Orange (fruit)

Orange (fruit)

Overview
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 Citrus ×
Hybrid name
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name. The ICBN provides the following options in dealing with a hybrid:...

 sinensis
(Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world.

The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo
Pomelo
The pomelo is a citrus fruit native to Southeast Asia. It is usually pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white flesh and very thick albedo . It is the largest citrus fruit, 15–25 cm in diameter, and usually weighing 1–2 kg...

 (Citrus maxima) and mandarin
Mandarin orange
The orange, also known as the ' or mandarine , is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads...

 (Citrus reticulata). It is an evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

 flowering
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

 tree generally growing to 9–10 m in height (although very old speciments have reached 15 m).
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Encyclopedia
An orange—specifically, the sweet orange—is the citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 Citrus ×
Hybrid name
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name. The ICBN provides the following options in dealing with a hybrid:...

 sinensis
(Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck) and its fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

. It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world.

The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo
Pomelo
The pomelo is a citrus fruit native to Southeast Asia. It is usually pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white flesh and very thick albedo . It is the largest citrus fruit, 15–25 cm in diameter, and usually weighing 1–2 kg...

 (Citrus maxima) and mandarin
Mandarin orange
The orange, also known as the ' or mandarine , is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads...

 (Citrus reticulata). It is an evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

 flowering
Flowering plant
The flowering plants , also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. Angiosperms are seed-producing plants like the gymnosperms and can be distinguished from the gymnosperms by a series of synapomorphies...

 tree generally growing to 9–10 m in height (although very old speciments have reached 15 m). The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are arranged alternately, are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 4–10 cm long. The orange fruit is a hesperidium
Hesperidium
A hesperidium is a modified fruit with a tough, leathery rind. The peel contains volatile oil glands in pits. The fleshy interior is composed of separate sections, called carpels, filled with fluid-filled vesicles that are actually specialized hair cells.The outer ovary wall becomes the thick...

, a type of berry
Berry
The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. Grapes are an example. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels with a thin covering and fleshy interiors....

.

Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the delicious sweet fruit, which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole, or processed to extract orange juice
Orange juice
Orange juice is a popular beverage made from oranges. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate...

, and also for the fragrant peel. In 2008, 68.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide, primarily in Brazil and the US states California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 and Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

.

Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

 and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange
Bitter orange
The name "bitter orange", also known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, and marmalade orange, refers to a citrus tree and its fruit. Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, which is used in perfume and as a flavoring...

. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 for the orange tree, with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages.

In a number of languages, it is known as a "Chinese apple", e.g., Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

 sinaasappel ("China's apple") or appelsien, or northern German Apfelsine. In English, however, "Chinese apple" generally refers to the pomegranate
Pomegranate
The pomegranate , Punica granatum, is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing between five and eight meters tall.Native to the area of modern day Iran, the pomegranate has been cultivated in the Caucasus since ancient times. From there it spread to Asian areas such as the Caucasus as...

.

Terminology and scope



All citrus trees are of the single genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

, Citrus, and remain almost entirely interfertile; that is, there is only one "superspecies
Superspecies
A superspecies is a group of at least two more or less distinctive species with approximately parapatric distributions. Not all species complexes, whether cryptices or ring species are superspecies, and vice versa, but many are...

" which includes grapefruit
Grapefruit
The grapefruit , is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Barbados. When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit"; it has also been misidentified with the pomelo or shaddock , one of the parents of this hybrid, the other being sweet orange The...

s, lemon
Lemon
The lemon is both a small evergreen tree native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world – primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind are also used, mainly in cooking and baking...

s, limes
Lime (fruit)
Lime is a term referring to a number of different citrus fruits, both species and hybrids, which are typically round, green to yellow in color, 3–6 cm in diameter, and containing sour and acidic pulp. Limes are a good source of vitamin C. Limes are often used to accent the flavors of foods and...

, oranges, and numerous other types and hybrids.

Nevertheless, names have been given to the various members of the genus. The name "orange" applies primarily to the sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, which accounts for about 70% of world citrus production. This article is limited to Citrus sinensis and its hybrids.

Other citrus species known as oranges include:
  • The bitter orange
    Bitter orange
    The name "bitter orange", also known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, and marmalade orange, refers to a citrus tree and its fruit. Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, which is used in perfume and as a flavoring...

    , Citrus aurantium, also known as Seville orange, sour orange (especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree), bigarade orange, and marmalade orange.
  • The bergamot orange
    Bergamot orange
    Citrus bergamia, the Bergamot orange, is a fragrant fruit the size of an orange, with a yellow colour similar to a lemon. Genetic research into the ancestral origins of extant citrus cultivars recently matched the bergamot as a likely hybrid of Citrus limetta and Citrus aurantium...

    , Citrus bergamia Risso, which is grown primarily in Italy and used primarily for the peel, which flavours Earl Grey
    Earl Grey tea
    Earl Grey tea is a tea blend with a distinctive flavour and aroma derived from the addition of oil extracted from the rind of the bergamot orange, a fragrant citrus fruit....

     tea.
  • The mandarin orange
    Mandarin orange
    The orange, also known as the ' or mandarine , is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads...

     Citrus reticulata, which itself has an enormous number of cultivars (most notably the satsuma
    Satsuma
    Satsuma may refer to:* Satsuma , a citrus fruit* Satsuma , a genus of land snails-In Japan:* Satsuma, Kagoshima, a Japanese town* Satsuma District, Kagoshima, a district in Kagoshima Prefecture...

     (C. unshiu), tangerine
    Tangerine
    __notoc__The tangerine is an orange-colored citrus fruit which is closely related to the Mandarin orange . Taxonomically, it should probably be formally named as a subspecies or variety of Citrus reticulata; further work seems to be required to ascertain its correct scientific name...

     (Citrus × tangerina) and clementine
    Clementine
    A clementine is a variety of mandarin orange , so named in 1902. The exterior is a deep orange colour with a smooth, glossy appearance. Clementines can be separated into seven to fourteen segments. They tend to be very easy to peel, like a tangerine, but are almost always seedless...

     (C. clementina). In some cultivars the mandarin resembles the sweet orange and is difficult to distinguish from it, but it is generally smaller and/or oblate rather than round in shape, easier to peel, and less acid.
  • The trifoliate orange
    Trifoliate orange
    Trifoliate Orange, Poncirus trifoliata , is a member of the family Rutaceae, closely related to Citrus, and sometimes included in that genus, being sufficiently closely related to allow it to be used as a rootstock for Citrus...

     (Poncirus trifoliata) is sometimes included in the genus and classified as an orange (Citrus trifoliata). It is often used as rootstock
    Rootstock
    A rootstock is a plant, and sometimes just the stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, used for grafting a cutting or budding from another plant. The tree part being grafted onto the rootstock is usually called the scion...

     for sweet orange trees, especially as a hybrid with other Citrus cultivars. The trifoliate orange is a thorny shrub or small tree grown primarily for its foliage and flowers, or as a barrier hedge; however, it bears a downy fruit resembling a small citrus fruit, from which marmalade is sometimes made. It is native to northern China and Korea, and is also known as "hardy orange" (because it can withstand sub-freezing temperatures) or "Chinese bitter orange".


Taxonomy of the orange (and citrus in general) presents difficulties; the interfertility of citrus has resulted in numerous hybrids, bud unions, and cultivars; taxonomy is often controversial, confusing, or inconsistent.

