Arabic language

Arabic language

Overview
{{Redirect|Arabic}} : ''For the literary standard, see [[Modern Standard Arabic]]. For vernaculars, see [[varieties of Arabic]]. For others, see [[Arabic languages]].'' {{Contains Arabic text}} '''Arabic''' ({{lang|ar|العربية}} ''{{transl|ar|al-ʿarabiyyah}}''{{ref|A|[note A]}} or {{lang|ar|عربي/عربى}} ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʿarabī}}'' {{ref|B|[note B]}}) is a name applied to the descendants of the [[Classical Arabic]] language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the [[Quran]], the Islamic Holy Book.
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{{Redirect|Arabic}} : ''For the literary standard, see [[Modern Standard Arabic]]. For vernaculars, see [[varieties of Arabic]]. For others, see [[Arabic languages]].'' {{Contains Arabic text}} '''Arabic''' ({{lang|ar|العربية}} ''{{transl|ar|al-ʿarabiyyah}}''{{ref|A|[note A]}} or {{lang|ar|عربي/عربى}} ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʿarabī}}'' {{ref|B|[note B]}}) is a name applied to the descendants of the [[Classical Arabic]] language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the [[Quran]], the Islamic Holy Book. This includes both the literary language ([[Modern Standard Arabic]] or ''Literary Arabic'', used in most written documents as well as in formal spoken occasions, such as lectures and radio broadcasts) and the [[Varieties of Arabic|spoken Arabic varieties]], spoken in a wide arc of territory stretching across the [[Middle East]] and [[North Africa]]. Arabic is a [[Central Semitic languages|Central Semitic language]], closely related to [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]] and the [[Neo-Aramaic languages]], and also related to the [[South Semitic languages]] (e.g. [[Amharic language|Amharic]] in [[Ethiopia]], [[Tigrinya language|Tigrinya]] in Ethiopia and [[Eritrea]], and [[Mehri language|Mehri]] in [[Yemen]] and [[Oman]]) and the extinct [[East Semitic languages]] (e.g. [[Akkadian]], first attested nearly 5,000 years ago). The written language is distinct from and more conservative than all of the spoken varieties, and the two exist in a state known as [[diglossia]], used side-by-side for different societal functions. Many of the spoken varieties are [[mutual intelligibility|mutually unintelligible]], and the varieties as a whole constitute a [[sociolinguistic language]]. This means that on purely linguistic grounds they would likely be considered to constitute more than one language, but are commonly grouped together as a single language for political and/or ethnic reasons. If considered multiple languages, it is unclear how many languages there would be, as the spoken varieties form a [[dialect chain]] with no clear boundaries. If Arabic is considered a single language, it counts more than 200 million [[first language]] speakers (according to some estimates, as high as 280 million), more than that of any other [[Semitic language]]. If considered separate languages, the most-spoken variety would likely be [[Egyptian Arabic]], with more than 50,000,000 native speakers — still greater than any other Semitic language. The modern written language ([[Modern Standard Arabic]]) is derived from the language of the [[Quran]] (known as [[Classical Arabic]] or [[Quranic Arabic]]). It is widely taught in schools, universities, and used to varying degrees in workplaces, government and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as ''Literary Arabic'', which is the official language of 26 states and the [[liturgical language]] of [[Islam]]. [[Modern Standard Arabic]] largely follows the grammatical standards of Quranic Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpoint in the spoken varieties, and adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, especially in modern times. Arabic is the only surviving member of the [[Old North Arabian]] dialect group, attested in [[Pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions]] dating back to the 4th century. Arabic is written with the [[Arabic alphabet]], which is an [[abjad]] script, and is written from [[right-to-left]]. Arabic has lent many words to other languages of the [[Islamic world]], like [[Persian language|Persian]], [[Turkish language|Turkish]], [[Urdu]], [[Malay language|Malay]], [[Hausa language|Hausa]] and [[Hindi]]. During the [[Middle Ages]], Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also [[loanword|borrowed]] many words from it. Arabic influence is seen in [[Romance languages]], particularly [[Arabic influence on the Spanish language|Spanish]], [[List of Portuguese words of Arabic origin|Portuguese]], and [[Sicilian language|Sicilian]], owing to both the proximity of European and Arab civilizations and 700 years of Muslim/Moorish rule in some parts of the [[Iberian peninsula]] (see [[Al-Andalus]]). Arabic has also borrowed words from many languages, including [[Hebrew language|Hebrew]], [[Greek language|Greek]], [[Persian language|Persian]] and [[Syriac]] in early centuries, [[Turkish language|Turkish]] in medieval times and contemporary European languages in modern times. However, the current tendency is to coin new words using the existing lexical resources of the language, or to repurpose old words, rather than directly borrowing foreign words. == Classical, Modern Standard, and spoken Arabic == ''Arabic'' usually designates one of three main variants: [[Classical Arabic]]; [[Modern Standard Arabic]]; [[Varieties of Arabic|''colloquial'' or ''dialectal'' Arabic]]. [[Classical Arabic]] is the language found in the [[Qur'an]] and used from the period of [[Pre-Islamic Arabia]] to that of the [[Abbasid Caliphate]]. Theoretically, Classical Arabic is considered normative, according to the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by classical grammarians (such as [[Sibawayh]]), and the vocabulary defined in classical dictionaries (such as the {{transl|ar|Lisān al-ʿArab}}). In practice, however, modern authors almost never write in pure Classical Arabic, instead using a [[literary language]] with its own grammatical norms and vocabulary, commonly known as [[Modern Standard Arabic]]. This is the variety used in most current, printed Arabic publications, spoken by some of the Arabic media across [[North Africa]] and the [[Middle East]], and understood by most educated Arabic speakers. "Literary Arabic" and "Standard Arabic" ({{lang|ar|فصحى}} ''{{transl|ar|fuṣḥā}}'') are less strictly defined terms that may refer to Modern Standard Arabic or Classical Arabic. Some of the differences between Classical Arabic (CA) and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) are as follows: *Certain grammatical constructions of CA that have no counterpart in any modern dialect (e.g. the [[energetic mood]]) are almost never used in MSA. *No modern spoken variety of Arabic has case distinctions. As a result, MSA is generally composed without case distinctions in mind, and the proper cases added after the fact, when necessary. (Because most case endings are noted using final short vowels, which are normally left unwritten in the Arabic script, it is unnecessary to determine the proper case of most words.) The practical result of this is that MSA, like [[English language|English]] and [[Mandarin Chinese]], is written in a strongly determined word order, and alternative orders that were used in CA for emphasis are rare. In addition, because of the lack of case marking in the spoken varieties, most speakers are not able to consistently use the correct endings in extemporaneous speech. As a result, spoken MSA tends to drop or regularize the endings except when reading from a prepared text. *In CA, the verb normally precedes the subject (VSO order); when the subject is fronted (SVO order), it is usually accompanied by the focusing particle ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}''. MSA, following the spoken varieties, tends towards SVO order, and rarely uses ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʼinna}}''. *The numeral system in CA is complex and heavily tied in with the case system. This system is never used in MSA, even in the most formal of circumstances; instead, a significantly simplified system is used, approximating the system of the conservative spoken varieties. MSA uses much Classical vocabulary (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|ðahaba}}'' "to go") that is not present in the spoken varieties. However, when multiple Classical synonyms are available, MSA tends to prefer words with cognates in the spoken varieties over words without cognates. In addition, MSA has borrowed or coined a large number of terms for concepts that did not exist in Quranic times (and in fact continues to evolve). Some words have been borrowed from other languages, notice that transliteration mainly indicates spelling not real pronunciation (e.g. {{lang|ar|فيلم}} ''{{transl|ar|fīlm}}'' "film" or ''{{transl|ar|dimūqrāṭiyyah}}'' "democracy"). However, the current preference is to avoid direct borrowings, preferring to either use [[loan translation]]s (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|farʿ}}'' "branch", also used for the branch of a company or organization; ''{{transl|ar|jināḥ}}'' "wing", also used for the wing of an airplane, building, air force, etc.) or to coin new words using existing lexical resources (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|širkah}}'' "corporation", ''{{transl|ar|ištirākiyyah}}'' "socialism", both ultimately based on the verb ''{{transl|ar|šarika}}'' "to share, partner with"; ''{{transl|ar|jāmiʿah}}'' "university", based on ''{{transl|ar|jamāʿah}}'' "to gather, unite"; ''{{transl|ar|jumhūriyyah}}'' "republic", based on ''{{transl|ar|jumhūr}}'' "multitude"). An earlier tendency was to re-purpose older words that had fallen into disuse (e.g. {{lang|ar|هاتف}} ''{{transl|ar|hātif}}'' "telephone" < "invisible caller (in Sufism)"; ''{{transl|ar|jarīdah}}'' "newspaper" < "palm-leaf stalk"). [[Varieties of Arabic|''Colloquial'' or ''dialectal'' Arabic]] refers to the many national or regional varieties which constitute the everyday spoken language. Colloquial Arabic has many regional variants; these sometimes differ enough to be [[mutual intelligibility|mutually unintelligible]] and some linguists consider them distinct languages. The varieties are typically unwritten. They are often used in informal spoken media, such as [[soap opera]]s and [[talk show]]s, as well as occasionally in certain forms of written media, such as poetry and printed advertising. The only variety of modern Arabic to have acquired official language status is [[Maltese language|Maltese]], spoken in (predominately [[Roman Catholic]]) [[Malta]] and written with the [[Maltese alphabet|Latin script]]. It is descended from [[Classical Arabic]] through [[Siculo-Arabic]] and is not mutually intelligible with other varieties of Arabic. Most linguists list it as a separate language rather than as a dialect of Arabic. Historically, [[Algerian Arabic]] was taught in [[French Algeria]] under the name ''[[darija]]''. [[File:Flag of the Arab League.svg|thumb|left|upright|Flag of the [[Arab league]], used in some cases for the Arabic Language.]] [[Image:Arabic-Language-Flag.svg|thumb|left|upright|Flag used in some cases for the Arabic Language]] Note that even during Muhammad's lifetime, there were dialects of spoken Arabic. Muhammad spoke in the dialect of [[Mecca]], in the western [[Arabian peninsula]], and it was in this dialect that the Quran was written down. However, the dialects of the eastern Arabian peninsula were considered the most prestigious at the time, so the language of the Quran was ultimately converted to follow the eastern [[phonology]]. It is this phonology that underlies the modern pronunciation of Classical Arabic. The phonological differences between these two dialects account for some of the complexities of Arabic writing, most notably the writing of the [[glottal stop]] or ''[[hamza]]'' (which was preserved in the eastern dialects but lost in western speech) and the use of ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾalif maqṣūrah}}'' (representing a sound preserved in the western dialects but merged with ''{{transl|ar|ā}}'' in eastern speech). ==Language and dialect== {{Unreferenced section|date=October 2011}} The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of [[diglossia]], which is the normal use of two separate varieties of the same language, usually in different social situations. In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their local dialect and their school-taught Standard Arabic. When educated Arabs of different dialects engage in conversation (for example, a Moroccan speaking with a Lebanese), many speakers [[Code-switching|code-switch]] back and forth between the dialectal and standard varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. Arabic speakers often improve their familiarity with other dialects via music or film. The issue of whether Arabic is one language or many languages is politically charged, similar to the issue with [[Chinese languages|Chinese]], [[Hindi language|Hindi]] and [[Urdu language|Urdu]], [[Serbian language|Serbian]] and [[Croatian language|Croatian]], etc. The issue of diglossia between spoken and written language is a significant complicating factor: A single written form, significantly different from any of the spoken varieties learned natively, unites a number of sometimes divergent spoken forms. For political reasons, Arabs mostly assert that they all speak a single language, despite significant issues of mutual incomprehensibility among differing spoken versions.