Sacramento, California

Sacramento, California

Overview
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Sacramento County
Sacramento County, California
Sacramento County is a county in the U.S. state of California. Its county seat is Sacramento, which is also the state capital. As of 2010 the county had a population of 1,418,788....

. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
The Sacramento River is an important watercourse of Northern and Central California in the United States. The largest river in California, it rises on the eastern slopes of the Klamath Mountains, and after a journey south of over , empties into Suisun Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay, and...

 and the American River
American River
The American River is a California watercourse noted as the site of Sutter's Mill, northwest of Placerville, California, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush...

 in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley
California Central Valley
California's Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of California. It is home to California's most productive agricultural efforts. The valley stretches approximately from northwest to southeast inland and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast. Its northern half is...

. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census, it is the sixth-largest city in California. Sacramento is the core cultural and economic center of the Sacramento metropolitan area
Sacramento metropolitan area
The Greater Sacramento area, or officially Sacramento–Arden Arcade–Yuba City, CA-NV Combined Statistical Area, is a combined statistical area consisting of several metropolitan statistical areas and seven counties in Northern California and one in Western Nevada. These are Sacramento, Yolo, El...

 which includes seven counties; with an estimated population of 2,527,123.
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Encyclopedia
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 of California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Sacramento County
Sacramento County, California
Sacramento County is a county in the U.S. state of California. Its county seat is Sacramento, which is also the state capital. As of 2010 the county had a population of 1,418,788....

. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
The Sacramento River is an important watercourse of Northern and Central California in the United States. The largest river in California, it rises on the eastern slopes of the Klamath Mountains, and after a journey south of over , empties into Suisun Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay, and...

 and the American River
American River
The American River is a California watercourse noted as the site of Sutter's Mill, northwest of Placerville, California, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush...

 in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley
California Central Valley
California's Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of California. It is home to California's most productive agricultural efforts. The valley stretches approximately from northwest to southeast inland and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast. Its northern half is...

. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census, it is the sixth-largest city in California. Sacramento is the core cultural and economic center of the Sacramento metropolitan area
Sacramento metropolitan area
The Greater Sacramento area, or officially Sacramento–Arden Arcade–Yuba City, CA-NV Combined Statistical Area, is a combined statistical area consisting of several metropolitan statistical areas and seven counties in Northern California and one in Western Nevada. These are Sacramento, Yolo, El...

 which includes seven counties; with an estimated population of 2,527,123. Its metropolitan area is the fourth largest in California after the Greater Los Angeles Area
Greater Los Angeles Area
The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, is a term used for the Combined Statistical Area sprawled over five counties in the southern part of California, namely Los Angeles County, Orange County, San Bernardino County, Riverside County and Ventura County...

, San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

, and the San Diego metropolitan area
San Diego metropolitan area
The San Diego Metropolitan Area, also known as Greater San Diego and officially the San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos Metropolitan Statistical Area, is a metropolitan area on the United States Pacific Coast. The U.S. Census of the Bureau defines the San Diego metropolitan area as encompassing all of...

 as well as the 22nd largest in the United States
Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas
thumb|An enlargeable map of the 942 [[Core Based Statistical Area]]s of the [[United States]]. The 367 [[Metropolitan Statistical Area]]s are shown in red....

. A city attaining global status
Global city
A global city is a city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system...

, Sacramento was cited by Time magazine as America's most ethnically and racially integrated city in 2002.

Sacramento became a city through the efforts of the Swiss immigrant John Sutter, Sr.
John Sutter
Johann Augus Sutter was a Swiss pioneer of California known for his association with the California Gold Rush by the discovery of gold by James W. Marshall and the mill making team at Sutter's Mill, and for establishing Sutter's Fort in the area that would eventually become Sacramento, the...

, his son John Sutter, Jr.
John Augustus Sutter, Jr.
John Augustus Sutter, Jr. was the founder and planner of the City of Sacramento, California, a U.S. Consul in Acapulco, Mexico and the son of Swiss born American pioneer, John Augustus Sutter, Sr.-Biography:...

, and James W. Marshall
James W. Marshall
James Wilson Marshall was an American carpenter and sawmill operator, whose discovery of gold in the American River in California on January 24, 1848 set the stage for the California Gold Rush. The mill property was owned by Johan Sutter who employed Marshall to build his mill...

. Sacramento grew quickly thanks to the protection of Sutter's Fort
Sutter's Fort
Sutter's Fort State Historic Park is a state-protected park in Sacramento, California which includes Sutter's Fort and the California State Indian Museum. Begun in 1839 and originally called "New Helvetia" by its builder, John Sutter, the fort was a 19th century agricultural and trade colony in...

, which was established by Sutter in 1839. During the California Gold Rush
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The first to hear confirmed information of the gold rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands , and Latin America, who were the first to start flocking to...

, Sacramento was a major distribution point, a commercial and agricultural center, and a terminus for wagon train
Wagon train
A wagon train is a group of wagons traveling together. In the American West, individuals traveling across the plains in covered wagons banded together for mutual assistance, as is reflected in numerous films and television programs about the region, such as Audie Murphy's Tumbleweed and Ward Bond...

s, stagecoach
Stagecoach
A stagecoach is a type of covered wagon for passengers and goods, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, usually four-in-hand. Widely used before the introduction of railway transport, it made regular trips between stages or stations, which were places of rest provided for stagecoach travelers...

es, riverboat
Riverboat
A riverboat is a ship built boat designed for inland navigation on lakes, rivers, and artificial waterways. They are generally equipped and outfitted as work boats in one of the carrying trades, for freight or people transport, including luxury units constructed for entertainment enterprises, such...

s, the telegraph
Telegraphy
Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages via some form of signalling technology. Telegraphy requires messages to be converted to a code which is known to both sender and receiver...

, the Pony Express
Pony Express
The Pony Express was a fast mail service crossing the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the High Sierra from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, from April 3, 1860 to October 1861...

, and the First Transcontinental Railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built in the United States of America between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad that connected its statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska The First...

.

California State University, Sacramento
California State University, Sacramento
California State University, Sacramento, popularly known as Sacramento State, is a public university located in the city of Sacramento, California. It is part of the California State University system...

, more commonly known as Sacramento State or Sac State, is the major local university. It is one of the twenty-three campuses of the California State University
California State University
The California State University is a public university system in the state of California. It is one of three public higher education systems in the state, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College system. It is incorporated as The Trustees of the...

 system. In addition, the University of California, Davis
University of California, Davis
The University of California, Davis is a public teaching and research university established in 1905 and located in Davis, California, USA. Spanning over , the campus is the largest within the University of California system and third largest by enrollment...

, is located in nearby Davis, 15 miles (24.1 km) west of the capital. The UC Davis Medical Center
UC Davis Medical Center
UC Davis Medical Center is a private, major academic health center located in Sacramento, California.The 645-bed hospital serves as key referral center for a area that includes 33 counties and 6 million residents...

, a world-renowned research hospital, is located in the city of Sacramento.

Indigenous culture


Nisenan
Nisenan
The Nisenan, also known as the Southern Maidu and Valley Maidu, are one of many native groups of the Central Valley. The name Nisenan, derives from the ablative plural pronoun nisena·n, "from among us"...

 (Southern Maidu) and Plains Miwok Indians have lived in the area for perhaps thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would eventually make Sacramento their home, these Indians left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorn
Acorn
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives . It usually contains a single seed , enclosed in a tough, leathery shell, and borne in a cup-shaped cupule. Acorns vary from 1–6 cm long and 0.8–4 cm broad...

s taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, and by fruits, bulbs, seeds, and roots gathered throughout the year.

In either 1799 or 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga
Gabriel Moraga
Gabriel Moraga a Spanish army officer, son of José Joaquín Moraga a member of Juan Bautista de Anza's expeditions to California, was one of the first Europeans to explore California's Great Central Valley . He led expeditions of Spanish soldiers into the valley, becoming its first explorer...

 discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote, "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths. The air was like champagne, and (the Spaniards) drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. “Es como el sagrado sacramento! (This is like the Holy Sacrament.)” The valley and the river were then christened after "the Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament
Sacrament
A sacrament is a sacred rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the existence and meaning of such rites.-General definitions and terms:...

 of the Eucharist
Eucharist
The Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Sacrament of the Altar, the Blessed Sacrament, the Lord's Supper, and other names, is a Christian sacrament or ordinance...

.

From pioneers to gold fever


The pioneer John Sutter
John Sutter
Johann Augus Sutter was a Swiss pioneer of California known for his association with the California Gold Rush by the discovery of gold by James W. Marshall and the mill making team at Sutter's Mill, and for establishing Sutter's Fort in the area that would eventually become Sacramento, the...

 arrived from Liestal
Liestal
Liestal is the capital of the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland, south of Basel.It is an industrial town with a cobbled-street Old Town.-History:...

, Switzerland in the Sacramento area with other settlers in August 1839 and established the trading colony and stockade Sutter's Fort (as New Helvetia
New Helvetia
New Helvetia , meaning "New Switzerland", was a Mexican-era California settlement.The Swiss pioneer John Sutter arrived in Mexican Alta California with other settlers in August 1839. He established the agricultural and trading colony and stockade Sutter's Fort as "Nueva Helvetia" in 1840...

 or "New Switzerland") in 1840. Sutter received 2,000 fruit trees in 1847, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall
James W. Marshall
James Wilson Marshall was an American carpenter and sawmill operator, whose discovery of gold in the American River in California on January 24, 1848 set the stage for the California Gold Rush. The mill property was owned by Johan Sutter who employed Marshall to build his mill...

 at Sutter's Mill in Coloma
Coloma, California
Coloma is a census-designated place in El Dorado County, California, USA. It is approximately northeast of Sacramento, California. Coloma is most noted for being the site where James W. Marshall first discovered gold in California, at Sutter's Mill on January 24, 1848, leading to the California...

 (located some 50 miles (80.5 km), northeast of the fort), a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population. John Sutter, Jr.
John Augustus Sutter, Jr.
John Augustus Sutter, Jr. was the founder and planner of the City of Sacramento, California, a U.S. Consul in Acapulco, Mexico and the son of Swiss born American pioneer, John Augustus Sutter, Sr.-Biography:...

 then planned the City of Sacramento, in association with Sam Brannan against the wishes of his father, naming the city after the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
The Sacramento River is an important watercourse of Northern and Central California in the United States. The largest river in California, it rises on the eastern slopes of the Klamath Mountains, and after a journey south of over , empties into Suisun Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay, and...

 for commercial reasons. He hired topographical engineer William H. Warner to draft the official layout of the city, which included 26 lettered and 31 numbered streets (today's grid from C St. to Broadway and from Front St. to Alhambra Blvd.). However, a bitterness grew between the elder Sutter and his son
John Augustus Sutter, Jr.
John Augustus Sutter, Jr. was the founder and planner of the City of Sacramento, California, a U.S. Consul in Acapulco, Mexico and the son of Swiss born American pioneer, John Augustus Sutter, Sr.-Biography:...

 as Sacramento became an overnight commercial success (Sutter's Fort, Mill and the town of Sutterville, all founded by John Sutter, Sr.
John Sutter
Johann Augus Sutter was a Swiss pioneer of California known for his association with the California Gold Rush by the discovery of gold by James W. Marshall and the mill making team at Sutter's Mill, and for establishing Sutter's Fort in the area that would eventually become Sacramento, the...

, would eventually fail).
The part of Sacramento originally laid out by William Warner is situated just east and south of where the American River
American River
The American River is a California watercourse noted as the site of Sutter's Mill, northwest of Placerville, California, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush...

 meets the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
The Sacramento River is an important watercourse of Northern and Central California in the United States. The largest river in California, it rises on the eastern slopes of the Klamath Mountains, and after a journey south of over , empties into Suisun Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay, and...

 (though over time it has grown to extend significantly north, south, and east of there). A number of directly adjacent towns, cities or unincorporated county suburbs, such as Fair Oaks
Fair Oaks, California
Fair Oaks is a census-designated place in Sacramento County, California, United States. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 30,912 at the 2010 census, up from 28,008 at the 2000 census. Fair Oaks's zip code is 95628...

, Carmichael
Carmichael, California
Carmichael is a census-designated place in Sacramento County, California, United States. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 61,762 at the 2010 census, up from 49,742 at the 2000 census.-Geography and geology:Carmichael...

, Citrus Heights
Citrus Heights, California
Citrus Heights is a city in Sacramento County, California, USA. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 83,301, down from 85,071 at the 2000 census....

, Elk Grove
Elk Grove, California
Elk Grove is a city in Sacramento County, California, located just south of the state capital of Sacramento. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city is 153,015...

,
Folsom
Folsom, California
Folsom is a city in Sacramento County, California, United States. Folsom is most commonly known for its famous Folsom Prison. The population was 72,203 at the 2010 census....

, Rancho Cordova
Rancho Cordova, California
Rancho Cordova is a city in Sacramento County, California, USA, that incorporated in 2003. It is part of the Sacramento Metropolitan Area. The population was 64,776 at the 2010 census. Rancho Cordova is the Sacramento area's largest employment sub-center, with a daily influx of over 45,000...

, Roseville
Roseville, California
-2010:The 2010 United States Census reported that Roseville had a population of 118,788. The population density was 3,279.4 people per square mile...

, Rocklin
Rocklin, California
Rocklin is a city in Placer County, California located in the metropolitan area of Sacramento. It shares borders with Roseville, Loomis, and Lincoln...

, West Sacramento
West Sacramento, California
West Sacramento is a city in Yolo County, California. It is contiguous with Sacramento, but is separated by the Sacramento River which is also the county line, so West Sacramento is in a different county than Sacramento...

, Natomas, Del Paso Heights
Del Paso Heights, Sacramento, California
Del Paso Heights is a neighborhood within the city of Sacramento, California. The generally recognized borders of Del Paso Heights consist of the Beltline Freeway Interstate 80 on the north, Norwood Avenue on the west, Arcade creek on the south, and Roseville Road on the east. Del Paso Heights is...

, Orangevale
Orangevale, California
Orangevale is a census-designated place in Sacramento County, California, United States. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 33,960 at the 2010 census, up from 26,705 at the 2000 census. It is located approximately ...

, and North Highlands
North Highlands, California
North Highlands is a census-designated place in Sacramento County, California, United States. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area...

 extend the greater Sacramento area.

The citizens of Sacramento adopted a city charter in 1849, which was recognized by the state legislature in 1850. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850. During the early 1850s the Sacramento valley was devastated by floods, fires and cholera epidemics. Despite this, because of its position just downstream from the Mother Lode
Mother Lode
Mother lode is a principal vein or zone of veins of gold or silver ore. The term probably came from a literal translation of the Spanish veta madre, a term common in old Mexican mining...

 in the Sierra Nevada, the new city grew, quickly reaching a population of 10,000.

Remnants of downtown Sacramento's Chinatown


Throughout the early 1840s and 1850s, China was at war with Great Britain and France in the First
First Opium War
The First Anglo-Chinese War , known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice...

 and Second Opium War
Second Opium War
The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing Dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860...

s. The wars, along with endemic poverty in China, helped drive many Chinese immigrants to America. Many first came to San Francisco, which was then the largest city in California, which was known as "Dai Fow" (The Big City) and some came eventually to Sacramento (then the second-largest city in California), which is known as "Yee Fow" (Second City). Many of these immigrants came in hopes for a better life as well as the possibility of finding gold in the foothills east of Sacramento.

