Arkansas

Arkansas

Encyclopedia
Arkansas is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 located in the southern region
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Its name is an Algonquian
Algonquian languages
The Algonquian languages also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is a...

 name of the Quapaw
Quapaw
The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans who historically resided on the west side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of Arkansas.They are federally recognized as the Quapaw Tribe of Indians.-Government:...

 Indians
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

. Arkansas shares borders with six states (clockwise: N:Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

; E: Tennessee
Tennessee
Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

, Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

; S: Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

; SW: Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

; W: Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

), and its eastern border is largely defined by the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

. Its diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozarks
The Ozarks
The Ozarks are a physiographic and geologic highland region of the central United States. It covers much of the southern half of Missouri and an extensive portion of northwestern and north central Arkansas...

 and the Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The range's subterranean roots may extend as far as central Texas, or beyond it to the current location of the Marathon Uplift. Along with the Ozark Mountains, the Ouachita Mountains form the U.S...

, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands
U.S. Interior Highlands
The U.S. Interior Highlands is a mountainous region spanning eastern Oklahoma, western and northern Arkansas, southern Missouri, and the extreme southeast corner of Kansas. The name is designated by the United States Geological Survey to refer to the combined mountainous region of the Ozarks and...

, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River. The capital and most populous city is Little Rock
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 699,757 people in the 2010 census...

, located in the central portion of the state.

Toponym


The name "Arkansas" derives from the same root as the name for the State of Kansas. The Kansa
Kaw (tribe)
The Kaw Nation are an American Indian people of the central Midwestern United States. The tribe known as Kaw have also been known as the "People of the South wind", "People of water", Kansa, Kaza, Kosa, and Kasa. Their tribal language is Kansa, classified as a Siouan language.The toponym "Kansas"...

 tribe of Native Americans
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America, their descendants and other ethnic groups who are identified with those peoples. Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, and in the United States as Native Americans...

 are closely associated with the Sioux
Sioux
The Sioux are Native American and First Nations people in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or any of the nation's many language dialects...

 tribes of the Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

. The word "Arkansas" itself is a French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 pronunciation ("Arcansas") of a Quapaw
Quapaw
The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans who historically resided on the west side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of Arkansas.They are federally recognized as the Quapaw Tribe of Indians.-Government:...

 (a related "Kaw" tribe) word "akakaze" meaning "land of downriver people" or the Sioux
Sioux language
Sioux is a Siouan language spoken by over 33,000 Sioux in the United States and Canada, making it the fifth most spoken indigenous language in the United States or Canada, behind Navajo, Cree, Inuit and Ojibwe.-Regional variation:...

 word "Akakaze" meaning "people of the south wind". The pronunciation of Arkansas was made official by an act of the state legislature in 1881, after a dispute between the two U.S. Senators from Arkansas. One wanted to pronounce the name ɑr and the other wanted ˈ .

In 2007, the state legislature officially declared the possessive form of the state's name to be Arkansas's.

Geography




The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay
Clay County, Arkansas
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of 2010, the population was 16,083. The county has two county seats, Corning and Piggott...

 and Greene counties where the St. Francis River
St. Francis River
The Saint Francis River is a tributary of the Mississippi River, about long, in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas in the United States...

 forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, and in dozens of places where the current channel of the Mississippi has meandered from where it had last been legally specified. Arkansas shares its southern border with Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

, its northern border with Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

, its eastern border with Tennessee
Tennessee
Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

 and Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

, and its western border with Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 and Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

.

Arkansas is a land of lakes and rivers, thick forests and fertile soil. The Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
The Arkansas Delta is one of the five natural regions of the state of Arkansas. It runs along the eastern border of the state next to the Mississippi River. It is part of the Mississippi River alluvial plain, itself part of the Mississippi embayment...

 is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding
River delta
A delta is a landform that is formed at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river. Deltas are formed from the deposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouth of the river...

 of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape. Both are fertile agricultural areas.

The Delta region is bisected by an unusual geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge
Crowley's Ridge
Crowley's Ridge is an unusual geological formation that rises 250 to above the alluvial plain of the Mississippi embayment in a line from southeastern Missouri to the Mississippi River near Helena, Arkansas. It is the most prominent feature in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain between Cape...

. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet (152.4 m) above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas.

Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The range's subterranean roots may extend as far as central Texas, or beyond it to the current location of the Marathon Uplift. Along with the Ozark Mountains, the Ouachita Mountains form the U.S...