The fruit of a member of the genus Citrus is considered a hesperidium
Hesperidium
A hesperidium is a modified fruit with a tough, leathery rind. The peel contains volatile oil glands in pits. The fleshy interior is composed of separate sections, called carpels, filled with fluid-filled vesicles that are actually specialized hair cells.The outer ovary wall becomes the thick...

, a kind of modified berry
Berry
The botanical definition of a berry is a fleshy fruit produced from a single ovary. Grapes are an example. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire ovary wall ripens into an edible pericarp. They may have one or more carpels with a thin covering and fleshy interiors....

, because it has numerous seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

s, is fleshy and soft, derives from a single ovary
Ovary (plants)
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. Specifically, it is the part of the pistil which holds the ovule and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals...

, and is covered by a rind created by a leathery thickening of the ovary wall. An orange seed is called a "pip". The white thread-like material attached to the inside of the peel is called pith
Pith
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants. Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant. In eudicots, pith is located in the center of the stem. In monocots, it extends also into flowering stems and roots...

.

Although the sweet orange will grow to different sizes and colours according to local conditions, it most commonly has ten carpels, or segments, inside. Unripe fruit is green. The pebbled exterior of ripe fruit can be bright orange to yellow-orange, but often retains a considerable amount of the green colour of unripe fruit.

Orange trees are generally grafted; the bottom part of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called the rootstock
Rootstock
A rootstock is a plant, and sometimes just the stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, used for grafting a cutting or budding from another plant. The tree part being grafted onto the rootstock is usually called the scion...

, while the fruit-producing top part of the tree is called budwood (when talking about the process of grafting) or scion
Scion
Scion may refer to:*In kinship, a descendant , a son or daughter*Scion , a detached shoot or twig containing buds from a woody plant which is grafted onto the stock...

 (when talking about the variety of orange).

Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck is broken down into four groups with distinct characteristics: Common oranges, blood oranges, navels, and acidless oranges.

Common oranges


Common oranges (also called "white", "round" or "blond" oranges) make up about two-thirds of all oranges grown and include all oranges not described in one of the other three groups. They are used primarily for juice production.

Valencia


The Valencia
Valencia orange
The Valencia Orange is a sweet orange first hybridized by California pioneer agronomist and land developer William Wolfskill, on his farm in Santa Ana in southern California in the United States. -History:...

 or Murcia
Murcia
-History:It is widely believed that Murcia's name is derived from the Latin words of Myrtea or Murtea, meaning land of Myrtle , although it may also be a derivation of the word Murtia, which would mean Murtius Village...

 orange is one of the sweet oranges used for juice extraction. It is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when the navel oranges are out of season. For this reason, the orange was chosen to be the official mascot
Mascot
The term mascot – defined as a term for any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck – colloquially includes anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, society, military unit, or brand name...

 of the 1982 FIFA World Cup
1982 FIFA World Cup
The 1982 FIFA World Cup, the 12th FIFA World Cup, was held in Spain from 13 June to 11 July. The tournament was won by Italy, after defeating West Germany 3–1 in the final.-Host selection:...

, which was held in Spain. The mascot was called "Naranjito" ("little orange"), and wore the colours of the Spanish football team uniform.
Hart's Tardiff Valencia

Thomas Rivers, an English nurseryman, imported this variety from the Azores Islands and catalogued it in 1865 under the name Excelsior. About 1870, he provided trees to S. B. Parsons, a Long Island nurseryman, who sold trees to E. H. Hart of Federal Point, Florida.

Hamlin


The Hamlin orange was once the most important juice orange in Florida, replacing the inferior Parson Brown variety as the principal early-season juice orange. Today it is the predominant early-season orange grown in Florida and Brazil. It thrives in humid subtropical climates and is for that reason found primarily in Florida and Brazil; cooler, more arid climates (such as California) produce edible fruit, but the size is too small for commercial use.

The cultivar was discovered in 1879 near Glenwood, Florida, in a grove later owned by A.G. Hamlin. It is small, smooth, not highly coloured, seedless and juicy, but the juice is pale. The fruit is of poor to medium quality but the tree is high-yielding and cold-tolerant. The fruit is harvested from October to December and this cultivar is now the leading early orange in Florida and possibly the world's principal variety of very early maturing common sweet orange.

On pineland and hammock soil it is budded on sour orange which gives a high solids content. On sand, it does best on rough lemon rootstock.

Other varieties of common oranges

  • Balta (Pakistan)
  • Belladonna (Italy)
  • Berna – Grown mainly in Spain
  • Biondo Commune ("common blond") is widely grown in the Mediterranean basin, especially in North Africa and Egypt; Greece, where it is called the Koines; Italy, where it is also known as the Liscio; and Spain. It is also called the Beledi and Nostrale. In Italy, this variety ripens in December, earlier than the competing Tarocco.
  • Biondo Riccio (Italy)
  • Cadanera is a seedless orange of excellent flavour grown Algeria, Morocco and Spain, where it is quite popular. It is known by a wide variety of trade names, including Cadena Fina, Cadena sin Jueso, Precoce de Valence (early Valencia), Precoce des Canaries, and Valence san Pepins (seedless Valencia). It was first grown in Spain in 1870. It begins to ripen in November.
  • Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale (Italy)
  • Carvalhal (Portugal)
  • Castellana (Spain
  • Clanor (S. Africa)
  • Don Jao (Portugal)
  • Fukuhara (Japan)
  • Gardner (Florida) This midseason orange ripens around February 1, about the same time as Midsweet. Gardner is about as cold hardy as Sunstar and Midsweet.
  • Hamlin (worldwide)
  • Homosassa (Florida)
  • Jaffa
  • Jincheng – the most popular orange in China.
  • Joppa (S. Africa, Texas)
  • Khettmali (Israel, Lebanon)
  • Kona is a type of Valencia orange introduced to Hawaii in 1792 by Captain George Vancouver, whose ship's surgeon and naturalist, Archibald Menzies, raised the seedlings on board and gave them to several Hawaiian chefs. In Kailua-Kona, some of this original stock still bears fruit. For several decades in the 19th century, these oranges were the leading export from the Kona district on the Big Island of Hawaii.
  • Lue Gim Gong (Florida) An early scion developed by Lue Gim Gong
    Lue Gim Gong
    Lue Gim Gong was a Chinese—American horticulturalist...

