Valencia (city in Spain)

Valencia (city in Spain)

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Valencia or València (vaˈlensia) is the capital and most populous city of the autonomous community
Autonomous communities of Spain
An autonomous community In other languages of Spain:*Catalan/Valencian .*Galician .*Basque . The second article of the constitution recognizes the rights of "nationalities and regions" to self-government and declares the "indissoluble unity of the Spanish nation".Political power in Spain is...

 of Valencia
Valencian Community
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain located in central and south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. Its capital and largest city is Valencia...

 and the third largest city in Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, with a population of 809,267 in 2010. It is the 15th-most populous municipality
Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits
This is a list of the largest cities in the European Union by population within city limits which have more than 300,000 inhabitants. It deals exclusively with the areas within city administrative boundaries as opposed to urban areas or metropolitan areas, which are generally larger in terms of...

 in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

. About 1,175,000 or 1,564,145 people live in the Valencia urban area and 1,705,742 or 2,300,000 in the Valencia metropolitan area.

It is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar
Costa del Azahar
Costa del Azahar or Costa dels Tarongers is the name for the coast of the province of Castellón in Spain, from Vinaròs to Almenara.Towns on the Costa del Azahar include Peníscola, Benicàssim and Castelló de la Plana....

. Its main festival, the Falles
Falles
The Falles is a Valencian traditional celebration in praise of Saint Joseph in Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to both the celebration and the monuments created during the celebration...

, is known worldwide, while the traditional dish, paella
Paella
Paella is a Valencian rice dish that originated in its modern form in the mid-19th century near lake Albufera, a lagoon in Valencia, on the east coast of Spain. Many non-Spaniards view paella as Spain's national dish, but most Spaniards consider it to be a regional Valencian dish...

, originated in the Valencian Community.

The city contains a dense monumental heritage, including the Llotja de la Seda (World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 since 1996), but its landmark is undoubtedly the City of Arts and Sciences
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia....

, an avant-garde
Avant-garde
Avant-garde means "advance guard" or "vanguard". The adjective form is used in English to refer to people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics....

 and futuristic museum complex.

Name


The original Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 name of the city was (waˈlentia), meaning "strength", "valour", the city being named for the Roman practice of recognizing the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war. The Roman historian Titus Livius
Livy
Titus Livius — known as Livy in English — was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people. Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC...

 (Livy) explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against Iberian local rebel, Viriatus.

During the rule of the Muslim Empires in Spain, it was known as (Balansiyya) in Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

.

By regular sound change
Sound change
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation or sound system structures...

s, this has become Valencia baˈlenθja in Castilian
Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish is a term related to the Spanish language, but its exact meaning can vary even in that language. In English Castilian Spanish usually refers to the variety of European Spanish spoken in north and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers...

 and València vaˈlensia in Valencian
Valencian
Valencian is the traditional and official name of the Catalan language in the Valencian Community. There are dialectical differences from standard Catalan, and under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua has been established as its regulator...

 (in Valencian
Valencian
Valencian is the traditional and official name of the Catalan language in the Valencian Community. There are dialectical differences from standard Catalan, and under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua has been established as its regulator...

 the grave accent <è> /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent <é> /e/, nevertheless the word València is an exception to this rule which is spelled according to Catalan
Catalan language
Catalan is a Romance language, the national and only official language of Andorra and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencian Community, where it is known as Valencian , as well as in the city of Alghero, on the Italian island...

 etymology, though it uses a pronunciation closer to Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin is any of the nonstandard forms of Latin from which the Romance languages developed. Because of its nonstandard nature, it had no official orthography. All written works used Classical Latin, with very few exceptions...

).

History


During the Roman period Valencia formed part of the then province of Edetania. The Roman historian Florus
Florus
Florus, Roman historian, lived in the time of Trajan and Hadrian.He compiled, chiefly from Livy, a brief sketch of the history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the closing of the temple of Janus by Augustus . The work, which is called Epitome de T...

 says that in 140 BC Junius Brutus
Brutus
Brutus is the cognomen of the Roman gens Junia, a prominent family of the Roman Republic. The plural of Brutus is Bruti, and the vocative form is Brute, as immortalized in the quotation "Et tu, Brute?", from Shakespeare's play, Julius Caesar....

 transferred the soldiers who had fought under him to that province: the Roman city, known as Valentia Edetanorum, was founded in 137 BC on the site of a former Iberian
Iberians
The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula at least from the 6th century BC...

 town, by the river Turia
Turía (river)
The Turia is a small river, 9 km in length and an altitude of 250 m above the sea, which rises in the town of Taramundi and drains into the Eo River in the town of Puente Nuevo ....

.
Later it was a Roman military colony. In punishment for its adherence to Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius
Quintus Sertorius was a Roman statesman and general, born in Nursia, in Sabine territory. His brilliance as a military commander was shown most clearly in his battles against Rome for control of Hispania...

 it was destroyed by Pompey
Pompey
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey or Pompey the Great , was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic...

, but was later rebuilt, and Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela
Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer. He was born in Tingentera and died c. AD 45.His short work occupies less than one hundred pages of ordinary print. It is laconic in style and deficient in method, but of pure Latinity, and occasionally relieved by pleasing...

 says that it was one of the principal cities of Tarraconensis
Hispania Tarraconensis
Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. It encompassed much of the Mediterranean coast of Spain along with the central plateau. Southern Spain, the region now called Andalusia, was the province of Hispania Baetica...

 province.

The city has been occupied by the Visigoths, the Moors
Moors
The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of the Maghreb region who are predominately of Berber and Arab descent. They came to conquer and rule the Iberian Peninsula for nearly 800 years. At that time they were Muslim, although earlier the people had followed...

 and the Catalan and Aragonese
Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon Corona d'Aragón Corona d'Aragó Corona Aragonum controlling a large portion of the present-day eastern Spain and southeastern France, as well as some of the major islands and mainland possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece...

.

The city surrendered without a fight to the invading Moors (Berbers and Arabs) in 714 AD, and the cathedral of saint Vincent was turned into a mosque. When Islamic culture settled in, Valencia – then Balansiya – prospered from the 10th century, thanks to a booming trade in paper, silk, leather, ceramics, glass and silver-work. The architectural legacy from this period is abundant in Valencia and can still be appreciated today in the remains of the old walls, the Baños del Almirante bath house, Portal de Valldigna street and even the Cathedral and the tower, El Micalet, which was the minaret of the old mosque.

After the death of Almanzor
Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir
Abu Aamir Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Aamir, Al-Hajib Al-Mansur , better known as Almanzor, was the de facto ruler of Muslim Al-Andalus in the late 10th to early 11th centuries. His rule marked the peak of power for Moorish Iberia.-Origins:He was born Muhammad Ibn Abi Aamir, into a noble Arab...

 and the unrest that followed, Muslim Al-Andalus broke up into numerous small states known as taifa
Taifa
In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate or petty kingdom, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.-Rise:The origins of...

s, one of which was the Taifa of Valencia
Taifa of Valencia
The Taifa of Valencia was a medieval taifa kingdom which existed, in and around Valencia, Spain during four distinct periods: from 1010 to 1065, from 1075 to 1099, from 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238 when it was finally conquered by Aragon....

 which would exist for four distinct periods - 1010 to 1065, 1075 to 1099, 1145 to 1147 and last from 1229 to 1238.

