Vistula land

Vistula land

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'''Vistula Land''' or '''Vistula Country''' ({{lang-ru|Привислинский Край}}, ''Privislinsky [[Krai]]''; {{lang-pl|Kraj Nadwiślański}}) was the name applied to the lands of the [[Congress Poland|Kingdom of Poland]] following the defeats of the [[November Uprising]] (1830-31) and [[January Uprising]] (1863-1864) as it was increasingly stripped of autonomy and incorporated into [[Imperial Russia]]. It also continued to be informally known as '''Russian Poland''' or the [[Russian partition]].{{Ref_label|a|a|none}} ==History== [[File:Privisl.jpg|thumb|right|Russian map of ''Привислинского края'' (Vistula Land) from 1896]] In 1831, in the aftermath of the [[November Uprising]], the [[Polish Army]], the [[Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland]], its parliament ([[Sejm]]) and local self-administration were disbanded. The constitution was replaced by the much less liberal and never fully implemented [[Organic Statute of the Kingdom of Poland]]. Also all universities were closed, only to be reopened several years later as purely-Russian language high schools. For a short time the territory maintained certain degree of autonomy. The former Kingdom of Poland continued to use the Polish currency ([[zloty|złoty]]) and the [[Administrative Council]] retained some of its privileges (although it was directly controlled by the Russian governor Field Marshal [[Ivan Paskevich]]). However, by 1832 the currency and the customs border were abolished, as was the [[SI|metric system]] and the Polish [[penal code]] (which was replaced by the Russian penal code, ''de facto'' in use since the Uprising begun). Also the [[Catholic Church]] was persecuted and most monasteries were closed and nationalized. In 1839, following the Synod of Polotsk, the [[Greek-Catholic Church]] self-disbanded and united with the [[Russian Orthodox Church]]. After 1837 all [[Voivodeships of Poland|voivodeships]] that constituted the [[Congress Poland|Kingdom of Poland]] were turned into [[gubernia]]s and became an integral part of Russian administrative division, ruled directly by the [[List of Russian rulers|Russian tsars]]. After the [[January Uprising]] in 1863, the [[coat of arms]] of the Congress Kingdom was abandoned, the [[Polish language]] was banned from office and education and the process of incorporation of the Polish gubernias and [[Russification]] of its administration was completed. The 1867 reform, initiated after the failure of the [[January Uprising]], was designed to tie the [[Congress Poland|Kingdom of Poland]] more tightly to the administration structure of the Russian Empire. It divided larger governorates into smaller ones and introduced a new lower level entity, [[gmina]]s. There were 10 governorates: 5 by the right side of the [[Vistula River]] ''[[guberniya|Governorate]]s'': Сувалкская ([[Suwałki Governorate|Suvalskaya]]), Ломжинская ([[Łomża Governorate|Lomzhinskaya]]), Плоцкая ([[Płock Governorate|Plotskaya]]), Седлецкая ([[Siedlce Governorate|Sedletskaya]]) and Люблинская ([[Lublin Governorate|Lublin]]skaya); and the remaining 5 by the left side: Калишская ([[Kalisz Governorate|Kalishskaya]]), Варшавская ([[Warsaw Governorate|Varshavskaya]]), Петроковская ([[Piotrków Governorate|Petrokovskaya]]), Радомская ([[Radom Governorate|Radomskaya]]) and Келецкая ([[Kielce Governorate|Keletskaya]]). The [[coat of arms of the Congress Poland|coat of arms of the Kingdom of Poland]] was abolished at this time. Despite semi-official abolishment of the [[Congress Poland|Kingdom of Poland]], the [[tsars of Russia]] retained the use of the title "tsar of Poland". The territory was a ''[[namestnichestvo]]'' until 1875 and later [[Governorate General]], ruled respectively by the [[Namestnik of the Kingdom of Poland|Namestniks and Governor Generals of Poland]]. In the 1880s, the official language was changed to [[Russian language|Russian]] and [[Polish language|Polish]] was banned both from the office and education. The name Vistula Land first appeared in official documents in 1888 although more recent scholarship traced it back to 1883. A minor reform of 1893 transferred some territory from the [[Płock Governorate|Płock]] and [[Łomża Governorate]]s to [[Warsaw Governorate]]. A more major 1912 reform created a new governorate - [[Chełm Governorate]] (Kholmskaya ''Guberniya'' in Russian) - from parts of the Siedlce and Lublin Governorates. However this was split off from the Privislinsky Krai and made part of the [[Southwestern Krai]] of the [[Russian Empire]], in order to facilitate its [[russification]]. ==World War I== {{Further|[[Poland during World War I]]}} In 1915 during [[World War I]] the [[Congress Poland|Kingdom of Poland]] was looted and abandoned by the retreating [[Imperial Russian Army|Russian army]], which tried to emulate the [[scorched earth]] policy of the [[French invasion of Russia#March on Moscow|1812 invasion]]. The Russians also evicted and deported hundreds of thousands of its inhabitants suspected of collaborating with the enemy. During [[World War I]], in 1915 the area was occupied by the [[Central Powers]] who proposed the [[Kingdom of Poland (1916–1918)]]. In 1917 Russia ceded, in the [[Treaty of Brest-Litovsk]], all Polish territories it had possessed to the [[German Empire]] and [[Austria-Hungary]]. == Administrative divisions== {{main|Administrative division of Congress Poland}} {{Privislinsky_Krai_Governorates_of_the_Russian_Empire}} == Further reading == * Manfred Alexander: ''Kleine Geschichte Polens''. Stuttgart: Reclam 2003 (Quelle) * [[Roman Dmowski]]: ''Deutschland, Rußland und die polnische Frage (Auszüge)''. In: ''Polen und der Osten. Texte zu einem spannungsreichen Verhältnis''. Hrg. Andrzej Chwalba, ISBN 3-518-41731-2 (Denken und Wissen. Eine Polnische Bibliothek. Band 7) * Hensel, Jürgen (ed.): ''Polen, Deutsche und Juden in Lodz 1820 - 1939. Eine schwierige Nachbarschaft'', Osnabrück: fibre Verlag 1996 ==External links== * [http://www.raether-clan.de Sammlung historischer Landkarten zur deutsch-polnischen Geschichte] {{coord missing|Russia}}