    , a Chinese immigrant known as the "Citrus Genius". In 1888, Lue cross-pollinated the "Harts late" Valencia and "Mediterranean Sweet" orange varieties, which produced a fruit both sweet and frost-tolerant. Originally considered a hybrid, the "Lue Gim Gong" orange was later found to be a nucellar seedling of the "Valencia" variety, which is properly called the "'Lue Gim Gong". Distributed by Glen St. Mary Nurseries, the variety was awarded the Silver Wilder Medal by the American Pomological Society in 1911, the first such award for a citrus fruit. As of 2006, the "Lue Gim Gong" variety is still grown in Florida, but is sold under the general name "Valencia".
  • Macetera (Spain) Known for its unique flavour.
  • Maltaise Blonde (North Africa)
  • Maltaise Ovale (South Africa), grown in California as Garey's or California Mediterranean Sweet.
  • Marrs (California, Iran, Texas) relatively low in acid
  • Midsweet (Florida) Midsweet is a newer scion similar to the Hamlin and Pineapple. It ripens later than Pineapple and is cold-hardier. Fruit yield and quality are similar to the Hamlin although the juice is deeper-coloured.
  • Moro Tarocco is popular in Italy and is ovoid in shape, resembling a tangelo, with a distinctive caramel-coloured endocarp. The original mutation occurred in the 17th century in Sicily, creating the striking caramel-toned endocarp. This colour is the result of the pigment called anthocarpium, not usually found in citrus, but is common in other red fruits and flowers.
  • Mosambi (India, Pakistan) So low in acid and insipid-tasting that it might be classified as acidless.
  • Parson Brown (Florida, Mexico, Turkey) 'Parson Brown', once a widely-grown Florida juice orange, has declined in popularity as new varieties with more juice, better yield, and higher acid and/or sugar content have been developed. It originated as a chance seedling at the home of Reverend N. L. Brown near Webster, Florida, in 1865. Its fruit are round, medium large, has a thick, pebbly peel and contains 10–30 seeds. It is still grown because it is the earliest maturing fruit in the United States; it usually matures in early September in the Valley district of Texas, and from early October to January in Florida. Both peel and juice colour are poor, as is juice quality.
  • Pera (Brazil) – popular in the Brazilian citrus-producing industry, yielding 7.5 million tons in 2005.
  • Pera Coroa (Brazil)
  • Pera Natal (Brazil)
  • Pera Rio (Brazil)
  • Pineapple (North and South America, India)
  • Premier (S. Africa)
  • Rhode Red is a mutation of the Valencia orange, but has a more highly coloured flesh, more juice, and less acidity than the Valencia. It also has less Vitamin C. It was discovered in 1955 in a grove near Sebring, Florida, by Paul Rhode.
  • Roble was first shipped from Madrid, Spain, in 1851 by Joseph Roble to his homestead in what is now Roble's Park in Tampa, Florida. It is known for high sugar content.
  • Queen (S. Africa)
  • Salustiana (North Africa)
  • Sathgudi (South India)
  • Seleta, Selecta (Australia, Brazil) High in acid
  • Shamouti (Africa, Asia, Greece) Sweet
  • Shamouti Jaffa (Israel) is a mutation of an earlier and inferior Palestinian variety, dating from around 1850. The tree is considered ornamental due to dense foliage, large leaves, and absence of thorns. It is harvested in Israel from December through May.
  • Shamouti Masry (Egypt) A richer variety than Shamouti
  • Sunstar (Florida) A newer cultivar, the Sunstar ripens mid-season (December–March. The juice colour is darker than the competing Hamlin and it is more resistant to cold and fruit-drop than the competing mid-season Pineapple variety.
  • Tomango (S. Africa)
  • Verna (Algeria, Mexico, Morocco, Spain)
  • Vicieda (Algeria, Morocco, Spain)
  • Westin (Brazil)

Navel oranges


Navel oranges are characterized by the growth of a second fruit at the apex, which protrudes slightly and resembles a human navel. They are primarily used for eating, as the skin is thicker and easier to peel than a common orange, they are less juicy, and a bitterness from limonin
Limonin
Limonin is a limonoid, and a bitter, white, crystalline substance found in citrus and other plants. It is also known as limonoate D-ring-lactone and limonoic acid di-delta-lactone...

 during processing renders them less satisfactory for juice. They are very popular because of their use as an eating orange, their widespread distribution, and their long growing season; in the United States, they are available from November through April, with peak supplies in January, February and March.


According to Dorsett, Shamel, and Popenoe (1917) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture who conducted a study at first hand, a single mutation
Mutation
In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. They can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic...

 in 1810 to 1820 in a Selecta orange tree planted at a monastery
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 near Bahia
Salvador, Bahia
Salvador is the largest city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first...

 in Brazil, probably yielded the navel orange, also known as the Washington, Riverside, or Bahia navel. However, a researcher at the University of California, Riverside, believes that the parent variety was more likely the Portuguese navel (Umbigo) orange described by Risso and Poiteau (1818–22). The mutation causes the orange to develop a second orange at the base of the original fruit, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin
Conjoined twins
Conjoined twins are identical twins whose bodies are joined in utero. A rare phenomenon, the occurrence is estimated to range from 1 in 50,000 births to 1 in 100,000 births, with a somewhat higher incidence in Southwest Asia and Africa. Approximately half are stillborn, and a smaller fraction of...

 in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the larger orange. From the outside, it looks similar to the human navel
Navel
The navel is a scar on the abdomen caused when the umbilical cord is removed from a newborn baby...

, hence its name.

Because the mutation left the fruit seedless, and therefore sterile, the only means available to cultivate more of this new variety is to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus tree. It was introduced into Australia in 1824 and Florida in 1835. Twelve such cuttings of the original tree were transplanted to Riverside, California
Riverside, California
Riverside is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, and the county seat of the eponymous county. Named for its location beside the Santa Ana River, it is the largest city in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area of Southern California, 4th largest inland California...

 in 1870, which eventually led to worldwide popularity. The California Citrus State Historic Park
California Citrus State Historic Park
California Citrus State Historic Park is an open air museum in the state park system of California, USA, interpreting the historic cultural landscape of the citrus industry. The story of the citrus industry's role in the history and development of California is told in the visitor center...

 preserves this history in Riverside, California, as does the Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center
Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center
The Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center, formally known as Rancho Sombra del Roble, is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument located in the West Hills section of Los Angeles, California, USA.-William Orcutt's vacation home:...

 in Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 9,818,605, making it the most populous county in the United States. Los Angeles County alone is more populous than 42 individual U.S. states...

.

Today, navel oranges continue to be produced through cutting and grafting
Grafting
Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are inserted into those of another so that the two sets of vascular tissues may join together. This vascular joining is called inosculation...

. This does not allow for the usual selective breeding
Artificial selection
Artificial selection describes intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits. The term was utilized by Charles Darwin in contrast to natural selection, in which the differential reproduction of organisms with certain traits is attributed to improved survival or reproductive...

 methodologies, and so not only do the navel oranges of today have exactly the same genetic makeup as the original tree, and are therefore clones
Clones
Clones is a small town in western County Monaghan, in the 'border area' of the Republic of Ireland. The area is part of the Border Region, earmarked for economic development by the Irish Government due to its currently below-average economic situation...

, all navel oranges can be considered to be the fruit of that single nearly two-hundred-year-old tree. The case is similar to that of the common yellow seedless banana, the Cavendish
Cavendish banana
The Dwarf Cavendish banana is a banana cultivar originally from Vietnam and China. It became the primary replacement for the Gros Michel banana in the 1950s after crops of the latter were devastated by the Panama disease. The name 'Dwarf Cavendish' is in reference to the height of the pseudostem,...

. On rare occasions, however, further mutations can lead to new varieties.

Cara cara navels



Cara cara oranges (also called "red navel") are a type of navel orange grown primarily in Venezuela, South Africa, and California's San Joaquin Valley. The bright orange exterior of cara cara oranges is similar to other navels, but their interior is a distinctive pinkish red. They are sweet and comparatively low in acid.

It is believed to have developed as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel. It was discovered at the Hacienda de Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela in 1976.

From the major growing regions, South African cara caras are ready for market starting in August, Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits make their seasonal debut in late November.