Sacramento's Chinatown was located on "I" Street from Second to Sixth Streets. At the time this area of "I" Street was considered a health hazard as, lying within a levee zone it was lower than other parts of the city which were situated on higher land. Throughout Sacramento's Chinatown history there were fires, acts of discrimination, and prejudicial legislation such as the Chinese Exclusion Act that was not repealed until 1943. The mysterious fires were thought to be set off by those who did not take a liking to the Chinese working class. Ordinances on what was viable building material were set into place to try to get the Chinese to move out. Newspapers such as The Sacramento Union, at the time, wrote stories that portrayed the Chinese in an unfavorable light to inspire ethnic discrimination and drive the Chinese away. As the years passed, a railroad was created over parts of the Chinatown and further politics and laws would make it even harder for Chinese workers to sustain a living in Sacramento. While the east side of the country fought for higher wages and fewer working hours, many cities in the western United States wanted the Chinese out because of the belief that they were stealing jobs from the white working class.

The Chinese remained resilient despite these efforts. They built their buildings out of bricks just as the building guidelines established. They helped build part of the railroads that span the city as well as making a great contribution to the transcontinental railroad that spans the United States. They also helped build the levees within Sacramento and the surrounding cities. As a result, they are a well-recognized part of Sacramento's history and heritage.

While most of Sacramento's Chinatown has now been razed, a small Chinatown mall remains, as well as a museum dedicated to the history of Sacramento's Chinatown and the contributions Chinese Americans have made to the city. Amtrak sits along what was part of Sacramento's Chinatown "I" Street.

Capital city


The California State Legislature
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California. It is a bicameral body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members...

, with the support of Governor John Bigler
John Bigler
John Bigler was an American lawyer, politician and diplomat. A Democrat, he served as the third Governor of California from 1852 to 1856 and was the first California governor to complete an entire term in office successfully, as well as the first to win re-election...

, moved to Sacramento in 1854. The capital of California under Spanish (and, subsequently, Mexican) rule had been Monterey
Monterey, California
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on Monterey Bay along the Pacific coast in Central California. Monterey lies at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 27,810. Monterey is of historical importance because it was the capital of...

, where in 1849 the first Constitutional Convention and state elections were held. The convention decided that San Jose
San Jose, California
San Jose is the third-largest city in California, the tenth-largest in the U.S., and the county seat of Santa Clara County which is located at the southern end of San Francisco Bay...

 would be the new state's capital. After 1850, when California's statehood was ratified, the legislature met in San Jose until 1851, Vallejo
Vallejo, California
Vallejo is the largest city in Solano County, California, United States. The population was 115,942 at the 2010 census. It is located in the San Francisco Bay Area on the northeastern shore of San Pablo Bay...

 in 1852, and Benicia
Benicia, California
Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States. It was the first city in California to be founded by Anglo-Americans, and served as the state capital for nearly thirteen months from 1853 to 1854. The population was 26,997 at the 2010 census. The city is located in the San...

 in 1853, before moving to Sacramento. In the 1879 Constitutional Convention, Sacramento was named to be the permanent state capital.

Begun in 1860 to be reminiscent of the United States Capitol
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall...

 in Washington, DC, the Classical Revival style California State Capitol
California State Capitol
The California State Capitol is home to the government of California. The building houses the bicameral state legislature and the office of the governor....

 was completed in 1874. In 1861, the legislative session was moved to the Merchants Exchange Building in San Francisco for one session because of massive flooding in Sacramento. The legislative chambers were first occupied in 1869 while construction continued. From 1862–1868, part of the Leland Stanford Mansion
Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park
Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park is a state and federally protected area in Sacramento, California. It features the Leland Stanford House, a mansion once owned by Leland Stanford, Governor of California from 1862 to 1863, U.S. Senator from 1885 to 1893, railroad tycoon, member of the Big...

 was used for the governor's offices during Stanford's tenure as the Governor; and the legislature met in the Sacramento County Courthouse.

With its new status and strategic location, Sacramento quickly prospered and became the western end of the Pony Express
Pony Express
The Pony Express was a fast mail service crossing the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the High Sierra from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, from April 3, 1860 to October 1861...

. Later it became a terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a railroad line built in the United States of America between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad of California and the Union Pacific Railroad that connected its statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska The First...

, which began construction in Sacramento in 1863 and was financed by "The Big Four" – Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker
Charles Crocker
Charles Crocker was an American railroad executive.-Early years:Crocker was born in Troy, New York, to a modest family and moved to an Indiana farm at age 14. He soon became independent, working on several farms, a sawmill, and at an iron forge. In 1845 he founded a small, independent iron...

, Collis P. Huntington
Collis P. Huntington
Collis Potter Huntington was one of the Big Four of western railroading who built the Central Pacific Railroad as part of the first U.S. transcontinental railroad...

, and Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist, robber baron, politician and founder of Stanford University.-Early years:...

.

In 1850 and again in 1861, Sacramento citizens were faced with a completely flooded town. After the devastating 1850 flood, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic, which crippled the town for several years. In 1861, Governor Leland Stanford, who was inaugurated in early January 1861, had to attend his inauguration in a rowboat, which was not too far from his house in town on N street. The flood waters were so bad, the legend says, that when he returned to his house, he had to enter into it through the second floor window. From 1862 until the mid-1870s Sacramento raised the level of its downtown by building reinforced brick walls on its downtown streets, and filling the resulting street walls with dirt. Thus the previous first floors of buildings became the basement
Basement
__FORCETOC__A basement is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor. Basements are typically used as a utility space for a building where such items as the furnace, water heater, breaker panel or fuse box, car park, and air-conditioning system...

s, with open space between the street and the building, previously the sidewalk, now at the basement level. Most property owners used screw jacks to raise their buildings to the new grade. The sidewalks were covered, initially by wooden sidewalks, then brick barrel vaults, and eventually replaced by concrete sidewalks. Over the years, many of these underground spaces have been filled or destroyed by subsequent development. However, it is still possible to view portions of the "Sacramento Underground".

The same rivers that earlier brought death and destruction began to provide increasing levels of transportation and commerce. Both the American and especially Sacramento rivers would be key elements in the economic success of the city. In fact, Sacramento effectively controlled commerce on these rivers, and public works projects were funded though taxes levied on goods unloaded from boats and loaded onto rail cars in the historic Sacramento Rail Yards
Sacramento Railyards
The Sacramento Railyards is an urban infill brownfield project of approximately at the western terminus of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the Richards Boulevard neighborhood of the city of Sacramento, California...

. Now both rivers are used extensively for recreation. The American River is a 5-mph (8-km/h) waterway for all power boats (including jet-ski and similar craft) (Source Sacramento County Parks & Recreation) and has become an international attraction for rafters
Rafting
Rafting or white water rafting is a challenging recreational outdoor activity using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on white water or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this...

 and kayaking.

The Sacramento River sees many boaters, who can make day trips to nearby sloughs or continue along the Delta to the Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

 and San Francisco. The Delta King, a paddlewheel steamboat which for eighteen months lay on the bottom of the San Francisco Bay, was refurbished and now boasts a hotel, a restaurant, and two different theaters for nightlife along the Old Sacramento riverfront.

The modern era


The city's current charter was adopted by voters in 1920, establishing a city council-and-manager
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

 form of government, still used today. As a charter city
Charter city
A charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws. In locations where city charters are allowed by law, a city can adopt or modify its organizing charter by decision of its administration...

, Sacramento is exempt from many laws and regulations passed by the state legislature
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California. It is a bicameral body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members...

. The city has expanded continuously over the years. The 1964 merger of the City of North Sacramento
North Sacramento
North Sacramento is a well-established community that is currently part of the city of Sacramento, California. It was a city from its incorporation in 1924 until it was merged in 1964 into the City of Sacramento....

 with Sacramento substantially increased its population, and large annexations of the Natomas
Natomas, Sacramento, California
Natomas is a community in northwestern Sacramento, California. It is the last area of Sacramento that has not been fully developed, and has seen major residential development in the 1990s and 2000s. Major growth has been mostly due to Power Balance Pavilion, home court to the Sacramento Kings and...

 area eventually led to significant population growth throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s.

Sacramento County (along with a portion of adjacent Placer County
Placer County, California
Placer County is a county located in both the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada regions of the U.S. state of California, in what is known as the Gold Country. It stretches from the suburbs of Sacramento to Lake Tahoe and the Nevada border. Because of the expansion of the Greater Sacramento,...

) is served by a customer-owned electric utility, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Sacramento voters approved the creation of SMUD in 1923. In April, 1946, after 12 years of litigation, a judge ordered Pacific Gas & Electric
Pacific Gas and Electric Company
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company , commonly known as PG&E, is the utility that provides natural gas and electricity to most of the northern two-thirds of California, from Bakersfield almost to the Oregon border...

 to transfer title of Sacramento's electric distribution system to SMUD. Today SMUD is the sixth-largest public electric utility in the U.S., and is a leader for innovative programs and services, including the development of clean fuel resources, such as solar power.
The Sacramento-Yolo Port District was created in 1947, and ground was broken on the Port of Sacramento in 1949. On June 29, 1963, with 5,000 spectators waiting to welcome her, the Motor Vessel Taipei Victory arrived. The port was open for business. The Nationalist Chinese flagship, freshly painted for the historic event, was loaded with 5,000 tons of bagged rice for Mitsui Trading Co. bound for Okinawa and 1,000 tons of logs for Japan. She was the first ocean-going vessel in Sacramento since the steamship Harpoon in 1934. The Port of Sacramento
Port of Sacramento
The Port of Sacramento is an inland port located northeast of San Francisco, and is centered in one of the richest agricultural regions in the world. Cargo ships access the Port of Sacramento through San Francisco Bay and passage up the Sacramento River and the Sacramento deep water channel...

 has been plagued with operating losses in recent years and faces bankruptcy. This severe loss in business is due to the heavy competition from the Port of Stockton
Port of Stockton
The Port of Stockton is a major inland deepwater port in Stockton, California located on the San Joaquin River before it joins the Sacramento River to empty into Suisun Bay, eighty miles inland. The port sits on about , and occupies an island in the San Joaquin Delta, and a portion of a...

, which has a larger facility and a deeper channel. As of 2006, the city of West Sacramento
West Sacramento, California
West Sacramento is a city in Yolo County, California. It is contiguous with Sacramento, but is separated by the Sacramento River which is also the county line, so West Sacramento is in a different county than Sacramento...

 took responsibility for the Port of Sacramento. During the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 era, the Port of Sacramento was the major terminus in the supply route for all military parts, hardware and other cargo going into Southeast Asia.

In 1967, Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States , the 33rd Governor of California and, prior to that, a radio, film and television actor....

 became the last Governor of California
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the chief executive of the California state government, whose responsibilities include making annual State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that state laws are enforced...

 to live permanently in the city. A new executive mansion, constructed by private funds in a Sacramento suburb for Reagan, remained vacant for nearly forty years and was recently sold by the state.

The 1980s and 1990s saw the closure of several local military bases: McClellan Air Force Base
McClellan Air Force Base
McClellan Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located in the North Highlands area of Sacramento County, northeast of Sacramento, California...

, Mather Air Force Base
Mather Air Force Base
Mather Air Force Base is a closed United States Air Force Base located east of Sacramento at Rancho Cordova, California on the south side of U.S. Route 50....

, and Sacramento Army Depot. Also, in 1980, there was another flood. The flood's damage affected the "boat section" of Interstate 5
Interstate 5
Interstate 5 is the main Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running largely parallel to the Pacific Ocean coastline from Canada to Mexico . It serves some of the largest cities on the U.S...

. The culmination of a series of storms as well as a faulty valve are believed to have caused this damage.

In the early 1990s, Mayor Joe Serna attempted to lure the Los Angeles Raiders football team to Sacramento, selling $50 million in bonds as earnest money. When the deal fell through, the bond proceeds were used to construct several large projects, including expanding the Sacramento Convention Center Complex and refurbishing of the Memorial Auditorium. Serna renamed a city park for migrant worker rights activist Cesar Chavez
César Chávez
César Estrada Chávez was an American farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers ....

. Through his effort, Sacramento became the first major city in the country to have a paid municipal holiday honoring Chavez.

In spite of military base closures and the decline of agricultural food processing, Sacramento has continued to experience population growth in recent years. Primary sources of population growth are an influx of residents from the nearby San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

, as well as immigration from Asia and Latin America. From 1990 to 2000, the city's population grew by 14.7%. The Census Bureau estimates that from 2000 to 2007, the county's population increased by nearly 164,000 residents.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Mayor Heather Fargo
Heather Fargo
Heather Fargo is a former Mayor and former City Council Member of Sacramento, California. She was sworn in as Mayor in November 2000, replacing Jimmie Yee, and served until December 2008, when she was replaced by Kevin Johnson.-Early life and education:Heather Fargo grew up in Davis, Santa Maria,...

 made several abortive attempts to provide taxpayer financing of a new sports arena for the Maloof
Maloof family
The Maloof family owns numerous business properties in the Western United States. The origin of the family name is Maalouf and is of Levantine descent; the family is Lebanese via their paternal grandfather. The Maloofs are the owners of the Sacramento Kings of the NBA . The family consists of...

 brothers, owners of the Sacramento Kings
Sacramento Kings
The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California, United States. They are currently members of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association...

 NBA
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

 Basketball franchise. In November 2006, Sacramento voters soundly defeated a proposed sales tax hike to finance the plan. The defeat was due in part to competing plans for the new arena and its location.

In 2002, Time
Time (magazine)
Time is an American news magazine. A European edition is published from London. Time Europe covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong...

 magazine featured an article recognizing Sacramento as the most diverse and integrated city in America.

Despite a devolution of state bureaucracy, the state government remains by far Sacramento's largest employer. The City of Sacramento expends considerable effort to keep state agencies from moving outside the city limits. In addition, many federal agencies have offices in Sacramento.

The California Supreme Court normally sits in nearby San Francisco.

Geography



According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city covers an area of 100.1 square miles (259.3 km²), 97.81% of it land, and 2.19% of it water.

Depth to groundwater is typically about 30 feet (9 m). Much of the land to the west of the city (in Yolo County
Yolo County, California
Yolo County is a county located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, bordered by the other counties of Sacramento, Solano, Napa, Lake, Colusa, and Sutter. The city of Woodland is its county seat, though Davis is its largest city....

) is a flood control basin. As a result, the greater metropolitan area sprawls only four miles (6 km) west of downtown (as West Sacramento, California
West Sacramento, California
West Sacramento is a city in Yolo County, California. It is contiguous with Sacramento, but is separated by the Sacramento River which is also the county line, so West Sacramento is in a different county than Sacramento...

) but 30 miles (48.3 km) northeast and east, into the Sierra Nevada foothills, and 10 miles (16.1 km) to the south into valley farmland.

The city is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
The Sacramento River is an important watercourse of Northern and Central California in the United States. The largest river in California, it rises on the eastern slopes of the Klamath Mountains, and after a journey south of over , empties into Suisun Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay, and...

 and the American River
American River
The American River is a California watercourse noted as the site of Sutter's Mill, northwest of Placerville, California, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush...

, and has a deep-water port connected to the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean...

 by a channel through the Sacramento River Delta
Sacramento River Delta
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in northern California in the United States. The Delta is formed at the western edge of the Central Valley by the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and lies just east of...

. It is the shipping and rail center for the Sacramento Valley
Sacramento Valley
The Sacramento Valley is the portion of the California Central Valley that lies to the north of the San Joaquin-Sacramento Delta in the U.S. state of California. It encompasses all or parts of ten counties.-Geography:...

. Food processing is among the major industries in the area.