{{Citation needed|date=May 2011}} From a linguistic standpoint, it is often said that the various spoken varieties of Arabic differ among each other collectively about as much as the [[Romance languages]]. This is an apt comparison in a number of ways. The period of divergence from a single spoken form is similar—perhaps 1500 years for Arabic, 2000 years for the Romance languages. Also, a linguistically innovative variety such as [[Moroccan Arabic]] is essentially incomprehensible to all non-Moroccans other than Algerians and Tunisians, much as [[French language|French]] is incomprehensible to [[Spanish language|Spanish]] or [[Italian language|Italian]] speakers. However, there is some mutual comprehensibility between conservative varieties of Arabic even across significant geographical distances. This suggests that the spoken varieties, at least, should linguistically be considered separate languages. On the other hand, a significant difference between Arabic and the Romance languages is that the latter also correspond to a number of different standard written varieties, each of which separately informs the related spoken varieties, while all spoken Arabic varieties share a single written language. Indeed, a similar situation exists with the Romance languages in the case of [[Italian language|Italian]]. As spoken varieties, [[Milanese language|Milanese]], [[Neapolitan language|Neapolitan]] and [[Sicilian language|Sicilian]] (among others) are different enough to be largely mutually incomprehensible, yet since they share a single written form (Standard Italian), they are often said by Italians to be dialects of the same language. As in many similar cases, the extent to which the Italian varieties are locally considered dialects or separate languages depends to a large extent on political factors, which can change over time. Linguists are divided over whether and to what extent to incorporate such considerations when judging issues of language and dialect. == Influence of Arabic on other languages == {{Main|Influence of Arabic on other languages}} The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries. Arabic is an important source of vocabulary for languages such as [[Baluchi language|Baluchi]], [[Bengali language|Bengali]], [[Berber languages|Berber]], [[Catalan language|Catalan]], [[English language|English]], [[French language|French]], [[German language|German]], [[Gujarati language|Gujarati]], [[Hindustani language|Hindustani]], [[Italian language|Italian]], [[Indonesian language|Indonesian]], [[Kurdish language|Kurdish]], [[Malay language|Malay]], [[Malayalam]], [[Maltese language|Maltese]], [[Pashto language|Pashto]], [[Persian language|Persian]], [[Portuguese language|Portuguese]], [[Punjabi language|Punjabi]], [[Rohingya language|Rohingya]], [[Saraiki language|Saraiki]], [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]], [[Somali language|Somali]], [[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[Swahili language|Swahili]], [[Tagalog language|Tagalog]], [[Turkish language|Turkish]] and [[Urdu]] as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example, the Arabic word for ''book'' ({{lang|ar|كتاب}} ''{{transl|ar|kitāb}}'') has been borrowed in all the languages listed, with the exception of French, Spanish, Italian, Catalan and Portuguese which use the Latin-derived words "livre", "libro", "llibre" and "livro", respectively, German and English which use the Germanic "Buch" and "Book", Tagalog which uses "aklat", Hebrew which uses "sefer", Gujarati which uses "chopdi", Marathi which uses "pustak", Malayalam which uses "pustakam" and Bengali which uses "boi". In addition, [[English language|English]] has many Arabic loanwords, some directly but most through the medium of other Mediterranean languages. Examples of such words include admiral, adobe, alchemy, alcohol, algebra, algorithm, alkaline, almanac, amber, arsenal, assassin, candy, carat, cipher, coffee, cotton, ghoul, hazard, jar, kismet, lemon, loofah, magazine, mattress, sherbet, sofa, sumac, tariff and many other words. Other languages such as [[Maltese language|Maltese]] and [[Kinubi]] derive ultimately from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary or grammar rules. Terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber {{Unicode|''taẓallit''}} "prayer" < [[salat]]) ({{lang|ar|صلاة}} ''{{transl|ar|ṣalāt}}''), academic terms (like [[Uyghur language|Uyghur]] ''mentiq'' "logic"), economic items (like English ''coffee'') to [[placeholder]]s (like Spanish ''fulano'' "so-and-so") and everyday conjunctions (like Hindustani ''lekin'' "but", or Spanish ''hasta'' "until"). Most Berber varieties (such as [[Kabyle language|Kabyle]]), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic. Most Islamic religious terms are direct borrowings from Arabic, such as ''salat'' 'prayer' and ''imam'' 'prayer leader.' In languages not directly in contact with the Arab world, Arabic loanwords are often transferred indirectly via other languages rather than being transferred directly from Arabic. For example, most Arabic loanwords in Hindustani entered through Persian, and many older Arabic loanwords in [[Hausa language|Hausa]] were borrowed from [[Kanuri language|Kanuri]]. Some words in [[English language|English]] and other European languages are derived from Arabic, often through other European languages, especially [[Spanish language|Spanish]] and [[Italian language|Italian]]. Among them are commonly used words like "[[coffee]]" (''qahwa''), "[[cotton]]" (''{{unicode|quṭn}}'') and "magazine" (''[[makhzen|{{transl|ar|maḫāzin}}]]''). English words more recognizably of Arabic origin include "[[algebra]]", "[[alcohol]]", "[[alchemy]]", "[[alkali]]", "[[zenith]]" and "[[nadir]]". Some words in common use, such as "intention" and "information", were originally [[calque]]s of Arabic philosophical terms. {{See also|list of Arabic loanwords in English}} Arabic words also made their way into several West African languages as Islam spread across the Sahara. Variants of Arabic words such as ''kitaab'' (book) have spread to the languages of African groups who had no direct contact with Arab traders. Arabic was influenced by other languages as well. The most important sources of borrowings into (pre-Islamic) Arabic are from the related (Semitic) languages [[Aramaic language|Aramaic]], which used to be the principal, international language of communication throughout the ancient Near and Middle East, [[Ge'ez language|Ethiopic]], and to a lesser degree Hebrew (mainly religious concepts). In addition, many cultural, religious and political terms have entered Arabic from Iranian, notably [[Middle Persian]] or [[Parthian language|Parthian]], and to a lesser extent, (Classical) [[Persian language|Persian]]., and Hellenistic Greek (''kimiya'' has as origin the Greek chymia, meaning in that language the melting of metals); see Histoire de la Médecine de l`Antiquité au XXe siècle, Roger Dachez, Tallandier 2008, p. 251), ''alembic'' (distiller) from ambix (cup), ''qalam'' (pen, pencil, feather) from kalamata (cane), ''almanac'' (climate), from almenichiakon (calendar) (for the origin of the last three borrowed words, see Alfred-Louis de Prémare, Foundations of Islam, Seuil, L'Univers Historique 2002. Some arabic borrowings from Semitic or Persian languages are, as presented in De Prémare`s above-cited book: - ''rahman'' (merciful), from Hebrew and Aramaic, where it had a similar meaning, but also meant the very proper name of the unique God of the Jews, Christians and Muslims from the Arabian peninsula (the Arabs themselves used it similarly: during the life of Prophet Muhammad, and by others e.g. Musailima ibn Habib) who were the initiators of another monotheistic sect, whose only one God was called in his own name ''Ar-Rahman''. - ''nabi'' (prophet), old non-Arab term that came into Arabic from Aramaic and Hebrew before the emergence of Islam. - ''medina'', word of Aramaic or Hebrew origin; Alfred-Louis de Prémare explains in The Foundations Of Islam (p. 101) that the Jews were long before Arabs a sedentary population of 'Arabian desert'. - ''jizya'', the tax imposed by the caliphate on individuals of religion other than Islam (dhimmis), a tax in addition to the levy on agricultural land (kharadjy). The term comes from the Syriac (gzita), which is in turn borrowed from Persian (gazit). - ''kharaj'', ''kharadji'', land tax originally imposed only on non-Muslims, which comes from the Greek term "khorigia", a term which designate the act by which the wealthy citizens of the Greek polis financed the ''chorus'' of ancient Greek theater. - ''jazeera'', as in the well-known form ''Al Jazeera'', means ''island'' and has its origin in Syriac ''gazīra/gzīrta''. - ''faruk'' (Savior), is the naturalized form of the Aramaic word ''poruk'', which in the Syriac Bible (Peshita) means the Savior or Liberator. Once naturalized, the term produced mnemonic derivatives or shortcuts, so the ''f-r-q'' (meaning cutting) became a [[folk etymology|folk etymological]] explanation for ''faruk'': the Savior was one who cuts (separates) the truth from falsehood. - ''munafiq'' (hypocrite), a term borrowed from Ethiopian, where it had the sense of heretical sect. - ''lāzaward'' is taken from Persian ''lājward'', the name of a blue stone, lapis lazuli. This word was borrowed in several European languages to mean (light) blue - azure in English, ''azur'' in French and ''azul'' in Spanish. As, throughout the Islamic world, Arabic occupied a position similar to that of Latin in Europe, many of the Arabic concepts in the field of science, philosophy, commerce etc. were coined by non-native Arabic speakers, notably by Aramaic and Persian translators. This process of using Arabic roots, especially in Turkish and Persian, to translate foreign concepts continued right until the 18th and 19th century, when swaths of Arab-inhabited lands were under [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] rule. == Arabic and Islam == [[Classical Arabic]] is the language of the [[Qur'an]]. Arabic is closely associated with the religion of [[Islam]] because the Qur'an is written in the language, but it is nevertheless also spoken by [[Arab Christians and Arabic-speaking Christians|Arab Christians]], [[Mizrahi Jews]] and Iraqi [[Mandaean]]s. Most of the world's [[Muslims]] do not speak Arabic as their native language but many can read the Quranic script and recite the Qur'an. Among Non-Arab Muslims, translations of the Qur'an are most often accompanied by the original text. Some Muslims present a [[Proto-Human language|monogenesis]] of languages and claim that the Arabic language was the language revealed by God for the benefit of mankind and the original language as a prototype symbolic system of communication, based upon its system of [[Semitic root|triconsonantal roots]], spoken by man from