Eucharistic adoration

Eucharistic adoration

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Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

, and in a few Anglican and Lutheran churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
The Blessed Sacrament, or the Body and Blood of Christ, is a devotional name used in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, Old Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, to refer to the Host after it has been consecrated in the sacrament of the Eucharist...

 is exposed to and adored by the faithful.

Adoration is a sign of devotion to and worship of Jesus Christ, who is believed by Catholics to be present Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity, under the appearance of the consecrated
Consecration
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word "consecration" literally means "to associate with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups...

 host, in the form of hosts or bread. As a devotion, Eucharistic adoration and meditation are more than merely looking at the Blessed Host, but are believed to be a continuation of what was celebrated in the Eucharist. From a theological perspective, the adoration is a form of latria
Latria
Latrīa is a Latin term used in Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic theology to mean adoration, a reverence directed only to the Holy Trinity. Latria carries an emphasis on the internal form of worship, rather than external ceremonies.-Catholic teachings:In Catholic teachings, latria also applies...

, based on the tenet of the presence of Christ in the Blessed Host.

Christian meditation
Christian meditation
Christian meditation is a form of prayer in which a structured attempt is made to get in touch with and deliberately reflect upon the revelations of God. The word meditation comes from the Latin word meditārī, which has a range of meanings including to reflect on, to study and to practice...

 performed in the presence of the Eucharist outside of Mass is called Eucharistic meditation. It has been practiced by such as Peter Julian Eymard
Peter Julian Eymard
Saint Peter Julian Eymard was a French Catholic priest, founder of two religious orders, and a canonized saint....

, Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney , commonly known in English as St John Vianney, was a French parish priest who in the Catholic Church is venerated as a saint and as the patron saint of all priests. He is often referred to as the "Curé d'Ars"...

 and Thérèse of Lisieux. Authors such as the Venerable
Venerable
The Venerable is used as a style or epithet in several Christian churches. It is also the common English-language translation of a number of Buddhist titles.-Roman Catholic:...

 Concepcion Cabrera de Armida
Concepcion Cabrera de Armida
The Venerable Concepción Cabrera de Armida was a Mexican Roman Catholic mystic and writer....

 and Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist, O.C.D., was a Roman Catholic Carmelite nun, beatified by Pope John Paul II. The daughter of an appellate court judge, Pietro Barba, the family home was in Palermo, Sicily, but she was born in Catanzaro, Italy, during a brief assignment of her father to that...

 have produced large volumes of text based on their Eucharistic meditations.

When the exposure and adoration of the Eucharist is constant (twenty-four hours a day), it is called Perpetual adoration. In a monastery
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

 or convent
Convent
A convent is either a community of priests, religious brothers, religious sisters, or nuns, or the building used by the community, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican Communion...

, it is done by the resident monk
Monk
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of monks, while always maintaining some degree of physical separation from those not sharing the same purpose...

s or nun
Nun
A nun is a woman who has taken vows committing her to live a spiritual life. She may be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent...

s and, in a parish
Parish
A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by a curate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less central parish church with its associated organization...

, by volunteer parishioners since the 20th century. In the opening prayer of the Perpetual chapel in St. Peter Basilica Pope John Paul II prayed for a perpetual adoration chapel in every parish in the world. Pope Benedict XVI instituted perpetual adoration for the laity in each of the five diocese of Rome.

The practice and its context



Eucharistic adoration may be performed both when the Eucharist is exposed for viewing, and when it is not. In the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, the Eucharist is displayed in a monstrance
Monstrance
A monstrance is the vessel used in the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, and Anglican churches to display the consecrated Eucharistic host, during Eucharistic adoration or Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. Created in the medieval period for the public display of relics, the monstrance today is...

, typically placed on an altar
Altar (Catholicism)
In the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church, the altar is where the Sacrifice of the Mass is offered. Mass may sometimes be celebrated outside a sacred place, but never without an altar, or at least an altar stone.-Precedent:...

, at times with a light focused on it, or with candles flanking it. The exposition usually occurs in the context of a service of Benediction
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament is a devotional ceremony celebrated within the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as in some Anglican and Lutheran Churches, Liberal Catholic churches, Western Rite Orthodox churches, and Latinised Eastern Catholic Churches.Benediction of the...

 or similar service of devotions to the Blessed Sacrament. Exposition also takes place in the context of "perpetual adoration", where specific people attend the exposition for a certain period of time, 24 hours a day.

The adoration may also take place when the Eucharist is not exposed but left in a ciborium, which is likewise placed on an altar or in an enclosed tabernacle
Church tabernacle
A tabernacle is the fixed, locked box in which, in some Christian churches, the Eucharist is "reserved" . A less obvious container, set into the wall, is called an aumbry....

 so that the faithful may pray in its presence without the need for volunteers to be in constant attendance (as must be the case when the Blessed Sacrament is exposed).
Official Catholic teachings consider the exposition and adoration of the Blessed Sacrament an important practice which "stimulates the faithful to an awareness of the marvelous presence of Christ and is an invitation to spiritual communion with Him."

In many cases Eucharistic adoration is performed by each person for an uninterrupted hour known as the Holy Hour
Holy hour
Holy Hour is the Roman Catholic devotional tradition of spending an hour in Eucharistic adoration in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament. The official Raccolta book provides indulgences for this practice....

. The inspiration for the Holy Hour is when in the Garden of Gethsemane
Agony in the Garden
The Agony in the Garden refers to the events in the life of Jesus between the Last Supper and Jesus' arrest. Jesus' struggle praying and discussing with God, before accepting his sacrifice, before his arrest in the Garden of Gethsemane also denotes a state of mind - agony.-Scriptural...

 the night before his crucifixion
Crucifixion of Jesus
The crucifixion of Jesus and his ensuing death is an event that occurred during the 1st century AD. Jesus, who Christians believe is the Son of God as well as the Messiah, was arrested, tried, and sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, and finally executed on a cross...