Climate



Sacramento has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Koppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Csa), characterized by damp to wet, mild winters and hot, dry summers. The wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The mean annual temperature is 61.1 °F (16.2 °C), with monthly means ranging from 45.8 °F (7.7 °C) in December to 75.4 °F (24.1 °C) in July. Summer heat is often moderated by a sea breeze known as the "delta breeze" which comes through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta from the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining from approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean...

.

On average, 96 days in the year experience some degree of fog, which usually occurs in the morning (tule fog
Tule fog
Tule fog is a thick ground fog that settles in the San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley areas of California's Great Central Valley. Tule fog forms during the late fall and winter after the first significant rainfall. The official time frame for tule fog to form is from November 1 to March 31...

). The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet (30 m) and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. During Tule fog events, temperatures do not exceed 50 degrees.

Snowfall is exceptionally rare in Sacramento, which is only 25 feet (7.6 m) above sea level. The all-time record snowfall was 3.5 inches (9 cm), which occurred on January 4, 1888. Dustings occur every 5-10 years, with up to an inch accumulation in outlying areas. During especially cold winter and spring storms, intense showers do occasionally produce a significant amount of hail, which can create hazardous driving conditions. Significant snow accumulations occur each year in the foothills located 40 miles (64.4 km) east of the city.

On average, there are 74 days where the high exceeds 90 °F (32 °C), and 15 days where the high exceeds 100 °F (38 °C); On the other extreme, freezing nights occur 16 nights per year. At Sacramento Executive Airport, extremes have ranged from 18 °F (-8 °C) on December 22, 1990 to 115 °F (46 °C) on June 15, 1961.

The average annual precipitation is 17.93 inches (455.4 mm). On average, precipitation falls on 62 days each year in Sacramento, and nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January rainfall is 3.84 inches (97.5 mm), and measurable precipitation is rare during the summer months. In February 1992, Sacramento had 16 consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 inches (162.8 mm) for the period (163 mm). A record 7.24 inches (184 mm) of rain fell on April 20, 1880. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur usually during late July through Early September. Sacramento is the second most flood susceptible city in the United States after New Orleans.

Cityscape



Area one (central/eastern)


Alkali Flat, Boulevard Park
Boulevard Park, Sacramento, California
Boulevard Park is a predominately housing neighborhood located in Midtown, Sacramento. Its official borders are E Street to the north, J Street to the south, 16th Street to the west, and 24th Street to the east. Boulevard Park is known for its density of especially well-preserved older homes. Its...

, Campus Commons, Sacramento State
California State University, Sacramento
California State University, Sacramento, popularly known as Sacramento State, is a public university located in the city of Sacramento, California. It is part of the California State University system...

, Dos Rios Triangle, Downtown, East Sacramento
East Sacramento, Sacramento, California
East Sacramento is a neighborhood in Sacramento, California, United States, that is east of downtown and midtown. East Sacramento is bounded by U.S. Hwy. 50 to the south, Alhambra Boulevard to the west, Elvas Ave. to the north and northeast, and California State University, Sacramento and the...

, Mansion Flats, Marshall School, Midtown
Midtown Sacramento
Midtown Sacramento is a historical district and neighborhood just east of Downtown Sacramento. Officially, Midtown's borders are R Street on the South, J Street on the North, 16th Street on the West and 30th Street on the East. However, the streets in Sacramento's original "grid" that are east of...

, New Era Park
New Era Park, Sacramento, California
New Era Park is a neighborhood in Sacramento, California. Its southern border is the middle of E Street, the American River is its northern border while 29th Street and 16th Street serve as eastern and western borders of the district. The majority of the area of Sutter's Landing Park sits inside...

, Newton Booth, Old Sacramento
Old Sacramento State Historic Park
Old Sacramento State Historic Park is the historic region of Sacramento, California, which has been designated as a state park. It is generally referred to as Old Sacramento, or Old Sac, and since the 1960s has been restored and developed as a significant tourist attraction. All of it is...

, Poverty Ridge, Richards, Richmond Grove, River Park, Elmhurst, Sierra Oaks, Southside Park
Southside Park, Sacramento, California
Southside Park is a neighborhood in Sacramento, California, located immediately south of Downtown Sacramento. Its official borders are R Street to the north, W-X Freeway to the south, I-5 to the west, and 12th Street to the east....

.

Area two (southwestern)


Airport, Carleton Tract, Freeport Manor, Golf Course Terrace, Greenhaven
Pocket-Greenhaven, Sacramento, California
Pocket-Greenhaven is a suburban community within the city of Sacramento, California. It is bordered by Interstate 5 on the east and a semi-circular "pocket" bend in the Sacramento River on the south, west, and north...

, Curtis Park, Hollywood Park, Land Park
Land Park, Sacramento, California
Land Park is a neighborhood in the city of Sacramento. Land Park consists of mainly single family dwellings in the area between Interstate 5 to the west, Broadway to the north, Sutterville Road to the south and Freeport Blvd to the east. William Land Park is its namesake, a major city park south of...

, Little Pocket, Mangan Park, Meadowview
Meadowview, Sacramento, California
-Location:Meadowview is a neighborhood of Sacramento, California located in the southernmost of the city.-Detail:It is bordered by 47th avenue to the north, the Watt/I-80–Downtown–Meadowview Light Rail Line to the east, an open field to the south, and State Route 160 on the west. The Meadowview...

, Parkway, Pocket
Pocket-Greenhaven, Sacramento, California
Pocket-Greenhaven is a suburban community within the city of Sacramento, California. It is bordered by Interstate 5 on the east and a semi-circular "pocket" bend in the Sacramento River on the south, west, and north...

, Sacramento City College
Sacramento City College
Sacramento City College is a two-year community college located in Sacramento, California. SCC is part of the Los Rios Community College District and had an enrollment of 25,307 in 2009. Sacramento City College is officially accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges , offering...

, South Land Park, Valley Hi / North Laguna, Z'Berg Park

Area three (southeastern)


Alhambra Triangle, Avondale, Brentwood, Carleton Tract, Colonial Heights, Colonial Village, Colonial Village North, Curtis Park
Curtis Park, Sacramento, California
Curtis Park is a neighborhood located within the city of Sacramento, California. Curtis Park is defined as north of Sutterville Road, south of 2nd Avenue, east of Freeport Boulevard, and west of Highway 99.-Utility providers:...

, Elmhurst
Elmhurst, Sacramento, California
Elmhurst is a historic residential neighborhood located in the eastern part of Sacramento, California. Elmhurst is known for its large elm, ash, and oak trees that provide shady canopy for the neighborhood.- Location :...

, Fairgrounds, Florin
Florin, California
Florin is a census-designated place in Sacramento County, California, United States. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area...

, Industrial Park
Industrial park
An industrial park is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development...

, Fruitridge Manor, Glen Elder, Glenbrook, Granite Regional Park, Lawrence Park, Med Center, North City Farms, Oak Park
Oak Park, Sacramento, California
Oak Park is a neighborhood in Sacramento, California. The McGeorge School of Law, Sacramento High School, and Christian Brothers High School are located in this neighborhood....

, Packard Bell
Packard Bell
Packard Bell is a Dutch computer manufacturer and a subsidiary of Acer. The name was previously used by Packard Bell, an American radio manufacturer founded in 1926. In 1986, Israeli investors bought the name for a newly formed personal computer manufacturer. Originally the company produced...

, South City Farms, Southeast Village
Southeast Village
Southeast Village is a neighborhood located in Southeast Sacramento. It's boundaries are Lemon Hill Ave to the north, 65th St. Expy to the west, 53rd Ave to the south, along with Logan St and 75th St to the east. Elder Creek Road is the main artery that runs through the middle of the neighborhood...

, Tahoe Park
Tahoe Park, Sacramento, California
Tahoe Park is a neighborhood located within the city of Sacramento, California.The name "Tahoe Park" is generally used to refer to several official and unofficial neighborhoods that surround Tahoe Park proper, including Tahoe Park East, Tahoe Park South, Tahoe Terrace, and West Tahoe Park.-...

, Tahoe Park East, Tahoe Park South, Tallac Village, Vintage Park, Churchill Downs, and Woodbine.

Area four (north of the American River)


Ben Ali
Ben Ali, Sacramento, California
Ben Ali is a neighborhood located within the city of Sacramento, California, United States. The Ben Ali community is defined as north of El Camino Avenue, east of Auburn Boulevard, and west of the Capital City Freeway....

, Del Paso Heights
Del Paso Heights, Sacramento, California
Del Paso Heights is a neighborhood within the city of Sacramento, California. The generally recognized borders of Del Paso Heights consist of the Beltline Freeway Interstate 80 on the north, Norwood Avenue on the west, Arcade creek on the south, and Roseville Road on the east. Del Paso Heights is...

, Gardenland, Hagginwood, McClellan Heights West, Natomas
Natomas, Sacramento, California
Natomas is a community in northwestern Sacramento, California. It is the last area of Sacramento that has not been fully developed, and has seen major residential development in the 1990s and 2000s. Major growth has been mostly due to Power Balance Pavilion, home court to the Sacramento Kings and...

 (north, south, west), North Sacramento
North Sacramento
North Sacramento is a well-established community that is currently part of the city of Sacramento, California. It was a city from its incorporation in 1924 until it was merged in 1964 into the City of Sacramento....

, Northgate, Robla
Robla, Sacramento, California
Robla is a neighborhood located within the city of Sacramento, California. The borders of Robla are generally considered to be city limits on the north adjacent to Rio Linda, McClellan Park on the east, the Beltline Freeway Interstate 80 on the south, and Northgate Boulevard on the west...

, Swanston Estates, Terrace Manor, Valley View Acres
Valley View Acres, Sacramento, California
Valley View Acres is a neighborhood located within the city of Sacramento, California. The neighborhood is located south of East Levee Road, north of Sotnip Road/Del Paso Road, west of Steelhead Creek and UEDA Parkway, and east of Sorento Road. Valley View Acres is represented by Ray Tretheway on...

, and Woodlake.

Demographics



2010


The 2010 United States Census reported that Sacramento had a population of 466,488. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 4,660.0 people per square mile (1,799.2/km²). The racial makeup of Sacramento was 210,006 (45.0%) White, 68,335 (14.6%) African American, 5,291 (1.1%) Native American, 85,503 (18.3%) Asian (4.2% Chinese, 3.3% Hmong, 2.8% Filipino, 1.8% Indian, 1.4% Vietnamese, 1.2% Laotian, 1.2% Japanese, 0.4% Pakistani, 0.3% Korean, 0.2% Cambodian), 6,655 (1.4%) Pacific Islander, 57,573 (12.3%) from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 33,125 (7.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 125,276 persons (26.9%); 22.6% of Sacramento's population is Mexican, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.2% Guatemalan, and 0.2% Nicaraguan.

The Census reported that 458,174 people (98.2% of the population) lived in households, 4,268 (0.9%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 4,046 (0.9%) were institutionalized.

There were 174,624 households, out of which 57,870 (33.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 65,556 (37.5%) were heterosexual married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 27,640 (15.8%) had a female householder with no husband present, 10,534 (6.0%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 13,234 (7.6%) unmarried heterosexual partnerships
POSSLQ
POSSLQ is an abbreviation for "Persons of Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters," a term coined in the late 1970s by the United States Census Bureau as part of an effort to more accurately gauge the prevalence of cohabitation in American households....

, and 2,498 (1.4%) homosexual married couples or partnerships. 53,342 households (30.5%) were made up of individuals and 14,926 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. There were 103,730 families
Family (U.S. Census)
A family or family household is defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes as "a householder and one or more other people related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption. They do not include same-sex married couples even if the marriage was performed in a state...

 (59.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.37.

The population was spread out with 116,121 people (24.9%) under the age of 18, 52,438 people (11.2%) aged 18 to 24, 139,093 people (29.8%) aged 25 to 44, 109,416 people (23.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 49,420 people (10.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.0 years. For every 100 females there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

There were 190,911 housing units at an average density of 1,907.1 per square mile (736.3/km²), of which 86,271 (49.4%) were owner-occupied, and 88,353 (50.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.3%. 231,593 people (49.6% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 226,581 people (48.6%) lived in rental housing units.

2000


As of the census of 2000, there are 407,018 people, 154,581 households, and 91,202 families residing in the city. The population density is 4,189.2 people per square mile (1,617.4/km²). There are 163,957 housing units at an average density of 1,687.5 per square mile (651.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 41.1% White, 19.5% Black or African American, 1.3% Native American, 12.6% Asian, 0.9% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, 11.0% from other races, and 6.4% from two or more races. 21.6% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 154,581 households out of which 30.2% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.4% are married couples living together, 15.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% are non-families. 32.0% of all households are made up of individuals and 9.2% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.57 and the average family size is 3.35.


In the city, the population is spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.0 males.

The median income
Income
Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified time frame, which is generally expressed in monetary terms. However, for households and individuals, "income is the sum of all the wages, salaries, profits, interests payments, rents and other forms of earnings...

 for a household in the city is $37,049, and the median income for a family is $42,051. Males have a median income of $35,946 versus $31,318 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,721. 20.0% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 29.5% of those under the age of 18 and 9.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Factors such as mild climate, a location at the crossroads of major interstate highways and railroads, and the availability of campsites along the rivers, as well as an outlook of tolerance, attract homeless people.

Sacramento is notably diverse racially, ethnically, and by household income, and has a notable lack of interracial disharmony. In 2002, Time
Time (magazine)
Time is an American news magazine. A European edition is published from London. Time Europe covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong...

 magazine and the Civil Rights Project of Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 identified Sacramento as the most racially/ethnically integrated major city in America. The U.S. Census Bureau also groups Sacramento with other U.S. cities having a "high diversity" rating of the diversity index
Diversity index
A diversity index is a statistic which is intended to measure the local members of a set consisting of various types of objects. Diversity indices can be used in many fields of study to assess the diversity of any population in which each member belongs to a unique group, type or species...

.

Government and politics


The city government consists of a mayor and city council. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The Sacramento City Council
Sacramento City Council
The Sacramento City Council is the governing body of the city of Sacramento, California. The council holds regular meetings at Sacramento City Hall on Tuesdays at 2:00 pm and 6:00 pm, with exceptions for holidays and other special cases....

 consists of eight members, all of which are elected from districts.

In the state legislature
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California. It is a bicameral body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with 40 members...

 Sacramento is located in the 6th Senate
California State Senate
The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. There are 40 state senators. The state legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. The Lieutenant Governor is the ex officio President of the Senate and may break a tied vote...

 District, represented by Democrat
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 Darrell Steinberg
Darrell Steinberg
Darrell Steven Steinberg is a Democratic politician from Sacramento, California. He is currently serving his second term in the California State Senate, representing the 6th District. He has been the Senate President Pro Tem since 2008...

, and in the 5th, 9th, and 10th Assembly
California State Assembly
The California State Assembly is the lower house of the California State Legislature. There are 80 members in the Assembly, representing an approximately equal number of constituents, with each district having a population of at least 420,000...

 Districts, represented by Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 Richard Pan
Richard Pan
Dr. Richard Pan is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 5th district, encompassing parts of Placer and Sacramento counties. Dr...

, Roger Dickinson
Roger Dickinson
Roger Dickinson is a Democratic member of the California State Assembly, serving the 9th district since December 6, 2010. Before that he was a Sacramento County supervisor...

, and Alyson Huber
Alyson Huber
Alyson Huber is a representative in the California State Legislature from the 10th Assembly District in Northern California. Assemblywoman Huber has served since 2008...