Other varieties of navels

  • Dream Navel
  • Bahianinha or Bahia
  • Late Navel
  • Washington or California Navel

Blood oranges



Blood oranges, which are very widely grown in Spain and Italy (as "sangüina" or "sanguigna", respectively) are characterized by dark red pigmentation. They are considered, in general, the most delicious juice orange.
Blood oranges are a natural variety of C. sinensis derived from abnormal pigmentation of the fruit that gives its pulp a streaked red colour. The juice produced from such oranges is often dark burgundy, hence reminiscent of blood. Original blood oranges were first discovered and cultivated in the 15th century in Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

; since then, however, their cultivation spread worldwide, and most blood oranges today are hybrids.

The fruit has found a niche as an interesting ingredient variation on traditional Seville marmalade, with its striking red streaks and distinct flavour. The scarlet navel is a variety with the same dual-fruit mutation as the navel orange.

Other varieties of blood oranges

  • Tarocco is a relatively new variety developed in Italy. It begins to ripen in late January.
  • Sanguinelli is cultivated in Sicily and is actually a mutant of the Doble Fina. It was discovered in 1929 at Almenara, in the Castellón province of Spain.
  • Moro (Italy) Originally from Sicily, it is common throughout Italy. The medium-sized fruit has a relatively long harvest, lasting from December through to April.
  • Maltese is small and highly-coloured. It is often used in sorbets and other desserts due to the rich burgundy colour. It is generally thought to have originated in Italy as a mutation (although the Maltese claim origin) and has been cultivated there for centuries. It is also extensively grown in southern Spain and Malta.

Acidless oranges


Acidless oranges are an early-season fruit with very low levels of acid. They are also called "sweet" oranges in the US, with similar names in other countries: douce in France, sucrena in Spain, dolce (or maltese) in Italy, meski in North Africa and the Near East (where their peculiar rather bland taste is especially popular), lokkum in Turkey, succari in Egypt, and lima in Brazil.

The lack of acid, which protects orange juice against spoilage in other groups, renders them generally unfit for processing, due to spoilage, so that they are primarily eaten rather than juiced. They remain profitable in areas of local consumption, but rapid spoilage renders them unsuitable for export to major population centers of Europe, Asia, or the United States.

History of cultivation


The sweet orange does not occur in the wild. It is believed to have been first cultivated in southern China, northeastern India, or perhaps southeastern Asia (formerly Indochina
Indochina
The Indochinese peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. It lies roughly southwest of China, and east of India. The name has its origins in the French, Indochine, as a combination of the names of "China" and "India", and was adopted when French colonizers in Vietnam began expanding their territory...

).

The Persian orange, grown widely in southern Europe
Southern Europe
The term Southern Europe, at its most general definition, is used to mean "all countries in the south of Europe". However, the concept, at different times, has had different meanings, providing additional political, linguistic and cultural context to the definition in addition to the typical...

 after its introduction to Italy in the 11th century, was bitter. It was used primarily for medicinal purposes.

Italian traders might have introduced it to the Mediterranean area after 1450. Portuguese navigators have also been credited with bringing orange trees to the Mediterranean region around 1500. After introduction of the sweet orange, it was quickly adopted as an edible fruit; it was so highly regarded that wealthy persons grew oranges in private conservatories, called orangeries. Certainly by 1646 it was well-known in Europe.

In some South East Indo-European languages the orange was named after Portugal, which was formerly the main source of imports of sweet oranges. Examples are Bulgarian
Bulgarian language
Bulgarian is an Indo-European language, a member of the Slavic linguistic group.Bulgarian, along with the closely related Macedonian language, demonstrates several linguistic characteristics that set it apart from all other Slavic languages such as the elimination of case declension, the...

 portokal портокал, Greek
Modern Greek
Modern Greek refers to the varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era. The beginning of the "modern" period of the language is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic...

 portokali πορτοκάλι, Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 portaghal پرتقال, Albanian
Albanian language
Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece...

 portokall, Macedonian
Macedonian language
Macedonian is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by approximately 2–3 million people principally in the region of Macedonia but also in the Macedonian diaspora...

 portokal портокал, and Romanian
Romanian language
Romanian Romanian Romanian (or Daco-Romanian; obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; self-designation: română, limba română ("the Romanian language") or românește (lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people, primarily in Romania and Moldova...

 portocală. In Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

 the word portogallo to refer to the orange fruit is dialectal. It means literally "Portugal". Similar words are in common use in most Italian dialects
Italian dialects
Dialects of Italian are regional varieties of the Italian language, more commonly and more accurately referred to as Regional Italian. The dialects have features, most notably phonological and lexical, percolating from the underlying substrate languages...

 across the whole country. Related names can also be found in other languages: Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

 portakal, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 al-burtuqal البرتقال, Amharic birtukan, and Georgian
Georgian language
Georgian is the native language of the Georgians and the official language of Georgia, a country in the Caucasus.Georgian is the primary language of about 4 million people in Georgia itself, and of another 500,000 abroad...

 p'ort'oxali ფორთოხალი.

Portuguese
Portuguese Empire
The Portuguese Empire , also known as the Portuguese Overseas Empire or the Portuguese Colonial Empire , was the first global empire in history...

, Spanish
Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire comprised territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, in America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. It originated during the Age of Exploration and was therefore one of the first global empires. At the time of Habsburgs, Spain reached the peak of its world power....

, Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

, and Dutch
Dutch Empire
The Dutch Empire consisted of the overseas territories controlled by the Dutch Republic and later, the modern Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century. The Dutch followed Portugal and Spain in establishing an overseas colonial empire, but based on military conquest of already-existing...

 sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy
Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans. The chemical name for vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin name of scurvy, scorbutus, which also provides the adjective scorbutic...

. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus took the seeds of oranges, lemons and citron
Citron
Not to be confused with Cintron.The citron is a fragrant citrus fruit, botanically classified as Citrus medica by both the Swingle and Tanaka systems...

s to Haiti
Haiti
Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti , is a Caribbean country. It occupies the western, smaller portion of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Ayiti was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island...

 and the Caribbean. They were introduced in Florida (along with lemons) in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León
Juan Ponce de León was a Spanish explorer. He became the first Governor of Puerto Rico by appointment of the Spanish crown. He led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named...

, to California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 by the Franciscans in the 18th century, and were introduced to Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

 in 1792.

Spaniards undoubtedly introduced the sweet orange into South America and Mexico in the mid-1500s, and probably the French took it to Louisiana. It was from New Orleans that seeds were obtained and distributed in Florida about 1872 and many orange groves were established by grafting the sweet orange onto sour orange rootstocks. Arizona received the orange tree with the founding of missions between 1707 and 1710. The orange was brought to San Diego, California, by those who built the first mission there in 1769. An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around 1804. A commercial orchard was established in 1841 on a site that is now a part of Los Angeles. In 1781, a surgeon and naturalist on the ship Discovery collected orange seeds in South Africa, grew seedlings on board and presented them to tribal chiefs in the Hawaiian Islands on arrival in 1792. In time, the orange became commonly grown throughout Hawaii, but was virtually abandoned after the arrival of the Mediterranean fruit fly, and the fruit is now imported from the United States mainland.

Nutritional value


Acidity


Like all citrus fruits, the orange is acidic: pH levels have been reported by reliable sources as low as 2.9 and as high as 4.0

Florida

  • Whole oranges: The USDA has established the following grades for Florida oranges, which primarily affects oranges sold as fruit: U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1 Bright, U.S. No. 1, U.S. No. 1 Golden, U.S. No. 1 Bronze, U.S. No. 1 Russet, U.S. No. 2 Bright, U.S. No. 2, U.S. No. 2 Russet, and U.S. No. 3. The general characteristics graded are colour (both hue and uniformity), firmness, maturity, varietal characteristics, texture, and shape.