which all other languages were derived, having first been corrupted. Statements spread in later centuries regarding the Arabic language being the language of Paradise are not considered authentic according to the scholars of [[Hadith]] and are widely discredited. == History == [[Image:Semitic languages.svg|thumb|300px|Arabic languages (''brown'') within Semitic languages.]] The earliest surviving texts in [[proto-language|Proto]]-Arabic, or [[Ancient North Arabian]], are the [[Al-Hasa|Hasaean]] inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, from the 8th century BC, written not in the modern Arabic alphabet, nor in its [[Nabataean language|Nabataean]] ancestor, but in variants of the [[epigraphic]] South Arabian ''[[South Arabian alphabet|musnad]]''. These are followed by 6th-century BC [[Lihyanite]] texts from southeastern Saudi Arabia and the [[Thamudic]] texts found throughout Arabia and the [[Sinai]], and not actually connected with [[Thamud]]. Later come the [[Safaitic]] inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BC, and the many Arabic personal names attested in [[Nabataean]] inscriptions (which are, however, written in Aramaic). From about the 2nd century BC, a few inscriptions from [[Ancient Towns in Saudi Arabia#Qaryat al-Fāw:(قرية الفاو )|Qaryat al-Fāw]] (near [[Sulayyil]]) reveal a dialect which is no longer considered "Proto-Arabic", but Pre-Classical Arabic. By the fourth century AD, the Arab kingdoms of the [[Lakhmids]] in southern [[Iraq]] and the [[Ghassanids]] in southern [[Syria]] appeared. The [[Kindite]] Kingdom emerged in Central Arabia. Their courts were responsible for some notable examples of pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, and for some of the few surviving [[pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions]] in the Arabic script. == Dialects and descendants == {{Main|Varieties of Arabic}} ''Colloquial Arabic'' is a collective term for the spoken varieties of Arabic used throughout the [[Arab world]], which differ radically from the [[literary language]]. The main dialectal division is between the varieties within and outside of the [[Arabian peninsula]], followed by that between [[Varieties of Arabic#Sedentary vs. Bedouin|sedentary]] varieties and the much more conservative [[Bedouin]] varieties. All of the varieties outside of the Arabian peninsula (which include the large majority of speakers) have a large number of features in common with each other that are not found in Classical Arabic. This has led researchers to postulate the existence of a prestige [[koine]] dialect in the one or two centuries immediately following the Arab conquest, whose features eventually spread to all of the newly conquered areas. (These features are present to varying degrees inside the Arabian peninsula. Generally, the Arabian peninsula varieties have much more diversity than the non-peninsula varieties, but have been understudied.) Within the non-peninsula varieties, the largest difference is between the non-Egyptian [[Maghrebi Arabic|North African dialects]] (especially [[Moroccan Arabic]]) and the others. [[Moroccan Arabic]] in particular is nearly incomprehensible to Arabic speakers east of [[Algeria]] (although the converse is not true, in part due to the popularity of Egyptian films and other media). One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words, and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order; however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among [[Romance languages]], retention (or change of meaning) of different classical forms. Thus Iraqi ''aku'', Levantine ''fīh'', and North African ''kayən'' all mean "there is", and all come from Classical Arabic forms (''yakūn'', ''fīhi'', ''kā'in'' respectively), but now sound very different. [[File:Arab World-Large.PNG|thumb|300px|Different Dialects of Arabic in the Arab World]] ===Examples=== {| class=wikitable ! Variety ! I love reading a lot ! When I went to the library ! I only found this old book ! I wanted to read a book about the history of women in France. |- ! [[Classical Arabic]] (liturgical or poetic only) | ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾanā ʾuḥibbu l-qirāʾata kaṯīran}}'' | ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʿindamā ḏahabtu ʾilā l-maktabati}}'' | ''{{transl|ar|lam ʾajid ʾillā hāḏā l-kitāba l-qadīma}}'' | ''{{transl|ar|kuntu ʾurīdu ʾan ʾaqraʾa kitāban ʿan tārīḫi l-marʾati fī-farānsā}}'' |- ! [[Modern Standard Arabic]] | ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾanā ʾuḥibb al-qirāʾa kaṯīran}}'' | ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʿindamā ḏahabtu ʾilā l-maktabah}}'' | ''{{transl|ar|lam ʾajid ʾillā hāḏā l-kitāb al-qadīm}}'' | ''{{transl|ar|kuntu ʾurīd ʾan ʾaqraʾ kitāb ʿan tārīḫ al-marʾa fī-farānsā}}'' |- ! [[Moroccan Arabic|Moroccan]] | {{unicode|ana ʕziz ʕlija bzzaf nqra}} | {{unicode|melli mʃit l-lmaktaba}} | {{unicode|lqit ɣir had l-ktab l-qdim}} | {{unicode|kent baɣi nqra ktab ʕla tarix l-ʕjalat f-fransa}} |- ! [[Tunisian Arabic|Tunisian]] | {{unicode|e:ne nħibb il-qre:je barʃa}} | {{unicode|waqtelli mʃi:t l il-maktba}} | {{unicode|ma-lqi:t-ʃ ke:n ha l-kte:b l-qdi:m}} | {{unicode|kunt nħibb naqra kte:b ʕala tari:x l-mra fi fra:nsa}} |- ! [[Libyan Arabic|western libyan]] | {{unicode|ʾaniː nħieb ǀi-ɡraːja haǀba}} | {{unicode|lamma mʃeːt lil-maktba}} | {{unicode|malgeːtiʃ ʾiːlla ha li-ktaːb le-gdiːm}} | {{unicode|kunt nibi nagra ktaːb ʔleː tariːx e-nsawiːn fiː fraːnsa}} |- ! [[Egyptian Arabic|Egyptian]] | {{unicode|ana baħebb el-ʔera:ja ʔawi}} | {{unicode|'lamma roħt el-mak'taba}} | {{unicode|ma-l'ʔet-ʃ 'ella l-ke'ta:b el-ʔa'di:m da}} | {{unicode|ana kont-e ʕawz-aʔra kta:b ʕan tari:x el-setta:t fe fa'ransa}} |- ! [[Palestinian Arabic|Urban Palestinian]] | {{unicode|ba'ħɪbb ᵊl-ʔɪ'ra:je kti:r}} | {{unicode|'lamma 'rʊħᵊt ʕal-'maktabe}} | {{unicode|ma la'ʔe:tᵊʃ 'illa ha-l-ᵊk'ta:b l-ᵊʔ'dīm }} | {{unicode|ka:n 'bɪddɪ 'ʔaʔra kta:b ʕan ta'rīx ᵊl-'mara fɪ f'ra:nsa}} |- ! [[Lebanese Arabic|Lebanese]] | {{unicode|kti:r bħibb il-ʔi'ræ:je}} | {{unicode|'lamma 'reħit ʕal-'maktebe}} | {{unicode|ma lʔēt 'illa ha-l-ik'tæ:b le-ʔ'di:m }} | {{unicode|kæ:n 'beddi 'ʔeʔra ktæ:b ʕan te'rīx l-'mara b-'fræ:nse}} |- ! [[Iraqi Arabic|Iraqi]] | {{unicode|'a:ni a'ħibb el-q'ra:ja 'kulliʃ}} | {{unicode|'lamman 'reħit lel-maktaba}} | {{unicode|ma li'ge:t ɣe:r ha:ða l-keta:b al-qadi:m}} | {{unicode|redet aqra keta:b ʕan tari:x al-ħarim eb-fransa}} |- ! [[Saudi Arabic|Saudi (Hijazi)]] | {{unicode|'ana a'ħob il-gra:ja kθi:r}} | {{unicode|'lamma roħt l-'mekteba}} | {{unicode|ma lge:t ɣe:r ha:ða l-kta:b il-gedi:m}} | {{unicode|kont abɣa agra kta:b ʕan tari:x il-ħari:m fi fransa}} |- ! [[Kuwaiti Arabic|Kuwaiti]] | {{unicode|ʔa:na wa:yed aħibb agra:}} | {{unicode|lamman reħt al-maktaba}} | {{unicode|ma lige:t illa hal keta:b al-gadi:m}} | {{unicode|kent abi: agra keta:b an tari:x el-ħari:m eb fransa}} |} === Koine === According to [[Charles Ferguson]], the following are some of the characteristic features of the [[koine]] that underlies all of the modern dialects outside the Arabian peninsula. Although many other features are common to most or all of these varieties (see [[varieties of Arabic]]), Ferguson believes that these features in particular are unlikely to have evolved independently more than once or twice, and together suggest the existence of the koine: *Loss of the [[dual (grammatical number)]] except on nouns, with consistent plural agreement (cf. feminine singular agreement in plural inanimates). *Change of ''a'' to ''i'' in many affixes (e.g. non-past-tense prefixes ''ti- yi- ni-''; ''wi-'' "and"; ''il-'' "the"; feminine ''-it'' in the [[construct state]]). *Loss of third-weak verbs ending in ''w'' (which merge with verbs ending in ''y''). *Reformation of geminate verbs, e.g. ''ḥalaltu'' "I untied" → ''ḥalēt(u)''. *Conversion of separate words ''lī'' "to me", ''laka'' "to you", etc. into indirect-object [[clitic]] suffixes. *Certain changes in the [[cardinal number]] system, e.g. ''ḫamsat ʾayyām'' →''ḫams tiyyām'', where certain words have a special plural with prefixed ''t''. Also, unexpected emphatic ''ṭ'' in the numbers 13-19 (e.g. ''ḫamṣṭaʿšar'' "fifteen" < ''ḫamsat ʿašar''). *Loss of the feminine [[elative]] (comparative). *Adjective plurals of the form ''kibār'' "big" → ''kubār''. *Change of [[nisba]] suffix ''-iyy'' → ''i''. *Certain lexical items, e.g. ''jāb'' "bring" < ''jāʾ bi-'' "come with"; ''šāf'' "see"; ''ʾēš'' "what" (or similar); ''illi'' "(relative pronoun)". *Merger of {{IPA|/ɮˤ/}} and {{IPA|/ðˤ/}}. ==== Egyptian Arabic ==== * [[Egyptian Arabic]], spoken by around 80 million in [[Egypt]]. It is one of the most understood varieties of Arabic, due in large part to the widespread distribution of Egyptian films and television shows throughout the Arabic speaking world. Closely related varieties are also spoken in [[Sudan]]. ==== Maghrebi Arabic ==== * [[Maghrebi Arabic]] includes [[Moroccan Arabic]], [[Algerian Arabic]], [[Saharan Arabic]], [[Tunisian Arabic]], and [[Libyan Arabic]], and is spoken by around 75 million North Africans in [[Morocco]], [[Western Sahara]], [[Algeria]], [[Tunisia]], [[Libya]], [[Niger]], and western [[Egypt]]; it is often difficult for speakers of Middle Eastern Arabic varieties to understand. The Berber influence in these dialects varies in degree. ==== Mesopotamian Arabic ==== * [[Iraqi Arabic]], spoken by about 29 million people in [[Iraq]], eastern [[Syria]] and southwestern [[Iran]] ([[Khuzestan Province|Khuzestan]]). * [[North Mesopotamian Arabic]], spoken by around 7 million people in northern Iraq, northwestern Iran, northern Syria and southern Turkey. ==== Levantine Arabic ==== * [[Levantine Arabic]] includes [[North Levantine Arabic]], [[South Levantine Arabic]], and [[Cypriot Arabic]]. It is spoken by almost 35 million people in [[Lebanon]], [[Syria]], [[Jordan]], [[Israel]], the [[Palestinian territories]], [[Cyprus]], and [[Turkey]]. ==== Gulf Arabic ==== * [[Gulf Arabic]], spoken by around 3.6 million people, predominantly in the [[United Arab Emirates]], [[Kuwait]], [[Oman]], [[Saudi Arabia]], [[Qatar]], and [[Bahrain]]. Also spoken in [[Iran]]'s [[Bushehr Province|Bushehr]] and [[Hormozgan Province|Hormozgan]] provinces. ==== Other ==== Other varieties include: * [[Yemeni Arabic]], spoken in [[Yemen]], southern Saudi Arabia. * [[Sudanese Arabic]] (19 million speakers), spoken in [[Sudan]] * [[Najdi Arabic]] (9.9 million speakers), spoken in Nejd, central Saudi Arabia * [[Hejazi Arabic]] (7 million speakers), spoken in Hejaz, western Saudi Arabia. * [[Hassaniya Arabic]] (2.8 million speakers), spoken in [[Mauritania]], some parts of [[Mali]] and ''[[Western Sahara]]'' * [[Bahrani Arabic]] (310,000 speakers), spoken by [[Bahrani people|Bahrani Shia]] in [[Bahrain]], where it exhibits some differences from [[Bahraini Arabic]]. It is also spoken to a lesser extent in [[Oman]]. * [[Judeo-Arabic languages|Judeo-Arabic]] dialects * [[Central Asian Arabic]], spoken in [[Uzbekistan]], [[Tajikistan]] and [[Afghanistan]], is highly endangered * [[Maltese language|Maltese]], spoken on the Mediterranean island of [[Malta]], is the only one to have established itself as a fully separate language, with independent literary norms. In the course of its history the language has adopted numerous loanwords, phonetic and phonological features, and even some grammatical patterns, from [[Italian language|Italian]], [[Sicilian language|Sicilian]], and [[English language|English]]. It is also the only Semitic tongue written in the [[Latin script]]. * [[Andalusi Arabic]], spoken in [[Spain]] until 15th century, now extinct. * [[Siculo Arabic]], spoken on [[Sicily]], South [[Italy]] until 14th century, developed into Maltese language. * The Muslim [[Hui people]] in China had knowledge of archaic forms of Arabic. The Hui of Yunnan (Burmaese called them Panthays) were reported to be fluent in Arabic. During the [[Panthay Rebellion]], Arabic replaced Chinese as official language of the rebel kingdom. In 1844 "The Chinese repository, Volume 13" was published, including an account of an Englishman who stayed in [[Ningbo]] in China. There he visited the local mosque, the Hui running the mosque was from Shandong, and he was a descendant of Muslims from the city of [[Medina]]. He spoke both Arabic and Chinese, and could read Arabic as well. In [[Tianjin]], Hui could speak an old, archaic form of Arabic, when they met Arab Muslims in recent times, it was found out that Old Arabic and Modern Arabic were very different, so Modern Arabic is now being taught to Hui. == Sounds == {{Main|Arabic phonology}} {{IPA notice}} It is important to distinguish between the pronunciation of the "formal" [[Literary Arabic]] (usually specifically [[Modern Standard Arabic]]) and the "colloquial" spoken [[varieties of Arabic]]. The two types of Arabic, but significantly different. The "colloquial" varieties are learned at home and constitute the native languages of Arabic speakers. The literary variety is learned at school; although many speakers have a native-like command of the language, it is technically not the native language of any speakers. Both varieties can be both written and spoken, although the colloquial varieties are rarely written down, and the formal variety is spoken mostly in formal circumstances, e.g. in radio broadcasts, formal lectures, parliamentary discussions, and to some extent between speakers of different colloquial varieties. Even when the literary language is spoken, however, it is normally only spoken in its pure form when reading a prepared text out loud. When speaking [[extemporaneous]]ly (i.e. making up the language on the spot, as in a normal discussion among people), speakers tend to deviate somewhat from the strict literary language in the direction of the colloquial varieties. In fact, there is a continuous range of "in-between" spoken varieties: from nearly pure [[Modern Standard Arabic]] (MSA), to a form that still uses MSA grammar and vocabulary but with significant colloquial influence, to a form of the colloquial language that imports a number of words and grammatical constructions in MSA, to a form that is close to pure colloquial but with the "rough edges" (the most noticeably "vulgar" or non-Classical aspects) smoothed out, to pure colloquial. The particular variant (or ''[[register (linguistics)|register]]'') used depends on the social class and education level of the speakers involved, and the level of formality of the speech situation. Often it will vary within a single encounter, e.g. moving from nearly pure MSA to a more mixed language in the process of a radio interview, as the interviewee becomes more comfortable with the interviewer. This type of variation is characteristic of the [[diglossia]] that exists throughout the Arabic-speaking world. === Literary Arabic === Although [[Modern Standard Arabic]] (MSA) is a unitary language, its pronunciation varies somewhat from country to country and from region to region within a country. The variation in individual "accents" of MSA speakers tends to mirror corresponding variations in the colloquial speech of the speakers in question, but with the distinguishing characteristics moderated somewhat. Note that it is important in descriptions of "Arabic" phonology to distinguish between pronunciation of a given colloquial (spoken) dialect and the pronunciation of MSA by these same speakers. Although they are related, they are not the same. For example, the phoneme that derives from [[Proto-Semitic]] /g/ has many different pronunciations in the modern spoken varieties, e.g. {{IPA|[d͡ʒ ~ ʒ ~ j ~ ɡʲ ~ ɡ]}}. Speakers whose native variety has either {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} or {{IPAblink|ʒ}} will use the same pronunciation when speaking MSA, even speakers from [[Cairo]], whose native [[Egyptian Arabic]] has {{IPAblink|ɡ}}, normally use {{IPAblink|ɡ}} when speaking MSA. {{IPAblink|j}} of Persian Gulf is the only pronunciation which isn't pronounced in MSA, but instead {{IPA|[d͡ʒ~ʒ]}}. Another example: Many colloquial varieties are known for a type of [[vowel harmony]] in which the presence of an "[[emphatic consonant]]" triggers backed [[allophone]]s of nearby vowels (especially of the low vowels {{IPA|/aː/}}, which are backed to {{IPAblink|ɑ|ɑ(ː)}} in these circumstances, and very often fronted to {{IPAblink|æ|æ(ː)}} in all other circumstances). In many spoken varieties, the backed or "emphatic" vowel allophones spread a fair distance in both directions from the triggering consonant; in some varieties (most notably [[Egyptian Arabic]]), the "emphatic" allophones spread throughout the entire word, usually including prefixes and suffixes, even at a distance of several syllables from the triggering consonant. Speakers of colloquial varieties with this vowel harmony tend to introduce it into their MSA pronunciation as well, but usually with a lesser degree of spreading than in the colloquial varieties. (For example, speakers of colloquial varieties with extremely long-distance harmony may allow a moderate, but not extreme, amount of spreading of the harmonic allophones in their MSA speech, while speakers of colloquial varieties with moderate-distance harmony may only harmonize immediately adjacent vowels in MSA.) ==== Vowels ==== [[Modern Standard Arabic]] has six pure vowels, with short {{IPA|/a i u/}} and corresponding long vowels {{IPA|/aː iː uː/}}. There are also two [[diphthongs]]: {{IPA|/aj/}} and {{IPA|/aw/}}. As mentioned above, the pronunciation of the vowels differs from speaker to speaker, in way that tends to echo the pronunciation of the corresponding colloquial variety. Nonetheless, there are some common trends. Most noticeable is the differing pronunciation of {{IPA|/a/}} and {{IPA|/aː/}}, which tend towards fronted {{IPAblink|æ|æ(ː)}}, {{IPAblink|a|a(ː)}} or {{IPAblink|ɛ|ɛ(ː)}} in most situations, but a back {{IPAblink|ɑ|ɑ(ː)}} in the neighborhood of [[emphatic consonant]]s. (Some accents and dialects, such as those of [[Hijaz]], have central {{IPAblink|ä|ä(ː)}} in all situations.) The vowels {{IPA|/u/}} and {{IPA|/i/}} are often affected somewhat in emphatic neighborhoods as well, with generally more back and/or centralized [[allophone]]s, but the differences are less great than for the low vowels. The pronunciation of short {{IPA|/u/}} and {{IPA|/i/}} tends towards {{IPA|[ʊ~o]}} and {{IPA|[ɪ~e]}} in many dialects. The definition of both "emphatic" and "neighborhood" vary in ways that echo (to some extent) corresponding variations in the spoken dialects. Generally, the consonants triggering "emphatic" allophones are the [[pharyngealization|pharyngealized]] consonants {{IPA|/tˤ dˤ sˤ ðˤ/}}; {{IPAslink|q}}; and {{IPAslink|r}}, if not followed immediately by {{IPA|/i(ː)/}}. Frequently, the {{lcons|uvular}} [[fricative]]s {{IPA|/x ɣ/}} also trigger emphatic allophones; occasionally also the [[pharyngeal consonant]]s {{IPA|/ʕ ħ/}} (the former more than the latter). Many dialects have multiple emphatic allophones of each vowel, depending on the particular nearby consonants. In most MSA accents, emphatic coloring of vowels is limited to vowels immediately adjacent to a triggering consonant, although in some it spreads a bit farther: e.g. ''{{transl|ar|waqt}}'' {{IPA|[wɑqt]}} "time"; ''{{transl|ar|waṭan}}'' {{IPA|[wɑtˤɑn]}} "homeland"; ''{{transl|ar|wasṭ al-madīnah}}'' {{IPA|[wæstˤɑl-mædiːnɐ]}} "downtown" (sometimes {{IPA|[wɑstˤɑl-mædiːnæ]}} or similar). In a non-emphatic environment, the vowel /a/ in the diphthong {{IPA|/aj/}} tends to be fronted even more than elsewhere, often pronounced {{IPA|[æj]}} or {{IPA|[ɛj]}}: hence ''{{transl|ar|sayf}}'' {{IPA|[sajf ~ sæjf ~ sɛjf]}} "sword" but ''{{transl|ar|ṣayf}}'' {{IPA|[sˤɑjf]}} "summer"). However, in accents with no emphatic allophones of /a/ (e.g. in the [[Hijaz]]), the pronunciation {{IPA|[äj]}} occurs in all situations. ==== Consonants ==== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;" |+ '''Standardized Arabic consonant phonemes''' |- ! rowspan="2" colspan=2 | ! rowspan="2" | [[Labial consonant|Labial]] ! colspan="2" | [[Interdental consonant|Inter-
dental]] ! colspan="2" | [[Dental consonant|Dental]]/[[Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]] ! rowspan="2" | [[Postalveolar consonant|Post-
alveolar]] ! rowspan="2" | [[Palatal consonant|Palatal]] ! rowspan="2" | [[Velar consonant|Velar]] ! rowspan="2" | [[Uvular consonant|Uvular]] ! rowspan="2" | [[Pharyngeal consonant|Pharyn-
geal]]4 ! rowspan="2" | [[Glottal consonant|Glottal]] |- class=small ! plain ! [[emphatic consonant|emphatic]] ! [[emphatic consonant|emphatic]] ! plain |- ! colspan=2 | [[Nasal consonant|Nasal]] | {{IPAlink|m}} | | | | {{IPAlink|n}} | | | | | | |- ! rowspan=2 | [[Stop consonant|Stop]] ! [[voiceless]] | | | | {{IPAlink|tˤ}} | {{IPAlink|t}} | | | {{IPAlink|k}} | {{IPAlink|q}} | | {{IPAlink|ʔ}} |- ! [[voice (phonetics)|voiced]] | {{IPAlink|b}} | | | {{IPAlink|dˤ}}3 | {{IPAlink|d}} | colspan=3 | {{IPAlink|d͡ʒ}}~{{IPAlink|ʒ}}~{{IPAlink|ɡ}}1 | | | |- ! rowspan=2 | [[Fricative consonant|Fricative]] ! [[voiceless]] | {{IPAlink|f}} | {{IPAlink|θ}} | | {{IPAlink|sˤ}} | {{IPAlink|s}} | {{IPAlink|ʃ}} | | colspan=2 | {{IPAlink|x}}~{{IPAlink|χ}}5 | {{IPAlink|ħ}}4 | {{IPAlink|h}} |- ! [[voice (phonetics)|voiced]] | | {{IPAlink|ð}} | colspan=2| {{IPAlink|ðˤ}}~{{IPAlink|zˤ}} | | {{IPAlink|z}} | | colspan=2 | {{IPAlink|ɣ}}~{{IPAlink|ʁ}}5 | rowspan=2 | {{IPAlink|ʕ}}4 | |- ! colspan=2 | [[Approximant consonant|Approximant]] | | | | | {{IPAlink|l}}2 | | {{IPAlink|j}} | {{IPAlink|w}} | | |- ! colspan=2 | [[Trill consonant|Trill]] | | | | | {{IPAlink|r}} | | | | | | |} See [[Arabic alphabet]] for explanations on the [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]] phonetic symbols found in this chart. # This [[phoneme]] is represented by the Arabic letter ''{{transl|ar|jīm}}'' ({{lang|ar|[[ج]]}}) and has many standard pronunciations. {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} is characteristic of [[Iraq]] and most of the [[Arabian peninsula]]; {{IPAblink|ʒ}} occurs in the [[Levant]] and [[North Africa]]; and {{IPAblink|ɡ}} is used in Egypt and some regions in Yemen and Oman. Generally this corresponds with the pronunciation in the colloquial dialects. In some regions in Sudan and Yemen, as well as in some [[Sudanese Arabic|Sudanese]] and [[Yemeni Arabic|Yemeni dialects]], it may be either {{IPA|[ɡʲ]}} or {{IPAblink|ɟ}}, representing the original pronunciation of [[Classical Arabic]]. Foreign words containing {{IPAslink|ɡ}} may be transcribed with {{rtl-lang|ar|[[ج]]}}, {{rtl-lang|ar|[[غ]]}}, {{rtl-lang|ar|[[ك]]}}, {{rtl-lang|ar|[[ق]]}}, {{rtl-lang|fa|[[گ]]}}, {{script/Arabic|[[ݣ]]}} or {{script/Arabic|ڨ}}, mainly depending on the regional spoken [[varieties of Arabic|variety of Arabic]]. Note also that in northern Egypt, where the Arabic letter ''{{transl|ar|jīm}}'' ({{lang|ar|[[ج]]}}) is normally pronounced {{IPAblink|ɡ}}, a separate phoneme {{IPAslink|ʒ}} occurs in a small number of mostly non-Arabic loanwords, e.g. {{IPA|/ʒakitta/}} "jacket". # {{IPA|/l/}} is pronounced {{IPAblink|ɫ}} in {{IPA|/ʔallaːh/}}, the name of God, q.e. [[Allah]], when the word follows ''a'', ''ā'', ''u'' or ''ū'' (after ''i'' or ''ī'' it is unvelarized: ''bismi l–lāh'' {{IPA|/bismillaːh/}}). Some speakers velarize other occurrences of /l/ in MSA, in imitation of their spoken dialects. # The [[emphatic consonant]] {{IPA|/dˤ/}} was actually pronounced {{IPA|[ɮˤ]}}, or possibly {{IPA|[d͡ɮˤ]}} — either way, a highly unusual sound. The medieval Arabs actually termed their language ''{{transl|ar|luġatu l-ḍād}}'' "the language of the [[Ḍād]]" (the name of the letter used for this sound), since they thought the sound was unique to their language. (In fact, it also exists in a few other minority [[Semitic languages]], e.g. [[Mehri language|Mehri]].) # In many varieties, {{IPA|/ħ, ʕ/}} ({{lang|ar|ح,‎ ع}}) are actually [[epiglottal consonant|epiglottal]] {{IPA|[ʜ, ʢ]}} (despite what is reported in many earlier works). # {{IPA|/x/}} and {{IPA|/ɣ/}} ({{lang|ar|خ,‎ غ}}) are often post-velar, though velar and uvular pronunciations are also possible. # {{IPA|/θ/}} ({{lang|ar|ث}}) can be pronounced as {{IPAblink|t}} or even {{IPAblink|s}}. In some places of [[Maghreb]] it can be also pronounced as {{IPAblink|t͡s}}. Arabic has consonants traditionally termed "emphatic" {{IPA|/tˤ, dˤ, sˤ, ðˤ/}} ({{lang|ar|ط,‎ ض,‎ ص,‎ ظ}}), which exhibit simultaneous [[pharyngealization]] {{IPA|[tˤ, dˤ, sˤ, ðˤ]}} as well as varying degrees of [[velarization]] {{IPA|[tˠ, dˠ, sˠ, ðˠ]}}, so they may be written with the "Velarized or pharyngealized" diacritic ({{IPA| ̴ }}) as: {{IPA|/t̴, d̴, s̴, ð̴/}}. This simultaneous articulation is described as "Retracted Tongue Root" by phonologists. In some transcription systems, emphasis is shown by capitalizing the letter, for example, {{IPA|/dˤ/}} is written ⟨D⟩; in others the letter is underlined or has a dot below it, for example, ⟨{{transl|ar|ḍ}}⟩. Vowels and consonants can be phonologically short or long. Long ([[gemination|geminate]]) consonants are normally written doubled in Latin transcription (i.e. bb, dd, etc.), reflecting the presence of the [[Arabic diacritics|Arabic diacritic]] mark ''{{transl|ar|šaddah}}'', which indicates doubled consonants. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice as long as short consonants. This consonant lengthening is phonemically contrastive: ''{{transl|ar|qabala}}'' "he accepted" vs. ''{{transl|ar|qabbala}}'' "he kissed." ==== Syllable structure ==== Arabic has two kinds of syllables: open syllables (CV) and (CVV)—and closed syllables (CVC), (CVVC), and (CVCC). The syllable types with three [[morae]] (units of time), i.e. CVC and CVV, are termed ''[[heavy syllable]]s'', while those with four morae, i.e. CVVC and CVCC, are ''[[superheavy syllable]]s''. Superheavy syllables in Classical Arabic occur in only two places: at the end of the sentence (due to [[pausa]]l pronunciation), and in words such as ''{{transl|ar|ḥārr}}'' "hot", ''{{transl|ar|māddah}}'' "stuff, substance", ''{{transl|ar|taḥājjū}}'' "they disputed with each other", where a long ''{{transl|ar|ā}}'' occurs before two identical consonants (a former short vowel between the consonants has been lost). (In less formal pronunciations of [[Modern Standard Arabic]], superheavy syllables are common at the end of words or before [[clitic]] suffixes such as ''{{transl|ar|-nā}}'' "us, our", due to the deletion of final short vowels.) In surface pronunciation, every vowel must be preceded by a consonant (which may include the [[glottal stop]] {{IPA|[ʔ]}}). There are no cases of [[hiatus (linguistics)|hiatus]] within a word (where two vowels occur next to each other, without an intervening consonant). Some words do underlyingly begin with a vowel, such as the definite article ''al-'' or words such as ''{{transl|ar|ištarā}}'' "he bought", ''{{transl|ar|ijtimāʿ}}'' "meeting". When actually pronounced, one of three things happens: *If the word occurs after another word ending in a consonant, there is a smooth transition from final consonant to initial vowel, e.g. ''{{transl|ar|al-ijtimāʿ}}'' "meeting" {{IPA|/alid͡ʒtimaːʕ/}}. *If the word occurs after another word ending in a vowel, the initial vowel of the word is [[elision|elided]], e.g. ''{{transl|ar|baytu (a)l-mudīr}}'' "house of the director" {{IPA|/bajtulmudiːr/}}. *If the word occurs at the beginning of an utterance, a glottal stop {{IPA|[ʔ]}} is added onto the beginning, e.g. ''{{transl|ar|al-baytu huwa ...}}'' "The house is ..." {{IPA|/ʔalbajtuhuwa .../}}. ==== Stress ==== Word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic. It bears a strong relationship to vowel length. The basic rules for Modern Standard Arabic are: * A final vowel, long or short, may not be stressed. * Only one of the last three syllables may be stressed. * Given this restriction, the last [[heavy syllable]] (containing a long vowel or ending in a consonant) is stressed. * If there is no such syllable, the first possible syllable (i.e. third from end) is stressed. * As a special exception, in Form VII and VIII verb forms stress may not be on the first syllable, despite the above rules: Hence ''{{transl|ar|inkatab(a)}}'' "he subscribed" (whether or not the final short vowel is pronounced), ''{{transl|ar|yankatib(u)}}'' "he subscribes" (whether or not the final short vowel is pronounced), ''{{transl|ar|yankatib}}'' "he should subscribe (juss.)". Likewise Form VIII ''{{transl|ar|ištarā}}'' "he bought", ''{{transl|ar|yaštarī}}'' "he buys". Examples:''{{transl|ar|kib(un)}}'' "book", ''{{transl|ar|-ti-b(un)}}'' "writer", ''{{transl|ar|mak-ta-b(un)}}'' "desk", ''{{transl|ar|ma--ti-b(u)}}'' "desks", ''{{transl|ar|mak-ta-ba-tun}}'' "library" (but ''{{transl|ar|mak-ta-ba(-tun)}}'' "library" in short pronunciation), ''{{transl|ar|ka-ta-bū}}'' (Modern Standard Arabic) "they wrote" = ''{{transl|ar|ka-ta-bu}}'' (dialect), ''{{transl|ar|ka-ta--h(u)}}'' (Modern Standard Arabic) "they wrote it" = ''{{transl|ar|ka-ta-}}'' (dialect), ''{{transl|ar|ka-ta-ba-tā}}'' (Modern Standard Arabic) "they (dual, fem) wrote", ''{{transl|ar|ka-tab-tu}}'' (Modern Standard Arabic) "I wrote" = ''{{transl|ar|ka-tabt}}'' (short form or dialect). Doubled consonants count as two consonants: ''{{transl|ar|ma-jal-la-(tan)}}'' "magazine", ''{{transl|ar|ma-ḥall(-un)}}'' "place". These rules may result in differently-stressed syllables when final case endings are pronounced, vs. the normal situation where they are not pronounced, as in the above example of ''{{transl|ar|mak-ta-ba-tun}}'' "library" in full pronunciation, but ''{{transl|ar|mak-ta-ba(-tun)}}'' "library" in short pronunciation. The restriction on final long vowels does not apply to the spoken dialects, where original final long vowels have been shortened and secondary final long vowels have arisen from loss of original final ''-hu/hi''. Some dialects have different stress rules. In the Cairo ([[Egyptian Arabic]]) dialect a heavy syllable may not carry stress more than two syllables from the end of a word, hence ''{{transl|ar|mad-ra-sa}}'' "school", ''{{transl|ar|qā-hi-ra}}'' "Cairo". This also affects the way that Modern Standard Arabic is pronounced in Egypt. In the Arabic of [[Sana]], stress is often retracted: ''{{transl|ar|bay-tayn}}'' "two houses", ''{{transl|ar|-sat-hum}}'' "their table", ''{{transl|ar|ma--tīb}}'' "desks", ''{{transl|ar|-rat-hīn}}'' "sometimes", ''{{transl|ar|mad-ra-sat-hum}}'' "their school". (In this dialect, only syllables with long vowels or diphthongs are considered heavy; in a two-syllable word, the final syllable can be stressed only if the preceding syllable is light; and in longer words, the final syllable cannot be stressed.) ==== Levels of pronunciation ==== The final short vowels (e.g. the case endings ''-a -i -u'' and mood endings ''-u -a'') are often not pronounced, despite forming part of the formal paradigm of nouns and verbs. The following levels of pronunciation exist: ===== Full pronunciation with [[pausa]] ===== This is the most formal level actually used in speech. All endings are pronounced as written, except at the end of an utterance, where the following changes occur: *Final short vowels are not pronounced. (But possibly an exception is made for feminine plural ''-na'', and shortened vowels in the jussive/imperative of defective verbs, e.g. ''irmi!'' "throw!".) *The entire indefinite noun endings ''-in -un'' (with [[nunation]]) are left off. The ending ''-an'' is left off of nouns preceded by a ''[[tāʾ marbūṭa]]h'' ة (i.e. the ''-t'' in the ending ''-at-'' that typically marks feminine nouns), but pronounced as ''-ā'' in other nouns (hence its writing in this fashion in the Arabic script). *The ''tāʾ marbūṭah'' itself (typically of feminine nouns) is pronounced as ''h''. (At least, this is the case in extremely formal pronunciation, e.g. some Quranic recitations. In practice, this ''h'' is usually omitted.) ===== Formal short pronunciation ===== This is a formal level of pronunciation sometimes seen. It is somewhat like pronouncing all words as if they were in pausal position (with influence from the [[varieties of Arabic|colloquial varieties]]). The following changes occur: *Most final short vowels are not pronounced. However, the following short vowels ''are'' pronounced: **feminine plural ''-na'' **shortened vowels in the jussive/imperative of defective verbs, e.g. ''irmi!'' "throw!" **second-person singular feminine past-tense ''-ti'', and likewise ''ʾanti'' "you (fem. sg.)" **sometimes, first-person singular past-tense ''-tu'' **sometimes, second-person masculine past-tense ''-ta'', and likewise ''ʾanta'' "you (masc. sg.)" **final ''-a'' in certain short words, e.g. ''laysa'' "is not", ''sawfa'' "(future-tense marker)" *The [[nunation]] endings ''-an -in -un'' are not pronounced. However, they ''are'' pronounced in adverbial accusative formations, e.g. ''{{transl|ar|taqrīban}}'' تقريباً "almost, approximately", ''{{transl|ar|ʿādatan}}'' عادةً "usually". *The ''[[tāʾ marbūṭa]]h'' ending ة is unpronounced, ''except'' in [[construct state]] nouns, where it sounds as ''t'' (and in adverbial accusative constructions, e.g. ''{{transl|ar|ʿādatan}}'' عادةً "usually", where the entire ''-tan'' is pronounced). *The masculine singular [[nisba]] ending ''{{transl|ar|-iyy}}'' is actually pronounced ''{{transl|ar|-ī}}'', and is unstressed (but plural and feminine singular forms, i.e. when followed by a suffix, still sound as ''{{transl|ar|-iyy-}}''). *''Full endings'' (including case endings) occur when a [[clitic]] object or possessive suffix is added (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|-nā}}'' "us/our"). ===== Informal short pronunciation ===== This is the pronunciation used by speakers of [[Modern Standard Arabic]] in [[extemporaneous]] speech, i.e. when producing new sentences rather than simply reading a prepared text. It is similar to formal short pronunciation except that the rules for dropping final vowels apply ''even'' when a [[clitic]] suffix is added. Basically, short-vowel case and mood endings are never pronounced, and certain other changes occur that echo the corresponding colloquial pronunciations. Specifically: *All the rules for formal short pronunciation apply, except as follows. *The past tense singular endings written formally as ''-tu -ta -ti'' are pronounced ''-t -t -ti''. But masculine ''{{transl|ar|ʾanta}}'' is pronounced in full. *Unlike in formal short pronunciation, the rules for dropping or modifying final endings are also applied when a [[clitic]] object or possessive suffix is added (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|-nā}}'' "us/our"). If this produces a sequence of three consonants, then one of the following happens, depending on the speaker's native colloquial variety: **A short vowel (e.g. ''-i-'' or ''-ǝ-'') is consistently added, either between the second and third or the first and second consonants. **Or, a short vowel is added only if an otherwise unpronounceable sequence occurs, typically due to a violation of the [[sonority hierarchy]] (e.g. ''-rtn-'' is pronounced as a three-consonant cluster, but ''-trn-'' needs to be broken up). **Or, a short vowel is never added, but consonants like ''r l m n'' occurring between two other consonants will be pronounced as a [[syllabic consonant]] (as in the English words "butter bottle bottom button"). **When a doubled consonant occurs before another consonant (or finally), it is often shortened to a single consonant rather than a vowel added. (But note that [[Moroccan Arabic]] never shortens doubled consonants or inserts short vowels to break up clusters, instead tolerating arbitrary-length series of arbitrary consonants, and hence Moroccan Arabic speakers are likely to follow the same rules in their pronunciation of Modern Standard Arabic.) *The clitic suffixes themselves tend also to be changed, in a way that avoids many possible occurrences of three-consonant clusters. In particular, ''-ka -ki -hu'' generally sound as ''-ak -ik -uh''. *Final long vowels are often shortened, merging with any short vowels that remain. *Depending on the level of formality, the speaker's education level, etc., various grammatical changes may occur in ways that echo the colloquial variants: **Any remaining case endings (e.g. masculine plural nominative ''-ūn'' vs. oblique ''-īn'') will be leveled, with the oblique form used everywhere. (However, in words like ''{{transl|ar|ʾab}}'' "father" and ''{{transl|ar|ʾax}}'' "brother" with special long-vowel case endings in the [[construct state]], the nominative is used everywhere, hence ''{{transl|ar|ʾabū}}'' "father of", ''{{transl|ar|ʾaxū}}'' "brother of".) **Feminine plural endings in verbs and clitic suffixes will often drop out, with the masculine plural endings used instead. If