, respectively. Federally, most of Sacramento is located in California's 5th congressional district
California's 5th congressional district
California's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of California. It currently covers the city of Sacramento, the state capital, its suburbs and the surrounding area....

 and is represented by Democrat
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 Doris Matsui
Doris Matsui
Doris Okada Matsui is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2005. She is a member of the Democratic Party. The district consists of the city of Sacramento and the surrounding area...

. A portion of Sacramento is located in California's 3rd congressional district
California's 3rd congressional district
California's 3rd congressional district is a congressional district located in the U.S. state of California. It covers most of Sacramento County and part of Solano County, as well as all of Alpine, Amador and Calaveras counties...

, represented by Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 Dan Lungren
Dan Lungren
Daniel Edward "Dan" Lungren is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2005. The district covers most of Sacramento County and part of Solano County, as well as all of Alpine, Amador and Calaveras counties...

.

Economy


Sutter Health
Sutter Health
Sutter Health is a not-for-profit health system in Northern California, headquartered in Sacramento. Serving patients and their families in more than 100 Northern California cities and towns, Sutter Health doctors, hospitals and other health care service providers join resources and share expertise...

, Blue Diamond Growers
Blue Diamond Growers
Blue Diamond Growers is a Californian agricultural cooperative and marketing organization that specializes in almonds. Founded in 1910 as the California Almond Grower’s Exchange, the organization claims to be the world's largest "tree nut processing and marketing company"...

, Aerojet
Aerojet
Aerojet is an American rocket and missile propulsion manufacturer based primarily in Rancho Cordova, California with divisions in Redmond, Washington, Orange, Gainesville and Camden, Arkansas. Aerojet is owned by GenCorp. They are the only US propulsion company that provides both solid rocket...

, Teichert
Teichert
Teichert, a private company, is an infrastructure and site development contractor and a construction materials producer. The company's construction services include mass grading, asphalt paving, concrete curbs and sidewalks, underground pipelines, and joint utility installations...

, and The McClatchy Company
The McClatchy Company
The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California. It operates 30 daily newspapers in 15 states and has an average weekday circulation of 2.2 million and Sunday circulation of 2.8 million...

 are among the companies based in Sacramento.

Top Employers


According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
# Employer # of Employees
1 State of California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

73,273
2 Sacramento County
Sacramento County, California
Sacramento County is a county in the U.S. state of California. Its county seat is Sacramento, which is also the state capital. As of 2010 the county had a population of 1,418,788....

13,304
3 UC Davis Health System
UC Davis Medical Center
UC Davis Medical Center is a private, major academic health center located in Sacramento, California.The 645-bed hospital serves as key referral center for a area that includes 33 counties and 6 million residents...

8,496
4 Kaiser Permanente
Kaiser Permanente
Kaiser Permanente is an integrated managed care consortium, based in Oakland, California, United States, founded in 1945 by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser and physician Sidney Garfield...

7,979
5 Sutter Health
Sutter Health
Sutter Health is a not-for-profit health system in Northern California, headquartered in Sacramento. Serving patients and their families in more than 100 Northern California cities and towns, Sutter Health doctors, hospitals and other health care service providers join resources and share expertise...

7,314
6 Sacramento City Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified School District is a school district in Sacramento, California. The district's main office is located at the Serna Center in Sacramento....

6,500
7 Elk Grove Unified School District
Elk Grove Unified School District
The Elk Grove Unified School District is a school district in southern Sacramento County, California, U.S.A.The Elk Grove Unified School District is the fifth largest school district in California and the largest in Northern California....

6,391
8 Intel 6,000
9 Mercy
Mercy General Hospital
Mercy General Hospital is a hospital located in the eastern part of Sacramento, California. The hospital has 343 beds and nearly 400 doctors. The Mercy Heart Institute and the Mercy Stroke Center are key features of the hospital. The hospital can be accessed by taking the J Street exit off the west...

/Catholic Healthcare West
Catholic Healthcare West
Catholic Healthcare West is a California-based not-for-profit public benefit corporation that operates hospitals in California, Arizona, and Nevada. As such, it is exempt from federal and state income taxes...

5,922
10 San Juan Unified School District
San Juan Unified School District
San Juan Unified School District is a very large school district in Sacramento County, California that serves Arden-Arcade, Carmichael, Orangevale, Citrus Heights, Fair Oaks, and parts of Rancho Cordova and parts of Sacramento....

5,190
11 City of Sacramento 4,556

Colleges and universities


The Sacramento area hosts a wide variety of higher educational opportunities. There are two major public universities, many private institutions, community colleges, and vocational schools.

Public



Sacramento is home to Sacramento State (California State University, Sacramento)
California State University, Sacramento
California State University, Sacramento, popularly known as Sacramento State, is a public university located in the city of Sacramento, California. It is part of the California State University system...

, founded as Sacramento State College in 1947. In 2004, enrollment was 22,555 undergraduates and 5,417 graduate students in the university's eight colleges. The university's mascot is the hornet, and the school colors are green and gold. The 300 acres (1.2 km²) campus is located along the American River Parkway a few miles east of downtown.

The University of California
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-tier public higher education system, which also includes the California State University...

 has a campus, UC Davis, in nearby Davis and also has a graduate center in downtown Sacramento. The UC Davis Graduate School of Management
UC Davis Graduate School of Management
The UC Davis Graduate School of Management is a graduate business school at the University of California, Davis.Established in 1981, the school has a number of programs...

 (GSM) is located in downtown Sacramento on One Capital Mall. Many students, about 400 out of 517, at the UC Davis GSM are working professionals and are completing their MBA part-time. The part-time program is ranked in the top-20 and is well-known for its small class size, world class faculty, and involvement in the business community. UC also maintains the University of California Sacramento Center (UCCS) for undergraduate and graduate studies. Similar to the UC's Washington, DC, program, "Scholar Interns" engage in both academic studies and as well as internships, often with the state government. The UC Davis School of Medicine
UC Davis School of Medicine
The University of California Davis School of Medicine is one of five University of California medical schools in the state of California, associated with UC Davis.-History:...

 is located at the UC Davis Medical Center
UC Davis Medical Center
UC Davis Medical Center is a private, major academic health center located in Sacramento, California.The 645-bed hospital serves as key referral center for a area that includes 33 counties and 6 million residents...

 between the neighborhoods of Elmhurst
Elmhurst, Sacramento, California
Elmhurst is a historic residential neighborhood located in the eastern part of Sacramento, California. Elmhurst is known for its large elm, ash, and oak trees that provide shady canopy for the neighborhood.- Location :...

, Tahoe Park
Tahoe Park, Sacramento, California
Tahoe Park is a neighborhood located within the city of Sacramento, California.The name "Tahoe Park" is generally used to refer to several official and unofficial neighborhoods that surround Tahoe Park proper, including Tahoe Park East, Tahoe Park South, Tahoe Terrace, and West Tahoe Park.-...

, and Oak Park.

The Los Rios Community College District
Los Rios Community College District
The Los Rios Community College District is a special district providing administrative services and governance for the community colleges serving the greater Sacramento area and points east all the way to Lake Tahoe...

 consists of several two-year colleges
Community college
A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries.-Australia:Community colleges carry on the tradition of adult education, which was established in Australia around mid 19th century when evening classes were held to help adults...

 in the Sacramento area – American River College
American River College
American River College is a California community college located in the southern edge of unincorporated Foothill Farms in Sacramento County, California....

, Cosumnes River College
Cosumnes River College
Cosumnes River College is a two-year community college located at the southern edge of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California.The college is part of the Los Rios Community College District and was opened in 1970. Current enrollment is 13,500 students at its main campus...

, Sacramento City College
Sacramento City College
Sacramento City College is a two-year community college located in Sacramento, California. SCC is part of the Los Rios Community College District and had an enrollment of 25,307 in 2009. Sacramento City College is officially accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges , offering...

, Folsom Lake College
Folsom Lake College
Folsom Lake College is a comprehensive, public community college, the 114th community college in the State of California, and the fourth campus of the Los Rios Community College District...

, plus a large number of outreach centers for those colleges. Sierra College is also on the outskirts of Sacramento in Rocklin.

Private


The Art Institute of California - Sacramento was established in 2007, and is a branch of The Art Institute of California - Los Angeles
The Art Institute of California - Los Angeles
The Art Institute of California – Los Angeles, USA, is an accredited college for creative arts education in Los Angeles, California area...

. The school is focused on educating students in the field of commercial arts. The school offers both a Bachelors of Science and an Associate of Science degree, as well as diplomas in some areas of study. Some majors the school offers are: Digital Film-making & Video Production, Culinary Management, Graphic Design, and Game Art & Design.

The National University
National University (California)
National University , founded in 1971, is a comprehensive, nonsectarian, independent, accredited, non-profit private university headquartered in La Jolla, California, United States, with academic degree programs offered at campuses located throughout the state, one in Henderson, Nevada, and...

 Sacramento regional campus offers Bachelor's and Master's degrees in business, education, health-care and teaching credential programs.

A satellite campus of Alliant International University
Alliant International University
Alliant International University is a private, non-profit higher education institution based in San Diego, California. It offers programs in six California cities and four locations outside the United States...

 offers graduate and undergraduate programs of study, and the Professional School of Psychology
Professional School of Psychology
The Professional School of Psychology is a graduate school of clinical and organizational psychology headquartered in Sacramento, California, USA. It has its roots in Huckleberry House, San Francisco, 1979....

 is also based in Sacramento.

Sacramento is home to an unaccredited private institution, the University of Sacramento
University of Sacramento
The University of Sacramento was a private, Catholic university that opened in 2005 under the sponsorship of the Legion of Christ, an order of Catholic priests. It developed an ethics program in 2006. Dr...

, a Roman Catholic university run by the Legionaries of Christ. Currently, the university offers course work in graduate programs.

The University of San Francisco
University of San Francisco
The University of San Francisco , is a private, Jesuit/Catholic university located in San Francisco, California. Founded in 1855, USF was established as the first university in San Francisco. It is the second oldest institution for higher learning in California and the tenth-oldest university of...

 has one of its four regional campuses in Sacramento. At the undergraduate level they offer degrees in Applied Economics, Information Systems, Organizational Behavior and Leadership, and Public Administration. At the graduate level, Master's programs are offered in: Information Security and Assurance, Information Systems, Organization Development, Project Management, Public Administration, Nonprofit Administration, and Counseling.

The University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law
McGeorge School of Law
University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law is a private, ABA approved law school in the Oak Park neighborhood of the city of Sacramento, California. It is part of the University of the Pacific....

, a top 100 law school according to U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

s annual rankings of U.S. law schools (2006, 2007 & 2008), is located in the Oak Park section of Sacramento.

The private University of Southern California
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private, not-for-profit, nonsectarian, research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. USC was founded in 1880, making it California's oldest private research university...

 has an extension in downtown Sacramento, called the State Capital Center. The campus, taught by main campus professors, Sacramento-based professors, and practitioners in the State Capitol and state agencies, offers Master of Public Administration, Masters of Public Policy, and Master of Public Health degrees.

The Universal Technical Institute(UTI) is also located in Sacramento, it offers automotive programs in auto mechanical, auto body, and diesel.

Sacramento has a number of private vocational schools
Vocational education
Vocational education or vocational education and training is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation...

 as well.

In the PBS KVIE building, there is also an extension of San Francisco's Golden Gate University
Golden Gate University
Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university located in the South of Market district, immediately south of the Financial District of downtown San Francisco, California...

.

Drexel University opened a satellite Graduate School in Sacramento in 2009. Drexel's Sacramento campus is located at One Capital Mall.

K–12 schools


The Sacramento area is served by various public school districts, but mainly by the Sacramento City Unified and Twin Rivers Unified districts. As of 2009, the area's schools employed 9,600 elementary school teachers (not including special education teachers), and 7,410 middle school teachers (not including special education or vocational teachers).

Public schools


Several public school districts serve Sacramento. Sacramento City Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified School District
Sacramento City Unified School District is a school district in Sacramento, California. The district's main office is located at the Serna Center in Sacramento....

 serves most of Sacramento. Other portions are served by the Center Unified School District
Center Unified School District
Center Joint Unified School District is a school district, located in Antelope CA, California|Sacramento County]], California, in the town of Antelope...

, Natomas Unified School District
Natomas Unified School District
Natomas Unified School District is located in northwestern Sacramento, California. It is the main school district of Natomas, a suburb of Sacramento, California. Dr. General Davie, Jr...

, San Juan Unified School District
San Juan Unified School District
San Juan Unified School District is a very large school district in Sacramento County, California that serves Arden-Arcade, Carmichael, Orangevale, Citrus Heights, Fair Oaks, and parts of Rancho Cordova and parts of Sacramento....

, Twin Rivers Unified School District
Twin Rivers Unified School District
The Twin Rivers Unified School District was created as a result of the November 2007 approval of Measure B, a proposal to merge the four North Sacramento area school districts: the North Sacramento School District, the Del Paso Heights School District, the Rio Linda Union School District, and the...

 (the North Sacramento School District, the Del Paso Heights School District, the Rio Linda Union School District, and the Grant Joint Union High School District
Grant Joint Union High School District
Grant Joint Union High School District was a high school district located in northern Sacramento County. It was considered an urban-suburban school district, serving, at its peak, approximately 12,000 students in grades 7 – 12...

 merged), Folsom-Cordova Unified School District, and Robla School District.

The Valley Hi/North Laguna area, despite mostly being in the city limits of Sacramento, is served by the Elk Grove Unified School District
Elk Grove Unified School District
The Elk Grove Unified School District is a school district in southern Sacramento County, California, U.S.A.The Elk Grove Unified School District is the fifth largest school district in California and the largest in Northern California....

.
Independent schools

While Catholic institutions still dominate the independent school scene in the Sacramento area, in 1964, Sacramento Country Day School opened and offered Sacramento citizens an independent school that is affiliated with the California Association of Independent Schools. SCDS has grown to its present day status as a learning community for students from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Additionally, the suburb of Fair Oaks hosts the expansive riverside campus of the Sacramento Waldorf School
Sacramento Waldorf School
Established in 1959, the Sacramento Waldorf School is an American private school offering programs from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. It is fully accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges and the Association of Waldorf Schools of North America.Sacramento Waldorf School...

, a Steiner school adjacent to the Rudolf Steiner College, and the largest Waldorf school in North America. Sacramento Waldorf School educates students from pre-K through 12th grade on a secluded, pastoral site that incorporates a large, functioning biodynamic
Biodynamic agriculture
Biodynamic agriculture is a method of organic farming that emphasizes the holistic development and interrelationships of the soil, plants and animals as a self-sustaining system. Biodynamic farming has much in common with other organic approaches, such as emphasizing the use of manures and composts...

 farm.
Other religious schools

Shalom School is the only Jewish day school in Sacramento.

Capital Christian School is a pre-school – 12th grade private, Christian school. There is also a small Bible college on campus offering associates degrees in Bible studies or theology. Sacramento Adventist Academy is another religious school in Greater Sacramento. This is a K-12 institution, as well.

There is one Islamic school in Sacramento, Masjid Annur, founded in 1988.

Culture and arts



Old town


The oldest part of the town besides Sutter's Fort
Sutter's Fort
Sutter's Fort State Historic Park is a state-protected park in Sacramento, California which includes Sutter's Fort and the California State Indian Museum. Begun in 1839 and originally called "New Helvetia" by its builder, John Sutter, the fort was a 19th century agricultural and trade colony in...

 is Old Sacramento
Old Sacramento State Historic Park
Old Sacramento State Historic Park is the historic region of Sacramento, California, which has been designated as a state park. It is generally referred to as Old Sacramento, or Old Sac, and since the 1960s has been restored and developed as a significant tourist attraction. All of it is...

