Benxi

Benxi

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Benxi is a prefecture-level city
Prefecture-level city
A prefectural level city , prefectural city or prefectural level municipality is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China, ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative...

 located in the east of Liaoning
Liaoning
' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

 province in Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

, south-southeast of Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

. Its population is 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 959,610 in the built up area It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915. Benxi Iron and Steel Company ("Bengang") is the largest employer in the city, and used to be the 4th largest steel company in China. The second largest industry in Benxi is coal mining. Benxi has pollution
Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light...

 problems due to steel production and coal mining.

The worst coal mining disaster in the world took place on April 26, 1942 in Benxihu Colliery
Benxihu Colliery
Benxihu Colliery , located in Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905. It started as a iron and coal mining project under joint Japanese and Chinese control. As time passed, the project came more and more under Japanese control...

. A coal-dust explosion killed 1,549 miners working that day.

During the disaster of Air France flight AF447, Benxi Iron and Steel Company lost 5 employees, including the executive Chen Chiping who was the wife of Liaoning's provincial governor.

Administrative divisions


Benxi contains 4 districts and 2 autonomous counties for the Manchu nation:
Map
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Pingshan District
Pingshan District
Pingshan District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 350,000 people as of 2002.-Administrative Divisions:...

平山区 Píngshān Qū 350,000 177 1,977
2 Xihu District
Xihu District, Benxi
Xihu District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 230,000 people as of 2002.-Administrative Divisions:...

溪湖区 Xīhú Qū 220,000 320 688
3 Mingshan District
Mingshan District
Mingshan District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 300,000 people as of 2002.-Administrative Divisions:...

明山区 Míngshān Qū 300,000 410 732
4 Nanfen District
Nanfen District
Nanfen District is a District under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 90,000 people as of 2002.-Administrative Divisions:...

南芬区 Nánfēn Qū 80,000 619 129
5 Benxi Manchu Autonomous County
Benxi Manchu Autonomous County
Benxi Manchu Autonomous County is an autonomous county under the administration of Benxi City, Liaoning Province, China. It has a total area of , and a population of approximately 300,000 people as of 2002.-Administrative Divisions:...

本溪满族
自治县
Běnxī Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
300,000 3,362 89
6 Huanren Manchu Autonomous County
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County is located in Benxi City, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is also one of 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties in China. As a county, Huanren was established in 1877, It was reorganised as an autonomous county in 1989...

桓仁满族
自治县
Huánrén Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
300,000 3,547 85


Within these there are 25 counties, 40 villages and towns, 229 communities and 289 village committees.

Geography


Benxi is located at latitude 40° 49’—41° 35’ N and longitude 123° 34’—125° 46’ E, and has a total area of 8411.31 sqkm. To the east is Jilin City
Jilin City
Jilin City is the second largest city of Jilin province in Northeast China. At the 2010 census, 4,414,681 people resided within its administrative area of and 1,975,803 in its built up area...

, Jilin Province
Jilin
Jilin , is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Jilin borders North Korea and Russia to the east, Heilongjiang to the north, Liaoning to the south, and Inner Mongolia to the west...

, to the south is Dandong
Dandong
Dandong , previously known as Andong and Antung, is a city in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. It lies on the border between China and North Korea, which is marked by the Yalu River, and is the largest border city in China. Also, to the southwest of the city, the river flows into Korea Bay...

, to the southwest is Anshan (though the two don't actually border each other), to the west is Liaoyang
Liaoyang
Liaoyang is a city in China, Liaoning province, located in the middle of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is situated on the T'ai-tzu River and forms with Anshan a built up area of 2,057,200 inhabitants in 2010....

, to the northwest is Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

, and to the north is Fushun
Fushun
Fushun is a city in Liaoning, China, about 45 km east from Shenyang, with a population about 2,138 090 inhabitants at the 2010 census and an area of 11,271 km2, including 713 km2 of the city proper. Fushun is situated on the Hun He . It was formerly called Fouchouen in French...

. The area has many mountains as well as great forest coverage (74%).

Climate


Benxi has a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Koppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dwa), characterised by hot, humid summers, due to the East Asian monsoon
East Asian monsoon
The East Asian monsoon is a monsoonal flow that carries moist air from the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean to East Asia. It affects approximately one-third of the global population, influencing the climate of Japan , the Koreas, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and much of mainland China...

, and long, cold and windy, but dry winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons in Benxi are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. Monthly mean temperatures range from −11.5 °C in January to 24 °C (75.2 °F) in July, for an annual average of 7.8 °C (46 °F).

Economy


Benxi’s economy grew 26% in 2008 to a regional GDP of 61.1 billion CNY. Urban per-capita disposable income was 13,300 CNY (1,913 USD), and consumption per capita 10,167 CNY (1,462 USD).

With 46 large and medium-sized enterprises in Benxi, main industrial products are raw iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 (14 million tons), steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

 (13 million tons), finished steel (12 million tons), cement
Cement
In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed...

 (3 million tons) and raw coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 (1 million tons). In 2008, 92,615 people were employed in manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

, 20,368 in education, 19,228 in public administration and social organizations, 17,913 persons in the mining
Mining
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

 industry, and 12,997 in transportation and storage. According to the type of business ownership, 63,000 were employed in private companies.

Uranium
Uranium
Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

 is mined in the region.

Asia's biggest iron ore mine, which is reported to possess more than 3 billion tons of proven reserves, has recently been found in this region.http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/20090623/huge-iron-ore-resource-with-more-than-three-billion-tons-rsquo-proven-reserves-has-been-found-china-.htm

Tourist Activities


The Benxi Water Cave National Park.

A river 3,000 meters long, 2 meters deep and wide enough for 20-30 boats, is found flowing through this cave 35 km from downtown Benxi. The cave is also filled with countless stalactite
Stalactite
A stalactite , "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of speleothem that hangs from the ceiling of limestone caves. It is a type of dripstone...

s and stone flowers, pillars and curtains.

External links