (中国科学院)

Twin towns / Sister cities



Dalian is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Zaragoza, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 Szczecin
Szczecin
Szczecin , is the capital city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. It is the country's seventh-largest city and the largest seaport in Poland on the Baltic Sea. As of June 2009 the population was 406,427....

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 Glasgow
Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Kitakyūshū, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Ohrid
Ohrid
Ohrid is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in the Republic of Macedonia. It has about 42,000 inhabitants, making it the seventh largest city in the country. The city is the seat of Ohrid Municipality. Ohrid is notable for having once had 365 churches, one for each day of the year and has...

, Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
Macedonia , officially the Republic of Macedonia , is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991...

 Bremen, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Incheon
Incheon
The Incheon Metropolitan City is located in northwestern South Korea. The city was home to just 4,700 people when Jemulpo port was built in 1883. Today 2.76 million people live in the city, making it Korea’s third most populous city after Seoul and Busan Metropolitan City...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 Oakland
Oakland, California
Oakland is a major West Coast port city on San Francisco Bay in the U.S. state of California. It is the eighth-largest city in the state with a 2010 population of 390,724...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Rostock
Rostock
Rostock -Early history:In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc ; the name Rostock is derived from that designation. The Danish king Valdemar I set the town aflame in 1161.Afterwards the place was settled by German traders...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Maizuru
Maizuru, Kyoto
is a city located in Kyōto, Japan, on an inlet of the Sea of Japan.As of 2008, the city has an estimated population of 89,626 and the density of 264 persons per km². The total area is .The city was founded on May 27, 1943....

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 Vladivostok
Vladivostok
The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca
Bahía Blanca is a city located in the south-west of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, by the Atlantic Ocean, and seat of government of Bahía Blanca Partido. It has a population of 274,509 inhabitants according to the...

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

 Surabaya
Surabaya
Surabaya is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million , and the capital of the province of East Java...

, Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

 Enschede
Enschede
Enschede , also known as Eanske in the local dialect of Twents, is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel and in the Twente region...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...



Dalian has a friendship city agreement with Dallas, Texas
Dallas, Texas
Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States...

, USA.

Further reading

  • Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895—1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
  • Kuramoto, Kazuko. Manchurian Legacy: Memoirs of a Japanese Colonist, 1st edition. Michigan State University Press. 1 October 1999. ISBN 0-87013-510-4, ISBN 978-0-87013-510-1, ISBN 0-87013-725-5, ISBN 978-0-87013-725-9.
  • Matz, Leigh. Blue Sky Red Tears, 1st edition. DigitalKu. 30 November 2004. ISBN 0-9763168-1-1, ISBN 978-0-9763168-1-7.
  • McKnight, Tom, (ed.). Geographica: The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7607-5974-X, ISBN 978-0-7607-2714-0.
  • Perrins, Robert John (1998). "'Great connections': The creation of a city, Dalian, 1905–1931. China and Japan on the Liaodong Peninsula." Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada).
  • Song Li. Everyday Dalian: Life In Modern Manchuria (Photography Book), Foreword by Phil Borges. 1st edition. DigitalKu. 8 February 2008. ISBN 0-9763168-5-4, ISBN 978-0-9763168-5-5.
  • Theiss, Frank. The Voyage of Forgotten Men, 1st Ed. Indianapolis & New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937.

External links