'the Cid'
El Cid
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar , known as El Cid Campeador , was a Castilian nobleman, military leader, and diplomat...

 conquered Valencia for the short period from 15 June 1094 – July 1099. He turned nine mosques into churches and installed the French monk Jérôme as bishop (this victory was immortalised in the Lay of the Cid
Cantar de Mio Cid
El Cantar de Myo Çid , also known in English as The Lay of the Cid and The Poem of the Cid is the oldest preserved Spanish epic poem...

). On the death of the Cid (July 1099), his wife, Ximena, retained power for two years, after which Valencia was besieged by the Almoravids.

The city was returned to the Almoravids in 1102. Although the 'Emperor of Spain' Alfonso drove them from the city, he was not strong enough to hold it. The Christians set fire to it, abandoned it, and the Almoravid Masdali took possession of it on 5 May 1109. The event was commemorated in a poem by Ibn Khafaja
Ibn Khafaja
Ibn Khafaja or Abu Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Abu Al-Fath Ibn Khafajah of Alzira was one of the most famous poets of Al-Andalus during the reign of the Almoravids. He was born in 1058 in Alzira near Valencia where he spent most of his life.He developed nature poetry to a great level of...

 in which he thanked Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusef ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, or Teshufin; or Yusuf; was a king of the Almoravid empire, he founded the city of Marrakech and led the Muslim forces in the Battle of Zallaqa....

 for the liberation of the city. The Almoravid and the Almohad dynasty would rule Valencia for more than a century.

In 1238, King James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276...

 the Conqueror, with an army composed of Aragonese, Catalans, Navarre
Navarre
Navarre , officially the Chartered Community of Navarre is an autonomous community in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Country, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Aquitaine in France...

se and some French, English, German and Italian crusaders, laid siege to Valencia and on 28 September in that year forced a surrender. 50,000 Moors were forced to leave. Poets like Ibn al-Abbar
Ibn al-Abbar
Ibn al-Abbar, in full Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn al-Abbar was a well-known poet, diplomat, theologian and scholar from al-Andalus and perhaps the most famous man of letters produced by the city of Valencia during the Middle Ages.Ibn al-Abbar began his official career as a secretary to the Muslim...

 and Ibn Amira
Ibn Amira
Ibn Amira or Ahmad ibn Abd Allah Ibn Amira was a historian, poet, and scholar of law from al-Andalus during the reign of the Almohad dynasty...

 mourned their exile from their beloved Valencia.

On 9 October, King James, followed by his retinue and army, took possession. The principal mosque was turned into a Church where Mass was celebrated and the "Te Deum" sung. James incorporated city and territory into the newly formed Kingdom of Valencia
Kingdom of Valencia
The Kingdom of Valencia , located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. When the Crown of Aragon merged by dynastic union with the Crown of Castile to form the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Valencia became a component realm of the...

, one of the kingdoms forming the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
The Crown of Aragon Corona d'Aragón Corona d'Aragó Corona Aragonum controlling a large portion of the present-day eastern Spain and southeastern France, as well as some of the major islands and mainland possessions stretching across the Mediterranean as far as Greece...

, and permitted all people that lived in the city (Muslims and Christians) to stay there and live as citizens of the kingdom.
Catholic sources state that Saint Vincent Ferrer
Vincent Ferrer
Saint Vincent Ferrer was a Valencian Dominican missionary and logician.-Early life:Vincent was the fourth child of the Anglo-Scottish nobleman William Stewart Ferrer and his Spanish wife, Constantia Miguel. Legends surround his birth...

 preached so successfully (sometime between 1390 and 1411), converting thousands of Jews, that he was permitted to employ the synagogue for his newly-founded hospital of San Salvador.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Valencia was one of the major cities in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

. The writer Joanot Martorell
Joanot Martorell
Joanot Martorell was a Valencian knight and the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch, which is written in Valencian...

, author of Tirant lo Blanch, and the poet Ausiàs March
Ausiàs March
Ausiàs March was a Valencian poet who was born in Gandia towards the end of the 14th century. He was the son of Pere March, nephew of Jaume March II, and cousin of Arnau March....

 are famous Valencians of that era.

The first printing press in the Iberian Peninsula was located in Valencia. The first printed Bible in a Romance language, Valencian Bible
Valencian Bible
The Valencian Bible was the first printed Bible in the Valencian language,between 1477 and 1478. It is the third Bible printed in a modern language The Valencian Bible was the first printed Bible in the Valencian language,between 1477 and 1478. It is the third Bible printed in a modern language The...

, was printed in Valencia circa 1478, attributed to Bonifaci Ferrer.

Valencian bankers lent funds to Queen Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor...

 for Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the...

' trip in 1492.

In 1519–1522 the Guilds revolts took place. In 1609, the Morisco
Morisco
Moriscos or Mouriscos , meaning "Moorish", were the converted Christian inhabitants of Spain and Portugal of Muslim heritage. Over time the term was used in a pejorative sense applied to those nominal Catholics who were suspected of secretly practicing Islam.-Demographics:By the beginning of the...

s were expelled from the city.

During the War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
The War of the Spanish Succession was fought among several European powers, including a divided Spain, over the possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch. As France and Spain were among the most powerful states of Europe, such a unification would have...

, Valencia sided with Charles of Austria. On 24 January 1706, Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough, 1st Earl of Monmouth
Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough
Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough and 1st Earl of Monmouth, KG, PC was an English nobleman and military leader. He was the son of John Mordaunt, 1st Viscount Mordaunt, and his wife Elizabeth, the daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Carey, the second son of Robert Carey, 1st Earl of Monmouth...

, led a handful of English cavalrymen into the city after riding south from Barcelona, capturing the nearby fortress at Sagunt, and bluffing the Spanish Bourbon army into withdrawal.
The English held the city for 16 months and defeated several attempts to expel them. English soldiers advanced as far as Requena on the road to Madrid. After the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa
Battle of Almansa
The Battle of Almansa, fought on 25 April 1707, was one of the most decisive engagements of the War of the Spanish Succession. At Almansa, the Franco–Spanish army under Berwick soundly defeated the allied forces of Portugal, England, and the United Provinces led by the Earl of Galway,...

 (25 April 1707), the English army evacuated Valencia and the city subsequently lost its privileges, including important civil rights called furs by the way the Bourbons decided to burn important cities like Xativa, where actually is still the picture of the Spanish Bourbon turned back as protest.

During the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
The Peninsular War was a war between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when French and Spanish armies crossed Spain and invaded Portugal in 1807. Then, in 1808, France turned on its...

 Valencia was besieged by the French under Marshal Suchet from Christmas Day 1811, until it fell on 8 January the next year.

The last victim of the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition , commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition , was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the Medieval...

, a local schoolteacher called Cayetano Ripoll
Cayetano Ripoll
Cayetano Ripoll , was a schoolmaster in Valencia, Spain, who was hanged to death on 26 July 1826 for allegedly teaching Deist principles....

, was executed in Valencia in July 1826 accused of being a deist and freemason
Freemasonry
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge...

.

During the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

, the capital of the Republic was moved to Valencia. The city suffered from the blockade and siege by Franco's forces. The postwar period was hard for Valencians. During the Franco years, speaking or teaching Valencian
Valencian
Valencian is the traditional and official name of the Catalan language in the Valencian Community. There are dialectical differences from standard Catalan, and under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua has been established as its regulator...

 was prohibited; in a significant reversal it is now compulsory for every child studying in Valencia.