, which consists of cobbled streets and many historic buildings, several from the 1850s and 1860s. Buildings have been preserved, restored or reconstructed, and the district is now a substantial tourist attraction, with rides on steam-hauled historic trains and paddle steamer
Paddle steamer
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat, powered by a steam engine, using paddle wheels to propel it through the water. In antiquity, Paddle wheelers followed the development of poles, oars and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans...

s.

The historic buildings also include the Lady Adams Building, built by the passengers and ship's carpenters of the ship Lady Adams. Having survived the Great Conflagration of November 1852, it is the oldest surviving building in Sacramento other than Sutter's Fort.

Another surviving landmark is the B.F. Hastings building, built in 1853. Early home of the California Supreme Court and the location of the office of Theodore Judah
Theodore Judah
Theodore Dehone Judah was an American railroad engineer who dreamed of the first Transcontinental Railroad. He found investors for what became the Central Pacific Railroad...

, it also was the western terminus of the Pony Express
Pony Express
The Pony Express was a fast mail service crossing the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the High Sierra from St. Joseph, Missouri, to Sacramento, California, from April 3, 1860 to October 1861...

.

The "Big Four Building", built in 1852, was home to the offices of Collis Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
Amasa Leland Stanford was an American tycoon, industrialist, robber baron, politician and founder of Stanford University.-Early years:...

, and Charles Crocker
Charles Crocker
Charles Crocker was an American railroad executive.-Early years:Crocker was born in Troy, New York, to a modest family and moved to an Indiana farm at age 14. He soon became independent, working on several farms, a sawmill, and at an iron forge. In 1845 he founded a small, independent iron...

. The Central Pacific Railroad
Central Pacific Railroad
The Central Pacific Railroad is the former name of the railroad network built between California and Utah, USA that formed part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. It is now part of the Union Pacific Railroad. Many 19th century national proposals to build a transcontinental...

 and Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
The Southern Pacific Transportation Company , earlier Southern Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Company, and usually simply called the Southern Pacific or Espee, was an American railroad....

 were founded there. The original building was destroyed in 1963 for the construction of Interstate 5, but was re-created using original elements in 1965. It is now a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

. Also of historic interest is the Eagle Theatre
Eagle Theatre
The Eagle Theatre in Gold Rush era Sacramento was the first permanent theatre to be built in the state of California. Established in 1849 this relatively small structure was originally wood framed and canvas covered with a tin roof and a packed earth floor...

, a reconstruction of California's first permanent theatre in its original location.

Theater arts




There are several major theatre venues for Sacramento. The Sacramento Convention Center Complex governs both the Community Center Theatre and Memorial Auditorium. The Wells Fargo Pavilion
Wells Fargo Pavilion
The Wells Fargo Pavilion is a theatre venue, located in Sacramento California and owned by California Musical Theatre & Sacramento Theatre Company.- Overview :...

 is the most recent addition. It is built atop the old Music Circus tent foundations. Next to that is the McClatchy Main stage, originally built as a television studio, which was renovated at the same time the pavilion was built. It is the smallest of the venues and provides seating for only 300. The Sacramento Ballet
The Sacramento Ballet
The Sacramento Ballet was founded in 1954 by Barbara Crockett and Deane Crockett. During Ms. Crockett’s tenure as Company Director, The Sacramento Ballet gained national recognition as one of the finest regional arts companies...

, Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra
Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra
The Sacramento Philharmonic is a symphony orchestra in the Sacramento region, established in 1997 after the disbandment of the Sacramento Symphony that same year...

 and the Sacramento Opera perform at the Community Center Theatre.

Professional theatre is represented in Sacramento by a number of companies. California Musical Theatre
California Musical Theatre
California Musical Theatre is the largest nonprofit arts organization in the state of California and the city of Sacramento's oldest professional performing arts organization...

 and its Summer stock theatre
Summer stock theatre
Summer stock theatre is any theatre that presents stage productions only in the summer within the United States. The name combines both the seasonal time of year with the tradition of staging shows by a resident company, reusing stock scenery and costumes...

, Music Circus
Music circus
Music circus is an American theatrical form begun in Lambertville, New Jersey, by St. John Terrell in 1949. Established as summer stock, the new theatre venues primarily housed light operas and operettas, produced in the round, under a circus-style big top....

, lure many directors, performers, and artists from New York to Los Angeles to work alongside a large local staff for their productions at the Wells Fargo Pavilion
Wells Fargo Pavilion
The Wells Fargo Pavilion is a theatre venue, located in Sacramento California and owned by California Musical Theatre & Sacramento Theatre Company.- Overview :...

. During the fall, winter and spring seasons Broadway Sacramento brings bus and truck tours to the Convention Center Theatre. The Sacramento Theatre Company
Sacramento Theatre Company
The Sacramento Theatre Company is a Regional Professional Theatre in the Northern California city of Sacramento.- History :The theater was originally formed as the Sacramento Civic Repertory Theatre in 1942, an ad hoc troupe formed to entertain locally stationed troops during World War II.Realizing...

 provides non-musical productions as an Equity House Theatre, performing in the McClatchy Main stage. At the B Street Theatre, smaller and more intimate professional productions are performed as well as a children's theatre. Rounding out the professional companies is Capital Stage, which performed aboard the Delta King until the end of the 2010-2011 season and was due to take up residence at its own venue along the J-Street corridor according to its marketing materials.

The Sacramento area has one of the largest collection of community theatres in California. Some of these include the 24th Street Theatre, El Dorado Musical Theatre, Runaway Stage Productions, River City Theatre Company, Flying Monkey Productions, The Actor's Theatre, KOLT Run Productions, Kookaburra Productions, Big Idea Theatre, Celebration Arts, Lambda Player, Light Opera Theatre of Sacramento, Synergy Stage and the historic Eagle Theatre. The Sacramento Shakespeare Festival
Sacramento Shakespeare Festival
The Sacramento Shakespeare Festival is produced by City Theatre at and strives to provide quality Shakespeare performances and training to the Sacramento community, utilizing the resources, teachers, and students of the Sacramento City College Theatre Arts Department, and the both amateur and...

 provides entertainment under the stars every summer in William Land Park. Many of these theatres compete annually for the Elly Awards overseen by The Sacramento Area Regional Theatre Alliance or SARTA.

On Wednesday, June 13, 2007, it was announced that a new studio for the performing arts will be built alongside the Sacramento Theatre company and the Wells Fargo Pavilion. The new multi-million dollar complex will be named the "E. Claire Raley Studios for the Performing Arts" and will provide rehearsal space for four of the region's principal arts groups—Sacramento Ballet, California Musical Theatre, Sacramento Opera and the Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra, centralizing most of the city's arts organizations.

Visual arts


The Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission
Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission
The Sacramento Metropolitan Arts Commission was established as the arts council in Sacramento, California, United States in 1977.The Commission runs under the California state arts council, the California Arts Council...

 is an organization which was established as the Sacramento arts council
Arts council
An arts council is a government or private, non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the arts mainly by funding local artists, awarding prizes, and organizing events at home and abroad...

 in 1977 to provide several arts programs for the city. These include Art in Public Places, Arts Education, Grants and Cultural Programs, Poet Laureate Program, Arts Stabilization Programs and Other Resources and opportunities.

Sacramento Second Saturday Art Walk is a program of local art galleries that stay open into the late evenings every second Saturday of each month, providing a unique experience for the local population as well as tourists to view original art and meet the artists themselves.

Museums



Sacramento has several major museums. The Crocker Art Museum
Crocker Art Museum
The Crocker Art Museum is one of the leading arts institutions in California, and the longest continuously operating art museum in the West. Located in Sacramento, California, the Crocker has been an art innovator since 1885...

, the oldest public art museum west of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

, is one of the finest. On July 26, 2007, the Museum broke ground for an expansion that more than tripled the Museum's floor space. The modern architecture is very different from the Museum's original Victorian style building. Construction was completed in 2010.

Also of interest is the Governor's Mansion State Historic Park
Governor's Mansion State Historic Park
Governor's Mansion State Historic Park is the location of Historic Governor's Mansion of California, the former official home of the Governor of California. The mansion is listed on the National Register of Historic Places....

, a large Victorian Mansion which was home to 13 of California's Governors. The Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park
Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park
Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park is a state and federally protected area in Sacramento, California. It features the Leland Stanford House, a mansion once owned by Leland Stanford, Governor of California from 1862 to 1863, U.S. Senator from 1885 to 1893, railroad tycoon, member of the Big...

, which was completely restored in 2006, serves as the State's official address for diplomatic and business receptions. Guided public tours are available. The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts, home of the California Hall of Fame
California Hall of Fame
Conceived by First Lady Maria Shriver, the California Hall of Fame was established at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts to honor individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history...

, is a cultural destination dedicated to telling the rich history of California and its unique influence on the world of ideas, innovation, art and culture. The Museum educates tens of thousands of school children through inspiring programs, sharing with world visitors California's rich art, history and cultural legacy through dynamic exhibits, and serving as a public forum and international meeting place. The California State Railroad Museum
California State Railroad Museum
The California State Railroad Museum is a museum in the state park system of California, USA, interpreting the role of the "iron horse" in connecting California to the rest of the nation. It is located in Old Sacramento at 111 I Street....

 in Old Sacramento has historical exhibits and live steam locomotives that patrons may ride. The California Automobile Museum
California Automobile Museum
California Automobile Museum, formerly the Towe Auto Museum, is an automobile museum located in Sacramento, California. It has a collection of over 160 classic cars, race cars, muscle cars, hot rods and early models displayed throughout of museum space...

, located just south of Old Sacramento, is filled with automotive history and vehicles from 1880 to 2006 and is the oldest non-profit automotive museum in the West. The mission of it is to preserve, promote, and teach automotive culture and its influence on our lives – past, present and future. In addition, the Sacramento History Museum
Sacramento History Museum
Sacramento History Museum is the only museum devoted to Sacramento, California and California Gold Rush history. It is located at 101 I Street in Old Sacramento...

, located in the heart of Old Sacramento, focuses on the history of Sacramento from the region's pre-Gold Rush history through the present day.

There is a Museum Day held in Sacramento every year, when 26 museums in the greater Sacramento area offer free admission. The 2009 Sacramento Museum Day brought out more than 80,000 people, the largest number the event has gathered. Sacramento Museum Day is held every year on the first Saturday of February.

Music


Classical music is widely available. The Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra
Sacramento Philharmonic Orchestra
The Sacramento Philharmonic is a symphony orchestra in the Sacramento region, established in 1997 after the disbandment of the Sacramento Symphony that same year...

, the Sacramento Baroque Soloists, the Sacramento Choral Society & Orchestra, the Sacramento Youth Symphony
Sacramento Youth Symphony
The Sacramento Youth Symphony was founded in 1956 as a 55-member youth orchestra, associated with the Sacramento Symphony Association. The Sacramento Symphony has since ceased operations and the Sacramento Youth Symphony became incorporated as an independent, 501 3 non-profit organization in 1991...

, the Sacramento Master Singers, the Sacramento Children's Chorus, and the Camellia Symphony each present a full season of concerts.

Each year, the city hosts the Sammies, the Sacramento Music Awards. Sacramento also has a reputation as a center for Dixieland
Dixieland
Dixieland music, sometimes referred to as Hot jazz, Early Jazz or New Orleans jazz, is a style of jazz music which developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century, and was spread to Chicago and New York City by New Orleans bands in the 1910s.Well-known jazz standard songs from the...

 jazz, because of the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee
Sacramento Jazz Jubilee
The Sacramento Jazz Jubilee is held every May during Memorial Day weekend in Sacramento, California, United States. It is organized and put on by the Sacramento Traditional Jazz Society, usually sponsored by Raley's and Bel-Air supermarkets, and features some of the most noted jazz musicians in the...

 which is held every Memorial Day
Memorial Day
Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the last Monday of May. Formerly known as Decoration Day, it originated after the American Civil War to commemorate the fallen Union soldiers of the Civil War...

 weekend. Events and performances are held in multiple locations throughout the city. Each year thousands of jazz fans from all over the world visit for this one weekend. Sacramento is also home to the Sacramento French Film Festival
Sacramento French Film Festival
The Sacramento French Film Festival is an annual event held in July at the Crest Theatre. It celebrates the present as well as the rich history of French cinema featuring new releases and rarely seen classics. It is the only festival dedicated to French cinema in Northern California and one of only...

, a cultural event held every year in July that features U.S. premiers of French films and classic masterpieces of French cinema and the Sacramento Japanese Film Festival also held in July. In addition, Sacramento is home to the Trash Film Orgy, a summer film festival celebrating the absurd, B-movies, horror, monster, exploitation; as well as home to the Sacramento Horror Film Festival, which showcases feature-length and short films as well as live musical and theatrical performances in the horror and macabre genres.

A growing number of hardcore
Hardcore punk
Hardcore punk is an underground music genre that originated in the late 1970s, following the mainstream success of punk rock. Hardcore is generally faster, thicker, and heavier than earlier punk rock. The origin of the term "hardcore punk" is uncertain. The Vancouver-based band D.O.A...

 and metal
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States...

 bands hail from the Sacramento area, including Deftones
Deftones
Deftones are an American alternative metal band from Sacramento, California, founded in 1988. The band consists of Chino Moreno , Stephen Carpenter , Chi Cheng , Frank Delgado , and Abe Cunningham . Currently Sergio Vega is standing in on bass while Cheng recovers from a car accident...

, Dance Gavin Dance
Dance Gavin Dance
Dance Gavin Dance was an American post-hardcore band formed in Sacramento, California in 2005. They released four full length studio albums and one EP...

, Trash Talk
Trash Talk (band)
Trash Talk is an American hardcore punk band from Sacramento, California, formed in 2005. Trash Talk combines hardcore punk with the aggression of power violence...

, and Far
Far (band)
Far is a band from Sacramento, USA.-Releases :After a number of local releases including their first demo tape Sweat A River, Live No Lies and two independent albums Listening Game and Quick they signed to Epic/Immortal Records and released their first major record, Tin Cans With Strings To You...

. Alternative rock
Alternative rock
Alternative rock is a genre of rock music and a term used to describe a diverse musical movement that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular by the 1990s...

 bands Cake
Cake (band)
Cake is an American alternative rock band from Sacramento, California. Consisting of singer John McCrea, trumpeter Vince DiFiore, guitarist Xan McCurdy, bassist Gabe Nelson and drummer Paulo Baldi, the band has been noted for McCrea's sarcastic lyrics and deadpan voice, DiFiore's trumpet parts, and...

 and !!!
!!!
!!! is a dance-punk band that formed in Sacramento, California, in 1996. Members of !!! came from other local bands such as The Yah Mos, Black Liquorice and Popesmashers...

 hail from Sacramento as do rock bands Papa Roach
Papa Roach
Papa Roach is an American rock band from Vacaville, California. Their first major-label release was the triple-platinum album Infest . The group's success continued with their gold album Lovehatetragedy , their platinum album Getting Away with Murder , The Paramour Sessions , and Metamorphosis...

, Tesla
Tesla (band)
Tesla is an American hard rock band formed in Sacramento, California in 1984. They have sold 14 million albums in the United States.-Formation and Mechanical Resonance :...