, and these regions are divided by the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. The river's initial basin starts in the Western United States in Colorado, specifically the Arkansas...

; the southern and eastern parts of Arkansas are called the Lowlands. These mountain ranges are part of the U.S. Interior Highlands
U.S. Interior Highlands
The U.S. Interior Highlands is a mountainous region spanning eastern Oklahoma, western and northern Arkansas, southern Missouri, and the extreme southeast corner of Kansas. The name is designated by the United States Geological Survey to refer to the combined mountainous region of the Ozarks and...

 region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
The Rocky Mountains are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the southwestern United States...

 and the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains #Whether the stressed vowel is or ,#Whether the "ch" is pronounced as a fricative or an affricate , and#Whether the final vowel is the monophthong or the diphthong .), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians...

. The highest point in the state is Mount Magazine
Mount Magazine
Mount Magazine is the name commonly used for the tallest mountain in the state of Arkansas and is the site of Arkansas's newest state park. The mountain is a flat-topped plateau with a sandstone cap rimmed by precipitous rock cliffs...

 in the Ouachita Mountains
Ouachita Mountains
The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range in west central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The range's subterranean roots may extend as far as central Texas, or beyond it to the current location of the Marathon Uplift. Along with the Ozark Mountains, the Ouachita Mountains form the U.S...

; it rises to 2753 feet (839.1 m) above sea level.

Arkansas is home to many caves, such as Blanchard Springs Caverns
Blanchard Springs Caverns
Blanchard Springs Caverns is a cave system located in the Ozark National Forest in Stone County in northern Arkansas, 2 miles off Highway 14 a short distance north of Mountain View. Blanchard Springs Caverns is a three-level cave system, two of which are open for guided tours. The Dripstone Trail...

.
More than 43,000 Native American living, hunting and tool making sites, many of them Pre-Columbian burial mounds and rock shelters, have been catalogued by the State Archeologist. Arkansas is currently the only U.S. state in which diamond
Diamond
In mineralogy, diamond is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions...

s are mined—although by members of the public with primitive digging tools for a small daily fee, not by commercial interests. (near Murfreesboro
Murfreesboro, Arkansas
Murfreesboro is a city in Pike County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,764 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Pike County....

).

Arkansas is home to many areas protected by the National Park System. These include:
  • Arkansas Post National Memorial
    Arkansas Post National Memorial
    Arkansas Post National Memorial, located about 8 miles southeast of Gillett, Arkansas, commemorates key events related to European-American history that occurred on site and in the vicinity: the trading post was the first successful French settlement in the Lower Mississippi River Valley ; site...

     at Gillett
    Gillett, Arkansas
    Gillett is a city in Arkansas County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 819 at the 2000 census. Gillett is the home of the annual Gillett Coon Supper. The Arkansas Post National Memorial is located southeast of the town....

  • Buffalo National River
    Buffalo National River
    The Buffalo River, located in northern Arkansas, was the first National River to be designated in the United States. The Buffalo River is slightly more than in length, with the lower flowing within the boundaries of an area managed by the National Park Service, where it is designated the '. The...

  • Fort Smith National Historic Site
    Fort Smith National Historic Site
    Fort Smith National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located primarily in Fort Smith, Arkansas along the Arkansas River, and also along the opposite bank of the river near Moffett, Oklahoma....

  • Hot Springs National Park
    Hot Springs National Park
    Established from Hot Springs Reservation, Hot Springs National Park is a United States National Park in central Arkansas adjacent to the city of Hot Springs. Hot Springs Reservation was initially created by an act of the United States Congress on April 20, 1832, and the area was made a national...

  • Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site
  • Pea Ridge National Military Park
    Pea Ridge National Military Park
    Pea Ridge National Military Park is a United States National Military Park located in extreme northwestern Arkansas near the Missouri border. The park protects the site of the American Civil War Battle of Pea Ridge which was fought March 7 and March 8, 1862...

  • President William Jefferson Clinton Birthplace Home National Historic Site


The Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears is a name given to the forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830...

 National Historic Trail also runs through Arkansas.

Arkansas is home to a dozen Wilderness Areas totaling around 150000 acres (607 km²). These areas are set aside for outdoor recreation and are open to hunting, fishing, hiking, and primitive camping. No mechanized vehicles are allowed in these areas, some of which are rarely visited and can provide a good experience of feeling as if you are the only person to have ever stepped foot there.