Modern history



In 1957 the city suffered a severe flood by the Turia River
Turía (river)
The Turia is a small river, 9 km in length and an altitude of 250 m above the sea, which rises in the town of Taramundi and drains into the Eo River in the town of Puente Nuevo ....

, with 5 metres (16 ft) of water in some streets. One consequence of this was that a decision was made to drain and reroute the river and it now passes around the Western and southern suburbs of the city. A plan to turn the drained area into a motorway was dropped in favour of a picturesque 7 km (4 mi) park which bisects the city.

Valencia was granted Autonomous Statutes in 1982.

On 9 July 2006, during Mass at Valencia's Cathedral, Our Lady of the Forsaken Basilica, Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...

 used, at the World Day of Families, the Santo Caliz, a 1st-century Middle-Eastern
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

 artifact believed by many to be the Holy Grail
Holy Grail
The Holy Grail is a sacred object figuring in literature and certain Christian traditions, most often identified with the dish, plate, or cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper and said to possess miraculous powers...

. It was supposedly brought to that church by Emperor Valerian
Valerian (emperor)
Valerian , also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260. He was taken captive by Persian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the only Roman Emperor who was captured as a prisoner of war, resulting in wide-ranging instability across the Empire.-Origins and rise...

 in the 3rd century, after having been brought by St. Peter
Saint Peter
Saint Peter or Simon Peter was an early Christian leader, who is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. The son of John or of Jonah and from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee, his brother Andrew was also an apostle...

 to Rome from Jerusalem. The Santo Caliz ("Holy Chalice") is a simple, small stone cup. Its base was added in medieval times
Medieval Times
Medieval Times Dinner and Tournament is a family dinner theater featuring staged medieval-style games, sword-fighting, and jousting performed by a cast of 75 actors and 20 horses. Each location is housed in a replica 11th-century castle, with the exception of the Toronto location, which is housed...

 and consists of fine gold, alabaster and gem stones.

Valencia was selected in 2003 to host the historic America's Cup
America's Cup
The America’s Cup is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging...

 yacht race, the first European city ever to do so. The America's Cup matches
2007 America's Cup
The 2007 America's Cup was the thirty-second challenge for the America's Cup and was won by Alinghi in the 7th race. The Cup is the most famous and most prestigious regatta and Match Race in the sport of sailing....

 took place in summer 2007. On 3 July 2007, Alinghi defeated Team New Zealand and successfully defended the America's Cup. 22 days later, on 25 July 2007, the leaders of the Alinghi
Alinghi
Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup. Bertarelli had raced several smaller yachts named Alinghi previously, but 2003 was his first attempt at the America's Cup...

 syndicate, holder of the America's Cup
America's Cup
The America’s Cup is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging...

, officially announced that Valencia would be the host city for the 33rd America's Cup, held in June 2009.

Architecture



The ancient winding streets of the Barrio del Carmen contain buildings dating to Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 and Arabic
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

 times. The Cathedral
Saint Mary of Valencia Cathedral
The Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady of Valencia , alternatively known as Saint Mary's Cathedral or Valencia Cathedral, is a roman catholic parish church in Valencia, Spain...

, built between the 13th and 15th century, is primarily of Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 style but contains elements of Baroque
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

 and Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

. Beside the Cathedral is the Gothic Basilica
Basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

 of the Virgin (Basílica De La Virgen De Los Desamparados). The 15th century Serrano and Quart towers are part of what was once the wall surrounding the city.

UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 has recognised the silk exchange market (La Lonja de la Seda), erected in early Valencian gothic style, as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

. The modernist
Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely...

 Central Market (Mercado Central
Mercado Central
Mercado Central is a public market located in Valencia, Spain. It is generally considered one of the oldest European markets still running. Most vendors sell food items, however, souvenir shops and restaurants are located inside the market as well. It is a popular location for tourists and locals...

) is one of the largest in Europe. The main railway station Estación Del Norte is built in modernisme
Modernisme
Modernisme was a cultural movement associated with the search for Catalan national identity. It is often understood as an equivalent to a number of fin-de-siècle art movements, such as Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Secessionism, and Liberty style, and was active from roughly 1888 to 1911 Modernisme ...

 (the Spanish version of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

) style.

World-renowned (and city-born) architect Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, sculptor and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zürich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zürich, Paris, Valencia, and New York City....

 produced the futuristic City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia....

), which contains an opera house/performing arts centre
Arts centre
An art centre or arts center is distinct from an art gallery or art museum. An arts centre is a functional community centre with a specific remit to encourage arts practice and to provide facilities such as theatre space, gallery space, venues for musical performance, workshop areas, educational...

, a science museum
Science museum
A science museum or a science centre is a museum devoted primarily to science. Older science museums tended to concentrate on static displays of objects related to natural history, paleontology, geology, industry and industrial machinery, etc. Modern trends in museology have broadened the range of...

, an IMAX
IMAX
IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

 cinema/planetarium, an oceanographic park and other structures such as a long covered walkway and restaurants. Calatrava is also responsible for the bridge named after him in the center of the city. The Music Palace (Palau De La Música) is another good example of modern architecture in Valencia.

The cathedral



The cathedral was called Iglesia Mayor in the early days of the Reconquista, then Seo (from Latin sedes, i.e. (archiepiscopal) see), and in virtue of the papal concession of 16 October 1866, it was called the Basilica metropolitana. It is situated in the centre of the ancient Roman city where some believe the temple of Diana stood. In Gothic times, it seems to have been dedicated to the most Holy Saviour; the Cid
El Cid
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar , known as El Cid Campeador , was a Castilian nobleman, military leader, and diplomat...

 dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin; King James I of Aragon
James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276...

 did likewise, leaving in the main chapel the image of the Blessed Virgin which he carried with him and which is believed to be the one which is now preserved in the sacristy. The Moorish mosque, which had been converted into a Christian church
Christian Church
The Christian Church is the assembly or association of followers of Jesus Christ. The Greek term ἐκκλησία that in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church" basically means "assembly"...

 by the conqueror, appeared unworthy of the title of the cathedral of Valencia, and in 1262 Bishop Andrés de Albalat laid the cornerstone of the new Gothic building, with three naves; these reach only to the choir of the present building. Bishop Vidal de Blanes built the chapter hall, and James I of Aragon added the tower, called "Miguelete" because it was blessed on St. Michael's day in 1418, which is about 58 m high and finished at the top with a belfry
Bell tower
A bell tower is a tower which contains one or more bells, or which is designed to hold bells, even if it has none. In the European tradition, such a tower most commonly serves as part of a church and contains church bells. When attached to a city hall or other civic building, especially in...

.

In the 15th century the dome was added and the naves extended back of the choir, uniting the building to the tower and forming a main entrance. Archbishop Luis Alfonso de los Cameros began the building of the main chapel in 1674; the walls were decorated with marbles and bronzes in the over-ornate style of that decadent period. At the beginning of the 18th century the German Conrad Rudolphus built the façade of the main entrance. The other two doors lead into the transept; one, that of the Apostles in pure pointed Gothic, dates from the 14th century, the other is that of the Paláu. The additions made to the back of the cathedral detract from its height. The 18th century-restoration rounded the pointed arches, covered the Gothic columns with Corinthian
Corinthian order
The Corinthian order is one of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric and Ionic. When classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order...

 pillars, and redecorated the walls. The dome has no lantern, its plain ceiling being pierced by two large side windows. There are four chapels on either side, besides that at the end and those that open into the choir, the transept, and the presbyterium. It contains many paintings by eminent artists. A silver reredos
Reredos
thumb|300px|right|An altar and reredos from [[St. Josaphat's Roman Catholic Church|St. Josaphat Catholic Church]] in [[Detroit]], [[Michigan]]. This would be called a [[retable]] in many other languages and countries....