, Oleander
Oleander (band)
Oleander is a post-grunge band from Sacramento, California, USA. Its name is derived from the poisonous wildflower oleander, which line the highways of Northern California. In their nine years of activity, the band released four studio albums under various record labels...

 and Steel Breeze
Steel Breeze
Steel Breeze is an American album-oriented rock group that had a popular video on MTV with "You Don't Want Me Anymore" in 1982, followed by "Temperance Dreams" the following year.-Career:...

 plus some other famous musicians like Bob Stubbs of Social Distortion
Social Distortion
Social Distortion is an American punk rock band formed in 1978 in Fullerton, California. The band currently consists of Mike Ness , Jonny Wickersham , Brent Harding and David Hidalgo, Jr...

 and Craig Chaquico of Jefferson Starship
Jefferson Starship
Jefferson Starship is an American rock band formed in the early 1970s. The group is a spin-off from the iconic 1960s psychedelic/folk group Jefferson Airplane. The band has undergone several major changes in personnel and genres through the years while retaining the same Jefferson Starship name...

.
Scottish pop band Middle of the Road sung kindly of Sacramento in their 1972 European hit song "Sacramento".

Food


Sacramento has a growing food culture that has been publicized in many magazines such as Sactown and Sacramento
Sacramento (magazine)
Sacramento is a lifestyle magazine based in Sacramento, California, published and owned by Sacramento Magazines Corporation .Per month, the magazine has 25,000 subscribers and 7,500 newsstand copies....

 magazine's "Best of" list. Food Network
Food Network
Food Network is a television specialty channel that airs both one-time and recurring programs about food and cooking. Scripps Networks Interactive owns 70 percent of the network, with Tribune Company controlling the remaining 30 percent....

's own Guy Fieri
Guy Fieri
Guy Fieri is an American restaurateur, author, television personality, and game show host. He co-owns five restaurants in California and is widely known for his television series on the Food Network....

 owns a fusion-style restaurant called Tex Wasabi's in the neighboring suburb of Arden-Arcade. Many Sacramento eateries have also been featured on Guy's show Diners, Drive-ins, and Dives. The growing list of Sacramento restaurants featured on this program includes the well-known Squeeze Inn and Cafe Rolle, which is known for its French cuisine. Sacramento is also home to well known cookbook author, chef and owner of Biba's Restaurant, Biba Caggiano.

Sports and recreation


Sacramento is home to the Sacramento Kings
Sacramento Kings
The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California, United States. They are currently members of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association...

 of the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

. It was also formerly home to the now defunct Sacramento Monarchs
Sacramento Monarchs
The Sacramento Monarchs were a basketball team based in Sacramento, California. They played in the Women's National Basketball Association from 1997 until folding on November 20, 2009...

 of the Women's National Basketball Association
Women's National Basketball Association
The Women's National Basketball Association is a women's professional basketball league in the United States. It currently is composed of twelve teams. The league was founded on April 24, 1996 as the women's counterpart to the National Basketball Association...

. The Kings came to Sacramento from Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

 in 1985, and the Monarchs were one of the eight founding members of the WNBA, which started in 1997. The Monarchs won the WNBA Championship in 2005 to become the first major, professional sports team in Sacramento to do so; however the Monarchs team folded in November 2009.

The Sacramento Solons
Sacramento Solons
The Sacramento Solons were a minor league baseball team based in Sacramento, California. They played in the Pacific Coast League during several periods . The current Sacramento River Cats began play in 2000...

, a minor league baseball
Minor league baseball
Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses...

 team of the Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
The Pacific Coast League is a minor-league baseball league operating in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball.The...

, played in Sacramento during several periods (1903, 1905, 1909–1914, 1918–1960, 1974–1976), mostly at Edmonds Field. In 2000, AAA minor league baseball returned to Sacramento with the Sacramento River Cats
Sacramento River Cats
The Sacramento River Cats is a minor league baseball team based in Sacramento, California. The team plays in the Pacific Coast League and is the Triple-A affiliate of Major League Baseball's Oakland Athletics....

, an affiliate of the Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
The Oakland Athletics are a Major League Baseball team based in Oakland, California. The Athletics are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League. From to the present, the Athletics have played in the O.co Coliseum....

. The River Cats play in the recently constructed Raley Field
Raley Field
Raley Field is the home of the Sacramento River Cats minor league baseball team in the Pacific Coast League. Raley Field was built on the site of old warehouses and railyards, in West Sacramento, California, USA across the Sacramento River from the California State Capitol.The privately financed...

, located in West Sacramento.

Teams in several smaller leagues have been and continue to be in Sacramento. The Sacramento Heatwave
Sacramento Heatwave
The Sacramento Heatwave is an American Basketball Association team based in Sacramento, California. The team began play in the fall of 2003 at Selland Arena in Fresno, California.the founder of the Fresno Heatwave was Albert Ellis and Richard Hanna.The Fresno Heatwave was coach by Sean...

 of the American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association (21st century)
The American Basketball Association, often abbreviated as ABA, is a semi-professional men's basketball league that was founded in 1999. The current ABA has no affiliation with the original American Basketball Association that merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976...

 currently plays at Folsom High School. In the past, the city hosted three professional football teams, the Sacramento Surge
Sacramento Surge
The Sacramento Surge was a professional American football team that played in the World League of American Football in 1991 and 1992. The team played its first season at Hughes Stadium in Sacramento, and the second season in Hornet Stadium on the Sacramento State University campus. It was owned...

 of the World League of American Football
World League of American Football
The World League of American Football was founded in 1990 with support from the National Football League to play professional American football in North America, Europe and later possibly Asia...

 (who won the World Bowl II
World Bowl II
World Bowl '92 was the WLAF's second championship game, played on June 6, 1992 at Olympic Stadium in Montréal, Quebec, Canada. 43,789 witnessed the matchup between the Sacramento Surge and the Orlando Thunder....

 on June 6, 1992), the Sacramento Gold Miners
Sacramento Gold Miners
The Sacramento Gold Miners were a Canadian football team based in Sacramento, California. The franchise was the first American team in the Canadian Football League. The Gold Miners were originally the "descendants" of the Sacramento Surge from the defunct World League of American Football...

 of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

, and the Sacramento Attack of the Arena Football League. Sacramento was also home to an indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

 team, the Sacramento Knights
Sacramento Knights
Sacramento Knights were an indoor soccer team that played from 1993 to 2001 in ARCO Arena and were owned by the NBA's Sacramento Kings. The team played in the Continental Indoor Soccer League from 1993 to 1997. The team then moved to the World Indoor Soccer League in 1998 after the CISL folded...

 of the Continental Indoor Soccer League
Continental Indoor Soccer League
The Continental Indoor Soccer League was an indoor soccer league that played from 1993 to 1997.-History:When the Major Soccer League folded in the summer of 1992, two of its former teams joined a group of hockey and basketball arena owners led by Ron Weinstein who wanted to create a league to...

 (later called the World Indoor Soccer League
World Indoor Soccer League
The World Indoor Soccer League was a United States based indoor soccer league that existed from 1998 to 2001 and consisted of nine teams.-History:...

). The Sacramento River Rats of Roller Hockey International
Roller Hockey International
Roller Hockey International was a professional inline hockey league that operated in North America from 1993 to 1999. It was the first major professional league for inline hockey....

 also played in the city for several years. The Sacramento XSV of the National Professional Paintball League
National Professional Paintball League
The National Professional Paintball League is one of two American paintball national tournament series that travel throughout the United States each year, and was also the largest professional seven-man paintball league in the world.-History:...

 represents the City but is based in Modesto, CA. The newest sports team to come to Sacramento is the Sacramento Mountain Lions which is part of the United Football League (2009). They currently play at Hornet Stadium
Hornet Stadium
Hornet Stadium is a 21,195 seat football stadium in Sacramento, California. It is located at Sacramento State. It was completed in 1969. It is the home football stadium of the Sacramento State Hornets and Sacramento Mountain Lions...

 which is on the CSUS campus.

Sacramento hosted the 2000 and 2004 USA Olympic Track & Field Trials and has frequently hosted the NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship
NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship
The NCAA Men's Outdoor Track and Field Championship is an annual collegiate outdoor track and field competition for men organised by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. It has three divisions: Division I, II, and III. Athlete's individual performances earn points for their institution and...

 as well as the 1st and 2nd rounds of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship
NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship
The NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship is a single-elimination tournament held each spring in the United States, featuring 68 college basketball teams, to determine the national championship in the top tier of college basketball...

. The California International Marathon (est. 1983, runcim.org) finishes in front of the Capitol, and attracts a field of international elite runners who vie for a share of the $50,000 prize purse. The fast point-to-point course begins in Folsom and is also popular for runners seeking to achieve a Boston Marathon qualifying time and fitness runners. The Sacramento Mile is a national flat-track motorcycle racing event. From 1961 to 1980, Sacramento hosted the Camellia Bowl
Camellia Bowl
- 1948, Lafayette, Louisiana :The Camellia Bowl was a post-season major college football bowl game played at McNaspy Stadium in Lafayette, Louisiana, on December 30, 1948 between Hardin-Simmons University and the University of Wichita ....

, which selected or helped select ten national champions in college football's lower divisions.

Sacramento is a hotbed for high school rugby. Jesuit High is the recent defending national champion (winning five times in total). Their arch-rival school Christian Brothers came in second nationwide. Burbank, Del Campo and Vacaville have also placed well in the national competition over the years. The Sacramento Valley High School Rugby Conference hosts the largest and arguably deepest preseason youth and high school rugby tournament in America.

Sacramento also hosts some recreational facilities and events. The Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail
Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail
The Jedediah Smith Memorial Trail is a paved multi-use pathway that runs between the confluence of the Sacramento River with the American River, just north of downtown Sacramento, CA, and Beal's Point at Folsom Lake, north of Folsom, CA. The trail is long, and is used as a major recreational...

 that runs between Old Sacramento and Folsom Lake
Folsom Lake
Folsom Lake is a reservoir in Northern California about northeast of Sacramento in Placer, El Dorado, and Sacramento Counties. The lake is formed by Folsom Dam, constructed in 1955 to control the American River. The dam and lake are part of the Folsom Project, which also includes the Nimbus...

 grants access to the American River Parkway, a natural area that includes more than 5000 acres (20.2 km²) of undeveloped land. It attracts cyclists and equestrians from across the state. The California State Fair
California State Fair
The California State Fair is the annual state fair for the state of California. The fair is held at Cal Expo in Sacramento, California.- Schedule Change :...

 is held in Sacramento each year at the end of the summer, ending on Labor Day
Labor Day
Labor Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September that celebrates the economic and social contributions of workers.-History:...

. In 2010, the State Fair moves to July. More than one million people attended this fair in 2001.

Among other recreational options in Sacramento is Discovery Park, a 275 acres (1.1 km²) park studded with stands of mature trees and grasslands. This park is situated where the American River flows into the Sacramento River.

In amateur sports, Sacramento claims many prominent Olympians such as Mark Spitz, Debbie Meyer, Mike Burton, Summer Sanders, Jeff Float (all swimming), and Billy Mills (track). Coach Sherm Chavoor founded his world famous Arden Hills Swim Club just east of the city and trained Burton, Myer, Spitz and others.
Club League Sport Venue Established Championships
Sacramento Kings
Sacramento Kings
The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California, United States. They are currently members of the Western Conference of the National Basketball Association...

NBA
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

Basketball Power Balance Pavilion 1945 (1985) 1 NBA Championship, 2 NBL Championships (as Rochester Royals)
Sacramento River Cats
Sacramento River Cats
The Sacramento River Cats is a minor league baseball team based in Sacramento, California. The team plays in the Pacific Coast League and is the Triple-A affiliate of Major League Baseball's Oakland Athletics....

PCL
Pacific Coast League
The Pacific Coast League is a minor-league baseball league operating in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball.The...

Baseball Raley Field
Raley Field
Raley Field is the home of the Sacramento River Cats minor league baseball team in the Pacific Coast League. Raley Field was built on the site of old warehouses and railyards, in West Sacramento, California, USA across the Sacramento River from the California State Capitol.The privately financed...

1978 (2000) 2 Triple-A Titles, 4 League Titles
Sacramento Mountain Lions UFL Football Hornet Stadium
Hornet Stadium
Hornet Stadium is a 21,195 seat football stadium in Sacramento, California. It is located at Sacramento State. It was completed in 1969. It is the home football stadium of the Sacramento State Hornets and Sacramento Mountain Lions...

2009 (2010)
Sacramento Capitals
Sacramento Capitals
The Sacramento Capitals are a team in World Team Tennis.The Capitals have won six championships, including four straight from 1997 to 2000. The other titles came in 2002 and 2007....

WTT
World Team Tennis
World TeamTennis is a coed professional tennis league played with a unique team format in the United States. Each match consists of five sets. Each set features a different configuration . Coaches, before the match, decide the order in which the sets will be played...

Tennis Allstate Stadium 1987 5 Championships
Sacramento Heatwave
Sacramento Heatwave
The Sacramento Heatwave is an American Basketball Association team based in Sacramento, California. The team began play in the fall of 2003 at Selland Arena in Fresno, California.the founder of the Fresno Heatwave was Albert Ellis and Richard Hanna.The Fresno Heatwave was coach by Sean...

ABA Basketball Natomas H.S. Event Center
Natomas High School
Natomas High School is a high school in the Natomas Unified School District located in the Natomas neighborhood of Sacramento. It is located at 3301 Fong Ranch Road. The school mascot is the nighthawk...

2003
Sacramento Gold
Sacramento Gold (NPSL)
Sacramento Gold is an American soccer team based in Sacramento, California, United States. Founded in 2009, the team plays in National Premier Soccer League , a national amateur league at the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Northwest Division.The team plays its home games in the...

NPSL
National Premier Soccer League
The National Premier Soccer League is a United States soccer league recognized by the United States Soccer Federation and FIFA as a Division IV league...

Soccer Cosumnes River College
Cosumnes River College
Cosumnes River College is a two-year community college located at the southern edge of Sacramento in Sacramento County, California.The college is part of the Los Rios Community College District and was opened in 1970. Current enrollment is 13,500 students at its main campus...

2003 1 Championship
Sacramento Sirens
Sacramento Sirens
The Sacramento Sirens are a women's semi-professional American football team, located in Sacramento, California. The team has compiled one of the most successful records in women’s full tackle football.-History:...

IWFL
Independent Women's Football League
The Independent Women's Football League was founded in 2000, and began play in 2001.IWFL founders began with the goal to establish a quality women's football league that would be respected as the top level of women's tackle football in the world....

Football Foothill High School
Foothill High School (Sacramento, California)
Foothill High School is a four-year high school located in Foothill Farms, California which is a lower middle and middle class suburb of Sacramento, California. It is part of the Twin Rivers Unified School District.-Demographics:...

2001 1 WAFL Title, 3 IWFL Titles
F.C. Sacramento Pride WPSL
Women's Premier Soccer League
The Women's Premier Soccer League is a national women's soccer league in the United States and Puerto Rico, and is on the 2nd level of women's soccer in the United States soccer pyramid, alongside the W-League and below Women's Professional Soccer....

Soccer Lincoln High School
Lincoln High School (Stockton, California)
Lincoln High School, founded in 1954, is the Lincoln Unified School District's only public high school. The school serves thousands of students from ethnically and socio-economically diverse populations.-Facilities:*Alex G. Spanos Stadium...

1995
Mandarins
Mandarins Drum and Bugle Corps
The Mandarins Drum and Bugle Corps are a World Class drum and bugle corps based in Sacramento, California and founded in 1963, and are a member corps of Drum Corps International. The Mandarins were originally founded as the Ye Wah drum and lyre corps, and was renamed to the Mandarins Drum and...

