Sound change

Sound change

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{{Sound change}} {{IPA_notice}} '''Sound change''' includes any processes of [[language change]] that affect pronunciation ('''phonetic change''') or sound system structures ('''[[phonological change]]'''). Sound change can consist of the replacement of one [[phoneme|speech sound]] (or, more generally, one [[distinctive feature|phonetic feature]]) by another, the complete loss of the affected sound, or even the introduction of a new sound in a place where there previously was none. Sound changes can be '''environmentally conditioned''', meaning that the change in question only occurs in a defined sound environment, whereas in other environments the same speech sound is not affected by the change. The term "sound change" refers to [[diachronic]] changes, or changes in a language's underlying sound system over time; "[[alternation (linguistics)|alternation]]", on the other hand, refers to surface changes that happen [[Synchronic analysis|synchronic]]ally and do not change the language's underlying system (for example, the ''-s'' in the [[English plural]] can be pronounced differently depending on what sound it follows; this is a form of alternation, rather than sound change). Sound change is usually assumed to be ''regular'', which means that it is expected to apply mechanically whenever its structural conditions are met, irrespective of any non-phonological factors (such as the meaning of the words affected). On the other hand, sound changes can sometimes be ''sporadic'', affecting only one particular word or a few words, without any seeming regularity. For regular sound changes, the somewhat [[hyperbole|hyperbolic]] term '''sound law''' is sometimes still used. This term was introduced by the [[Neogrammarian]] school in the 19th century and is commonly applied to some historically important sound changes, such as [[Grimm's law]]. While real-world sound changes often admit exceptions (for a variety of known reasons, and sometimes without one), the expectation of their regularity or "exceptionlessness" is of great [[heuristic]] value, since it allows historical linguists to define the notion of '''regular correspondence''' (see: [[comparative method]]). Each sound change is limited in space and time. This means it functions within a specified area (within certain [[dialect]]s) and during a specified period of time. For these (and other) reasons, some scholars avoid using the term "sound law" — reasoning that a ''law'' should not have spatial and temporal limitations — replacing the term with '''phonetic rule'''. Sound change which affects the phonological system, in the number or distribution of its [[phoneme]]s, is covered more fully at '''[[phonological change]]'''. ==The formal notation of sound change== {{seealso|Phonological rule}} ::A > B :is to be read, "A changes into (or is replaced by, is reflected as, etc.) B". It goes without saying that A belongs to an older stage of the language in question, whereas B belongs to a more recent stage. The symbol ">" can be reversed: ::B < A :"(more recent) B derives from (older) A" For example, ::POc. *t > Rot. f := "Proto-[[Oceanic languages|Oceanic]] *t is reflected as [f] in the [[Rotuman language]]." The two sides of such an equation indicate start and end points only, and do not imply that there are not additional intermediate stages. The example above is actually a compressed account of a ''sequence'' of changes: *t changed first into a dental fricative {{IPA|[θ]}} (like the initial consonant of English ''thin''), which has yielded present-day [f]. This can be represented more fully as: :: t > {{IPA|θ}} > f Unless a change operates unconditionally (in all environments), the context in which it applies must be specified: ::A > B /X__Y := "A changes into B when preceded by X and followed by Y." For example: ::It. b > v /[vowel]__[vowel], which can be simplified to just ::It. b > v /V__V (where the capital V stands for any given vowel) := "Intervocalic [b] (inherited from Latin) became [v] in Italian" (e.g. in ''caballum, dēbet'' > ''cavallo'' 'horse', ''deve'' 'owe (3sg.)' A second example: ::PIr. [-cont][-voi] > [+cont]/__[C][+cont] := "Preconsonantal voiceless non-continuants (i.e. voiceless stops) changed into corresponding voiceless continuants ([[Fricative consonant|fricatives]]) in Proto-[[Iranian languages|Iranian]]" when immediately followed by a continuant consonant (i.e. resonants and fricatives). Examples: Proto-Indo-Iranian *''pra'' 'forth' > Avestan ''fra'', *''trayas'' "three" (masc.nom.pl.)