, which was behind the altar, was carried away in the war of 1808, and converted into coin to meet the expenses of the campaign. Behind the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
The Blessed Sacrament, or the Body and Blood of Christ, is a devotional name used in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, Old Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, to refer to the Host after it has been consecrated in the sacrament of the Eucharist...

 is a beautiful little Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 chapel built by Calixtus III. Beside the cathedral is the chapel dedicated to the "Virgen de los desamparados".
The Tribunal de las Aguas (Water Court), a court dating from Moorish times, that hears and mediates in matters relating to irrigation water, sits at noon every Thursday outside the Puerta de Apostoles (Gate of the Apostles).

Hospital


In 1409, a hospital was founded and placed under the patronage
Patronage
Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors...

 of Santa María de los Inocentes; to this was attached a confraternity devoted to recovering the bodies of the unfriended dead in the city and within a radius of three miles (5 km) around it. At the end of the 15th century this confraternity separated from the hospital, and continued its work under the name of "Cofradia para el ámparo de los desamparados". King Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV was King of Spain between 1621 and 1665, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, and King of Portugal until 1640...

 and the Duke of Arcos
Duke of Arcos
The dukedom of Arcos was created by Queen Isabella I of Castile, on 20 January of 1493, for Rodrigo Ponce de León, then count of Arcos. The dukedom is among the first 25 titles which reached the rank of Grandee of Spain 1st Class, in 1520...

 suggested the building of the new chapel, and in 1647 the Viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

, Conde de Oropesa, who had been preserved from the bubonic plague
Bubonic plague
Plague is a deadly infectious disease that is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis, named after the French-Swiss bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin. Primarily carried by rodents and spread to humans via fleas, the disease is notorious throughout history, due to the unrivaled scale of death...

, insisted on carrying out their project. The Blessed Virgin was proclaimed patroness of the city under the title of "Virgen de los desamparados" 'Virgin of the abandonees', and Archbishop Pedro de Urbina, on 31 June 1652, laid the cornerstone of the new chapel of this name. The archiepiscopal palace, a grain market in the time of the Moors, is simple in design, with an inside cloister and a handsome chapel. In 1357 the arch which connects it with the cathedral was built. In the council chamber are preserved the portraits of all the prelates of Valencia.

Medieval churches



Among the parish churches those deserving special mention are: Saints John (Baptist and Evangelist), rebuilt in 1368, whose dome, decorated by Palonino, contains some of the best frescoes of Spain; El Templo 'the Temple', the ancient church of the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon , commonly known as the Knights Templar, the Order of the Temple or simply as Templars, were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders...

, which passed into the hands of the Order of Montesa
Order of Montesa
The Order of Montesa is a Christian military order, territorially limited to the Kingdom of Aragon.-Templar background:The Templars had been received with enthusiasm in Aragon from their foundation in 1128...

 and which was rebuilt in the reigns of Ferdinand VI
Ferdinand VI of Spain
Ferdinand VI , called the Learnt, was King of Spain from 9 July 1746 until his death. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy...

 and Charles III
Charles III of Spain
Charles III was the King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788. He was the eldest son of Philip V of Spain and his second wife, the Princess Elisabeth Farnese...

; the former convent of the Dominicans
Dominican Order
The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

, at present the headquarters of the "capital general", the cloister of which has a beautiful Gothic wing and the chapter room, large columns imitating palm trees
Arecaceae
Arecaceae or Palmae , are a family of flowering plants, the only family in the monocot order Arecales. There are roughly 202 currently known genera with around 2600 species, most of which are restricted to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate climates...

; the Colegio del Corpus Christi, which is devoted to the exclusive worship of the Blessed Sacrament, and in which perpetual adoration
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic Church, and in a few Anglican and Lutheran churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful....

 is carried on; the Jesuit
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 college, which was destroyed (1868) by the revolutionary Committee, but rebuilt on the same site; the Colegio de San Juan (also of the Society), the former college of the nobles, now a provincial institute for secondary instruction.

Squares and gardens


The largest square is the Plaça de l'Ajuntament, which contains the town hall (ajuntament), a cinema which shows classic movies (like the John Adolphsen), and many restaurants and bars. This is where the noisy fireworks of the mascletà can be heard every afternoon during the Les Falles
Falles
The Falles is a Valencian traditional celebration in praise of Saint Joseph in Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to both the celebration and the monuments created during the celebration...

.

The Plaça de la Verge contains the Basilica of the Virgin and the Turia fountain, and is a popular spot for locals and tourists. Around the corner is the Plaça de la Reina, with the Cathedral, orange trees, and many bars and restaurants.

The Turia River
Turía (river)
The Turia is a small river, 9 km in length and an altitude of 250 m above the sea, which rises in the town of Taramundi and drains into the Eo River in the town of Puente Nuevo ....

 was diverted in the 1960s, after severe flooding, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and sports fields. The Palau de la Música is adjacent to the Turia gardens and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.

Other gardens in Valencia include the Real, Monforte, and Botanical gardens and Jardines de Real.

Museums




  • Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
    Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
    The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia....

     (City of Arts and Sciences). Designed by the Valencian architect Santiago Calatrava
    Santiago Calatrava
    Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, sculptor and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zürich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zürich, Paris, Valencia, and New York City....

    , it is situated in the former Túria river-bed and comprises the following monuments:
    • Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía, a flamboyant opera and music palace with four halls and a total area of 37000 m² (44,251.6 sq yd).
    • L'Oceanogràfic
      L'Oceanogràfic
      The Oceanographic is a marine park situated in the east of the city of Valencia, Spain, where different marine habitats are represented. It was designed by the architect Felix Candela and the structural engineers Alberto Domingo and Carlos Lazaro...

      , the largest aquarium in Europe, with a variety of ocean beings from different environments: from the Mediterranean
      Mediterranean Sea
      The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Anatolia and Europe, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant...

      , fishes from the ocean and reef inhabitants, shark
      Shark
      Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

      s, mackerel
      Mackerel
      Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They may be found in all tropical and temperate seas. Most live offshore in the oceanic environment but a few, like the Spanish mackerel , enter bays and can be...

       swarms, dolphinarium
      Dolphinarium
      A dolphinarium is an aquarium for dolphins. The dolphins are usually kept in a large pool, though occasionally they may be kept in pens in the open sea, either for research or for public performances...

      , inhabitants of the polar region
      Polar region
      Earth's polar regions are the areas of the globe surrounding the poles also known as frigid zones. The North Pole and South Pole being the centers, these regions are dominated by the polar ice caps, resting respectively on the Arctic Ocean and the continent of Antarctica...

      s (belugas, walrus
      Walrus
      The walrus is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous circumpolar distribution in the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. The walrus is the only living species in the Odobenidae family and Odobenus genus. It is subdivided into three subspecies: the Atlantic...

      es, penguin
      Penguin
      Penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers...

      s), coast inhabitants (sea lion
      Sea Lion
      Sea lions are pinnipeds characterized by external ear-flaps, long fore-flippers, the ability to walk on all fours, and short thick hair. Together with the fur seal, they comprise the family Otariidae, or eared seals. There are six extant and one extinct species in five genera...

      s), etc. L'Oceanogràfic exhibits also smaller animals as coral
      Coral
      Corals are marine animals in class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria typically living in compact colonies of many identical individual "polyps". The group includes the important reef builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.A coral "head" is a colony of...