, Jesus asks Peter: "So, could you men not keep watch with me for one hour?".

While psalms, readings and devotional music may be performed during Eucharistic adoration, in many Roman Catholic churches this is rarely done and silent contemplation and reflection is the focus of adoration. Pope John Paul II would spend many hours in silent Eucharistic adoration and stated that the practice provides contact with the "very wellspring of grace".

Ever since the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

, Protestants have criticized Eucharistic adoration, some considering it a form of idolatry
Idolatry
Idolatry is a pejorative term for the worship of an idol, a physical object such as a cult image, as a god, or practices believed to verge on worship, such as giving undue honour and regard to created forms other than God. In all the Abrahamic religions idolatry is strongly forbidden, although...

. Adoration may be seen as the abrogation
Antinomianism
Antinomianism is defined as holding that, under the gospel dispensation of grace, moral law is of no use or obligation because faith alone is necessary to salvation....

 of the command to adore God alone, as commanded in Leviticus
Leviticus
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah ....

, but see Biblical law in Christianity
Biblical law in Christianity
Christian views of the Old Covenant have been central to Christian theology and practice since the circumcision controversy in Early Christianity. There are differing views about the applicability of the Old Covenant among Christian denominations...

. Those who see the matter this way, see the adoration of any other objects, including the sacred instruments of Christ's Grace, as idolatry. Catholics contend that it would not be idolatry if it is true that Christ, whole and entire, is present in the Eucharist. The Anglican Thirty-Nine Articles
Thirty-Nine Articles
The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion are the historically defining statements of doctrines of the Anglican church with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. First established in 1563, the articles served to define the doctrine of the nascent Church of England as it related to...

 of Religion explicity reject adoring the host outside of corporate worship.

Early History


While the keeping of the Blessed Sacrament outside of Mass seems to have been part of the Eucharistic Christian practice from the beginnings (both Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr, also known as just Saint Justin , was an early Christian apologist. Most of his works are lost, but two apologies and a dialogue survive. He is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church....

 and Tertullian
Tertullian
Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian , was a prolific early Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa. He is the first Christian author to produce an extensive corpus of Latin Christian literature. He also was a notable early Christian apologist and...

 refer to it), the practice of adoration began somewhat later.

One of the first possible references to reserving the Blessed Sacrament for adoration is found in a life of St. Basil (who died in 379). Basil is said to have divided the Eucharistic Bread into three parts when he celebrated the Divine Liturgy in the monastery. One part he consumed, the second part he gave to the monks, and the third he placed in a golden dove suspended over the altar. It is more likely, however, that this separate portion was simply for the purpose of reserving the sacrament for distribution in contexts in which a communicant could not attend the Divine Liturgy, which is a standard practice throughout the ancient churches, even those who do not practice extra-liturgical Eucharistic adoration.

In Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity comprises the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Northeastern Africa, India and parts of the Far East over several centuries of religious antiquity. The term is generally used in Western Christianity to...

, the sort of extra-liturgical adoration which developed in the West has never been part of the Eastern liturgy which St. Basil celebrated, but a liturgy for adoration does exist, involving psalms and placing a covered diskos with the Sacred Species on the altar. This is befitting the Eastern custom of veiling those things deemed sacred from human eyes.

Middle Ages



The Franciscan
Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

 archives credit Saint Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Assisi was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Franciscan Order, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the lay Third Order of Saint Francis. St...

 (who died in 1226) for starting Eucharistic Adoration in Italy. This process then spread from Umbria
Umbria
Umbria is a region of modern central Italy. It is one of the smallest Italian regions and the only peninsular region that is landlocked.Its capital is Perugia.Assisi and Norcia are historical towns associated with St. Francis of Assisi, and St...

 to other parts of Italy by the Franciscans. Francis had a deep devotion to the Eucharist and Saint Bonaventure
Bonaventure
Saint Bonaventure, O.F.M., , born John of Fidanza , was an Italian medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher. The seventh Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, he was also a Cardinal Bishop of Albano. He was canonized on 14 April 1482 by Pope Sixtus IV and declared a Doctor of the...

 commented that Francis would be swept in ecstasy after receiving Communion. For Francis the adoration of the Eucharist amounted to "seeing Christ".

The theological basis for the adoration was prepared in the 11th century by Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
Pope St. Gregory VII , born Hildebrand of Sovana , was Pope from April 22, 1073, until his death. One of the great reforming popes, he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy, his dispute with Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor affirming the primacy of the papal...

, who was instrumental in affirming the tenet that Christ is present in the Blessed Host; In 1965 the confession of belief that Gregory imposed on Berengarius  was quoted in Pope Paul VI's historic encyclical Mysterium Fidei
Mysterium Fidei (Encyclical)
Mysterium Fidei is an encyclical letter of Pope Paul VI on the Eucharist, published in September 1965.Mysterium Fidei was issued just as the closing session of the Second Vatican Council was beginning. Written in a stern and troubled tone, its purpose was to counter certain theological movements...

:


"I believe in my heart and openly profess that the bread and wine that are placed on the altar are, through the mystery of the sacred prayer and the words of the Redeemer, substantially changed into the true and proper and lifegiving flesh and blood of Jesus Christ our Lord, and that after the consecration they are the true body of Christ


This profession of faith began a "Eucharistic Renaissance" in the churches of Europe. As of the eleventh century in the Western Church
Western Christianity
Western Christianity is a term used to include the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and groups historically derivative thereof, including the churches of the Anglican and Protestant traditions, which share common attributes that can be traced back to their medieval heritage...

 devotions began to focus on the Eucharistic gifts as the objective presence of the risen Christ and the Host began to be elevated during the liturgy for the purpose of adoration.