Climate


Arkansas generally has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

, which borders on humid continental
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 in some northern highland areas. While not bordering the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

, Arkansas is still close enough to this warm, large body of water for it to influence the weather in the state. Generally, Arkansas has hot, humid summers and cold, slightly drier winters. In Little Rock
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 699,757 people in the 2010 census...

, the daily high temperatures average around 93 °F (33.9 °C) with lows around 73 °F (22.8 °C) in the month of July. In January highs average around 51 °F (10.6 °C) and lows around 32 °F (0 °C). In Siloam Springs
Siloam Springs, Arkansas
Siloam Springs is a city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,990...

 in the northwest part of the state, the average high and low temperatures in July are 89 °F (31.7 °C) and 67 °F (19.4 °C) and in January the average high and lows are 44 °F (6.7 °C) and 23 °F (-5 °C). Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about 40 and 60 in (1,016 and 1,524 mm); somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the state. Snowfall is common, more so in the north half of the state, which usually gets several snowfalls each winter. This is not only due to its closer proximity to the plains states, but also to the higher elevations found throughout the Ozark and Ouachita mountains. The half of the state south of Little Rock gets less snow, and is more apt to see ice storms, however, sleet and freezing rain are expected throughout the state during the winter months, and can significantly impact travel and day to day life. Arkansas' all time record high is 120 °F (48.9 °C) at Ozark
Ozark, Arkansas
Ozark is a city in Franklin County, Arkansas, United States, and one of the two county seats of Franklin County. It is part of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 3,525 at the 2000 census, making Ozark the ninth largest municipality in the metro area...

 on August 10, 1936; the all time record low is -29 F at Pond on February 13, 1905.

Arkansas is known for extreme weather. A typical year will see thunderstorms, tornadoes, hail, snow and ice storms. Between both the Great Plains
Great Plains
The Great Plains are a broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie, steppe and grassland, which lies west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. This area covers parts of the U.S...

 and the Gulf States
Gulf Coast of the United States
The Gulf Coast of the United States, sometimes referred to as the Gulf South, South Coast, or 3rd Coast, comprises the coasts of American states that are on the Gulf of Mexico, which includes Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida and are known as the Gulf States...

, Arkansas receives around 60 days of thunderstorms. A few of the most destructive tornadoes in U.S. history have struck the state. While being sufficiently away from the coast to be safe from a direct hit from a hurricane, Arkansas can often get the remnants of a tropical system
Tropical cyclone
A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor...

 which dumps tremendous amounts of rain in a short time and often spawns smaller tornadoes.

History


The first European to reach Arkansas was the Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 explorer Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto (explorer)
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who, while leading the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States, was the first European documented to have crossed the Mississippi River....

, a veteran of Pizarro's conquest of Peru who died near Lake Village on the Mississippi River in 1542 after almost a year traversing the southern part of the state in search of gold and a passage to China. Arkansas is one of several U.S. states formed from the territory purchased from Napoleon Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition by the United States of America of of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803. The U.S...

. The early Spanish or French explorers of the state gave it its name, which is probably a phonetic spelling of the Illinois
Illinois language
The Miami-Illinois language is a Native American Algonquian language formerly spoken in the United States, primarily in Illinois, Missouri, Indiana, western Ohio and adjacent areas along the Mississippi River by the tribes of the Inoca or Illinois Confederacy, including the Kaskaskia, Peoria,...

 tribe's name for the Quapaw
Quapaw
The Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans who historically resided on the west side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of Arkansas.They are federally recognized as the Quapaw Tribe of Indians.-Government:...

 people, who lived downriver from them. Other Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 tribes who lived in Arkansas before moving west were the Quapaw, Caddo
Caddo
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes, who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas, northern Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. Today the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a cohesive tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma...

, and Osage
Osage Nation
The Osage Nation is a Native American Siouan-language tribe in the United States that originated in the Ohio River valley in present-day Kentucky. After years of war with invading Iroquois, the Osage migrated west of the Mississippi River to their historic lands in present-day Arkansas, Missouri,...

 nations. In their forced move westward (under U.S. Indian removal
Indian Removal
Indian removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river...

 policies), the Five Civilized Tribes
Five Civilized Tribes
The Five Civilized Tribes were the five Native American nations—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole—that were considered civilized by Anglo-European settlers during the colonial and early federal period because they adopted many of the colonists' customs and had generally good...

 inhabited Arkansas during its territorial period.