Grade numbers are determined by the amount of unsightly blemishes to the skin and firmness of the fruit (which do not affect consumer safety). The USDA separates blemishes into three categories:
    • General blemishes, including: ammoniation, buckskin, caked melanose, creasing, decay, scab, split navels, sprayburn, undeveloped segments, unhealed segments and wormy fruit.
    • Injuries to fruit, including: bruises, green spots, oil spots, rough, wide, or protruding navels, scale, scars, skin breakdown, and thorn scratches.
    • Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness or mushy condition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, and sunburn.

The terms Bright, Golden, Bronze and Russet apply solely to discolouration. Fancy, the highest grade, requires the highest grade of both colour and blemishes.
  • Fruit for juice: The USDA uses a separate grading system for oranges used for juice (where appearance and texture is irrelevant). There are only two grades, U.S. Grade AA Juice and U.S. Grade A Juice. (Note that this is a grade given to the oranges prior to processing.) Juice grades are determined by three factors: (1) the juiciness of the orange; (2) the amount of solids in the juice (at least 10% solids being required for the AA grade); and (3) the proportion of anhydric citric acid
    Citric acid
    Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

     to fruit solids.

Orange peel


Although not as juicy or delicious as the inside of an orange, the peel is edible, and has been consumed particularly in environments where there is scarcity of resources and where maximum nutritional value must be derived and minimal waste generated (for example, on a submarine
Submarine
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...

.) The peel of an orange has increased vitamin C and fiber, however one should only consume the peels of organically grown and processed oranges, where chemical pesticides or herbicides would not have been used on the peel.

Orange peel contains citral
Citral
Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either of, or a mixture of, a pair of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O. The two compounds are double bond isomers. The E-isomer is known as geranial or citral A...

, an aldehyde
Aldehyde
An aldehyde is an organic compound containing a formyl group. This functional group, with the structure R-CHO, consists of a carbonyl center bonded to hydrogen and an R group....

 that antagonizes the action of vitamin A
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a vitamin that is needed by the retina of the eye in the form of a specific metabolite, the light-absorbing molecule retinal, that is necessary for both low-light and color vision...

. Therefore, anyone eating orange peels should make certain that their dietary intake of Vitamin A is sufficient.

Production


Two areas dominate orange growth and especially production of orange juice
Orange juice
Orange juice is a popular beverage made from oranges. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate...

. The southeast coast of Brazil, surrounding São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

, produces more oranges than the next three countries combined. As almost 99% of the fruit from this region is processed for export, it is the overwhelming giant in worldwide orange juice production.

Mid-south Florida produces about half as many oranges as Brazil; however, the bulk of its orange juice is sold domestically. The Indian River
Indian River
-In Canada:*Indian River , several rivers*Indian River , a tributary of the Yukon River*Indian River , enters Indian Arm to the north of North Vancouver-In the United States:*Indian River *Indian River...

 area of Florida is known for the high quality of its juice, which is often sold fresh in the US. Because of the low yield and high quality of Indian River oranges, their juice is often blended with juice from other regions.

Production of orange juice between these two makes up roughly 85% of the world market. Brazil exports 99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed in the US.

Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen concentrated orange juice to reduce the volume used, so that storage and transportation costs are lower.

Top orange producers
(million tons)
2005 2008
17.8 18.5
8.4 9.1
3.1 4.4
4.1 4.3
2.4 3.7
2.3 3.3
2.0 2.6
2.2 2.5
2.2 2.3
1.8 2.1
1.6 1.7
World Total 61.7 68.5
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)

Oranges grown for commercial production are grown in groves and are produced throughout the world. Brazil is by far the greatest producing area, followed by Florida, which accounts for 80% of the United States' crop.

Brazil


Brazil is the largest orange-producing nation in the world, and production is located primarily in the state of São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil, the largest city in the southern hemisphere and South America, and the world's seventh largest city by population. The metropolis is anchor to the São Paulo metropolitan area, ranked as the second-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas and among...

, which accounts for approximately 80% of Brazil's production and 53% of total global FCOJ (frozen concentrated orange juice) production (in the region of Campinas
Campinas
Campinas is a city and municipality located in the coastal interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. is the administrative center of the meso-region of the same name, with 3,783,597 inhabitants as of the 2010 Census, consisting of 49 cities....

, São Carlos
São Carlos
São Carlos is a city of 221,950 inhabitants in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is located at , at about 231 km from the city of São Paulo.-History:...

, São José do Rio Preto
São José do Rio Preto
São José do Rio Preto is a city and municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Is located at the north/northwest portion of the state, 450 km from the city of São Paulo and 700 km from Brasília....

 and Barretos
Barretos
Barretos is a municipality in the northern part of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The city has approximately 112,101 inhabitants and an area of 1565.6 km². Barretos belongs to the Mesoregion of Ribeirão Preto.-History:...

, and the western part of the state of Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais is one of the 26 states of Brazil, of which it is the second most populous, the third richest, and the fourth largest in area. Minas Gerais is the Brazilian state with the largest number of Presidents of Brazil, the current one, Dilma Rousseff, being one of them. The capital is the...

). In Brazil, the four major orange varieties of orange used for processing orange juice are the Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal and Valencia.

Propagation


Propagation of orange trees is deceptively difficult, because hardy edible oranges are not generally grown from seed. Cultivars that produce good quality fruit are highly susceptible to root diseases. Grafted trees also begin bearing fruit many years earlier than trees reproduced by seed.

Other benefits of grafting include more accurate reproduction of good fruit traits than plants derived from seed, and the opportunity to alter tree size, productivity, and other traits through rootstock influence, while maintaining identical fruit characteristics.

Almost all orange trees are propagated in two stages. First, rootstock
Rootstock
A rootstock is a plant, and sometimes just the stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, used for grafting a cutting or budding from another plant. The tree part being grafted onto the rootstock is usually called the scion...

 is grown from seed. When the seedling is well-established, the leafy top is cut off, and budwood from an existing tree is grafted onto the rootstock. It is the budwood that determines the variety of orange that is grown.

Sour orange, resistant to phytophthora parasitica (root rot or "foot rot"), was the preferred rootstock in Florida, especially in low hammock and flatwoods soils with high water table, until the discovery of the virus disease tristeza
Citrus tristeza virus
Citrus tristeza virus is a viral species of the Closterovirus genus that causes the most economically damaging disease to its namesake plant genus, Citrus. The disease has led to the death of millions of Citrus trees all over the world and has rendered other millions useless for production...

 in Florida orange groves in 1952. Some were grown on sweet orange or rough lemon rootstock, but these are poor choices. Sweet orange is highly vulnerable to numerous pests and diseases, especially root rot, and lemon rootstock results in oranges that lack juice and sugar. Lemon rootstock, however, produces rapid growth and early fruiting. Sour rootstock is itself susceptible to a number of diseases, most notably the tristeza virus, which is carried by nematodes.

As citrus-growing stretched southward into high pineland, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) rootstock gained favour and was found to induce more rapid and vigorous growth and earlier bearing, counterbalancing its sensitivity to cold and tendency toward foot rot. Rough lemon became the dominant rootstock in Florida until it was found to be extremely susceptible to blight and was abandoned. Sour orange has been reinstated in recent years because tristeza has been more or less dormant since the 1940s and sour orange is now the prevailing stock for 50% of the orange trees in the state.