The lay practice of adoration formally began in Avignon
Avignon
Avignon is a French commune in southeastern France in the départment of the Vaucluse bordered by the left bank of the Rhône river. Of the 94,787 inhabitants of the city on 1 January 2010, 12 000 live in the ancient town centre surrounded by its medieval ramparts.Often referred to as the...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 on September 11, 1226. To celebrate and give thanks for the victory over the Albigensians in the later battles of the Albigensian Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Catholic Church to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc...

, King Louis VIII
Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII the Lion reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois, inheriting the county from his mother, from 1190–1226...

 asked that the sacrament be placed on display at the Chapel of the Holy Cross. The overwhelming number of adorers brought the local bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

, Pierre de Corbie, to suggest that the exposition be continued indefinitely. With the permission of Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III
Pope Honorius III , previously known as Cencio Savelli, was Pope from 1216 to 1227.-Early work:He was born in Rome as son of Aimerico...

, the idea was ratified and the adoration continued there practically uninterrupted until the chaos of the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

 halted it from 1792.

In the thirteenth century
Christianity in the 13th century
The Eastern Roman imperial church headed by Constantinople continued to assert its universal authority. By the 13th century this assertion was becoming increasingly irrelevant as the Eastern Roman Empire shrank and the Ottoman Turks took over most of what was left of the Empire...

 the Feast of Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi (feast)
Corpus Christi is a Latin Rite solemnity, now designated the solemnity of The Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ . It is also celebrated in some Anglican, Lutheran and Old Catholic Churches. Like Trinity Sunday and the Solemnity of Christ the King, it does not commemorate a particular event in...

 was instituted. From this point devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, both within and outside the Mass, became central in the piety of Western Christians.

16-18th centuries



In the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 was challenging various issues with respect to the Eucharist and the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was the 16th-century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trent between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods...

 responded to them via specific affirmations of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist and the theological basis for Eucharistic adoration. The Trent declaration was of the most significant theological component of Eucharistic doctrine since the apostolic age
Apostolic Age
The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Crucifixion of Jesus and the Great Commission in Jerusalem until the death of John the Apostle in Anatolia...

. The statement included the following:


The other sacraments do not have the power of sanctifying until
someone makes use of them, but in the Eucharist the very Author of
sanctity is present before the Sacrament is used. For before the
apostles received the Eucharist from the hands of our Lord, He told
them that it was His Body that He was giving them.


The council then declared Eucharistic adoration as a form of latria
Latria
Latrīa is a Latin term used in Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic theology to mean adoration, a reverence directed only to the Holy Trinity. Latria carries an emphasis on the internal form of worship, rather than external ceremonies.-Catholic teachings:In Catholic teachings, latria also applies...

:


"The only-begotten Son of God is to be adored in the Holy
Sacrament of the Eucharist with the worship of "latria", including
external worship. The Sacrament, therefore, is to be honored with
extraordinary festive celebrations (and) solemnly carried from place
to place in processions according to the praiseworthy universal rite
and custom of the holy Church. The Sacrament is to be publicly
exposed for the people's adoration."


Following the Council of Trent, figures such as Saints Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo was the cardinal archbishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Milan from 1564 to 1584. He was a leading figure during the Counter-Reformation and was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church, including the founding of seminaries for the education of priests...

 and Alain de Solminihac
Alain de Solminihac
Alain de Solminihac was a French Catholic religious reformer and bishop of Cahors. He was beatified in 1981.He was an Augustianian regular canon of Chancelade Abbey, Périgueux. He was a member of the Compagnie du Saint-Sacrement.-Bibliography:...

 promoted Eucharistic devotion and adoration. As part of the simplification of Church interiors, and to emphasize the importance of the Blessed Sacrament, Charles Borromeo initiated the practice of placing the tabernacle
Church tabernacle
A tabernacle is the fixed, locked box in which, in some Christian churches, the Eucharist is "reserved" . A less obvious container, set into the wall, is called an aumbry....

 at a higher, central location in the main altar. As Eucharistic adoration and Benediction became more widespread during the 17th century, the altar came to be seen as the "home of the Blessed Sacrament" where it would be adored.

A common early practice of adoration known as Quarantore
Forty Hours' Devotion
Forty Hours' Devotion, called Quarant' Ore or written in one word Quarantore, is a Roman Catholic exercise of devotion in which continuous prayer is made for forty hours before the Blessed Sacrament exposed...

 (literary forty hours) started in the 16th century. It is an exercise of devotion in which continuous prayer is made for forty hours before the exposed Blessed Sacrament. This practice started in Milan in the 1530's and 1540's by Capuchins
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is an Order of friars in the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is currently Father Mauro Jöhri.-Origins :...

 such as Giuseppe da Fermo who promoted long periods of adoration. From Northern Italy it was carried to elsewhere in Europe by the Capuchins and Jesuits.

The practice of the perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament started in Paris on March 25, 1654 in the Benedictine society formed for that purpose by Mother Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament
Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament
Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament , was born at at Saint-Dié, Lorraine in northeastern France. At first an Annunciade nun and then a Benedictine, in 1654 she founded the Order of the Benedictines of the Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament in Paris...

.

In the 18th century, large numbers of people were drawn to quiet adoration of the Eucharist and priests such as Alphonsus Liguori
Alphonsus Liguori
Saint Alphonsus Maria de Liguori was an Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, scholastic philosopher and theologian, and founder of the Redemptorists, an influential religious congregation...

 encouraged the practice. A model for the love of Eucharist at this time in Rome was Saint Benedict Joseph Labre
Benedict Joseph Labre
Saint Benedict Joseph Labré was a French mendicant, Franciscan tertiary and Roman Catholic saint.-Life:He was born in Amettes, near Arras in the north of France, the eldest of fifteen children of a prosperous shopkeeper, and was religious from a very early age. He was noted for performing public...

 a homeless beggar and Franciscan tertiary who spent many hours wrapped in silent ecstasy as he adored the Blessed Sacrament, at times in the sacrament-chapel of St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter , officially known in Italian as ' and commonly known as Saint Peter's Basilica, is a Late Renaissance church located within the Vatican City. Saint Peter's Basilica has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world...