DCI
Drum Corps International
Drum Corps International , formed in 1972, is the non-profit governing body operating the North American drum and bugle corps circuit for junior corps, whose members are between the ages of 14 and 21. It is the counterpart of Drum Corps Associates which governs senior or all-age drum corps...

Drum & Bugle Corps DCI members tour nationally 1963 Class A-60/Division III Champions (1987, 1988, 1992, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999), Division II Champions (2001)

Notable residents


Notable people with ties to Sacramento include actor Sam Elliott
Sam Elliott
Samuel Pack "Sam" Elliott is an American actor. His rangy physique, thick horseshoe moustache, and deep, resonant voice match the iconic image of a cowboy or rancher, and he has often been cast in such roles.-Early life:Sam Elliott was born in Sacramento, California, to a physical training...

, actor Colin Hanks
Colin Hanks
Colin Lewes Hanks is an American actor who is best known for his work as Shaun Brumder in the film Orange County and as Alex Whitman in Roswell. He also portrayed the role of Henry Jones in Band of Brothers and is currently on the sixth season of the Showtime crime drama Dexter...

, baseball player Steve Sax
Steve Sax
Stephen Louis Sax is a former second baseman in Major League Baseball. He was a right-handed batter for the Los Angeles Dodgers , New York Yankees , Chicago White Sox , and the Oakland Athletics ....

, businessman and philanthropist Charles R. Schwab
Charles R. Schwab
Charles R. "Chuck" Schwab is the founder and chairman of the Charles Schwab Corporation.-Early life:Schwab was born in Sacramento, California. Despite having the same name, he is not related to Charles M. Schwab, the American steel magnate of the first half of the Twentieth Century...

, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy
Anthony Kennedy
Anthony McLeod Kennedy is an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, having been appointed by President Ronald Reagan in 1988. Since the retirement of Sandra Day O'Connor, Kennedy has often been the swing vote on many of the Court's politically charged 5–4 decisions...

, musician Craig Chaquico
Craig Chaquico
Craig Chaquico is an American guitarist of Portuguese and Native American descent. He has had over thirty years of success in a variety of genres: in the 1970s with the post-Summer of Love Jefferson Starship, in that band's 1980s incarnation, Starship, and in the 1990s and 2000s as a...

, musician Cynthia Robinson
Cynthia Robinson
Cynthia Robinson is an American musician, best known for being the trumpeter and vocalist in the popular and influential psychedelic soul/funk band Sly & the Family Stone...

, Los Angeles public health "czar" Kim Harrison Eowan, designer architect Ray Eames, retired USMC Lieutenant General John F. Goodman
John F. Goodman
Lieutenant General John Floyd Goodman is a retired United States Marine Corps general. He is currently Director of the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance , United States Pacific Command having assumed the directorship on October 17, 2008.-Early life:John...

, painter Wayne Thiebaud
Wayne Thiebaud
Wayne Thiebaud is an American painter whose most famous works are of cakes, pastries, boots, toilets, toys and lipsticks. He is associated with the Pop art movement because of his interest in objects of mass culture, although his works, executed during the fifties and sixties, slightly predate...

, photographer Michael Williamson, videographer Justin Carter, philosopher Cornel West
Cornel West
Cornel Ronald West is an American philosopher, author, critic, actor, civil rights activist and prominent member of the Democratic Socialists of America....

, author J. Maarten Troost
J. Maarten Troost
J. Maarten Troost is the author of three books about his experiences in the Pacific Islands and 3-month trip to China. Troost writes about the part of his life spent in the South Pacific in Getting Stoned with Savages and The Sex Lives of Cannibals -- and one on a trip to China: Lost on Planet...

, astronaut Stephen Robinson
Stephen Robinson
Stephen Kern Robinson is a NASA astronaut. He was born October 26, 1955, in Sacramento, California.He enjoys flying, antique aircraft, swimming, canoeing, hiking, music, art, and stereo photography. He plays lead guitar in Max Q, a rock and roll band...

, the mayor of Bakersfield
Bakersfield, California
Bakersfield is a city near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley in Kern County, California. It is roughly equidistant between Fresno and Los Angeles, to the north and south respectively....

 from 1981–1985, and her husband, the then petroleum lobbyist Joe Shell
Joe Shell
Joseph Claude Shell, Sr. was an American oil producer and lobbyist who represented District 58 in the California State Assembly from 1953-1963. During 1961-62 he was the Assembly Republican Minority Leader...

, lived in Sacramento during the 1970s.

In addition to Huntington, Hopkins, Stanford, and Crocker, the city's more successful entrepreneurs have included Russ Solomon (Tower Records
Tower Records
Tower Records was a retail music chain that was based in Sacramento, California. It currently exists as an international franchise and an online music store....

), Frank Fat, Buzz Oates (The Buzz Oates Group of Companies) and Sherwood "Shakey" Johnson (Shakey's Pizza
Shakey's Pizza
Shakey's Pizza is a pizza restaurant chain based in the United States. The chain currently has about 500 stores globally, and about 60 in the United States.-History:...

).

Actors, singers, rap artists, bands, and other performers with ties to the city can be found under Sacramento entertainers
Sacramento entertainers
Sacramento, California has been home to or associated with entertainment figures that include :Film, television, radio and theater* Carlos Alazraqui, actor, comedian* Mark S...

. For sports figures with ties to Sacramento see Sacramento sports figures
Sacramento sports figures
In addition to members of the Sacramento Kings, sports figures associated with Sacramento, California include:- Baseball :* Dusty Baker - manager for the Cincinnati Reds...

.

Roads and highways



The Sacramento region is served by several highways and freeways. Interstate 80 (I-80) is the major east-west route, connecting Sacramento with San Francisco in the west, and Reno
Reno, Nevada
Reno is the county seat of Washoe County, Nevada, United States. The city has a population of about 220,500 and is the most populous Nevada city outside of the Las Vegas metropolitan area...

 in the east. Business 80
Interstate 80 Business (Sacramento, California)
Interstate 80 Business, called the Capital City Freeway in its entirety, is a Business Loop of Interstate 80 through Sacramento. As it is state-maintained, unlike most business routes in California, it is assigned route numbers - part of U.S. Route 50 on its western half , and unsigned State Route...

 (the Capital City Freeway) splits from I-80 in West Sacramento
West Sacramento, California
West Sacramento is a city in Yolo County, California. It is contiguous with Sacramento, but is separated by the Sacramento River which is also the county line, so West Sacramento is in a different county than Sacramento...

, runs through Sacramento, and then rejoins its parent in the northwest portion of the city. U.S. Highway 50 also begins its eastern journey in West Sacramento, co-signed
Concurrency (road)
A concurrency, overlap, or coincidence in a road network is an instance of one physical road bearing two or more different highway, motorway, or other route numbers...

 with Business 80, but then splits off and heads toward South Lake Tahoe
South Lake Tahoe, California
South Lake Tahoe is the most populous city in El Dorado County, California, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The population was 21,403 at the 2010 census, down from 23,609 at the 2000 census...

 as the El Dorado Freeway.

Interstate 5 (I-5) runs though Sacramento, heads north up to Redding
Redding, California
Redding is a city in far-Northern California. It is the county seat of Shasta County, California, USA. With a population of 89,861, according to the 2010 Census...

, and then heads south near the western edge of the California Central Valley
California Central Valley
California's Central Valley is a large, flat valley that dominates the central portion of California. It is home to California's most productive agricultural efforts. The valley stretches approximately from northwest to southeast inland and parallel to the Pacific Ocean coast. Its northern half is...

 towards Los Angeles. California State Highway 99
California State Route 99
California State Route 99 , commonly known as Highway 99 or, simply, as 99 , is a north–south state highway in the U.S. state of California, stretching almost the entire length of the Central Valley...

 runs through Sacramento, heading closer to the eastern edge of the Central Valley, connecting to Marysville
Marysville, California
Marysville is the county seat of Yuba County, California, United States. The population was 12,072 at the 2010 census, down from 12,268 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area, often referred to as the Yuba-Sutter Area after the two counties, Yuba and...

 and Yuba City
Yuba City, California
Yuba City is a Northern California city, founded in 1849. It is the county seat of Sutter County, California, United States. The population was 64,925 at the 2010 census....

 in the north, and Fresno
Fresno
Fresno is the fifth largest city in California.Fresno may also refer to:-Places:Colombia* Fresno, TolimaSpain* Fresno, a ghost village in Nidáliga, Valle de Sedano, Burgos* Aldea del Fresno, Madrid* Fresno de la Vega, Ribera del Esla, León...

 and Bakersfield in the south. California State Highway 160
California State Route 160
State Route 160 is a state highway in the U.S. state of California consisting of two sections. The longer, southern, section is a scenic highway through the alluvial plain of the Sacramento River, linking SR 4 in Antioch with Sacramento via the Antioch Bridge...

 approaches the city after running along the Sacramento River
Sacramento River
The Sacramento River is an important watercourse of Northern and Central California in the United States. The largest river in California, it rises on the eastern slopes of the Klamath Mountains, and after a journey south of over , empties into Suisun Bay, an arm of the San Francisco Bay, and...

 from Contra Costa County
Contra Costa County, California
Contra Costa County is a primarily suburban county in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 1,049,025...

 in the south, and then becomes a major city street in Downtown Sacramento
Downtown Sacramento
Downtown Sacramento is the central business district of the City of Sacramento. Downtown is generally defined as the area south of the American River, east of the Sacramento River, north of Broadway, and west of 16th Street. The central business district is generally defined as north of R Street,...

 before turning into the North Sacramento Freeway, going over the American River
American River
The American River is a California watercourse noted as the site of Sutter's Mill, northwest of Placerville, California, where gold was found in 1848, leading to the California Gold Rush...

 to Business 80.

Some Sacramento neighborhoods, such as Downtown Sacramento and Midtown Sacramento
Midtown Sacramento
Midtown Sacramento is a historical district and neighborhood just east of Downtown Sacramento. Officially, Midtown's borders are R Street on the South, J Street on the North, 16th Street on the West and 30th Street on the East. However, the streets in Sacramento's original "grid" that are east of...

 are very bicycle friendly as are many other communities in the region. As a result of litigation, Sacramento has undertaken to make all city facilities and sidewalks wheelchair accessible. In an effort to preserve its urban neighborhoods, Sacramento has constructed traffic-calming
Traffic calming
Traffic calming is intended to slow or reduce motor-vehicle traffic in order to improve the living conditions for residents as well as to improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists. Urban planners and traffic engineers have many strategies for traffic calming...

 measures in many areas.

Amtrak service



Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 provides passenger rail service to the city of Sacramento. The Sacramento Valley Rail Station is located on the corner of 5th and I streets near the historic Old Town Sacramento and as of April, 2007, is currently undergoing extensive renovations. The station also serves as an Regional Transit
Sacramento Regional Transit District
The Sacramento Regional Transit District, commonly referred to as RT, is the agency responsible for public transportation in the Sacramento, California area. It was established on April 1, 1973, as a result of the acquisition of the Sacramento Transit Authority...

 light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 terminus.

Amtrak California
Amtrak California
Amtrak California is a brand name used by the Caltrans Division of Rail for all state-supported Amtrak rail routes within the U.S. State of California...

 operates the Capitol Corridor, a multiple-frequency service providing service from the capital city to its northeastern suburbs and the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, along with smaller urban and rural areas...

.

Sacramento is also the northern terminus of the Amtrak California
Amtrak California
Amtrak California is a brand name used by the Caltrans Division of Rail for all state-supported Amtrak rail routes within the U.S. State of California...

 San Joaquins
San Joaquins
The San Joaquin is a passenger train operated by Amtrak as part of the Amtrak California network in California's Central Valley. Twelve trains a day run between its southern terminus at Bakersfield and Stockton, where the route splits to Oakland or Sacramento...

 route which provide direct multiple-frequency passenger rail service to California's Central Valley as far as Bakersfield
Bakersfield, California
Bakersfield is a city near the southern end of the San Joaquin Valley in Kern County, California. It is roughly equidistant between Fresno and Los Angeles, to the north and south respectively....

; Thruway Motorcoach connections are available from the trains at Bakersfield to Southern California
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

 and Southern Nevada
Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

.

Sacramento is also a stop along Amtrak's Coast Starlight
Coast Starlight
The Coast Starlight is a passenger train operated by Amtrak on the West Coast of the United States. It runs from King Street Station in Seattle, Washington, to Union Station in Los Angeles, California. The train's name was formed as a merging of two of Southern Pacific's train names, the Coast...

 route which provides scenic service to Seattle
Seattle, Washington
Seattle is the county seat of King County, Washington. With 608,660 residents as of the 2010 Census, Seattle is the largest city in the Northwestern United States. The Seattle metropolitan area of about 3.4 million inhabitants is the 15th largest metropolitan area in the country...

 via Klamath Falls
Klamath Falls, Oregon
Klamath Falls is a city in Klamath County, Oregon, United States. Originally called Linkville when George Nurse founded the town in 1867, after the Link River on whose falls this city sat, although no falls currently exist; the name was changed to Klamath Falls in 1892...

 and Portland
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

 to the north and to Los Angeles via San Luis Obispo
San Luis Obispo, California
San Luis Obispo is a city in California, located roughly midway between San Francisco and Los Angeles on the Central Coast. Founded in 1772 by Spanish Fr. Junipero Serra, San Luis Obispo is one of California’s oldest communities...

 and Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County, California, United States. Situated on an east-west trending section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply-rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean...

 to the south.

Amtrak's California Zephyr
California Zephyr
The California Zephyr is a long passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the midwestern and western United States.It runs from Chicago, Illinois, in the east to Emeryville, California, in the west, passing through the states of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and California...

 also serves Sacramento daily and provides service to the east serving Reno
Reno, Nevada
Reno is the county seat of Washoe County, Nevada, United States. The city has a population of about 220,500 and is the most populous Nevada city outside of the Las Vegas metropolitan area...

, Salt Lake
Salt Lake City, Utah
Salt Lake City is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Utah. The name of the city is often shortened to Salt Lake or SLC. With a population of 186,440 as of the 2010 Census, the city lies in the Salt Lake City metropolitan area, which has a total population of 1,124,197...

, Denver
Denver, Colorado
The City and County of Denver is the capital and the most populous city of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is a consolidated city-county, located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains...

, Omaha
Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River...

, Chicago and intermediate cities.

The Sacramento Valley Rail Station also provides numerous Thruway Motorcoach routes. One route serves the cities of Marysville
Marysville, California
Marysville is the county seat of Yuba County, California, United States. The population was 12,072 at the 2010 census, down from 12,268 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area, often referred to as the Yuba-Sutter Area after the two counties, Yuba and...

, Oroville
Oroville, California
Oroville is the county seat of Butte County, California. The population was 15,506 at the 2010 census, up from 13,004 at the 2000 census...

, Chico
Chico, California
Chico is the most populous city in Butte County, California, United States. The population was 86,187 at the 2010 census, up from 59,954 at the time of the 2000 census...

, Corning
Corning, California
Corning is a city in Tehama County, California, two hours north of Sacramento and one half hour northwest of Chico California United States. The population was 7,663 at the 2010 census, up from 6,741 at the 2000 census....

, Red Bluff
Red Bluff, California
Red Bluff is a city in and the county seat of Tehama County, California, United States. The population was 14,076 at the 2010 census, up from 13,147 at the 2000 census....

 and Redding
Redding, California
Redding is a city in far-Northern California. It is the county seat of Shasta County, California, USA. With a population of 89,861, according to the 2010 Census...

 with additional service to Yreka
Yreka, California
Yreka is the county seat of Siskiyou County, California, United States. The population was 7,765 at the 2010 census, up from 7,290 at the 2000 census.- History:...

 and even Medford, Oregon
Medford, Oregon
Medford is a city in Jackson County, Oregon, United States. As of the 2010 US Census, the city had a total population of 74,907 and a metropolitan area population of 207,010, making the Medford MSA the 4th largest metro area in Oregon...