      , jellyfish
      Jellyfish
      Jellyfish are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and refers to any free-swimming jellyfish stages in the phylum Cnidaria...

      , sea anemone
      Sea anemone
      Sea anemones are a group of water-dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria; they are named after the anemone, a terrestrial flower. Sea anemones are classified in the phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, subclass Zoantharia. Anthozoa often have large polyps that allow for digestion of larger...

      s, etc.
    • El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe
      El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe
      Príncipe Felipe Science Museum is an important visitor attraction in Valencia in Spain. It forms part of the City of Arts and Sciences...

      , an interactive museum of science but resembling the skeleton of a whale. It occupies around 40,000 m² on three flats.
  • Museu de Prehistòria de València (Prehistory Museum of Valencia)
  • Museu Valencià d'Etnologia
    Valencian Museum of Ethnology
    The Valencian Museum of Ethnology was created in 1982. The museum exists to both stimulate research and engage in public education in the fields of ethnology and anthropology; it more specifically intends to make people aware on the cultural diversity of the Region of Valencia, focussing...

     (Valencian Museum of Ethnology)
  • House Museum Blasco Ibáñez
    Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
    Vicente Blasco Ibáñez was a Spanish realist novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director....

  • IVAM – Institut Valencià d'Art Modern – Centre Julio González Julio González Centre – Valencian Institute of Modern Art
  • Museu de Belles Arts San Pío V (Museum of Fine Arts)
  • Museu Faller (Falles
    Falles
    The Falles is a Valencian traditional celebration in praise of Saint Joseph in Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to both the celebration and the monuments created during the celebration...

     Museum)
  • Museu d'Història de València (Museum of History of Valencia)
  • Museu Taurí de València (Bullfighting
    Bullfighting
    Bullfighting is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France and some Latin American countries , in which one or more bulls are baited in a bullring for sport and entertainment...

     Museum
  • MuVIM – Museu Valencià de la Il·lustració i la Modernitat (Valencian Museum of Enlightenment and Modernity)
  • Museo Nacional de Cerámica y de las Artes Suntuarias / Museu Nacional de Ceràmica i Arts Sumptuàries González Martí (National Museum of Pottery and Sumptuary Arts González Martí)

People born in Valencia and Valencia province

  • Pope Alexander VI
    Pope Alexander VI
    Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...

    , Pope from 1492 to 1503.
  • Ibn al-Abbar
    Ibn al-Abbar
    Ibn al-Abbar, in full Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn al-Abbar was a well-known poet, diplomat, theologian and scholar from al-Andalus and perhaps the most famous man of letters produced by the city of Valencia during the Middle Ages.Ibn al-Abbar began his official career as a secretary to the Muslim...

     (1199–1260), poet and diplomat
  • Ausiàs March
    Ausiàs March
    Ausiàs March was a Valencian poet who was born in Gandia towards the end of the 14th century. He was the son of Pere March, nephew of Jaume March II, and cousin of Arnau March....

    , poet.
  • Joan Roís de Corella
    Joan Roís de Corella
    Joan Roís de Corella was a Catalan-language writer from the Kingdom of Valencia.He was born into a minor noble family of Aragonese origin in either Gandia or Valencia and apparently followed a career in the church. He may have been ordained as a priest, but apparently had two children.He is...

    , poet and writer.
  • Pope Callixtus III
    Pope Callixtus III
    Pope Callixtus III , né Alfons de Borja, was Pope from April 8, 1455 to his death in 1458.-Biography:...

    , Pope from 1455 to 1458.
  • Luis de Santángel
    Luis de Santangel
    Luis de Santángel was a baptized Jew and finance minister to Ferdinand II who made the case to Isabella I in favor of Christopher Columbus' voyage in 1492.-Funding:...

    , finance minister.
  • Alfonso III
    Alfonso III of Aragon
    Alfonso III , called the Liberal or the Free , was the King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona from 1285...

    , King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona (as Alfons II).
  • King James II of Aragon
    James II of Aragon
    James II , called the Just was the King of Sicily from 1285 to 1296 and King of Aragon and Valencia and Count of Barcelona from 1291 to 1327. In 1297 he was granted the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica...

    .
  • King Peter III of Aragon
    Peter III of Aragon
    Peter the Great was the King of Aragon of Valencia , and Count of Barcelona from 1276 to his death. He conquered Sicily and became its king in 1282. He was one of the greatest of medieval Aragonese monarchs.-Youth and succession:Peter was the eldest son of James I of Aragon and his second wife...

     (Peter the Great).
  • Josu De Solaun Soto
    Josu De Solaun Soto
    Josu De Solaun is a Spanish classical music pianist and winner of both the First Prize at the I European Union Piano Competition held in Prague, and the First Grand Prize at the XV José Iturbi International Piano Competition. He is the first pianist from Spain to have ever been awarded the coveted...

    , classical music pianist.
  • Guillén de Castro
    Guillén de Castro y Bellvis
    Guillén de Castro y Bellvis was a Spanish dramatist of the Spanish Golden Age.A Valencian by birth, he soon achieved a literary reputation. In 1591 he joined a local literary academy called the Nocturnos...

    , famous Spanish writer of the Spanish Golden Age
    Spanish Golden Age
    The Spanish Golden Age is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. El Siglo de Oro does not imply precise dates and is usually considered to have lasted longer than an actual century...

     (1569–1631).
  • Joanot Martorell
    Joanot Martorell
    Joanot Martorell was a Valencian knight and the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch, which is written in Valencian...

     (1413–1468), knight and writer the author of the novel Tirant lo Blanch.
  • Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
    Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
    Vicente Blasco Ibáñez was a Spanish realist novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director....

    , Spanish realist novelist writing in Spanish, a screenwriter and occasional film director
    Film director
    A film director is a person who directs the actors and film crew in filmmaking. They control a film's artistic and dramatic nathan roach, while guiding the technical crew and actors.-Responsibilities:...

     (1867–1928).
  • Joaquin Sorolla, painter, who excelled in the painting of portraits, landscapes, and monumental works of social and historical themes.
  • Joan Lluís Vives
    Juan Luís Vives
    Juan Luis Vives , also Joan Lluís Vives i March , was a Valencian Spanish scholar and humanist.-Biography:Vives was born in Valencia...

    , a scholar and humanist.
  • José Benlliure y Gil
    José Benlliure y Gil
    José Benlliure y Gil , Spanish painter, was born at Valencia, studied painting under Domingo, and showed from the first such marked talent that he was sent to the Spanish school in Rome....

    , painter.
  • Antonio José Cavanilles
    Antonio José Cavanilles
    Antonio José Cavanilles was a leading Spanish taxonomic botanist of the 18th century. He named many plants, particularly from Oceania, his name is abbreviated as Cav...

    , taxonomic botanist.
  • José Iturbi
    José Iturbi
    José Iturbi was a Spanish conductor, harpsichordist and pianist. He appeared in several Hollywood films of the 1940s, notably playing himself in the 1943 musical, Thousands Cheer and in the 1945 film, Anchors Aweigh...

    , conductor and pianist.
  • Luis García Berlanga, film director and screenwriter.
  • Saint Vincent Ferrer
    Vincent Ferrer
    Saint Vincent Ferrer was a Valencian Dominican missionary and logician.-Early life:Vincent was the fourth child of the Anglo-Scottish nobleman William Stewart Ferrer and his Spanish wife, Constantia Miguel. Legends surround his birth...