, and became known as the "saint of the Forty Hours".

19th and 20th centuries



During the French Revolution, the persecution of Catholics hindered the practice of Eucharistic adoration. However, the beginning of the 19th century witnessed a strong emphasis on Eucharistic piety, devotions and adorations. It may be said that at the beginning of the 19th century no Catholic saint can be found who did not place Eucharistic piety at the center of their spirituality.

By 1829, the efforts of the Confraternity of Penitents-Gris brought Eucharistic adoration back in France. Twenty years later, the Venerable Leo Dupont
Leo Dupont
Venerable Leo Dupont , also known as "The Holy Man of Tours," or the "Apostle of the Holy Face", was a religious figure in the Roman Catholic faith who helped spread various Catholic devotions such as the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus and nightly Eucharistic Adoration...

 initiated the nightly adoration of the Blessed Sacrament in Tours
Tours
Tours is a city in central France, the capital of the Indre-et-Loire department.It is located on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. Touraine, the region around Tours, is known for its wines, the alleged perfection of its local spoken French, and for the...

 in 1849, from where it spread within France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. Saint Anthony Mary Claret, the confessor to Isabella II of Spain
Isabella II of Spain
Isabella II was the only female monarch of Spain in modern times. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, who refused to recognise a female sovereign, leading to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of...

 and the founder of the Claretians
Claretians
The Claretians, a community of Roman Catholic priests and brothers, were founded by Saint Anthony Claret in 1849. They strive to follow their founder's “on fire” example and help wherever they are needed. Their ministries are highly diverse and vary depending on the needs of the area. They focus...

, was also a fervent promoter of Eucharistic devotion and adoration and introduced the practice to Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, where he was sent as Archbishop.


The adoration of the Eucharist within France grew in this period and there were interactions between Catholic figures who were enthusiastic about spreading the Eucharist e.g. Leo Dupont
Leo Dupont
Venerable Leo Dupont , also known as "The Holy Man of Tours," or the "Apostle of the Holy Face", was a religious figure in the Roman Catholic faith who helped spread various Catholic devotions such as the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus and nightly Eucharistic Adoration...

, Saint Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney , commonly known in English as St John Vianney, was a French parish priest who in the Catholic Church is venerated as a saint and as the patron saint of all priests. He is often referred to as the "Curé d'Ars"...

 and Saint Peter Julian Eymard
Peter Julian Eymard
Saint Peter Julian Eymard was a French Catholic priest, founder of two religious orders, and a canonized saint....

, who in 1858 formed the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament
The Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament is a Catholic religious congregation of priests, deacons, and Brothers whose ideal of life is to become living witnesses of the Eucharist, the source and summit of Christian life. By their life and activities, they assist the Church in her efforts to form...

.

Also in 1858, Eymard (also known as the Apostle of the Eucharist) and sister Marguerite Guillot formed the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament
Servants of the Blessed Sacrament
The Servants of the Blessed Sacrament is a Roman Catholic contemplative, but not cloistered, congregation of sisters with a focus on Eucharistic adoration....

 which now maintains houses on several continents where continuous Eucharistic adoration takes place. Interestingly, this time period in France saw the growth of a parallel Catholic devotion, namely the Devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus
Holy Face of Jesus
The Holy Face of Jesus is a title for specific images which some Catholics believe to have been miraculously formed representations of the face of Jesus Christ...

 which was started in 1844 in Tours by Sister Marie of St Peter
Marie of St Peter
Sister Marie of St Peter was a Carmelite nun who lived in Tours, France. She is best known for starting the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus which is now one of the approved Catholic devotions and for the Golden Arrow Prayer....

, was promoted by Leo Dupont
Leo Dupont
Venerable Leo Dupont , also known as "The Holy Man of Tours," or the "Apostle of the Holy Face", was a religious figure in the Roman Catholic faith who helped spread various Catholic devotions such as the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus and nightly Eucharistic Adoration...

 and was approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1885.

The first informally organized Eucharistic Congress took place in 1874, through the efforts of Marie-MartheTamisier of Tours
Tours
Tours is a city in central France, the capital of the Indre-et-Loire department.It is located on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. Touraine, the region around Tours, is known for its wines, the alleged perfection of its local spoken French, and for the...

, France. In 1881 Pope Leo XIII approved the first formal Eucharistic Congress which was organized by Louis-Gaston de Ségur in Lille
Lille
Lille is a city in northern France . It is the principal city of the Lille Métropole, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country behind those of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Lille is situated on the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium...

 France and was attended by 4,0000 people. The 1905 congress took place in Rome and Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
Pope Saint Pius X , born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was the 257th Pope of the Catholic Church, serving from 1903 to 1914. He was the first pope since Pope Pius V to be canonized. Pius X rejected modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting traditional devotional practices and orthodox...

 presided over it.

The practice of prolonged Eucharistic adoration also spread to the United States in the 19th century and Saint John Neumann the Archbishop of Philadelphia stated Forty Hours adorations there, where it continues to date.

Anglicans




Opinions on the nature of the Eucharist and thus on the propriety of adoration of the Blessed Sacrament vary in the Anglican tradition (see Anglican Eucharistic theology
Anglican Eucharistic theology
Anglican Eucharistic theology is diverse in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. Some High church Anglicans, especially those considered to be Anglo-Catholics, hold beliefs identical with, or similar to, the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation...

), but many Anglo Catholics practice adoration in the manner of the Roman Catholic Church. Others celebrate Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament is a devotional ceremony celebrated within the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as in some Anglican and Lutheran Churches, Liberal Catholic churches, Western Rite Orthodox churches, and Latinised Eastern Catholic Churches.Benediction of the...

, which is not unlike Eucharistic adoration.