the speaker's native variety has feminine plural endings, they may be preserved, but will often be modified in the direction of the forms used in the speaker's native variety, e.g. ''-an'' instead of ''-na''. **Dual endings will often drop out except on nouns, and then used only for emphasis (similar to their use in the colloquial varieties); elsewhere, the plural endings are used (or feminine singular, if appropriate). === Colloquial varieties === : ''The section below only refers to pronunciation'' {{See|Varieties of Arabic}} ====Vowels==== As mentioned above, many spoken dialects have a process of ''emphasis spreading'', where the "emphasis" ([[pharyngealization]]) of [[emphatic consonant]]s spreads forward and back through adjacent syllables, pharyngealizing all nearby consonants and triggering the back allophone {{IPAblink|ɑ|ɑ(ː)}} in all nearby [[low vowel]]s. The extent of emphasis spreading varies. For example, in [[Moroccan Arabic]], it spreads as far as the first full vowel (i.e. sound derived from a long vowel or diphthong) on either side; in many Levantine dialects, it spreads indefinitely, but is blocked by any {{IPAslink|j}} or {{IPAslink|ʃ}}; while in [[Egyptian Arabic]], it usually spreads throughout the entire word, including prefixes and suffixes. In Moroccan Arabic, {{IPA|/i u/}} also have emphatic allophones {{IPA|[o~ɔ e~ɛ]}}. Unstressed short vowels, especially {{IPA|/i u/}}, are deleted in many contexts. Many sporadic examples of short vowel change have occurred (especially /a/→/i/, and interchange /i/↔/u/). Most Levantine dialects merge short /i u/ into /ǝ/ in most contexts (all except directly before a single final consonant). In Moroccan Arabic, on the other hand, short /u/ triggers [[labialization]] of nearby consonants (especially [[velar consonant]]s and [[uvular consonant]]s), and then short /a i u/ all merge into /ǝ/, which is deleted in many contexts. (The labialization plus /ǝ/ is sometimes interpreted as an underlying phoneme {{IPA|/ŭ/}}.) This essentially causes the wholesale loss of the short-long vowel distinction, with the original long vowels {{IPA|/aː iː uː/}} remaining as half-long {{IPA|[aˑ iˑ uˑ]}}, phonemically {{IPA|/a i u/}}, which are used to represent ''both'' short and long vowels in borrowings from Literary Arabic. Most spoken dialects have [[monophthongization|monophthongized]] original {{IPA|/aj aw/}} to {{IPA|/eː oː/}} (in all circumstances, including adjacent to emphatic consonants). In [[Moroccan Arabic]], these have subsequently merged into original {{IPA|/iː uː/}}. ====Consonants==== In some dialects, there may be more or fewer phonemes than those listed in the chart above. For example, non-Arabic {{IPAblink|v}} is used in the Maghrebi dialects as well in the written language mostly for foreign names. Semitic {{IPAblink|p}} became {{IPA|[f]}} extremely early on in Arabic before it was written down; a few modern Arabic dialects, such as Iraqi (influenced by [[Persian language|Persian]] and [[Turkish Language|Turkish]]) distinguish between {{IPAblink|p}} and {{IPAblink|b}}. The Iraqi Arabic uses also sounds {{IPAblink|ɡ}}, {{IPAblink|t͡ʃ}} and uses Persian adding letters, e.g.: {{lang|fa|گوجة}} ''{{transl|ar|gawjah}}'' – ''a plum''; {{lang|fa|چمة}} ''{{transl|ar|čimah}} – ''a truffle'' and so on. Early in the expansion of Arabic, the separate emphatic phonemes {{IPA|[ɮˤ]}} and {{IPA|[ðˤ]}} coalesced into a single phoneme {{IPA|[ðˤ]}}. Many dialects (such as Egyptian, Levantine, and much of the Maghreb) subsequently lost {{lcons|interdental}} [[fricative]]s, converting {{IPA|[θ ð ðˤ]}} into {{IPA|[t d dˤ]}}. Most dialects borrow "learned" words from the Standard language using the same pronunciation as for inherited words, but some dialects without interdental fricatives (particularly in Egypt and the Levant) render original {{IPA|[θ ð ðˤ ɮˤ]}} in borrowed words as {{IPA|[s z zˤ dˤ]}}. Another key distinguishing mark of Arabic dialects is how they render the original velar and uvular stops {{IPAslink|q}}, {{IPAslink|d͡ʒ}} ([[Proto-Semitic]] {{IPAslink|ɡ}}), and {{IPAslink|k}}: {{IPAslink|q}} retains its original pronunciation in widely scattered regions such as Yemen, Morocco, and urban areas of the [[Maghreb]]. It is pronounced as a [[glottal stop]] {{IPAblink|ʔ}} in several '''prestige dialects''', such as those spoken in Cairo, Beirut and Damascus. But it is rendered as a voiced velar stop {{IPAblink|ɡ}} in Gulf Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Upper Egypt, much of the Maghreb, and less urban parts of the Levant (e.g. Jordan). Some traditionally Christian villages in rural areas of the Levant render the sound as {{IPAblink|k}}, as do Shia Bahrainis. In some Gulf dialects, it is palatalized to {{IPAblink|d͡ʒ}} or {{IPAblink|ʒ}}. It is pronounced as a voiced uvular constrictive {{IPAblink|ʁ}} in Sudanese Arabic. Many dialects with a modified pronunciation for {{IPAslink|q}} maintain the {{IPAblink|q}} pronunciation in certain words (often with religious or educational overtones) borrowed from the Classical language. {{IPA|/d͡ʒ/}} is pronounced as an affricate in Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula, but is pronounced {{IPAblink|ɡ}} in most of North Egypt and parts of Yemen and Oman, {{IPAblink|ʒ}} in Morocco, Tunisia and the Levant, and {{IPAblink|j}}, {{IPA|[i̠]}} in most words in much of Gulf Arabic. {{IPAslink|k}} usually retains its original pronunciation, but is palatalized to {{IPAslink|t͡ʃ}} in many words in [[Israel]] & the [[Palestinian Territories]], Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula. Often a distinction is made between the suffixes {{IPA|/-ak/}} (you, masc.) and {{IPA|/-ik/}} (you, fem.), which become {{IPA|/-ak/}} and {{IPA|/-it͡ʃ/}}, respectively. In Sana'a, Omani, and Bahrani {{IPA|/-ik/}} is pronounced {{IPA|/-iʃ/}}. Pharyngealization of the [[emphatic consonant]]s tends to weaken in many of the spoken varieties, and to spread from emphatic consonants to nearby sounds. In addition, the "emphatic" allophone {{IPAblink|ɑ}} automatically triggers pharyngealization of adjacent sounds in many dialects. As a result, it may difficult or impossible to determine whether a given [[coronal consonant]] is phonemically emphatic or not, especially in dialects with long-distance emphasis spreading. (A notable exception is the sounds {{IPAslink|t}} vs. {{IPAslink|tˤ}} in [[Moroccan Arabic]], because the former is pronounced as an [[affricate]] {{IPAblink|t͡s}} but the latter is not.) === Literary Arabic === {{main|Modern Standard Arabic}} [[File:Quranic-arabic-corpus.png|right|300px|thumb|Visualization of Arabic grammar from the [[Quranic Arabic Corpus]].]] As in other Semitic languages, Arabic has a complex and unusual [[morphology (linguistics)|morphology]] (i.e. method of constructing words from a basic [[root (linguistics)|root]]). Arabic has a [[nonconcatenative morphology|nonconcatenative]] "root-and-pattern" morphology: A root consists of a set of bare consonants (usually [[triliteral|three]]), which are fitted into a discontinuous pattern in order to form words. For example, the word for "I wrote" is constructed by combining the root '''{{transl|ar|k-t-b}}''' "write" with the pattern '''{{transl|ar|-a-a-tu}}''' "I X'd" to form ''{{transl|ar|katabtu}}'' "I wrote". Other verbs meaning "I X'd" will typically have the same pattern but with different consonants, e.g. ''{{transl|ar|qaraʾtu}}'' "I read", ''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾakaltu}}'' "I ate", ''{{transl|ar|ðahabtu}}'' "I went", although other patterns are possible (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|šaribtu}}'' "I drank", ''{{transl|ar|qultu}}'' "I said", ''{{transl|ar|takallamtu}}'' "I spoke", where the subpattern used to signal the past tense may change but the suffix ''{{transl|ar|-tu}}'' is always used). From a single root '''{{transl|ar|k-t-b}}''', numerous words can be formed by applying different patterns: *''{{transl|ar|katabtu}}'' "I wrote" *''{{transl|ar|kattabtu}}'' "I had (something) written" *''{{transl|ar|kātabtu}}'' "I corresponded (with someone)" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾaktabtu}}'' "I dictated" *''{{transl|ar|iktatabtu}}'' "I subscribed" *''{{transl|ar|takātabnā}}'' "we corresponded with each other" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾaktubu}}'' "I write" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾukattibu}}'' "I have (something) written" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾukātibu}}'' "I correspond (with someone)" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾuktibu}}'' "I dictate" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾaktatibu}}'' "I subscribe" *''{{transl|ar|natakātabu}}'' "We correspond each other" *''{{transl|ar|kutiba}}'' "it was written" *''{{transl|ar|DIN|ʾuktiba}}'' "it was dictated" *''{{transl|ar|maktūb}}'' "written" *''{{transl|ar|muktab}}'' "dictated" *''{{transl|ar|katīb}}'' "book" *''{{transl|ar|kutub}}'' "books" *''{{transl|ar|kātib}}'' "writer" *''{{transl|ar|kuttāb}}'' "writers" *''{{transl|ar|maktab}}'' "desk, office" *''{{transl|ar|maktabah}}'' "library" *etc. ====Nouns and adjectives==== Nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical [[noun case|cases]] ([[nominative case|nominative]], [[accusative case|accusative]], and [[genitive case|genitive]] [also used when the noun is governed by a preposition]); three [[grammatical number|numbers]] (singular, dual and plural); two [[gender (grammar)|genders]] (masculine and feminine); and three "states" (indefinite, definite, and [[Status constructus|construct]]). The cases of singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) are indicated by [[suffix]]ed short vowels (/-u/ for nominative, /-a/ for accusative, /-i/ for genitive). The feminine singular is often marked by /-at/, which is reduced to /-ah/ or /-a/ before a pause. Plural is indicated either through endings (the [[sound plural]]) or internal modification (the [[broken plural]]). Definite nouns include all proper nouns, all nouns in "construct state" and all nouns which are [[prefix]]ed by the definite article /al-/. Indefinite singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) add a final /-n/ to the case-marking vowels, giving /-un/, /-an/ or /-in/ (which is also referred to as [[nunation]] or [[tanwīn]]). [[Adjective]]s in Literary Arabic are marked for case, number, gender and state, as for nouns. However, the plural of all non-human nouns is always combined with a singular feminine adjective, which takes the /-ah/ or /-at/ suffix. [[Pronoun]]s in Literary Arabic are marked for person, number and gender. There are two varieties, independent pronouns and [[enclitic]]s. Enclitic pronouns are attached to the end of a verb, noun or preposition and indicate verbal and prepositional objects or possession of nouns. The first-person singular pronoun has a different enclitic form used for verbs (/-ni/) and for nouns or prepositions (/-ī/ after consonants, /-ya/ after vowels). Nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives agree with each other in all respects. However, non-human plural nouns are grammatically considered to be feminine singular. Furthermore, a verb in a verb-initial sentence is marked as singular regardless of its semantic number when the subject of the verb is explicitly mentioned as a noun. Numerals between three and ten show "chiasmic" agreement, in that grammatically masculine numerals have feminine marking and vice versa. ====Verbs==== Verbs in Literary Arabic are marked for person (first, second, or third), gender, and number. They are [[Grammatical conjugation|conjugated]] in two major paradigms ([[past]] and [[non-past]]); two [[grammatical voice|voices]] (active and passive); and five [[grammatical mood|moods]] ([[indicative]], [[imperative mood|imperative]], [[subjunctive]], [[Irrealis mood#Jussive|jussive]] and [[energetic mood|energetic]]). There are also two [[participle]]s (active and passive) and a [[verbal noun]], but no [[infinitive]]. The past and non-past paradigms are sometimes also termed [[perfective]] and [[imperfective]], respectively, indicating the fact that they actually represent a combination of [[Grammatical tense|tense]] and [[Grammatical aspect|aspect]]. The