> Av. ''θrayō'', *''čatwāras'' "four" (masc.nom.pl.) > Av. ''čaθwārō'', *''pśaws'' "of a cow" (nom. *''paśu'') > Av. ''fšāoš'' (nom. ''pasu''). Note that the fricativization does not occur before stops, so *''sapta'' "seven" > Av. ''hapta''. (However, in the variety of Iranian underlying Old Persian, fricativization occurs in all clusters, thus Old Persian ''hafta'' "seven".) If the symbol "#" stands for a word boundary (initial or final), the notation "/__#" = "word-finally", and "/#__" = "word-initially". For example: ::Gk. [stop] > ∅ /__# := "Word-final stops were deleted in Greek." Which can be simplified to ::Gk. P > ∅ / __# : where capital P stands for any plosive. ==Principles of sound change== The following statements are used as heuristics in formulating sound changes as understood within the [[Neogrammarian]] model. However, for modern linguistics, they are not taken as inviolable rules; rather, they are seen as guidelines. '''Sound change has no memory:''' Sound change does not discriminate between the sources of a sound. If a previous sound change causes X,Y > Y (features X and Y merge as Y), a new one cannot affect only original X's. '''Sound change ignores grammar:''' A sound change can only have phonological constraints, like X > Z in unstressed syllables. It cannot, for example, only affect adjectives. The only exception to this is that a sound change may or may not recognise word boundaries, even when they are not indicated by [[Prosody (linguistics)|prosodic]] clues. Also, sound changes may be regularized in inflectional paradigms (such as verbal inflection), in which case the change is no longer [[phonology|phonological]] but [[morphology (linguistics)|morphological]] in nature. '''Sound change is exceptionless:''' If a sound change can happen at a place, it will. It affects all sounds that meet the criteria for change. Apparent exceptions are possible, due to [[analogy]] and other [[regularization (linguistics)|regularization]] processes, or another sound change, or an unrecognized conditioning factor. This is the traditional view, expressed by the Neogrammarians. In past decades it has been shown that sound change doesn't necessarily affect all the words it in principle could. However, when a sound change is initiated, it usually expands to the whole [[lexicon]], given enough time. See also [[lexical diffusion]]. '''Sound change is unstoppable:''' ''All'' languages vary from place to place and time to time, and neither writing nor media prevent this change. ==Terms for changes in pronunciation== There are a number of traditional terms in historical linguistics designating types of phonetic change, either by nature or result. A number of such types are often (or usually) sporadic, that is, more or less accidents that happen to a specific form. Others affect a whole phonological system. Sound changes that affect a whole phonological system are also classified according to how they affect the overall shape of the system; see ''[[phonological change]]''. * [[Assimilation (linguistics)|Assimilation]]: One sound becomes more like another, or (much more rarely) two sounds become more like each other. Example: in Latin the prefix *''kom''- becomes ''con''- before an apical stop ({{IPA|[t d]}}) or {{IPA|[n]}}: ''contactus'' "touched", ''condere'' "to found, establish", ''connūbium'' "legal marriage". The great majority of assimilations take place between contiguous segments, and the great majority involve the earlier one becoming more like the later one (e.g. in ''connūbium,'' ''m- + n'' becomes ''-nn-'' rather than ''-mm-''). Assimilation between contiguous segments are ([[diachronics|diachronically]] speaking) exceptionless sound laws rather than sporadic, isolated changes. * [[Dissimilation]]: The opposite of assimilation. One sound becomes less like another, or (much more rarely) two sounds become less like each other. Examples: Latin ''quīnque'' "five" > Proto-Romance *''kinkʷe'' (whence French ''cinq'', Italian ''cinque'', etc.); Proto-Romance *''omine'' "man" > Spanish ''hombre''. The great majority of dissimilations involve segments that are '''not''' contiguous, but as with assimilations, the great majority involve an earlier sound changing with reference to a later one. Dissimilation is usually a sporadic phenomenon, but [[Grassmann's Law]] (Sanskrit and Greek) is an example of a systematic dissimilation. If the change of a sequence of fricatives such that one becomes a stop is dissimilation, then such changes as Proto-Germanic *χs to {{IPA|/ks/}} (spelled ''x'') in English would count as a regular sound law: PGmc. *''seχs'' "six" > Old English ''siex'', etc. * [[Metathesis (linguistics)|Metathesis]]: Two sounds switch places. Example: Old English ''th'''ri'''dda'' became Middle English ''th'''ir'''d''; English ''comfortable'' pronounced as if spelled ''comfterble''. Most such changes are sporadic, but occasionally a sound law is involved, as Romance *''tl'' > Spanish ''ld'', thus *''kapitlu, *titlu'' "chapter (of a cathedral)", "[[tittle]]" > Spanish ''cabildo, tilde''. Metathesis can take place between non-contiguous segments, as Greek ''amélgō'' "I milk" > Modern Greek ''armégō.'' * [[Tone (linguistics)#Origin|Tonogenesis]]: Syllables come to have distinctive [[pitch contour]]s. * [[Sandhi]]: conditioned changes that take place at word-boundaries but not elsewhere. It can be [[morpheme]]-specific, as in the loss of the vowel in the enclitic forms of English ''is'' {{IPA|/ɪz/}}, with subsequent change of {{IPA|/z/}} to {{IPA|/s/}} adjacent to a voiceless consonant ''Frank's not here'' {{IPA|/ˈfrænksnɒtˈhɪər/}}. Or a small class of elements, such as the assimilation of the {{IPA|/ð/}} of English ''the, this'' and ''that'' to a preceding {{IPA|/n/}} (including the {{IPA|/n/}} of ''and'' when the {{IPA|/d/}} is elided) or {{IPA|/l/}}: ''all the'' often {{IPA|/ɔːllə/}}, ''in the'' often {{IPA|/ɪnnə/}}, and so on. As in these examples, such features are rarely indicated in standard orthography. A striking exception is Sanskrit, whose orthography reflects a wide variety of such features: thus ''tat'' "that" is written ''tat, tac, taj, tad, tan'' depending on what the first sound of the next word is. These are all assimilations, but medial sequences do not assimilate the same way. * [[Haplology]]: The loss of a syllable when an adjacent syllable is similar or (rarely) identical. Example: Old English ''Englaland'' became Modern English ''England'', or the common pronunciation of ''probably'' as {{IPA|[ˈprɒbli]}}. This change usually affects commonly used words. The word haplology itself is sometimes jokingly pronounced "haplogy". * [[Elision]], [[Apheresis (linguistics)|aphaeresis]], [[Syncope (phonetics)|syncope]], and [[apocope]]: All losses of sounds. Elision is the loss of unstressed sounds, aphaeresis the loss of initial sounds, syncope is the loss of medial sounds, and apocope is the loss of final sounds. Elision examples: in the southeastern United States, unstressed schwas tend to drop, so "American" is not {{IPA|/əˈmɛɹəkən/}} but {{IPA|/ˈmɚkən/}}. Standard English is ''possum'' < ''opossum''. Syncope examples: the Old French word for "state" is ''estat,'' but then the ''s'' dropped, yielding, ''état.'' Similarly the loss of {{IPA|/t/}} in English ''soften, hasten, castle'', etc. Apocope examples: the final -''e'' {{IPA|[ə]}} in Middle English words was pronounced, but is only retained in spelling as [[silent E]]. In English {{IPA|/b/}} and {{IPA|/ɡ/}} were apocopated in final position after nasals: ''lamb, long'' {{IPA|/læm/ /loŋ/}}. * [[Epenthesis]] (also known as anaptyxis): The introduction of a sound between two adjacent sounds. Examples: Latin ''humilis'' > English ''humble''; in Slavic an -l- intrudes between a labial and a following yod, as *''zemya'' "land" > Russ. ''zemlya'' (земля). Most commonly epenthesis is in the nature of a "transitional" consonant, but vowels may be epenthetic: non-standard English ''film'' in two syllables, ''athlete'' in three. Epenthesis can be regular, as when the Indo-European "tool" suffix *-''tlom'' everywhere becomes Latin -''culum'' (so ''speculum'' "mirror" < *''speḱtlom'', ''pōculum'' "drinking cup" < *''poH3-tlom''. Some scholars reserve the term ''epenthesis'' for "intrusive" vowels and use ''excrescence'' for intrusive consonants. * [[Prothesis (linguistics)|Prothesis]]: The addition of a sound at the beginning of a word. Example: word-initial {{IPA|/s/}} + stop clusters in Latin gained a preceding {{IPA|/e/}} in Old Spanish and Old French; hence, the Spanish word for "state" is ''estado,'' deriving from Latin ''status.'' * [[Nasalization]]: Vowels followed by nasal consonants are usually nasalized. If the nasal consonant is lost but the vowel retains its nasalized pronunciation, nasalization has become [[phoneme|phonemic]], that is, distinctive. Example: French "-in" words used to be pronounced {{IPA|[in]}}, but are now pronounced {{IPA|[ɛ̃]}}, and the {{IPA|[n]}} is no longer pronounced (except in cases of [[liaison (French)|liaison]]). ==Examples of specific historical sound changes== * [[I-mutation|Umlaut]] * [[Grimm's law]] * [[Grassmann's law]] * [[Verner's law]] * [[Great Vowel Shift]] (English) * [[High German consonant shift]] * [[Anglo-Frisian nasal spirant law]] * [[Kluge's Law]] * [[Dahl's Law]]