Notwithstanding the fact that some Anglican churches do observe the practices of the adoration and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, the Articles of Religion as published in the Book of Common Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, "Anglican realignment" and other Anglican churches. The original book, published in 1549 , in the reign of Edward VI, was a product of the English...

 of the Church of England in 1662 can be said to fairly unequivocally condemn these practices. For example, Article 25 states that, "The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use them."

Lutherans


Lutheran Eucharistic adoration is most commonly limited in duration to the Eucharistic service because Lutheran tradition typically does not include public reservation of the Sacrament. If the holy elements are not consumed at the altar or after the service, then they can be set aside and placed in an aumbry normally in the sacristy. Primarily the extra Hosts are reserved for another Eucharist or for taking to the sick and those too feeble to attend a church service. However, in North America and Europe, some Lutherans may choose to reserve the Eucharist in a tabernacle
Tabernacle
The Tabernacle , according to the Hebrew Torah/Old Testament, was the portable dwelling place for the divine presence from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan. Built to specifications revealed by God to Moses at Mount Sinai, it accompanied the Israelites...

 near the altar. The Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church
Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church
The Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church , formerly the Evangelical Community Church-Lutheran , is a church in the Lutheran Evangelical Catholic tradition. The ALCC claims to be unique among Lutheran churches in that it is of both Lutheran and Anglo-Catholic heritage and has also been significantly...

 and some parishes in the Lutheran Evangelical Catholic tradition strongly encourage Eucharistic adoration.

Historically in Lutheranism there have been two parties regarding Eucharistic adoration: Gnesio-Lutherans
Gnesio-Lutherans
"Gnesio-Lutherans" is a modern name for a theological party in the Lutheran Church, in opposition to the Philippists after the death of Martin Luther and before the Formula of Concord. In their own day they were called Flacians by their opponents and simply Lutherans by themselves...

, who followed Martin Luther's view in favor of adoration and Philippists
Philippists
The Philippists formed a party in early Lutheranism. Their opponents were called Gnesio-Lutherans.-Before Luther's Death:Philippists was the designation usually applied in the latter half of the sixteenth century to the followers of Philipp Melanchthon...

 who followed Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Melanchthon , born Philipp Schwartzerdt, was a German reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems...

's view against it. Although Luther did not entirely approve of the Feast of Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi (feast)
Corpus Christi is a Latin Rite solemnity, now designated the solemnity of The Most Holy Body and Blood of Christ . It is also celebrated in some Anglican, Lutheran and Old Catholic Churches. Like Trinity Sunday and the Solemnity of Christ the King, it does not commemorate a particular event in...

, he wrote a treatise "The Adoration of the Sacrament
The Adoration of the Sacrament
The Adoration of the Sacrament is Martin Luther's treatise, written to Bohemian Brethren to defend the adoration of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist.-Original German text:...

" (Von anbeten des sakraments des heyligen leychnahms Christi, 1523)
where he defended adoration but desired that the issue not be forced. In his reform of the Roman Mass Luther placed the Sanctus
Sanctus
The Sanctus is a hymn from Christian liturgy, forming part of the Order of Mass. In Western Christianity, the Sanctus is sung as the final words of the Preface of the Eucharistic Prayer, the prayer of consecration of the bread and wine...

 after the Institution Narrative
Words of Institution
The Words of Institution are words echoing those of Jesus himself at his Last Supper that, when consecrating bread and wine, Christian Eucharistic liturgies include in a narrative of that event...

 to serve as a solemn act of worship of the Real Presence
Real Presence
Real Presence is a term used in various Christian traditions to express belief that in the Eucharist, Jesus Christ is really present in what was previously just bread and wine, and not merely present in symbol, a figure of speech , or by his power .Not all Christian traditions accept this dogma...

 just brought about by the latter. After the death of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
Martin Luther was a German priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517...

, further controversies developed including Crypto-Calvinism
Crypto-Calvinism
Crypto-Calvinism is a term for Calvinist influence in the Lutheran Church during the decades just after the death of Martin Luther . It denotes what was seen as a hidden...

 and the second Sacramentarian controversy, started by Gnesio-Lutheran Joachim Westphal
Joachim Westphal (of Hamburg)
Joachim Westphal was a German "Gnesio-Lutheran" theologian....

. The Philippist understanding of the Real Presence
Real Presence
Real Presence is a term used in various Christian traditions to express belief that in the Eucharist, Jesus Christ is really present in what was previously just bread and wine, and not merely present in symbol, a figure of speech , or by his power .Not all Christian traditions accept this dogma...

 without overt adoration through time became dominant in Lutheranism, although it is not in accordance with Luther's teaching. The German theologian Andreas Musculus
Andreas Musculus
Andreas Musculus was a German Lutheran theologian. The name Musculus is a Latinized form of Meusel.Musculus was born in Schneeberg, Saxony, "generally called only Musculus" and educated in Leipzig and Wittenberg. He became professor in university of Frankfurt an der Oder...

 can be regarded as one of the warmest defenders of Eucharistic adoration in early Lutheranism.

Roman Catholics


In Catholic teachings, at the moment of Consecration
Consecration
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word "consecration" literally means "to associate with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups...

 the elements (or "gifts" as they are termed for liturgical purposes) are changed in substance (Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
In Roman Catholic theology, transubstantiation means the change, in the Eucharist, of the substance of wheat bread and grape wine into the substance of the Body and Blood, respectively, of Jesus, while all that is accessible to the senses remains as before.The Eastern Orthodox...

 - as opposed to 'transformation' wherein a change in physical form occurs) into the actual Body and Blood of Christ. Catholic doctrine holds that the elements are not only spiritually changed, but rather, their substances are actually (substantially) changed into the Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity of Christ. In the doctrine of Real Presence
Real Presence
Real Presence is a term used in various Christian traditions to express belief that in the Eucharist, Jesus Christ is really present in what was previously just bread and wine, and not merely present in symbol, a figure of speech , or by his power .Not all Christian traditions accept this dogma...