    , Dominican missionary and logician.
  • Nino Bravo
    Nino Bravo
    Luis Manuel Ferri Llopis , better known by his stage name Nino Bravo, was a Spanish pop singer.-Early life:...

     (birth name, Luis Manuel Ferri Llopis), popular singer (1944–1973)
  • Santiago Calatrava
    Santiago Calatrava
    Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, sculptor and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zürich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zürich, Paris, Valencia, and New York City....

    , internationally recognized and award-winning architect.
  • Joan Fuster
    Joan Fuster
    Joan Fuster i Ortells was a Valencian writer, who published mostly in Catalan.- Life and works :He was born in the village of Sueca near Valencia, Spain, in a relatively prosperous middle class family. Both his parents were pious Roman Catholics and Carlists. His father was a renowned local...

    , philologist, historian and writer.
  • Josep Maria Bayarri
    Josep Maria Bayarri
    Josep Maria Bayarri i Hurtado was a writer and poet, also known as Xusep Maria Vaiarri.He studied at the San Carlos School of Fine Arts before releasing his first publication, 1915's collection of Valencian poetry, Poetes valencians contemporanis, featuring various poets of his generation...

    , linguist, poet and writer.
  • Joaquin Rodrigo
    Joaquín Rodrigo
    Joaquín Rodrigo Vidre, 1st Marquis of the Gardens of Aranjuez , commonly known as Joaquín Rodrigo, was a composer of classical music and a virtuoso pianist. Despite being nearly blind from an early age, he achieved great success...

    , music composer
    Composer
    A composer is a person who creates music, either by musical notation or oral tradition, for interpretation and performance, or through direct manipulation of sonic material through electronic media...

    .
  • Manuel Palau, music composer.
  • Raimon
    Raimon
    Ramon Pelegero Sanchis, who takes the stage name of Raimon , is a Valencian Spanish singer, one of the most important exponents of the musical style of Nova Cançó and one of the most well-known veteran artists in the Catalan language.-Youth:...

    , composer and singer.
  • Francisco Tárrega
    Francisco Tárrega
    Francisco de Asís Tárrega y Eixea was an influential Spanish composer and guitarist of the Romantic period.-Biography:Tárrega was born on 21 November 1852, in Vila-real, Castelló, Spain...

    , influential Spanish composer and guitarist.
  • Enric Valor i Vives
    Enric Valor i Vives
    Enric Valor i Vives was a Valencian narrator and grammarian who made one of the most important contributions to the re-collection and recovery of Valencian lexicography and its standardization in the Valencian Community, Spain.-Biography:Enric Valor was born in 1911, the son of an affluent family...

    , grammarian and writer.
  • Manuel Sanchis i Guarner
    Manuel Sanchis i Guarner
    Manuel Sanchis i Guarner was a Valencian Spanish philologist, historian and writer.He was an author of a vast work ranging from studies of linguistics, literature, history, ethnography to popular culture, basically centered on the Valencian Community, but also on the rest of the territories of...

    , philologist, historian and writer.
  • María Teresa Fernández de la Vega
    María Teresa Fernández de la Vega
    María Teresa Fernández de la Vega Sanz, LLD is a Spanish Valencian Socialist politician. From 18 April 2004 to 20 October 2010, she was the First Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of the Presidency and Cabinet Spokesperson in the government of Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero...

    , Spanish Socialist Workers' Party politician and the first female First Deputy Prime Minister of Spain.
  • Salvador Larroca
    Salvador Larroca
    Salvador Larroca is a Spanish comic book artist, primarily known for his work on various X-Men titles.-Early life:Salvador Larroca was born and raised in Valencia, Spain.-Career:...

    , comic book artist.
  • Raul Albiol
    Raúl Albiol
    Raúl Albiol Tortajada is a Spanish footballer who plays for Real Madrid and the Spanish national team.His main asset is his versatility, as he can play as a central defender, right back or defensive midfielder.-Valencia:...

    , footballer
  • Vicente Gandia, painter, artist (1935–2009)
  • Victor Claver
    Víctor Claver
    Víctor Claver Arocas is a Spanish professional basketball player. He is 6 ft 9 ½ in tall and weighs 236 lbs . He currently plays with the club Valencia.-Pro career:...

    , basketball star

Economy



Valencia has enjoyed strong economic growth
Economic growth
In economics, economic growth is defined as the increasing capacity of the economy to satisfy the wants of goods and services of the members of society. Economic growth is enabled by increases in productivity, which lowers the inputs for a given amount of output. Lowered costs increase demand...

 over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and the construction industry
Construction
In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking...

. Air Nostrum
Air Nostrum
Air Nostrum, Líneas Aéreas del Mediterráneo, S.A., also known as Iberia Regional, is a regional airline based in Valencia, Spain. Air Nostrum is an independent carrier which operates as a franchisee of Iberia Airlines. Iberia Regional franchise is a regional partner of Iberia and an affiliate...

, a regional airline
Regional airline
Regional airlines are airlines that operate regional aircraft to provide passenger air service to communities without sufficient demand to attract mainline service...

, is headquartered in Valencia.

Port



Valencia’s port
Port of Valencia
The Port of Valencia is the largest Spanish seaport and one of the largest seaports in the Mediterranean Sea basin, with an annual traffic capacity of around 55 million tonnes of cargo and 3,000,000 TEU's....

 is the biggest on the Mediterranean Western coast, the first of Spain in Container Traffic as 2008 and the second of Spain in total traffic, handling 20% of Spain’s exports. The main exports are food and drinks. Other exports include oranges
Orange (fruit)
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus Citrus × sinensis and its fruit. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world....

, furniture, ceramic tiles, fans, textiles and iron products. Valencia’s manufacturing sector focuses on metallurgy, chemicals, textiles, shipbuilding and brewing. Unemployment is lower than the Spanish average. Small and medium sized industries are an important part of the local economy.

Following the announcement that the 32nd America's Cup
America's Cup
The America’s Cup is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two yachts. One yacht, known as the defender, represents the yacht club that currently holds the America's Cup and the second yacht, known as the challenger, represents the yacht club that is challenging...

 would be held in Valencia in 2007, the port underwent radical changes in which the port was divided into two parts, one part remaining unchanged while the other section would be used exclusively for the America's Cup festivities. The two sections are now divided by a wall that goes deep into the water in an attempt to maintain clean water for the America's Cup side.

Tourism


Formerly an industrial city, Valencia saw rapid development that started in the mid-1990s, expanding its cultural and touristic possibilities, which turned it into a vibrant city, restoring old landmarks like the old Towers of the medieval city (Serrano Towers and Quart Towers), monasteries like the San Miguel de los Reyes monastery, which now holds a specialized library, the whole Malvarrosa beach, with the construction of a 4 km (2 mi) long paseo or complete quarters, like the old Carmen Quarter, which has seen extensive renovation.

Another appealing feature of the city is its numerous convention centre
Convention center
A convention center is a large building that is designed to hold a convention, where individuals and groups gather to promote and share common interests. Convention centers typically offer sufficient floor area to accommodate several thousand attendees...

s, like the Valencia Fair (Feria de Valencia), the Conference Palace (Palau de Congressos) and several 5 star hotels.

Valencia's America's Cup competitions took place in June and July 2005 and were key attractions during the summer of 2005. According to official data from the organizing committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to Valencia's port each day during the two-week events.