Principle rootstocks – United States


Today, five types of rootstock predominate in (comparatively) cool climates where there is chance of cold, or especially freezing, weather (notably Florida and Southern Europe):
  • Sour rootstock ("standard sour orange") is still used and is the only one of the five that is actually an orange; it is highly drought resistant and generally vigorous.
  • Poncirus trifoliata. Poncirus trifoliata is a close relative of the Citrus genus, and is actually known as the "trifoliate orange" and "Chinese bitter orange"; in fact, it is sometimes classified as Citrus trifoliata. It is grown as an ornamental flowering shrub and is extremely cold tolerant compared to true citrus.
It makes excellent rootstock under certain conditions; it is especially resistant to cold, tristeza virus and phytophthora parasitica (root rot), and grows well in heavy clay/loam soil. It is the slowest growing of the rootstocks, however, and has poor resistance to heat and drought. It is primarily used in China, Japan, and parts of California with heavy soils.
  • Swingle citrumelo. On April 1, 1974, the U.S. Department of Agriculture released to citrus nurserymen and growers the 'Swingle' citrumelo citrus rootstock. This rootstock selection was hybridized by Walter Tennyson Swingle at Eustis, Florida, in 1907, from Citrus paradisi Macf. 'Duncan' grapefruit X Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Swingle citrumelo is tolerant of tristeza virus and Phytophthora parasitica (root rot) and moderately tolerant of salt and freezing.
  • Citrange
    Citrange
    The citrange is a hybrid of the sweet orange and the trifoliate orange. The purpose of this cross was to attempt to create a cold-hardy citrus tree with delicious fruit. However, citranges are generally bitter....

     (Troyer citrange and Carrizo citrange). Citranges are hybrids of the Washington navel orange and Poncirus trifoliata. The original crosses were made in the early 1900s by the United States Department of Agriculture with the intention of producing cold tolerant scion varieties. They were later identified as being suitable for use as rootstocks.
Commercial use of these rootstocks began in Australia in the 1960s. They have become very successful orange rootstock; the Troyer variety is generally found in California, while the Carrizo variety is used in Florida. The benefits are phytophthora (root rot) tolerance, nematode tolerance, tristeza virus tolerance, good cold tolerance, and reasonable vigor. They are also highly polyembryonic, so growers get multiple plants from a single seed. Citrange, however, does not do well in clay, calcareous
Calcareous
Calcareous is an adjective meaning mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate, in other words, containing lime or being chalky. The term is used in a wide variety of scientific disciplines.-In zoology:...

, or high pH soil, and is sensitive to salinity (all except clay being characteristic of coastal areas). (It also is not usable as rootstock for mandarin scions, as it "overgrows" them, i.e. the rootstock will produce branches of its own in competition with the grafted budwood.)
  • 'Cleopatra' mandarin. Cleopatra mandarin originated in India and was introduced into Florida from Jamaica in the mid 19th century. Cleopatra mandarin has been widely distributed and trialled as a rootstock throughout the world. It is used primarily in Florida, Spain and Australia for shallow alkaline soils, due to its rare ability to tolerate alkalinity and salinity often present in such otherwise ideal environments as south Florida. Dade County, Florida, for example, has 85% calcareous soil, as is typical of land previously under water. In most other respects, it is an inferior rootstock.

Other rootstock varieties – United States

  • African shaddock X trifoliate hybrid
  • Benton citrange trifoliate hybrid
  • Borneo Rangpur lime
  • Bitters C-22 citrange ('X Citroncirus sp.' Rutaceae) Bitters C-22 is not related to the bitter orange, but was named in honor of William P. Bitters. It was hybridized at the USDA US Date and Citrus Station in Indio, California, and developed further by the University of California, Riverside. It is used primarily as rootstock for navel oranges in California; however, a recent report suggested its usefulness in Texas to replace sour orange due to its tolerance of calcareous soil conditions.
  • Carpenter C-54 citrange
  • C-32 citrange trifoliate hybrid
  • C-35 citrange trifoliate hybrid
  • Calamondin kumquat hybrid
  • Carrizo citrange trifoliate hybrid
  • Citradia trifoliate hybrid
  • Citremon trifoliate hybrid (CRC 1449)
  • Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid C190
  • Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid (CRC 1452)
  • Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid (CRC 4475)
  • Citrus macrophylla (Alemow)
  • Citrus volkameriana Volkamer lemon
  • Cleopatra mandarin
  • Cleopatra mandarin X trifoliate hybrid X639
  • Flying dragon trifoliate (CRC 3330A)
  • Fraser Seville sour orange
  • Furr C-57 citrange
  • Goutoucheng sour orange (CRC 3929)
  • Goutoucheng sour orange (CRC 4004)
  • Grapefruit seedling (CRC 343)
  • Pomeroy trifoliate
  • Rangpur lime X Troyer citrange hybrid
  • Rich 16-6 trifoliate
  • Rubidoux trifoliate
  • Rusk citrange trifoliate orange
  • Satsuma X trifoliate hybrid
  • Schaub rough lemon
  • Small-leaf trifoliate
  • Smooth Flat Seville sour orange
  • Sun Chu Sha Kat mandarin
  • US 119 (Grapefruit X trifoliate) X Sweet Orange hybrid
  • Vangassay rough lemon
  • Yuma Ponderosa lemon pummelo hybrid
  • Zhuluan sour orange hybrid (CRC 3930)
  • Zhuluan sour orange hybrid (CRC 3981)

Climate



Oranges can be grown outdoors in warmer climates, and indoors in cooler climates. Like most citrus plants, oranges will not do well unless kept between 15.5 °C – 29 °C (60 °F – 85 °F). Orange trees grown from the seeds of a store-bought fruit may not produce fruit, and any fruit that is produced may be different than the parent fruit, due to modern techniques of hybridization. To grow the seed of a store-bought orange, one must not let the seed dry out (an approach used for many citrus plants). One method is to put the seeds between the halves of a damp paper towel until they germinate, and then plant them. Many just plant them straight into the soil, making sure to water them regularly. Oranges require a huge amount of water and the citrus industry in the Middle East is a contributing factor to the desiccation
Desiccation
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a moderately sealed container.-Science:...

 of the region.

Oranges are sensitive to frost
Frost
Frost is the solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. It is formed when solid surfaces are cooled to below the dew point of the adjacent air as well as below the freezing point of water. Frost crystals' size differ depending on time and water vapour available. Frost is also usually...

, and a common treatment to prevent frost damage when sub-freezing temperatures are expected is to spray the trees with water, since as long as unfrozen water is turning to ice on the trees' branches, the ice that has formed stays just at the freezing point, giving protection even if air temperatures have dropped far lower.

Another strategy to prevent freezing of orange crops and trees is burning fuel oil in smudge pot
Smudge pot
A smudge pot is an oil-burning device used to prevent frost on fruit trees. Condensation of water vapor on particulate soot prevents condensation on plants and raises air temperature very slightly. Usually a smudge pot has a large round base with a chimney coming out of the middle of the base...

s (also known as a choofa or orchard heater). These burn with a great deal of particulate emission. Condensation of water vapor on particulate soot prevents condensation on plants and raises air temperature very slightly. Smudge pots were first developed after a disastrous freeze in Southern California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 in January 1913 wiped out a whole crop.

Harvesting


Canopy-shaking mechanical harvesters are increasingly being used in Florida to harvest process oranges. Current canopy shaker machines use a series of six- to seven-foot long tines to shake the tree canopy at a relatively constant shaking stroke and frequency.