, at the point of Consecration, the act that takes place is a double miracle: 1) that Christ is present in a physical form and 2) that the bread and wine have truly, substantially become Jesus' Body and Blood. Because Roman Catholics believe that Christ is truly present (Body, Blood, Soul and Divinity) in the Eucharist, the reserved sacrament serves as a focal point of adoration. The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catechism of the Catholic Church
The Catechism of the Catholic Church is the official text of the teachings of the Catholic Church. A provisional, "reference text" was issued by Pope John Paul II on October 11, 1992 — "the thirtieth anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council" — with his apostolic...

 (item 1377) states that: "The Eucharistic presence of Christ begins at the moment of the consecration and endures as long as the Eucharistic species subsist." The official Raccolta
Raccolta
The Raccolta is a book, published from 1807 to 1950, that listed Roman Catholic prayers and other acts of piety, such as novenas, for which specific indulgences were granted by Popes...

 book provides specific indulgences for Eucharistic adoration during the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament.

Prolonged Eucharistic adoration is one of the distinguishing features of Roman Catholicism and is credited with the calling of saints and the bringing of converts to the Catholic Church. Saint Faustina Kowalska stated that she was called to religious service while attending the Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament at age seven. Two notable examples of conversion are Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton
Elizabeth Ann Seton
Saint Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton was the first native-born citizen of the United States to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church . She established Catholic communities in Emmitsburg, Maryland....

 and Blessed John Henry Newman, both having converted from Anglicanism following Eucharistic adoration.

The practice of a "daily Holy Hour
Holy hour
Holy Hour is the Roman Catholic devotional tradition of spending an hour in Eucharistic adoration in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament. The official Raccolta book provides indulgences for this practice....

" of adoration has been encouraged in the Catholic tradition, for instance Mother Teresa of Calcutta had a Holy Hour each day and all members of her Missionaries of Charity
Missionaries of Charity
Missionaries of Charity is a Roman Catholic religious congregation established in 1950 by Mother Teresa of Calcutta, which consists of over 4,500 sisters and is active in 133 countries...

 followed her example.

Since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 the practice of Eucharistic adoration outside Mass has been encouraged by the popes. For instance in Dominicae Cenae
Dominicae Cenae
Dominicae Cenae was a letter by Pope John Paul II on Eucharistic adoration. It was issued on February 24, 1980....

Pope John Paul II stated:


The Church and the world have a great need of Eucharistic worship. Jesus waits for us in this sacrament of love. Let us be generous with our time in going to meet Him in adoration and in contemplation that is full of faith.


And in Ecclesia de Eucharistia
Ecclesia de Eucharistia
Ecclesia de Eucharistia is a Papal encyclical by Pope John Paul II published on April 17, 2003, the purpose of which is "to rekindle this Eucharistic 'amazement' […], in continuity with the Jubilee heritage which [he has] left to the Church in the Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte and its...

John Paul II stated:


The worship of the Eucharist outside of the Mass is of inestimable value for the life of the Church.... It is the responsibility of Pastors to encourage, also by their personal witness, the practice of Eucharistic adoration, and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament.


From his early years, the Eucharist had a central place in the theology of Joseph Ratzinger and in his role as Pope Benedict XVI as well as in his book God Is Near Us: The Eucharist, the Heart of Life he strongly encouraged Eucharistic adoration.

Eucharistic meditation




Christian meditation
Christian meditation
Christian meditation is a form of prayer in which a structured attempt is made to get in touch with and deliberately reflect upon the revelations of God. The word meditation comes from the Latin word meditārī, which has a range of meanings including to reflect on, to study and to practice...

 performed along with adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
The Blessed Sacrament, or the Body and Blood of Christ, is a devotional name used in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, Old Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, to refer to the Host after it has been consecrated in the sacrament of the Eucharist...

 outside of Mass has been associated with a large amount of Catholic writings and inspirations.

Apart from promoting the Eucharist, Saint Pierre Julien Eymard also performed meditations before the Blessed host and his writings were later published as a book: The Real Presence. His contemporary, Saint Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney , commonly known in English as St John Vianney, was a French parish priest who in the Catholic Church is venerated as a saint and as the patron saint of all priests. He is often referred to as the "Curé d'Ars"...

 also performed Eucharistic meditations and books on his meditations have also been published.

Saint Thérèse of Lisieux was devoted to Eucharistic meditation and on February 26, 1895 shortly before she died wrote from memory and without a rough draft her poetic masterpiece "To Live by Love" which she had composed during Eucharistic meditation. During her life, the poem was sent to various religious communities and was included in a notebook of her poems.

Significant portions of the writings of the Venerable
Venerable
The Venerable is used as a style or epithet in several Christian churches. It is also the common English-language translation of a number of Buddhist titles.-Roman Catholic:...

 Concepcion Cabrera de Armida
Concepcion Cabrera de Armida
The Venerable Concepción Cabrera de Armida was a Mexican Roman Catholic mystic and writer....

 were reported as having been based on her adorations of the Blessed Sacrament
. Cabrera de Armida did not represent her writings as interior locution
Interior locution
An interior locution is a mystical concept used by various religions, including the Roman Catholic Church. In an interior locution, a person reportedly receives a set of ideas, thoughts, or imaginations from an outside spiritual source. Interior locutions are most often reported during prayers...

s or visions of Jesus and Mary
Visions of Jesus and Mary
Since the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ on Calvary until today, a number of people have claimed to have had visions of Christ and personal conversations with him. Some people make similar claims regarding the Blessed Virgin Mary. Discussions about the authenticity of these visions have often invited...

 but as her meditations and inspirations during Eucharistic adoration.

The Italian mystic Maria Valtorta
Maria Valtorta
Maria Valtorta was a Roman Catholic Italian writer and poet, considered by many to be a mystic. Her work centers on Catholic Christian themes...