Demographics


One notable demographic change in Valencia in the last decade has been the growth in the foreign born
Foreign born
Foreign born is a term used to describe a person born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but are also frequently naturalized citizens of a country....

 population which has risen from 1.5% in the year 2000 to 15.1% in 2009, a trend that has also occurred in the two larger cities of Madrid and Barcelona The main countries of origin were Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco and Romania. Between 2007 and 2008 there was a 14% increase in the foreign born population with the largest numeric increases by country being from Bolivia, Romania and Italy.

Climate


Valencia experiences a hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Csa), with Semi-arid climate (BSh) influences.

Its average annual temperature is 17.8 °C (64 °F): 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) during the day and 13.3 °C (55.9 °F) at night. In the coldest month - January - the temperature typically ranges from 10 to 18 °C (50 to 64.4 F) during the day, and 2 to 12 °C (35.6 to 53.6 F) at night, with the average sea temperature being between 13–14 °C (55.4–57.2 F). In the warmest month - August - the temperature during the day typically ranges from 28–34 °C (82.4–93.2 F), above 23 °C (73.4 °F) at night, the average sea temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F).
Sunshine hours are up to 2,660 per year, from 150 (average 4.8 hours of sunshine / day) in December to 314 (average 10 hours of sunshine / day) in July. Average relative humidity
Relative humidity
Relative humidity is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor in a mixture of air and water vapor. It is defined as the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture, given as a percentage of the saturated vapor pressure under those conditions...

 is 60% in April to 68% in August. Average number of days above 21 °C (69.8 °F) is 200, average number of days above 32 °C (89.6 °F) is 11 (1 in June, 4 in July, 4 in August and 2 in September). Generally, summer temperatures similar to those experienced in northern Europe last about 8 months (from April to November). Two months (December and March) are transitional, with temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) sometimes occurring.

Culture


Valencia is known for Las Fallas
Falles
The Falles is a Valencian traditional celebration in praise of Saint Joseph in Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to both the celebration and the monuments created during the celebration...

, which is a famous local festival held in March, for paella
Paella
Paella is a Valencian rice dish that originated in its modern form in the mid-19th century near lake Albufera, a lagoon in Valencia, on the east coast of Spain. Many non-Spaniards view paella as Spain's national dish, but most Spaniards consider it to be a regional Valencian dish...

 valenciana, traditional Valencian ceramics, intricate traditional dress, and the striking new architecture of the City of Arts and Sciences
Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia....

 designed by its own son, architect Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, sculptor and structural engineer whose principal office is in Zürich, Switzerland. Classed now among the elite designers of the world, he has offices in Zürich, Paris, Valencia, and New York City....

.

La Tomatina
Tomatina
La Tomatina is a festival that is held in the Valencian town of Buñol, a town located 30 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea in which participants throw tomatoes and get involved in this tomato fight purely for fun...

, an annual tomato fight, draws crowds to the nearby town of Buñol in August. There are also a number of well preserved Catholic fiestas throughout the year. Holy week
Holy Week
Holy Week in Christianity is the last week of Lent and the week before Easter...

 celebrations in Valencia are considered the most colourful in Spain. Valencia has a metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system, the Valencia Metro.

Valencia is the current location of the Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 European Grand Prix
European Grand Prix
The European Grand Prix is a Formula One event that was reintroduced during the mid-1980s and has been held regularly since 1999. From 2008 it will take place for at least another 7 years...

, first hosting the event on 24 August 2008. The city will host the event until at least 2014.

The University of Valencia (official name Universitat de València) is one of the oldest surviving universities, the oldest university in the Kingdom of Valencia, and is regarded as one of the Spanish leading academic institutions.

Languages


The two official language
Official language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a nation's official language will be the one used in that nation's courts, parliament and administration. However, official status can also be used to give a...

s spoken in the city are Valencian
Valencian
Valencian is the traditional and official name of the Catalan language in the Valencian Community. There are dialectical differences from standard Catalan, and under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua has been established as its regulator...

 and Castilian
Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish is a term related to the Spanish language, but its exact meaning can vary even in that language. In English Castilian Spanish usually refers to the variety of European Spanish spoken in north and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers...

. Due to political and demographic pressure in the past, the predominant language is Castilian, but Valencian is taught and spoken in most of the surrounding metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
The term metropolitan area refers to a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing. A metropolitan area usually encompasses multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships,...

 and province of Valencia. The government emphasizes the usage of the local language by posting signs and announcements of the metro area in Valencian with Castilian translations. It is also notable to mention that Valencian is also used when naming streets. Street signs generally give the Valencian name for the street. However, streets that are older and generally span longer distances are also labeled with Castilian. This results in a situation where streets have two names, although this is generally not too confusing because there is a similarity between Castilian and Valencian spellings and vocabulary.

Food


Valencia is famous for its wonderful gastronomic culture. Paella
Paella
Paella is a Valencian rice dish that originated in its modern form in the mid-19th century near lake Albufera, a lagoon in Valencia, on the east coast of Spain. Many non-Spaniards view paella as Spain's national dish, but most Spaniards consider it to be a regional Valencian dish...

 – a simmered rice dish that includes seafood or meat (chicken and rabbit). Fartons
Fartons
Fartón is a confectionary sweet typically for the town of Alboraya, Spain. Elongate and glazed with sugar it features flour, milk, sugar, oil, eggs and a leavening agent....

, buñuelos
Buñuelos
A Buñuelo alternatively called bimuelo, birmuelo, bermuelo, burmuelo, bonuelo; ) is a fried dough ball. It is a popular snack in Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Spain, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, Greece, Morocco, and is a tradition at Christmas, Ramadan and among Sephardic Jews at...

, Spanish omelette
Tortilla de patatas
The Spanish omelette or Spanish tortilla, also called simply tortilla in English when there is no confusion with the Mexican maize tortilla, is a typically Spanish dish consisting of a thick egg omelette made with potatoes and fried in olive oil....

, rosquilletas and squid
Squid (food)
Squid is a popular food in many parts of the world.In many of the languages around the Mediterranean sea, squid are referred to by a term related to the Italian "calamari" , which in English has become a culinary name for Mediterranean dishes involving squid, especially fried squid...

 (calamares) are some examples of typical Valencian foods.

Football


Valencia is also famous for its football club Valencia C.F.
Valencia CF
Valencia Club de Fútbol is a Spanish football club based in Valencia, Spain. They play in La Liga and are one of the most successful and biggest clubs in Spanish Football and European Football. Valencia have won six La Liga titles, seven Copa del Rey trophies, two Fairs Cups which was the...

, which won the Spanish league
La Liga
The Primera División of the Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional , commonly known as La Liga or, for sponsorship reasons, Liga BBVA since 2008, is the top professional association football division of the Spanish football league system...

 recently in 2002 and 2004 (in which year it also won the UEFA Cup) and 6 times total, and was also a UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

 runner-up
Runner-up
Runner-up is a term used to denote a participant which finishes in second place in any of a variety of competitive endeavors, most notably sporting events and beauty pageants; in the latter instance, the term is applied to more than one of the highest-ranked non-winning contestants, the...

 in 2000 and 2001, it is one of the most famous football clubs
Football team
A football team is the collective name given to a group of players selected together in the various team sports known as football.Such teams could be selected to play in an against an opposing team, to represent a football club, group, state or nation, an All-star team or even selected as a...

 in Spain and Internationally. Their stadium is the Mestalla
Mestalla
Estadio Mestalla is a football stadium in Valencia, Spain. The stadium is the home ground of Valencia Club de Fútbol. With a capacity of 55,000 seats, it ranks as the fifth-largest stadium in Spain...