The Territory of Arkansas was organized on July 4, 1819. On June 15, 1836, the State of Arkansas was admitted to the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 as the 25th state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 and the 13th slave state
Slave state
In the United States of America prior to the American Civil War, a slave state was a U.S. state in which slavery was legal, whereas a free state was one in which slavery was either prohibited from its entry into the Union or eliminated over time...

. Planters settled in the Delta to cultivate cotton; this was the area of the state where most enslaved African Americans were held. Other areas had more subsistence farmers and mixed farming.

Arkansas played a key role in aiding Texas in its war for independence from Mexico; it sent troops and materials to Texas to help fight the war. The proximity of the city of Washington
Washington, Arkansas
Washington is a city in Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 148 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Hope Micropolitan Statistical Area.The city is also home to Old Washington Historic State Park....

 to the Texas border involved the town in the Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836...

 of 1835–36. Some evidence suggests Sam Houston
Sam Houston
Samuel Houston, known as Sam Houston , was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. He was born in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of...

 and his compatriots planned the revolt in a tavern at Washington in 1834. When the fighting began, a stream of volunteers from Arkansas and the southeastern states flowed through the town toward the Texas battle fields.

When the Mexican-American War began in 1846, Washington became a rendezvous for volunteer troops. Governor Thomas S. Drew issued a proclamation calling on the state to furnish one regiment of cavalry and one battalion of infantry to join the United States Army. Ten companies of men assembled here, where they were formed into the first Regiment of Arkansas Cavalry.

The state developed a cotton culture in the east in lands of the Mississippi Delta. This was where enslaved labor was used most extensively, as planters brought with them or imported slaves from the Upper South. On the eve of the Civil War in 1860, enslaved African Americans numbered 111,115 people, just over 25% of the state's population.

Arkansas refused to join the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 until after United States President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 called for troops to respond to the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter
The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U.S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor. On...

, South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

. The State of Arkansas declared its secession from the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 on May 6, 1861. While not often cited in historical accounts, the state was the scene of numerous small-scale battles during the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. Arkansans of note who contributed to the Civil War included Confederate Major General Patrick Cleburne
Patrick Cleburne
Patrick Ronayne Cleburne was an Irish American soldier, best known for his service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, where he rose to the rank of major general....

. Considered by many to be one of the most brilliant Confederate division commanders of the war, Cleburne was often referred to as "The Stonewall of the West." Also of note was Major General Thomas C. Hindman
Thomas C. Hindman
Thomas Carmichael Hindman, Jr. was a lawyer, United States Representative from the 1st Congressional District of Arkansas, and a Major General in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War....

. A former United States Representative, Hindman commanded Confederate forces at the Battle of Cane Hill
Battle of Cane Hill
The Battle of Cane Hill was fought during the American Civil War on November 28, 1862 in Washington County, Arkansas. Union troops under Brig. Gen. James G. Blunt drove Confederates under Brig. Gen. John S...

 and Battle of Prairie Grove
Battle of Prairie Grove
The Battle of Prairie Grove was a battle of the American Civil War fought on 7 December 1862, that resulted in a tactical stalemate but essentially secured northwest Arkansas for the Union.-Strategic situation: Union:...

.

Under the Military Reconstruction Act, Congress restored Arkansas to the Union in June 1868. The Reconstruction legislature established universal male suffrage while disenfranchising former Confederates (mostly Democrats), a public education system, and other general issues to improve the state and help more of the population. The state came under almost exclusive control of Radical Republicans, (those who emigrated from the North being derided as "carpetbaggers" by ex-Confederates based on allegations of corruption), led by newly elected Governor Powell Clayton
Powell Clayton
Powell Clayton was an engineer, a Union Army general in the American Civil War, the first Reconstruction Governor of the State of Arkansas, and Ambassador to Mexico during the administrations of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt.-Early life:Clayton was born in Bethel, Pennsylvania, to John...

, marking a time of great upheaval and racial violence in the state between state militia and the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically...

.

In 1874, the Brooks-Baxter War
Brooks-Baxter War
The Brooks–Baxter War was an armed conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas, in the United States, in 1874 between factions of the Republican Party over the disputed 1872 election for governor...