's Eucharistic meditations titled Holy Hour of Jesus were recorded in her notebooks while she was bedridden for over 20 years and the Eucharist was brought to her.

In her book Eucharist: true jewel of eucharistic spirituality Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Maria Candida of the Eucharist
Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist, O.C.D., was a Roman Catholic Carmelite nun, beatified by Pope John Paul II. The daughter of an appellate court judge, Pietro Barba, the family home was in Palermo, Sicily, but she was born in Catanzaro, Italy, during a brief assignment of her father to that...

 (who was beatified by Pope John Paul II) wrote about her own personal experiences and reflections on eucharistic meditation.

Perpetual adoration


Perpetual adoration is the practice of the continuous exposition and adoration of the Eucharist, twenty four hours a day. Similar to the "Perpetual Rosary" in which the Rosary
Rosary
The rosary or "garland of roses" is a traditional Catholic devotion. The term denotes the prayer beads used to count the series of prayers that make up the rosary...

 is recited uninterrupted by a changing group of people, this practice gained popularity among Roman Catholics in 19th century France, and has since spread to lay Catholics in parishes across the world.

During perpetual adoration, a specific person performs adoration for a period of one hour or more, so there is always at least one person who performs adoration during each day and night. However, during Mass
Mass (liturgy)
"Mass" is one of the names by which the sacrament of the Eucharist is called in the Roman Catholic Church: others are "Eucharist", the "Lord's Supper", the "Breaking of Bread", the "Eucharistic assembly ", the "memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection", the "Holy Sacrifice", the "Holy and...

 the Blessed Sacrament may be reposed and is then exposed again after Mass. The only other time perpetual adoration is not performed is during the three days of Easter Triduum
Easter Triduum
Easter Triduum, Holy Triduum, or Paschal Triduum is the period of three days that begins with the Mass of the Lord's Supper on the evening of Maundy Thursday and ends with evening prayer on Easter Sunday...

.

Early traditions


Perpetual adoration of God by psalm and prayer has been a tradition among Christians since ancient times, e.g. in Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity comprises the Christian traditions and churches that developed in the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Northeastern Africa, India and parts of the Far East over several centuries of religious antiquity. The term is generally used in Western Christianity to...

 since the year 400 the Acoemetae
Acoemetae
Acoemetae was an order of monks in the 5th century, who by turns, kept up a divine service day and night. The order was founded about the year 400, by one Alexander, a man of noble birth, who fled from the court of Byzantium to the desert, both from love of solitude and fear of episcopal...

 monks kept up a divine service day and night and in Western Christianity
Western Christianity
Western Christianity is a term used to include the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and groups historically derivative thereof, including the churches of the Anglican and Protestant traditions, which share common attributes that can be traced back to their medieval heritage...

 the monks at the monastery of Agaunum
Agaunum
Roman Agaunum, the modern Saint-Maurice in the canton Valais in southwesternmost Switzerland, was a minor post confined between the Rhône and the mountains along the well-travelled road that led from Roman Genava, modern Geneva, over the Alps by the Great St...

 performed perpetual prayers since its formation in 522 by King Sigismund
Sigismund of Burgundy
Sigismund was king of the Burgundians from 516 to his death. He was the son of king Gundobad, whom he succeeded in 516. Sigismund and his brother Godomar were defeated in battle by Clovis' sons and Godomar fled. Sigismund was taken by Chlodomer, King of Orléans, where he was kept as a prisoner. He...

.
Mother Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament
Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament
Mechtilde of the Blessed Sacrament , was born at at Saint-Dié, Lorraine in northeastern France. At first an Annunciade nun and then a Benedictine, in 1654 she founded the Order of the Benedictines of the Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament in Paris...

 pioneered perpetual adoration of the Eucharist on request of Père Picotte. Père Picotte was the confessor of Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria was Queen consort of France and Navarre, regent for her son, Louis XIV of France, and a Spanish Infanta by birth...

 who asked him for a vow for the deliverance of France from war and the order was formed in response to that vow. A small house was bought on Rue Feron in Paris and a Benedictine convent, founded for this purpose, began perpetual adoration there on March 25, 1654, one or more nuns kneeling in front of the altar in adoration each hour of the day and night. The simple Benedictine rules with which the nuns started were amended and formal approval for perpetual adoration was provided by the Camera Apostolica in Rome in 1705.

Various Roman Catholic societies and orders were formed for the specific purpose of perpetual adoration prior to the 19th century, e.g. the Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament
Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament
The Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament was an enclosed Roman Catholic religious congregation and a reform of the Dominican Order devoted to the perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. The Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed Sacrament were a female religious congregation...

 (1659 in Marsaille), Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and of the Perpetual Adoration (formed in 1768 in Paris), and the Religious of the Perpetual Adoration
Religious of the Perpetual Adoration
Religious of the Perpetual Adoration is a Roman Catholic religious order formed in 1789 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland....

 (1789 , Switzerland).

By the beginning of the 19th century, in France, as well as elsewhere in Europe, strong currents in favor of the Eucharistic piety, devotions and adoration began to appear. Preachers such as Prosper Guéranger, Peter Julian Eymard
Peter Julian Eymard
Saint Peter Julian Eymard was a French Catholic priest, founder of two religious orders, and a canonized saint....

 and Jean Vianney
Jean Vianney
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney , commonly known in English as St John Vianney, was a French parish priest who in the Catholic Church is venerated as a saint and as the patron saint of all priests. He is often referred to as the "Curé d'Ars"...

 very effective in renewing such devotions.

The 19th century thus witnessed a rapid growth in perpetual adoration societies, and some existing orders (e.g. the Dominicans and the Poor Clares) e.g. Sisters of the Perpetual Adoration
Sisters of the Perpetual Adoration
The Sisters of the Perpetual Adoration are a Roman Catholic congregation of nuns founded at Quimper , by Abbé François-Marie Langrez....