Cottony cushion scale


The first major pest attacking orange trees in the United States was the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi), which was imported from Australia to California in 1868. Within 20 years, it had wiped out the citrus industry around Los Angeles and seriously limited orange growth throughout California.

In 1888, the USDA sent Alfred Koebele to Australia to study the scale in its native habitat. He brought back with him specimens of an Australian ladybird beetle, Novius cardinalis, and within a decade the scale had been controlled or eradicated throughout the state.

Citrus greening disease


As of 2010, the most serious threat to orange production is Citrus Greening Disease (Liberobacter asiaticum), an insect-vectored bacterium. Although common in parts of Asia, it was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in 2004 in Brazil, by Fundecitrus Brasil. (The insects that carry it were discovered in Florida in 1998.) Since then, it has attacked nearly 100% of the trees in Florida. As of 2009, 87% of the trees in Brazil's primary orange growing areas (São Paulo and Minas Gerais) showed symptoms of greening, an increase of 50% over 2008.

The disease is characterized by blotchy mottle on the leaves, and misshapen, poorly coloured, off-tasting fruit. In areas where the disease is endemic, citrus trees may live for only 5–8 years and never bear usable fruit.

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive insect pest of citrus in Brazil and Florida. It is an efficient vector of the bacterium, Liberobacter asiaticum, causal organism of citrus greening disease or "Huanglongbing" (HLB). The pest was first detected in Florida in 1998 and now occurs on all citrus throughout the state. HLB was first detected in Florida 2005 and is spreading rapidly. Generalist predators such as the ladybeetles, Curinus coeruleus, Olla v-nigrum, Harmonia axyridis, and Cycloneda sanguinea, and lacewings such as Ceraeochrysa spp. and Chrysoperla spp. make significant contribution to the mortality of ACP, resulting in 80–100% reduction in psyllid populations.

In contrast, parasitism by Tamarixia radiata, a species-specific parasitoid of ACP, is variable and generally low in southwest Florida, averaging less than 12% during May through September and 50% in November 2006.

Foliar applications of insecticides reduced psyllid populations for a short time at best, but also suppressed the populations of predatory ladybeetles. Soil application of aldicarb provided limited control of ACP while
drenches of imidacloprid to young trees were effective for two months or more.

Management of citrus greening disease is difficult and requires an integrated approach including use of clean stock, elimination of inoculum via voluntary and regulatory means, use of pesticides to control psyllid vectors in the citrus crop, and biological control of psyllid vectors in non-crop reservoirs. Nowhere in the world where citrus greening disease occurs is it under completely successful management.

Greasy spot


Greasy spot, caused by Mycosphaerella citri, produces leaf spots and defoliation of orange trees reducing tree vigor and yield. The fungus produces air-borne ascospores from pseudothecia in decomposing leaf litter on the grove floor.

Storage and processing


After harvesting, oranges have a shelf life of about one week at room temperature and one month refrigerated. In either case, they are optimally stored loosely in an open or perforated plastic bag. Oranges produce odours that are absorbed by meat, eggs and dairy products.

Degreening


Oranges cannot be artificially ripened and must be mature when harvested. (In Texas, Arizona, California, and Florida, laws forbid harvesting immature fruit for human consumption.) Ripe oranges, however, often have some green or yellow-green colour in the skin. Ethylene
Ethylene
Ethylene is a gaseous organic compound with the formula . It is the simplest alkene . Because it contains a carbon-carbon double bond, ethylene is classified as an unsaturated hydrocarbon. Ethylene is widely used in industry and is also a plant hormone...

 gas is used to turn green skin orange. The process is called "degreening", or sometimes, "gassing", "sweating" or "curing". Its purpose is to remove the green colour from otherwise mature fruit.

Degreening is used primarily in the early fall when night temperatures have not been low enough for the peel to develop its characteristic mature colour. Late oranges such as Valencia sometimes regreen during the spring growth flush and may also be degreened.

Recommended degreening conditions include 82 to 85 °F temperature, 92 to 95% relative humidity and 1 to 5 ppm ethylene. Air circulation within the degreening room should produce about one change per minute. In addition, outside air ventilation should be adequate to maintain carbon dioxide level below one percent, which normally requires about one complete change of air per hour.

Degreening time varies with the amount of green colour, size of fruit and some cultural practices, e.g., excessive nitrogen fertilization promoting vigorous growth and oil-emulsion sprays after mid-July. Maximum degreening times in the US are 48 to 60 hours for oranges, but the degreening period should be as short as possible.

Etymology


The word orange is derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

  "orange tree." The Sanskrit word is in turn borrowed from the Dravidian root for 'fragrant'. In Tamil, a bitter orange is known as நரண்டம் 'Narandam', a sweet orange is called நகருகம் 'nagarugam' and நாரி 'naari' means fragrance. In Telugu the orange is called నరిఙ‌ 'naringa'. The Sanskrit word was borrowed into European languages through Persian
Persian language
Persian is an Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and countries which historically came under Persian influence...

 نارنگ nārang, Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

 նարինջ nārinj, Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

 نارنج nāranj, (Spanish-language naranja and Portuguese laranja), Late Latin
Late Latin
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity. The English dictionary definition of Late Latin dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD extending in Spain to the 7th. This somewhat ambiguously defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin...

 arangia, Italian arancia or arancio, and Old French
Old French
Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories that span roughly the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from the 9th century to the 14th century...

 orenge, in chronological order. The first appearance in English dates from the 14th century. The forms starting with n- are older, and this initial n- may have been mistaken as part of the indefinite article, in languages with articles ending with an -n sound (e.g., in French une norenge may have been taken as une orenge), a process called juncture loss. The name of the colour is derived from the fruit, first appearing in this sense in 1542.

Some languages have different words for the bitter and the sweet orange, such as Modern Greek nerantzi and portokali, respectively. Or in Persian, the words are narang and porteghal (Portugal), in the same order. The reason is that the sweet orange was brought from China or India to Europe during the 15th century by the Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

. Some languages refer to it as Applesin (or variants), which means "Apple from China", while in Puerto Rico "jugo de china" refers to orange juice, The bitter orange was introduced through Persia.

Several Slavic languages use the variants pomaranč (Slovak), pomeranč (Czech), pomaranča (Slovene), pomarańcza (Polish) from old French pomme d'orenge.

Juice and other products



Oranges are widely grown in warm climates worldwide, and the flavours of oranges vary from sweet to sour. The fruit is commonly peeled and eaten fresh, or squeezed for its juice. It has a thick bitter rind
Peel (fruit)
Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which could be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp, but the term exocarp does also include the hard cases of nuts, which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but...

 that is usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by removal of water, using pressure
Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.- Definition :...

 and heat. It is also used in certain recipes as flavouring or a garnish. The outer-most layer of the rind can be grated or thinly veneered with a tool called a zester, to produce orange zest
Zest (ingredient)
Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime. Zest is used to add flavor to foods....

. Zest is popular in cooking because it contains the oil glands and has a strong flavour similar to the fleshy inner part of the orange. The white part of the rind, called the pericarp or albedo and including the pith
Pith
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants. Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant. In eudicots, pith is located in the center of the stem. In monocots, it extends also into flowering stems and roots...

, is a source of pectin
Pectin
Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot...

 and has nearly the same amount of vitamin C as the flesh.