. Its city rival Levante UD
Levante UD
Levante Unión Deportiva, S.A.D. is a Spanish football club based in Valencia, in the namesake community.Founded in 1909, it plays in La Liga, holding home games at Estadi Ciutat de València.-Early years:...

 also plays in the highest division after gaining promotion two years ago, their stadium is Estadi Ciutat de València. And now from the year 2011 there will be a third team in the city, Huracán Valencia
Huracán CF
Huracán Club de Fútbol is a Spanish football team based in Manises, in the Valencian Community. Founded in 2011, it plays in the Segunda División B, holding home games at Municipal de Manises, with a capacity of 1,000 seats.-History:...

, who play their games in Municipal de Manises and play in the Segunda División B
Segunda División B
Segunda División B is the third level of the Spanish football league system. It is administered by the RFEF. The top two levels are La Liga, also referred to as the Primera División, and the Segunda División. Immediately below Segunda División B is the Tercera Division...

.

Motor Sports


Once a year the European Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 Grand Prix takes place in Valencia Street Circuit. Furthermore, the motorcycle Grand Prix running, the show jumping tournament of the worldwide champions’ tour, an ATP 500 tennis tournament, or the DTM can be visited in Valencia.

Transportation



Public transport
Public transport
Public transport is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicab, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement.Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams...

 is provided by the Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana
Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana or FGV is a public Valencian railway company which operates several metre gauge lines, in the Autonomous Community of Valencia, in Spain....

 (FGV) which operates the Metrovalencia and other rail and bus services. Valencia Airport
Valencia Airport
Valencia Airport in Manises , also known as Manises Airport, is the 8th busiest Spanish airport in terms of passengers and second in the region after Alicante. It is situated west of the city of Valencia. The airport has flight connections to about 15 European countries and 4.9 million passengers...

 is situated 9 km (5.6 mi) west of downtown Valencia. The Estación del Norte or North Station is the main railway terminus in Valencia. A new temporary station, Estación de València-Joaquín Sorolla, has been built on land adjacent to this terminus to accommodate high speed AVE
AVE
Alta Velocidad Española is a service of high-speed rail in Spain operated by Renfe, the Spanish national railway company, at speeds of up to . The name is literally translated from Spanish as "Spanish High Speed", but also a play on the word , meaning "bird".AVE trains run on a network of...

 trains to and from Madrid, Barcelona, Seville and Alicante.

Districts

  • Ciutat Vella: La Seu, La Xerea, El Carmen, El Pilar, El Mercado, San Francisco.
  • Extensió: Russafa, El Pla del Remei, Gran Via.
  • Extramurs: El Botànic, La Roqueta, La Pechina, Arrancapins.

  • Campanar: Campanar, Les Tendetes, El Calvari, Sant Pau.
  • La Saïdia: Marxalenes, Morvedre, Trinitat, Tormos, Sant Antoni.
  • Pla del Real: Exposició, Mestalla, Jaume Roig, Ciutat Universitària
  • Olivereta: Nou Moles, Soternes, Tres Forques, La Fontsanta, La Luz.
  • Patraix: Patraix, Sant Isidre, Vara de Quart, Safranar, Favara.
  • Jesús: La Raiosa, L'Hort de Senabre, The Covered Cross, Saint Marcelino, Real Way.
  • Quatre Carreres: Montolivet, En Corts, Malilla, La Font de Sant Lluís, Na Rovella, La Punta, Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
    Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
    The City of Arts and Sciences is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain. It is the most important modern tourist destination in the city of Valencia....

    .
  • Poblats Marítims: El Grau, El Cabanyal
    Cabanyal
    El Cabanyal, is a neighbourhood from the city of Valencia which is part of the sea village. It is located at the east part of the city, very near from "La Malvarrosa", Valencia's main beach....

    , El Canyameral, La Malva-Rosa, Beteró, Nazaret.
  • Camins del Grau: Aiora, Albors, Creu del Grau, Camí Fondo, Penya-Roja.
  • Algiròs: Illa Perduda, Ciutat Jardí, Amistat, Vega Baixa, la Carrasca.
  • Benimaclet: Benimaclet
    Benimaclet
    Benimaclet is a former village which is now part of the city of Valencia, Spain. The placename is of Arabic origin dating from Moorish times. It is located in the north east of the city and borders the districts of Orriols in the west, Alboraia in the north, the University of Valencia district in...

    , Camí de Vera.
  • Rascanya: Orriols, Torrefiel, Sant Llorenç.
  • Benicalap: Benicalap, Ciutat Fallera.
  • Pobles del Nord: Benifaraig, Poble Nou, Carpesa, Cases de Bàrcena, Mauella, Massarrojos, Borbotó.
  • Pobles de l'Oest: Benimàmet, Beniferri.
  • Pobles del Sud: Forn d'Alcedo, Castellar-l'Oliveral, Pinedo, el Saler, el Palmar, el Perellonet, la Torre,

Twin towns - Sister cities


Valencia is twinned with: Mainz
Mainz
Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

, Germany, since 4 August 1978 Bologna
Bologna
Bologna is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna, in the Po Valley of Northern Italy. The city lies between the Po River and the Apennine Mountains, more specifically, between the Reno River and the Savena River. Bologna is a lively and cosmopolitan Italian college city, with spectacular history,...

 in Italy, since 29 June 1979 Veracruz
Veracruz, Veracruz
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located in the central part of the state. It is located along Federal Highway 140 from the state capital Xalapa, and is the state's most...

, Mexico, since 26 September 1984 Sacramento
Sacramento, California
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the county seat of Sacramento County. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census,...

, United States, since 29 June 1989 Valencia, Venezuela, since 20 March 1982 Odessa
Odessa
Odessa or Odesa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 .The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement,...

, Ukraine, since 13 May 1982 Burgos
Burgos
Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...

, Spain

See also


  • Valencia City Council elections
    Valencia City Council elections
    Valencia city council elections have taken place every four years since 1979 to elect the 33 members of the local government for the city of Valencia, Spain....

  • Archdiocese of Valencia
  • Benimaclet
    Benimaclet
    Benimaclet is a former village which is now part of the city of Valencia, Spain. The placename is of Arabic origin dating from Moorish times. It is located in the north east of the city and borders the districts of Orriols in the west, Alboraia in the north, the University of Valencia district in...

  • El Cid
    El Cid
    Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar , known as El Cid Campeador , was a Castilian nobleman, military leader, and diplomat...

  • Ibn al-Abbar
    Ibn al-Abbar
    Ibn al-Abbar, in full Abu Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn al-Abbar was a well-known poet, diplomat, theologian and scholar from al-Andalus and perhaps the most famous man of letters produced by the city of Valencia during the Middle Ages.Ibn al-Abbar began his official career as a secretary to the Muslim...

  • Spanish wine
    Spanish wine
    Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. Located on the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has over 2.9 million acres planted—making it the most widely planted wine producing nation but it is the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest...

  • Valencia Metro (Spain)
  • Valencia Street Circuit
    Valencia Street Circuit
    The Valencia Street Circuit is a semi-permanent street circuit in Valencia, Spain which will host the Formula One European Grand Prix for seven years. The first race meeting on the circuit was held over the 23/24 August 2008 weekend, with Felipe Massa winning the main event, the European Grand...

  • Llotja de la Seda

External links