. A second serves the cities of Roseville
Roseville, California
-2010:The 2010 United States Census reported that Roseville had a population of 118,788. The population density was 3,279.4 people per square mile...

, Rocklin
Rocklin, California
Rocklin is a city in Placer County, California located in the metropolitan area of Sacramento. It shares borders with Roseville, Loomis, and Lincoln...

, Auburn
Auburn, California
Auburn is the county seat of Placer County, California. Its population at the 2010 census was 13,330. Auburn is known for its California Gold Rush history.Auburn is part of the Greater Sacramento area.- History :...

, Colfax
Colfax, California
Colfax is a city in Placer County, California, at the crossroads of Interstate 80 and State Route 174. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,963 at the 2010 census...

, Truckee
Truckee, California
Truckee is an incorporated town in Nevada County, California, United States. The population was 16,180 at the 2010 census, up from 13,864 at the 2000 census.-Name:...

, Reno and Sparks
Sparks, Nevada
Sparks is a city in Washoe County, Nevada, United States, located east of Reno, Nevada. The 2010 U.S. Census Bureau population count was 90,264. Sparks is often referred to as half of a twin city .-Geography and Climate:...

. The third and final thruway motorcoach route serves Placerville
Placerville, California
Placerville is the county seat of El Dorado County, California. The population was 10,389 at the 2010 census, up from 9,610 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Sacramento–Arden-Arcade–Roseville Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:...

, Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. At a surface elevation of , it is located along the border between California and Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America. Its depth is , making it the USA's second-deepest...

, Stateline
Stateline, Nevada
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 1,215 people, 510 households, and 245 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,803.3 people per square mile . There were 562 housing units at an average density of 834.1 per square mile...

 Casinos, and Carson City, Nevada
Carson City, Nevada
The Consolidated Municipality of Carson City is the capital of the state of Nevada. The words Consolidated Municipality refer to a series of changes in 1969 which abolished Ormsby County and merged all the settlements contained within its borders into Carson City. Since that time Carson City has...

. Each of these routes provides multiple frequencies each day.

Sacramento has the 2nd busiest Amtrak station in California and the 10th busiest in the country.

Walkability


A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Sacramento 24th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.

Other transportation options


The city and its suburbs are served by Sacramento Regional Transit District
Sacramento Regional Transit District
The Sacramento Regional Transit District, commonly referred to as RT, is the agency responsible for public transportation in the Sacramento, California area. It was established on April 1, 1973, as a result of the acquisition of the Sacramento Transit Authority...

, which ranks as the ninth busiest in the United States. Sac RT is a bus and light-rail system, with 274 buses and light-rail providing service for 58,200 daily passengers. Light-rail lines have recently been expanded east as far as the city of Folsom
Folsom, California
Folsom is a city in Sacramento County, California, United States. Folsom is most commonly known for its famous Folsom Prison. The population was 72,203 at the 2010 census....

. Sacramento's light rail system goes to the Sacramento Valley Rail Station, Meadowview RD. in south Sacramento and north to Watt/I-80 where I-80 and Business 80 meet.

Sacramento International Airport
Sacramento International Airport
Sacramento International Airport is a public airport located 10 miles northwest of the central business district of Sacramento, in Sacramento County, California, USA. It is run by Sacramento County...

 handles flights to and from various US destinations (including Hawaii) as well as Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, Canada and connecting flights to Europe, Asia, and South America.

Bicycling is an increasingly popular transportation mode in Sacramento, which enjoys a mild climate and flat terrain. Bicycling is especially common in the older neighborhoods of Sacramento's center, such as Alkali Flat, Midtown
Midtown Sacramento
Midtown Sacramento is a historical district and neighborhood just east of Downtown Sacramento. Officially, Midtown's borders are R Street on the South, J Street on the North, 16th Street on the West and 30th Street on the East. However, the streets in Sacramento's original "grid" that are east of...

, McKinley Park, Land Park, and East Sacramento. Many employees who work downtown commute by bicycle from suburban communities on a dedicated bicycle path on the American River Parkway
American River Parkway
The American River Parkway is a parkway that runs along the American River throughout Sacramento County, California and consists of many smaller parks and boat launching points...

. Sacramento was designated as a Silver Level Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists
League of American Bicyclists
The League of American Bicyclists is a non-profit membership organization which promotes cycling for fun, fitness and transportation through advocacy and education....

 in September 2006. The advocacy organization Sacramento Area Bicycle Advocates
Sacramento Area Bicycle Advocates
The Sacramento Area Bicycle Advocates is a nonprofit bicycle advocacy organization serving the Sacramento, California area. SABA was formed in 1991, and was incorporated as a 501 nonprofit organization in 2003. SABA has more than 1,400 members in the counties served by the Sacramento Area Council...

 co-sponsors the Sacramento Area Council of Governments' May is Bike Month campaign.

There is commuter bus service on two bus lines from Yuba County
Yuba County, California
Yuba County is a county located in the U.S. state of California's Central Valley, north of Sacramento, along the Feather River. As of the 2010 census, its population was 72,155. The county seat is Marysville. Yuba County is part of the Greater Sacramento area.-History:Yuba County was one of the...

's Yuba Sutter Transit and also from San Joaquin County
San Joaquin County, California
San Joaquin County is a county located in Central Valley of the U.S. state of California, just east of the San Francisco Bay Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306. The county seat is Stockton.-History:...

 on several SMART
San Joaquin Regional Transit District
San Joaquin Regional Transit District is a transit district that provides bus service to the city of Stockton, California and the surrounding communities of Lodi, Ripon, Thornton, French Camp, Lathrop, Manteca, and Tracy.San Joaquin RTD operates 36 fixed routes to the Stockton metropolitan area,...

 bus lines.

Sister cities


Sacramento has ten sister cities: Manila/Pasay City, Philippines Chişinău
Chisinau
Chișinău is the capital and largest municipality of Moldova. It is also its main industrial and commercial centre and is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bîc...

, Moldova Hamilton
Hamilton, New Zealand
Hamilton is the centre of New Zealand's fourth largest urban area, and Hamilton City is the country's fourth largest territorial authority. Hamilton is in the Waikato Region of the North Island, approximately south of Auckland...

, New Zealand Liestal
Liestal
Liestal is the capital of the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland, south of Basel.It is an industrial town with a cobbled-street Old Town.-History:...

, Switzerland Matsuyama
Matsuyama, Ehime
is the capital city of Ehime Prefecture on the Shikoku island of Japan. It is located on the northeastern portion of the Dōgo Plain. Its name means "pine mountain." The city was founded on December 15, 1889....

, Japan Yongsan-gu
Yongsan-gu
Yongsan-gu is a district of Seoul, South Korea. Its name means "Dragon Hill", derived from the hanja characters for dragon and hill/mountain . It sits to the North of the Han River under the shadow of Seoul Tower. Geographically, it is located right in the center of Seoul. It is home to roughly...

, South Korea San Juan de Oriente
San Juan de Oriente
San Juan de Oriente is a municipality in the Masaya department of Nicaragua. It one of the "Pueblos Blancos" because of the white colonial style churches that it and the other municipalities have in Masaya.-History:...

, Nicaragua Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank of the Jordan River, near Israel and approximately south of Jerusalem, with a population of about 30,000 people. It is the capital of the Bethlehem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority and a hub of Palestinian culture and tourism...

, Palestine Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad also known as Karnavati is the largest city in Gujarat, India. It is the former capital of Gujarat and is also the judicial capital of Gujarat as the Gujarat High Court has its seat in Ahmedabad...

, India Jinan
Jinan
Jinan is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilisation and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub...

, China

Television stations

Channel Call Sign Network
3 KCRA-TV
KCRA-TV
KCRA-TV, channel 3, is a television station in Sacramento, California, United States. KCRA-TV is owned by Hearst Television, a subsidiary of the Hearst Corporation, and is an affiliate of the NBC television network...

NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

6 KVIE
KVIE
KVIE is the local PBS Public television station in Sacramento, California, USA. Its transmitter is located near Walnut Grove, California. The station broadcasts from a 2000 foot tall tower owned by KTXL...

PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

10 KXTV
KXTV
KXTV, channel 10, is an ABC affiliate television station in Sacramento, California. It is owned and operated by the Gannett Company. Its transmitter tower is located in Walnut Grove, California, and studios are located on Broadway, just south of Business Loop 80 at the south edge of downtown...

ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

13 KOVR
KOVR
KOVR, channel 13, is an owned-and-operated station of the CBS Television Network located in Sacramento, California and licensed to Stockton. KOVR-TV shares its offices and studio facilities with sister station KMAX-TV in West Sacramento, California, and its transmitter is located in Walnut Grove,...

CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

19 KUVS-TV
KUVS-TV
KUVS-DT, virtual channel 19 , is the Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto, California owned and operated station of the Spanish-language Univision television network. The station is licensed to Modesto, California on UHF digital channel 18, as per the station's founding...

Univision
Univision
Univision is a Spanish-language television network in the United States. It has the largest audience of Spanish language television viewers according to Nielsen ratings. Randy Falco, COO, has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva...

27 TBA 3ABN
3ABN
Three Angels Broadcasting Network, or 3ABN for short, is a nonprofit, 24-hour television and radio network that primarily focuses on Christian and health-oriented programming...

29 KSPX
KSPX
KSPX is the Sacramento, Stockton, and Modesto area ION Television station. The station is owned and operated by ION Media Networks and has operations at 3252 Mather Field Rd in the Sacramento suburb of Rancho Cordova ....

ION
31 KMAX-TV
KMAX-TV
KMAX-TV, channel 31, is the CW affiliate serving the Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto, California broadcast area. The station is owned by CBS Television Stations along with the local CBS station, KOVR; the two stations are two of the 3 English network O&Os in the market, along with Ion Television...

CW
The CW Television Network
The CW Television Network is a television network in the United States launched at the beginning of the 2006–2007 television season. It is a joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network , and Time Warner's Warner Bros., former majority owner of The WB...

32 KSTV-LP
KSTV-LP
KSTV-LP, Channel 32, is a low power station in Sacramento, California, affiliated with the Spanish-language Azteca América network. It is owned by Bustos Media....

Azteca America
Azteca América
Azteca América is a broadcast television network marketed toward Spanish-speaking families residing in the United States. As a rapidly-growing Spanish language network, Azteca América now reaches 89% of the Hispanic households in the U.S., operating in sixty-two markets nationwide. Wholly owned by...

33 KCSO-LP
KCSO-LP
KCSO-LD is a Telemundo affiliate licensed to Sacramento, California. It is owned by Sainte Partners II, L.P., former owner and founder of KUVS...

Telemundo
Telemundo
Telemundo is an American television network that broadcasts in Spanish. The network is the second-largest Spanish-language content producer in the world, and the second-largest Spanish-language network in the United States, behind Univision....

40 KTXL
KTXL
KTXL, channel 40, is a Fox Broadcasting Company-affiliated television station in Sacramento, California, owned by the Tribune Company. Its studios and offices are located in South Sacramento, and its transmitter is near Walnut Grove, California.-History:...

Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

58 KQCA
KQCA
KQCA is the MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station for Sacramento, California, USA. Licensed to Stockton, the station broadcasts a digital-only signal on UHF channel 46. KQCA's transmitter is located northeast of Walnut Grove. The station is owned by Hearst Television as part of a duopoly with...

MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV
MyNetworkTV is a television broadcast syndication service in the United States, owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a division of News Corporation...

64 KTFK Telefutura
TeleFutura
TeleFutura is a U.S. Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by Univision with headquarters in Miami, Florida.-Overview:TeleFutura Is America’s #2 Spanish-Language Network in prime time...


Sacramento newspapers


The primary newspaper is The Sacramento Bee
The Sacramento Bee
The Sacramento Bee is a daily newspaper published in Sacramento, California, in the United States. Since its creation in 1857, the Bee has become Sacramento's largest newspaper, the fifth largest newspaper in California, and the 25th largest paper in the U.S...

, founded in 1857 by James McClatchy
James McClatchy
James McClatchy was an American newspaper editor.Although he is thought of as founder of The Sacramento Bee, which grew into The McClatchy Company, James McClatchy was actually the newspaper's second editor, taking over just days after the newspaper began publication as The Daily Bee in February...

. Its rival, the Sacramento Union
Sacramento Union
The Sacramento Union was a daily newspaper founded in 1851 in Sacramento, California. It was the oldest daily newspaper west of the Mississippi River before it closed its doors after 143 years in January 1994, no longer able to compete with The Sacramento Bee, which was founded in 1857, just six...

, started publishing six years earlier in 1851; it closed its doors in 1994, with a revival attempt lasting from 2005 to 2009. Writer and journalist Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Samuel Langhorne Clemens , better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist...

 wrote for the Union in 1866. The Sacramento Bee is the flagship paper of The McClatchy Company
The McClatchy Company
The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California. It operates 30 daily newspapers in 15 states and has an average weekday circulation of 2.2 million and Sunday circulation of 2.8 million...

, the second-largest newspaper publisher in the United States. The Sacramento Bee has won five Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
The Pulitzer Prize is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City...

s in its history. It has won numerous other awards, including many for its progressive public service campaigns promoting free speech (the Bee often criticized government policy, and uncovered many scandals hurting Californians), anti-racism (the Bee supported the Union during the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 and later publicly denounced the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically...

), worker's rights (the Bee has a strong history of supporting unionization), and environmental protection
Environmental protection
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the environment, on individual, organizational or governmental level, for the benefit of the natural environment and humans. Due to the pressures of population and our technology the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently...

 (leading numerous tree-planting campaigns and fighting against environmental destruction in the Sierra Nevada).
  • Sacramento Bee
  • Sacramento Business Journal
  • Sacramento News & Review
  • The Sacramento Observer
    The Sacramento Observer
    The Sacramento Observer is an African American-owned weekly newspaper in Sacramento, California, USA. It serves the African American community throughout the Sacramento Metropolitan Area. There are an estimated 144,000 African Americans living in Sacramento, according to the 2005 American Community...

  • Capitol Weekly
  • Sacramento Today

Magazines

  • Sactown Magazine
    Sactown Magazine
    Sactown Magazine is a bi-monthly publication based on the various cultural offerings of Sacramento, California. It started in December 2006, and regularly publishes rich articles, vibrant photographs, and interesting facts about the city....

  • Sacramento Magazine
  • Sacramento Parent Magazine
  • Comstock's Magazine
    Comstock's Magazine
    The Comstock’s Magazine is a monthly business publication in the Sacramento Region. It has served the Northern California region for approximately twenty years....

  • Government Technology Magazine
    Government Technology Magazine
    Government Technology magazine is the flagship periodical of Folsom, California-based publishing company e.Republic Incorporated. The magazine aims to deliver editorial content to information technology professionals working in the public-sector, primarily in state and local government.Established...

  • SacramentoGrapevine.com, The local Interactive City Magazine
  • Submerge Magazine
  • Outword Magazine

See also


  • C. M. Goethe Arboretum
  • List of mayors of Sacramento
  • List of Sacramento entertainers
  • Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District
    Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District
    The Sacramento Metropolitan Fire District, is a special-purpose district that provides fire protection to the unincorporated areas of Sacramento County along with the cities of Rancho Cordova, Citrus Heights, and a small portion of Placer County. The agency is a combination of 16 smaller fire...


External links