moods other than the [[indicative]] occur only in the non-past, and the [[future tense]] is signaled by prefixing ''{{transl|ar|sa-}}'' or ''{{transl|ar|sawfa}}'' onto the non-past. The past and non-past differ in the form of the stem (e.g. past ''{{transl|ar|katab-}}'' vs. non-past ''{{transl|ar|-ktub-}}''), and also use completely different sets of affixes for indicating person, number and gender: In the past, the person, number and gender are fused into a single [[suffix]]al morpheme, while in the non-past, a combination of [[prefix]]es (primarily encoding person) and [[suffix]]es (primarily encoding gender and number) are used. The passive voice uses the same person/number/gender affixes but changes the vowels of the stem. The following shows a paradigm of a regular Arabic verb, ''{{transl|ar|kataba}}'' "to write". Note that in [[Modern Standard Arabic]], many final short vowels are dropped (indicated in parentheses below), and the [[energetic mood]] (in either long or short form, which have the same meaning) is almost never used. ====Derivation==== Unlike in most languages, Arabic has virtually no means of [[derivational morphology|deriving]] words by adding prefixes or suffixes to words. Instead, they are formed according to a limited (but fairly large) number of templates applied to roots. For verbs, a given root can construct up to fifteen different verbs, each with one or more characteristic meanings and each with its own templates for the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun. These are referred to by Western scholars as "Form I", "Form II", and so on through "Form XV" (although Forms XI to XV are rare). These forms encode concepts such as the [[causative]], [[intensive]] and [[reflexive]]. These forms can be viewed as analogous to [[verb conjugation]]s in languages such as [[Spanish language|Spanish]] in terms of the additional complexity of verb formation that they induce. (Note, however, that their usage in constructing vocabulary is somewhat different, since the same root can be conjugated in multiple forms, with different shades of meaning.) Examples of the different verbs formed from the root ''{{transl|ar|k-t-b}}'' "write" (using ''{{transl|ar|ḥ-m-r}}'' "red" for Form IX, which is limited to colors and physical defects): {|class="wikitable" |+Most of these forms are exclusively [[Classical Arabic]] ! Form !! Past !! Meaning !! Non-past !! Meaning |- | I || ''{{transl|ar|'''k'''a'''t'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he wrote" || ''{{transl|ar|ya'''kt'''u'''b'''u}}'' || "he writes" |- | II || ''{{transl|ar|'''k'''a'''tt'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he made (someone) write" || ''{{transl|ar|yu'''k'''a'''tt'''i'''b'''u}}'' || "he makes (someone) write" |- | III || ''{{transl|ar|'''k'''ā'''t'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he corresponded with, wrote to (someone)" || ''{{transl|ar|yu'''k'''ā'''t'''i'''b'''u}}'' || "he corresponds with, writes to (someone)" |- | IV || ''{{transl|ar|ʾa'''kt'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he dictated" || ''{{transl|ar|yu'''kt'''i'''b'''u}}'' || "he dictates" |- | V || ''{{transl|ar|ta'''k'''a'''tt'''a'''b'''a}}'' || ''nonexistent'' || ''{{transl|ar|yata'''k'''a'''tt'''a'''b'''u}}'' || ''nonexistent'' |- | VI || ''{{transl|ar|ta'''k'''ā'''t'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he corresponded (with someone, esp. mutually)" || ''{{transl|ar|yata'''k'''ā'''t'''a'''b'''u}}'' || "he corresponds (with someone, esp. mutually)" |- | VII || ''{{transl|ar|in'''k'''a'''t'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he subscribed" || ''{{transl|ar|yan'''k'''a'''t'''i'''b'''u}}'' || "he subscribes" |- | VIII || ''{{transl|ar|i'''k'''ta'''t'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he copied" || ''{{transl|ar|ya'''k'''ta'''t'''i'''b'''u}}'' || "he copies" |- | IX || ''{{transl|ar|i'''ḥm'''a'''rr'''a}}'' || "he turned red" || ''{{transl|ar|ya'''ḥm'''a'''rr'''u}}'' || "he turns red" |- | X || ''{{transl|ar|ista'''kt'''a'''b'''a}}'' || "he asked (someone) to write" || ''{{transl|ar|yasta'''kt'''i'''b'''u}}'' || "he asks (someone) to write" |- |} Form II is sometimes used to create transitive [[denominative verb]]s (verbs built from nouns); Form V is the equivalent used for intransitive denominatives. The associated participles and verbal nouns of a verb are the primary means of forming new lexical nouns in Arabic. This is similar to the process by which, for example, the English [[gerund]] "meeting" (similar to a verbal noun) has turned into a noun referring to a particular type of social, often work-related event where people gather together to have a "discussion" (another lexicalized verbal noun). Another fairly common means of forming nouns is through one of a limited number of patterns that can be applied directly to roots, such as the "nouns of location" in ''ma-'' (e.g. ''{{transl|ar|maktab}}'' "desk, office" < ''k-t-b'' "write", ''{{transl|ar|maṭbax}}'' "kitchen" < ''ṭ-b-x'' "cook"). The only three genuine suffixes are as follows: *The feminine suffix ''-ah''; variously derives terms from women from related terms for men, or more generally terms along the same lines as the corresponding masculine, e.g. ''{{transl|ar|maktabah}}'' "library" (also a writing-related place, but different than ''{{transl|ar|maktab}}'', as above). *The [[nisba]] suffix ''-iyy-''. This suffix is extremely productive, and forms adjectives meaning "related to X". It corresponds to English adjectives in ''-ic, -al, -an, -y, -ist'', etc. *The feminine [[nisba]] suffix ''-iyyah''. This is formed by adding the feminine suffix ''-ah'' onto nisba adjectives to form abstract nouns. For example, from the basic root ''{{transl|ar|š-r-k}}'' "share" can be derived the Form VIII verb ''{{transl|ar|ištaraka}}'' "to cooperate, participate", and in turn its verbal noun ''{{transl|ar|ištirāk}}'' "cooperation, participation" can be formed. This in turn can be made into a nisba adjective ''{{transl|ar|ištirākiyy}}'' "socialist", from which an abstract noun ''{{transl|ar|ištirākiyyah}}'' "socialism" can be derived. Other recent formations are ''{{transl|ar|jumhūriyyah}}'' "republic" (lit. "public-ness" < ''{{transl|ar|jumhūr}}'' "multitude, general public"), and the [[Gaddafi]]-specific variation ''{{transl|ar|jamāhīriyyah}}'' "people's republic" (lit. "masses-ness" < ''{{transl|ar|jamāhīr}}'' "the masses", pl. of ''{{transl|ar|jumhūr}}'', as above). === Colloquial varieties === {{main|Varieties of Arabic}} The spoken dialects have lost the case distinctions and make only limited use of the dual (it occurs only on nouns and its use is no longer required in all circumstances). They have lost the mood distinctions other than imperative, but many have since gained new moods through the use of prefixes (most often /bi-/ for indicative vs. unmarked subjunctive). They have also mostly lost the indefinite "nunation" and the internal passive. The following is an example of a regular verb paradigm in [[Egyptian Arabic]]. {| class="wikitable" |+Example of a regular Form I verb in [[Egyptian Arabic]], ''kátab/yíktib'' "write" ! colspan=2|Tense/Mood ! Past ! Present Subjunctive ! Present Indicative ! Future ! Imperative |- ! width="100%" colspan="7" | Singular |- ! colspan=2|1st | ''katáb-t'' | ''á-ktib'' | ''bá-ktib'' | ''ḥá-ktib'' | style=background:silver| |- ! rowspan=2| 2nd !masculine | ''katáb-t'' | ''tí-ktib'' | ''bi-tí-ktib'' | ''ḥa-tí-ktib'' | ''í-ktib'' |- !feminine | ''katáb-ti'' | ''ti-ktíb-i'' | ''bi-ti-ktíb-i'' | ''ḥa-ti-ktíb-i'' | ''i-ktíb-i'' |- ! rowspan=2|3rd !masculine | ''kátab'' | ''yí-ktib'' | ''bi-yí-ktib'' | ''ḥa-yí-ktib'' | rowspan=2 style=background:silver| |- !feminine | ''kátab-it'' | ''tí-ktib'' | ''bi-tí-ktib'' | ''ḥa-tí-ktib'' |- ! width="100%" colspan="7" | Plural |- ! colspan=2|1st | ''katáb-na'' | ''ní-ktib'' | ''bi-ní-ktib'' | ''ḥá-ní-ktib'' | style=background:silver| |- ! colspan=2|2nd | ''katáb-tu'' | ''ti-ktíb-u'' | ''bi-ti-ktíb-u'' | ''ḥa-ti-ktíb-u'' | ''i-ktíb-u'' |- ! colspan=2|3rd | ''kátab-u'' | ''yi-ktíb-u'' | ''bi-yi-ktíb-u'' | ''ḥa-yi-ktíb-u'' | style=background:silver| |- |} See [[varieties of Arabic]] for more information on grammar differences in the spoken varieties. == Writing system {{anchor|writing system}} == {{Main|Arabic alphabet}} [[File:Learning Arabic calligraphy.jpg|thumb|An example of a text written in [[Arabic calligraphy]].]] The Arabic alphabet derives from the [[Aramaic alphabet|Aramaic]] through [[Nabatean alphabet|Nabatean]], to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of [[Coptic alphabet|Coptic]] or [[Cyrillic alphabet|Cyrillic script]] to [[Greek alphabet|Greek script]]. Traditionally, there were several differences between the Western (North African) and Middle Eastern version of the alphabet—in particular, the ''fa'' had a dot underneath and ''qaf'' a single dot above in the [[Maghreb]], and the order of the letters was slightly different (at least when they were used as numerals). However, the old Maghrebi variant has been abandoned except for calligraphic purposes in the Maghreb itself, and remains in use mainly in the Quranic schools ([[zaouia]]s) of West Africa. Arabic, like all other [[Semitic languages]] (except for the [[Latin script|Latin-written]] [[Maltese language|Maltese]], and the languages with the [[Ge'ez script]]), is written from right to left. There are several styles of script, notably [[Naskh (script)|Naskh]] which is used in print and by computers, and [[Ruq'ah]] which is commonly used in [[handwriting]]. === Calligraphy === {{Main|Arabic calligraphy}} After [[Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi]] finally fixed the Arabic script around 786, many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Qur'an and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration. Arabic calligraphy has not fallen out of use as calligraphy has in the Western world, and is still considered by [[Arabs]] as a major art form; calligraphers are held in great esteem. Being cursive by nature, unlike the [[Latin script]], Arabic script is used to write down a [[ayah|verse]] of the Qur'an, a [[Hadith]], or simply a [[proverb]], in a spectacular composition. The composition is often abstract, but sometimes the writing is shaped into an actual form such as that of an animal. One of the current masters of the genre is [[Hassan Massoudy]]. === Romanization === {{Main|Romanization of Arabic}} {| class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin: 1em;" |+ Examples of different transliteration/transcription schemes ! Letter ! Name ! [[International Phonetic Alphabet|IPA]] ! [[United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names|UNGEGN]] ! [[Library of Congress|ALA-LC]] ! [[DIN 31635|DIN]] !! [[ISO 233|ISO]] ! [[Spanish Arabists School|SAS]] ! [[ISO 233-2|-2]] ! [[Bikdash Arabic Transliteration Rules|BATR]] ! [[ArabTeX]] ! [[Arabic chat alphabet|chat]] |- ! {{lang|ar|[[ء]]}} | {{transl|ar|hamzah}} | {{IPAlink|ʔ}} |colspan="2"| {{unicode|ʼ}} | {{unicode|ʾ}} || {{unicode|ˈ}}{{unicode|ˌ}} | {{unicode|ʾ}} | ' | e | ' | 2 |- ! {{lang|ar|ا}} | {{transl|ar|ʾalif}} | {{IPA|aː}} |colspan="3"| {{unicode|ā}} | {{unicode|ʾ}} | {{unicode|ā}} | aa | aa / A | a | a/e/é |- ! {{lang|ar|[[ي]]}} | {{transl|ar|yāʾ}} | {{IPAlink|j}}, {{IPA|iː}} | y |colspan="4"| y; {{unicode|ī}} | y; e | y; ii | y | y; i/ee; ei/ai |- ! {{lang|ar|ث}} | {{transl|ar|ṯāʾ}} | {{IPAlink|θ}} |colspan="2"| th |colspan="2"| {{unicode|ṯ}} | ç | {{unicode|ṯ}} | c | _t | s/th |- ! {{lang|ar|ج}} | {{transl|ar|jīm}} | {{IPAlink|d͡ʒ}}~{{IPAlink|ɡ}}~{{IPAlink|ʒ}} |colspan="2"| j |colspan="2"| {{unicode|ǧ}} | {{unicode|ŷ}} | j | j | ^g | j/g/dj |- ! {{lang|ar|ح}} | {{transl|ar|ḥāʾ}} | {{IPAlink|ħ}} | {{unicode|ḩ}} |colspan="5"| {{unicode|ḥ}} | H | .h | 7 |- ! {{lang|ar|خ}} | {{transl|ar|ḫāʾ}} | {{IPAlink|x}} |colspan="2"| kh | {{unicode|ḫ}} || {{unicode|ẖ}} | j | x | K | _h | kh/7'/5 |- ! {{lang|ar|ذ}} | {{transl|ar|ḏāl}} | {{IPAlink|ð}} |colspan="2"| dh |colspan="3"| {{unicode|ḏ}} | đ | z' | _d | z/dh/th |- ! {{lang|ar|ش}} | {{unicode|šīn}} | {{IPAlink|ʃ}} |colspan="2"| sh |colspan="4"| {{unicode|š}} | x | ^s | sh/ch |- ! {{lang|ar|ص}} | {{transl|ar|ṣād}} | {{IPAlink|ˤ|sˤ}} | {{unicode|ş}} |colspan="5"| {{unicode|ṣ}} | S | .s | s/9 |- ! {{lang|ar|ض}} | {{transl|ar|ḍād}} | {{IPAlink|ˤ|dˤ}} | {{unicode|ḑ}} |colspan="5"| {{unicode|ḍ}} | D | .d | d/9' |- ! {{lang|ar|ط}} | {{transl|ar|ṭāʾ}} | {{IPAlink|ˤ|tˤ}} | {{unicode|ţ}} |colspan="5"| {{unicode|ṭ}} | T | .t | t/6 |- ! {{lang|ar|ظ}} | {{transl|ar|ẓāʾ}} | {{IPAlink|ðˤ}}~{{IPAlink|zˤ}} | {{unicode|z̧}} |colspan="4"| {{unicode|ẓ}} | đ̣ | Z | .z | z/dh/6' |- ! {{lang|ar|ع}} | {{transl|ar|ʿayn}} | {{IPAlink|ʕ}} |colspan="2"| {{unicode|ʻ}} |colspan="3"| {{unicode|ʿ}} | ř | E | ` | 3 |- ! {{lang|ar|غ}} | {{transl|ar|ġayn}} | {{IPAlink|ɣ}} |colspan="2"| gh |colspan="2"| {{unicode|ġ}} | g | j | g | .g | gh/3' |- |} There are a number of different standards for the [[romanization of Arabic]], i.e. methods of accurately and efficiently representing Arabic with the [[Latin script]]. There are various conflicting motivations involved, which leads to multiple systems. Some are interested in [[transliteration]], i.e. representing the ''spelling'' of Arabic, while others focus on [[transcription]], i.e. representing the ''pronunciation'' of Arabic. (They differ in that, for example, the same letter {{lang|ar|[[ي]]}} is used to represent both a consonant, as in "'''y'''ou" or "'''y'''et", and a vowel, as in "m'''e'''" or "'''ea'''t".) Some systems, e.g. for scholarly use, are intended to accurately and unambiguously represent the phonemes of Arabic, generally making the phonetics more explicit than the original word in the Arabic script. These systems are heavily reliant on [[diacritic]]al marks such as "š" for the sound equivalently written ''sh'' in English. Other systems (e.g. the [[Bahá'í orthography]]) are intended to help readers who are neither Arabic speakers nor linguists to intuitively pronounce Arabic names and phrases. These less "scientific" tend to avoid diacritics and use [[digraph (orthography)|digraphs]] (like ''sh'' and ''kh''). These are usually more simple to read, but sacrifice the definiteness of the scientific systems, and may lead to ambiguities, e.g. whether to interpret ''sh'' as a single sound, as in ''gash'', or a combination of two sounds, as in ''gashouse''. During the last few decades and especially since the 1990s, Western-invented text communication technologies have become prevalent in the [[Arab world]], such as [[personal computers]], the [[World Wide Web]], [[email]], [[Bulletin board system]]s, [[Internet Relay Chat|IRC]], [[instant messaging]] and [[mobile phone text messaging]]. Most of these technologies originally had the ability to communicate using the [[Latin script]] only, and some of them still do not have the Arabic script as an optional feature. As a result, Arabic speaking users communicated in these technologies by transliterating the Arabic text using the Latin script, sometimes known as IM Arabic. To handle those Arabic letters that cannot be accurately represented using the Latin script, numerals and other characters were appropriated. For example, the numeral "3" may be used to represent the Arabic letter "ع". There is no universal name for this type of transliteration, but some have named it [[Arabic Chat Alphabet]]. Other systems of transliteration exist, such as using dots or capitalization to represent the "emphatic" counterparts of certain consonants. For instance, using capitalization, the letter "د", may be represented by '''d'''. Its emphatic counterpart, "ض", may be written as '''D'''. === Numerals === {{See also|Arabic numerals}} In most of present-day North Africa, the [[Western Arabic numerals]] (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are used. However in [[Egypt]] and Arabic-speaking countries to the east of it, the [[Eastern Arabic numerals]] ({{script/Arabic|٠}} – {{script/Arabic|١}} – {{script/Arabic|٢}} – {{script/Arabic|٣}} – {{script/Arabic|٤}} – {{script/Arabic|٥}} – {{script/Arabic|٦}} – {{script/Arabic|٧}} – {{script/Arabic|٨}} – {{script/Arabic|٩}}) are in use. When representing a number in Arabic, the lowest-valued [[positional notation|position]] is placed on the right, so the order of positions is the same as in left-to-right scripts. Sequences of digits such as telephone numbers are read from left to right, but numbers are spoken in the traditional Arabic fashion, with units and tens reversed from the modern English usage. For example, 24 is said "four and twenty" just like in the [[German language]] (''vierundzwanzig'') and [[Classical Hebrew]], and '''1975''' is said "a thousand and nine-hundred and five and seventy" or, more eloquently, "five and seventy and nine-hundred and a thousand." == Language-standards regulators == [[Academy of the Arabic Language]] is the name of a number of language-regulation bodies formed in [[Arab League]]. The most active are in [[Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus|Damascus]] and [[Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo|Cairo]]. They review language development, monitor new words and approve inclusion of new words into their published standard dictionaries. They also publish old and historical Arabic manuscripts. == Studying Arabic == Because the [[Quran]] is written in Arabic and all [[Glossary of Islam|Islamic terms]] are in Arabic, millions of Muslims (both Arab and non-Arab) study the language. Arabic has been taught worldwide in many [[elementary school|elementary]] and [[secondary school|secondary]] schools, especially Muslim schools. Universities around the world have classes that teach Arabic as part of their [[Foreign Languages|foreign languages]], [[Middle Eastern studies]], and [[religious studies]] courses. [[Arabic language school]]s exist to assist students in learning Arabic outside of the academic world. Many Arabic [[language school]]s are located in the [[Arab world]] and other [[Muslim world|Muslim]] countries. Software and books with tapes are also important part of Arabic learning, as many of Arabic learners may live in places where there are no academic or [[Arabic language school]] classes available. Radio series of Arabic language classes are also provided from some radio stations. A number of websites on the [[Internet]] provide online classes for all levels as a means of distance education. == Examples == {| class="wikitable" |- ! English ! Arabic ! [[Arabic diacritics|Arabic (vowelled)]] ! [[Romanization of Arabic|Romanization]] ([[DIN 31635]]) ! [[IPA]] |- |English || {{lang|ar|الإنجليزية}}
or {{lang|ar|الإنكليزية}} || {{lang|ar|الإنْكلِيزيّة}}
or {{lang|ar|الإنْجلِيزِيّة}} || {{transl|ar|al-ingilīziyyah}} (varies) || {{IPA|/alʔinɡ(i)liːzijja/}} (varies) |- |Yes || {{lang|ar|نعم}} || {{lang|ar|نَعَمْ}} || {{transl|ar|naʿam}} || {{IPA|/naʕam/}} |- |No || {{lang|ar|لا}} || {{lang|ar|لا}} || {{transl|ar|lā}} || {{IPA|/laː/}} |- |Hello || {{lang|ar|مرحبا}} || {{lang|ar|مَرْحَبًا}} || {{transl|ar|marḥaban}} || {{IPA|/marħaban/}} |- |Peace (Usually Islamic) || {{lang|ar|السلام عليكم}}|| {{lang|ar|السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُمْ}} || {{transl|ar|ʾassalāmu ʿalaykum}} || {{IPA|/ʔassalaːmu ʕalajkum/}} |- |How are you || {{lang|ar|کيف الحال؟}} || {{lang|ar|کَيْفَ ٱلْحَال؟}}|| {{transl|ar|kayfa l-ḥāl}} || {{IPA|/kajfa lħaːl/}} |- |Welcome || {{lang|ar|أهلا}} || {{lang|ar|أَهْلاً}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʾahlan}} || {{IPA|/ʔahlan/}} |- |Goodbye || {{lang|ar|مع السلامة}} || {{lang|ar|مَعَ السّلامَة}} || {{transl|ar|maʿa s-salāma}} || {{IPA|/maʕa ssalaːma/}} |- |Please || {{lang|ar|من فضلك}} || {{lang|ar|مِنْ فَضْلِك}} || {{transl|ar|min faḍlik}} || {{IPA|/min fadˤlik,/}} |- |Thanks || {{lang|ar|شكرا}} || {{lang|ar|شُكْرًا}} || {{transl|ar|šukran}} || {{IPA|/ʃukran/}} |- |Excuse me || {{lang|ar|عفوا}} || {{lang|ar|عَفْوًا}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʿafwan}} || {{IPA|/ʕafwan/}} |- |I'm sorry || {{lang|ar|آسف}} || {{lang|ar|آسِف}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʾāsif}} || {{IPA|/ʔaːsif/}} |- |What's your name? || {{lang|ar|ما اسمك؟}} || {{lang|ar|مَا ٱسْمُك؟}} || {{transl|ar|mā smuk(a/i)?}} || {{IPA|/ma smuk(a, i)/}} |- |How much? || {{lang|ar|كم؟}} || {{lang|ar|كَمْ؟}} || {{transl|ar|kam?}} || {{IPA|/kam/}} |- |I don't understand. || {{lang|ar|لا أفهم}} || {{lang|ar|لا أفْهَم}} || {{transl|ar|lā ʾafham}} || {{IPA|/laː ʔafham/}} |- |I don't speak Arabic. || {{lang|ar|لا أتكلم العربية}} || {{lang|ar|لا أتَكَلّمُ الْعَرَبيّة}} || {{transl|ar|lā ʾatakallamu l-ʿarabiyyah}} || {{IPA|/laː ʔatakallamu lʕarabijja/}} |- |I don't know. || {{lang|ar|لا أعرف}} || {{lang|ar|لا أعْرِف}} || {{transl|ar|lā ʾaʿrif}} || {{IPA|/laː ʔaʕrif/}} |- |I'm hungry. || {{lang|ar|أنا جائع}} || {{lang|ar|أنا جائِع}} || {{transl|ar|ʾanā jāʾiʿ}} || {{IPA|/ʔanaː ɡaːʔiʕ/}} |- |Orange || {{lang|ar|برتقالي}} || {{lang|ar|بُرْتُقَالِي}} || {{transl|ar|burtuqālī}} || {{IPA|/burtuqaːliː/}} |- |Black || {{lang|ar|أسود}} || {{lang|ar|أسْوَد}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʾaswad}} || {{IPA|/ʔaswad/}} |- |One || {{lang|ar|واحد}} || {{lang|ar|واحِد}} || {{transl|ar|wāḥid}} || {{IPA|/waːħid/}} |- |Two || {{lang|ar|اثنان}} || {{lang|ar|اِثْنَان}} || {{transl|ar|iṯnān}} || {{IPA|/iθnaːn/}} |- |Three || {{lang|ar|ثلاثة}} || {{lang|ar|ثَلاثَة}} || {{transl|ar|ṯalāṯah}} || {{IPA|/θalaːθa/}} |- |Four || {{lang|ar|أربعة}} || {{lang|ar|أرْبَعَة}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʾarbaʿah}} || {{IPA|/ʔarbaʕa/}} |- |Five || {{lang|ar|خمسة}} || {{lang|ar|خَمْسَة}} || {{transl|ar|ḫamsah}} || {{IPA|/xamsa/}} |- |Six || {{lang|ar|ستة}} || {{lang|ar|سِتّة}} || {{transl|ar|sittah}} || {{IPA|/sitta/}} |- |Seven || {{lang|ar|سبعة}} || {{lang|ar|سَبْعَة}} || {{transl|ar|sabʿah}} || {{IPA|/sabʕa/}} |- |Eight || {{lang|ar|ثمانية}} || {{lang|ar|ثَمَانِيَة}} || {{transl|ar|ṯamāniyah}} || {{IPA|/θamaːnija/}} |- |Nine || {{lang|ar|تسعة}} || {{lang|ar|تِسْعَة}} || {{transl|ar|tisʿah}} || {{IPA|/tisʕah/}} |- |Ten || {{lang|ar|عشرة}} || {{lang|ar|عَشَرَة}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʿašarah}} || {{IPA|/ʕaʃarah/}} |- |Eleven || {{lang|ar|أحد عشر}} || {{lang|ar|أَحَدَ عَشَر}} || {{transl|ar|DIN|ʾaḥad(a) ʿašar}} || {{IPA|/ʔaħad(a) ʕaʃar/}} |} == See also == {{Col-begin}} {{Col-1-of-2}} * [[Modern Standard Arabic]] * [[Diglossia#Arabic|Arabic diglossia]] * [[Varieties of Arabic]] * [[Arabic–English Lexicon]] * [[Arabic influence on the Spanish language]] * [[Arabic literature]] * [[Arabist]] * [[Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic]] {{Col-2-of-2}} * [[Glossary of Islam]] * [[List of arabophones]] * [[List of countries where Arabic is an official language]] * [[List of French words of Arabic origin]] * [[List of Portuguese words of Arabic origin]] * [[List of replaced loanwords in Turkish]] * [[Arabic grammar]] (إﻋﺮﺍﺏ) {{Col-end}} == External links == {{InterWiki|code=ar}} {{Wikiversity}} {{Wikibooks|Arabic}} {{Commons category|Arabic language}} * Documents ** [http://wikitravel.org/en/Arabic Arabic phrasebook at Wikitravel] ** [http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Language_Learning_Difficulty_for_English_Speakers Arabic: a Category III language] Languages which are very difficult for native English speakers ** [https://sites.google.com/site/illustratedarabicvocabulary/ ] Arabic Vocabulary with pictures **[http://www1.ccls.columbia.edu/~cadim/TUTORIAL.ARABIC.NLP.pdf Dr. Habash's Introduction to Arabic Natural Language Processing] **[https://sites.google.com/site/khaledshaalan/publications/slides-2/ShaalanRule-basedapproachinArabicNLPCITALA09.ppt?attredirects=0&d=1 Dr. Shaalan's talk about Rule-based approach in Arabic NLP: Tools, Systems and Resources] * Tools **[http://www.studyquran.co.uk/LLhome.htm Lane's Arabic–English Lexicon] – An 8-volume, 3000-page dictionary in PDF format. ** [http://www.google.com/ta3reeb/ Google Ta3reeb – Google Transliteration] ** [http://transliteration.org/quran/Pronunciation/Letters/TashP.htm Transliteration ] Arabic language pronunciation applet ** [http://www.fsi-language-courses.org/Content.php?page=Arabic USA Foreign Service Institute Arabic basic course] {{Arabic language}} {{Language histories}} {{Official UN languages}} {{Working languages of the African Union}} {{Modern Semitic languages}} {{Varieties of Arabic}} {{Semitic languages}} {{Use dmy dates|date=November 2010}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Arabic Language}}