 (1845 in Brittany
Brittany
Brittany is a cultural and administrative region in the north-west of France. Previously a kingdom and then a duchy, Brittany was united to the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province. Brittany has also been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain...

), Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration (also in 1854), Religious of Perpetual Adoration
Religious of Perpetual Adoration
Religious of Perpetual Adoration is a Roman Catholic religious order formed in 1857 by Anna de Meeus, in Brussels, Belgium....

 (Brussels, 1857), Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Servants of the Most Blessed Sacrament is a Roman Catholic order of nuns, founded by the Venerable Pierre-Julien Eymard in 1858, assisted by Mother Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament, with the authorization of Mgr Morlot, Archbishop of Paris....

 (1858, Paris), Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual Adoration
Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual Adoration
The Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual Adoration is a papal congregation of the Roman Catholic Church, founded on July 20, 1863 by Mother Maria Theresia Bonzel in Olpe, Germany. An American branch was established by six pioneer nuns who emigrated to Lafayette, Indiana in 1875. In 1886 the...

 (1863, Olpe, Germany
Olpe, Germany
Olpe is situated in the foothills of the Ebbegebirge in North Rhine-Westphalia, roughly 60 km east of Cologne and 20 km northwest of Siegen. It is part of the Regierungsbezirk of Arnsberg and is the seat of the district of Olpe.- Location :...

), Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters
Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters
The Holy Spirit Adoration Sisters are a Roman Catholic religious order of cloistered nuns.The nuns live a contemplative life, focused on perpetual adoration of the Blessed Sacrament, offering intercessory prayers for the world. Inside the cloister the nuns wear rose-colored habits in honor of the...

 (Holland, 1896), [ etc. A number of perpetual adoration orders were also formed in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, e.g. Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration is a Roman Catholic religious congregation for women whose motherhouse, St. Rose of Viterbo Convent, is in La Crosse, Wisconsin in the Diocese of La Crosse. The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration founded Viterbo University and staffed Aquinas...

 (1849 Wisconsin), and Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
The Benedictine Sisters of Perpetual Adoration are a congregation of nuns within the Benedictine Confederation. The original monastery was founded in 1874 by a group of five nuns, led by Sister Mary Anselma Felber, O.S.B., who came from the young monastery of Maria-Rickenbach in Switzerland...

 (1874, Clyde, Missouri
Clyde, Missouri
Clyde is a village in Nodaway County, Missouri, United States. The population was 74 at the 2000 census.It is home to the Benedictine Convent of Perpetual Adoration which houses 550 documented saint relics—said to be the largest collection in the United States.-Geography:Clyde is located at ...

).

Since 1878, for years and counting, the Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration
The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration is a Roman Catholic religious congregation for women whose motherhouse, St. Rose of Viterbo Convent, is in La Crosse, Wisconsin in the Diocese of La Crosse. The Franciscan Sisters of Perpetual Adoration founded Viterbo University and staffed Aquinas...

 have been praying nonstop longer than anyone in the United States. The practice began on August 1, 1878, at 11 a.m. and continues to this date.

20th-21st centuries



In the 20th century, the practice of perpetual adoration spread from monasteries and convents to Catholic parishes at large, and is now also performed by lay Catholics. The perpetual adoration chapel in Saint Peter's Basilica was inaugurated by Pope John Paul II in 1981 and a number of the major basilica
Basilica
The Latin word basilica , was originally used to describe a Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town. Public basilicas began to appear in Hellenistic cities in the 2nd century BC.The term was also applied to buildings used for religious purposes...

s in Rome have also started perpetual adoration in the 20th century.

Early in the 20th century questions arose as to the suitability of perpetual adoration by lay Catholics. However, after various discussions, on June 2, 1991 (feast of Corpus Christi), the Pontifical Council for the Laity
Pontifical Council for the Laity
The Pontifical Council for the Laity has the responsibility of assisting the Pope in his dealings with the laity in lay ecclesial movements or individually, and their contributions to the Church. The Cardinal President of the Council is Cardinal Stanisław Ryłko. The Secretary is Bishop Josef...

 issued specific guidelines that permit perpetual adoration in parishes. In order to establish a "perpetual adoration chapel" in a parish, the local priest must obtain permission from his Bishop by submitting a request along with the required information for the local "perpetual adoration association", its officers, etc.

At the beginning of the 21st century, there were over 2,500 perpetual adoration chapels in Catholic parishes around the world. The United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 (with about 70 million Catholics) had about 1,100 chapels, the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 (with about 80 million Catholics) 500, the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

 (with about 4 million Catholics) about 150, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 (with about 4 million Catholics) had about 70.

The world's largest Monstrance
Monstrance
A monstrance is the vessel used in the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, and Anglican churches to display the consecrated Eucharistic host, during Eucharistic adoration or Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. Created in the medieval period for the public display of relics, the monstrance today is...

 is in Chicago where a perpetual adoration chapel
Chapel
A chapel is a building used by Christians as a place of fellowship and worship. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a church, college, hospital, palace, prison or funeral home, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an entirely free-standing building,...

 is under construction. This Sanctuary
Sanctuary
A sanctuary is any place of safety. They may be categorized into human and non-human .- Religious sanctuary :A religious sanctuary can be a sacred place , or a consecrated area of a church or temple around its tabernacle or altar.- Sanctuary as a sacred place :#Sanctuary as a sacred place:#:In...

 devoted to The Divine Mercy
Chaplet of Divine Mercy
The Chaplet of the Divine Mercy is a Roman Catholic devotion based on the visions of Jesus reported by Saint Mary Faustina Kowalska , known as "the Apostle of Mercy." She was a Polish sister of the Congregation of the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy and canonized as a Catholic saint in 2000.Faustina...

 is being constructed adjacent to Church of St. Stanislaus Kostka, one of the city's Polish Cathedrals.

External links