Products made from oranges

  • Orange juice
    Orange juice
    Orange juice is a popular beverage made from oranges. It is made by extraction from the fresh fruit, by desiccation and subsequent reconstitution of dried juice, or by concentration of the juice and the subsequent addition of water to the concentrate...

     is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade
    New York Board of Trade
    The New York Board of Trade , renamed ICE Futures US in September of 2007, is a wholly owned subsidiary of IntercontinentalExchange . It is a physical commodity futures exchange located in New York City. It originated in 1870 as the New York Cotton Exchange...

    . Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the USA. It is made by squeezing the fruit on a special instrument called a "juicer" or a "squeezer." The juice is collected in a small tray underneath. This is mainly done in the home, and in industry is done on a much larger scale.
  • Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice.
  • Sweet orange oil
    Orange oil
    Orange oil is an essential oil produced by cells inside the rind of an orange fruit. In contrast to most essential oils, it is extracted as a by-product of orange juice production by centrifugation, producing a cold-pressed oil...

     is a by-product
    By-product
    A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction. It is not the primary product or service being produced.A by-product can be useful and marketable or it can be considered waste....

     of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used as a flavouring of food and drink and for its fragrance in perfume
    Perfume
    Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and/or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent"...

     and aromatherapy
    Aromatherapy
    Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a person's mind, mood, cognitive function or health....

    . Sweet orange oil consists of about 90% d-limonene
    Limonene
    Limonene is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common D isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges. It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewably-based solvent in cleaning products....

    , a solvent
    Solvent
    A solvent is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature...

     used in various household chemicals, such as to condition wood
    Wood
    Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

    en furniture
    Furniture
    Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping in beds, to hold objects at a convenient height for work using horizontal surfaces above the ground, or to store things...

    , and along with other citrus oils in grease
    Petroleum
    Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

     removal and as a hand-cleansing agent. It is an efficient cleaning agent which is promoted as being environmentally friendly and preferable to petroleum
    Petroleum
    Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...

     distillates.


However, d-Limonene
Limonene
Limonene is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common D isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges. It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewably-based solvent in cleaning products....

 is classified from slightly toxic to humans to very toxic to marine life in different countries. Its smell is considered more pleasant by some than those of other cleaning agents.

Although once thought to cause renal cancer
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, the very small tubes in the kidney that filter the blood and remove waste products. RCC is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, responsible for approximately 80% of cases...

 in rats, limonene now is known as a chemopreventive
Chemoprophylaxis
Chemoprophylaxis refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection. Antibiotics, for example, may be administered to patients with disorders of immune system function to prevent bacterial infections...

 agent with potential value as a dietary anti-cancer tool in humans. There is no evidence for carcinogen
Carcinogen
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes...

icity or genotoxic
Genotoxic
In genetics, genotoxicity describes a deleterious action on a cell's genetic material affecting its integrity. This includes both certain chemical compounds and certain types of radiation....

ity in humans. The Carcinogenic Potency Project estimates that it causes human cancer on a level roughly equivalent to that caused by exposure to caffeic acid
Caffeic acid
Caffeic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a naturally occurring organic compound. This yellow solid consists of both phenolic and acrylic functional groups...

 via dietary coffee intake. The IARC
International Agency for Research on Cancer
The International Agency for Research on Cancer is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations....

 classifies d-limonene under Class 3: not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.
  • The orange blossom
    Blossom
    In botany, blossom is a term given to the flowers of stone fruit trees and of some other plants with a similar appearance that flower profusely for a period of time in spring...

    , which is the state flower of Florida, is highly fragrant and traditionally associated with good fortune. It has long been popular in bridal bouquets and head wreaths for weddings.
  • Orange blossom essence is an important component in the making of perfume
    Perfume
    Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and/or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent"...

    .
  • The petal
    Petal
    Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They often are brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. Together, all of the petals of a flower are called a corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of special leaves called sepals lying...

    s of orange blossom can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater
    Rosewater
    Rose water or rose syrup is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. Rose water, itself a by-product of the production of rose oil for use in perfume, is used to flavour food, as a component in some cosmetic and medical preparations, and for religious purposes throughout Europe and...

    ; orange blossom water (aka orange flower water) is a common part of both French and Middle Eastern cuisines, most often as an ingredient in desserts and baked goods.
  • In the United States, orange flower water is used to make orange blossom scone
    Scone
    -Food:* Scone , a type of quick-bread, typically eaten with jam and cream.* Drop-scone, British word for a small pancake-People:*Barbara Young, Baroness Young of Old Scone , Labour member of the House of Lords...

    s and marshmallow
    Marshmallow
    The marshmallow is a confection that, in its modern form, typically consists of sugar, corn syrup, water, gelatin that has been softened in hot water, dextrose, vanilla flavourings, and sometimes colouring, whipped to a spongy consistency. Some marshmallow recipes call for egg whites...

    s.
  • The orange blossom gives its touristic nickname to the Costa del Azahar
    Costa del Azahar
    Costa del Azahar or Costa dels Tarongers is the name for the coast of the province of Castellón in Spain, from Vinaròs to Almenara.Towns on the Costa del Azahar include Peníscola, Benicàssim and Castelló de la Plana....

    ("Orange-blossom coast"), the Castellon
    Castellón (province)
    Castellón or Castelló is a province in the northern part of the Valencian Community, Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Valencia to the south, Teruel to the west, Tarragona to the north, and by the Mediterranean Sea to the east. The western side of the province is in the mountainous...

     seaboard.
  • In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and then used to make tea.
  • Orange blossom honey
    Honey
    Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees is the one most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by beekeepers and consumed by humans...

    , or actually citrus honey, is produced by putting beehives in the citrus groves during bloom, which also pollinates
    Pollination
    Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction. Pollen grains transport the male gametes to where the female gamete are contained within the carpel; in gymnosperms the pollen is directly applied to the ovule itself...

     seeded citrus varieties. Orange blossom honey is highly prized, and tastes much like orange.
  • Marmalade
    Marmalade
    Marmalade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits, boiled with sugar and water. The benchmark citrus fruit for marmalade production in Britain is the "Seville orange" from Spain, Citrus aurantium var...

    , a conserve usually made with Seville oranges. All parts of the orange are used to make marmalade: the pith and pips are separated, and typically placed in a muslin bag where they are boiled in the juice (and sliced peel) to extract their pectin, aiding the setting process.
  • Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug
    Slug
    Slug is a common name that is normally applied to any gastropod mollusc that lacks a shell, has a very reduced shell, or has a small internal shell...

     repellent.
  • Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea.
  • Orange wood sticks (also spelt orangewood) are used as cuticle pushers in manicures and pedicures, and as spudger
    Spudger
    A spudger is a wiring tool used for poking or adjusting small wires or components, generally in the electronics and telecommunications industries....

    s for manipulating slender electronic wires
  • Orange wood is a flavouring wood in meat grilling much as mesquite, oak, pecan and hickory are used.

See also

  • Cam sành
    Cam sành
    The cam sành , Citrus reticulata × maxima) is a cultivar of citrus fruit similar to an orange, originating in Vietnam...

     (Green Orange or terra-cotta orange)
  • Mandarin orange
    Mandarin orange
    The orange, also known as the ' or mandarine , is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads...

  • Orange production in Brazil
    Orange production in Brazil
    Orange production in Brazil is responsible for a 59% share of the world market .In 2004 Brazil produced 1.4 million tonnes of oranges annually, compared to 709,000 tonnes in the United States. Brazil is the world's largest producer of Orange juice....


External links