, a political struggle between factions of the Republican Party shook Little Rock and the state governorship. It was settled only when President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods. Under Grant's command, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America...

 ordered Joseph Brooks
Joseph Brooks
Joseph Brooks was a Republican politician in Arkansas after the Civil War. He is mainly remembered for losing the 1872 gubernatorial race in Arkansas and then leading a coup d'état, now referred to as the Brooks–Baxter War, in 1874.-Early life:Joseph Brooks was born in Cincinnati, Ohio and worked...

 to disperse his militant supporters.

Following the Brooks-Baxter War, a new state constitution was ratified re-enfranchising former Confederates.

In 1881, the Arkansas state legislature enacted a bill that adopted an official pronunciation of the state's name, to combat a controversy then simmering. (See Law and Government below.)

After Reconstruction, the state began to receive more immigrants and migrants. Chinese
Chinese people
The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following:*People with Han Chinese ethnicity ....

, Italian, and Syrian men were recruited for farm labor in the developing Delta region. None of these nationalities stayed long at farm labor; the Chinese especially quickly became small merchants in towns around the Delta. Some early 20th century immigration included people from eastern Europe. Together, these immigrants made the Delta more diverse than the rest of the state. In the same years, some black migrants moved into the area because of opportunities to develop the bottomlands and own their own property. Many Chinese became such successful merchants in small towns that they were able to educate their children at college.

Construction of railroads enabled more farmers to get their products to market. It also brought new development into different parts of the state, including the Ozarks, where some areas were developed as resorts. In a few years at the end of the 19th century, for instance, Eureka Springs in Carroll County grew to 10,000 people, rapidly becoming a tourist destination and the fourth largest city of the state. It featured newly constructed, elegant resort hotels and spas planned around its natural springs, considered to have healthful properties. The town's attractions included horse racing and other entertainment. It appealed to a wide variety of classes, becoming almost as popular as Hot Springs
Hot Springs, Arkansas
Hot Springs is the 10th most populous city in the U.S. state of Arkansas, the county seat of Garland County, and the principal city of the Hot Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area encompassing all of Garland County...

.

In the late 1880s, the worsening agricultural depression catalyzed Populist and third party movements, leading to interracial coalitions. Struggling to stay in power, in the 1890s the Democrats in Arkansas followed other Southern states in passing legislation and constitutional amendments that disfranchised blacks and poor whites. Democrats wanted to prevent their alliance. In 1891 state legislators passed a requirement for a literacy test
Literacy test
A literacy test, in the context of United States political history, refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at the federal level, and potential voters at the state level. The federal government first employed literacy tests as part of the immigration process...

, knowing that many blacks and whites would be excluded, at a time when more than 25% of the population could neither read nor write. In 1892 they amended the state constitution to include a poll tax
Poll tax
A poll tax is a tax of a portioned, fixed amount per individual in accordance with the census . When a corvée is commuted for cash payment, in effect it becomes a poll tax...

 and more complex residency requirements, both of which adversely affected poor people and sharecroppers, and forced them from electoral rolls.

By 1900 the Democratic Party expanded use of the white primary in county and state elections, further denying blacks a part in the political process. Only in the primary was there any competition among candidates, as Democrats held all the power. The state was a Democratic one-party state for decades, until after the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation...

 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 were passed.

Between 1905 and 1911, Arkansas began to receive a small migration of German
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

, Slovak
Slovaks
The Slovaks, Slovak people, or Slovakians are a West Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language.Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia...

, and Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

 immigrants. The German and Slovak peoples settled in the eastern part of the state known as the Prairie
Prairie
Prairies are considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type...

, and the Irish founded small communities in the southeast part of the state. The Germans were mostly Catholic and the Slovaks were Lutheran. The Irish were mostly Protestant from Ulster
Ulster
Ulster is one of the four provinces of Ireland, located in the north of the island. In ancient Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a "king of over-kings" . Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into a number of counties for administrative and judicial...

.

After the Supreme Court
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

's decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 , was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which...

 in 1954, the Little Rock Nine
Little Rock Nine
The Little Rock Nine was a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then...

 brought Arkansas to national attention when the Federal government intervened to protect African-American students trying to integrate a high school in the Arkansas capital. Governor Orval Faubus
Orval Faubus
Orval Eugene Faubus was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the...

 ordered the Arkansas National Guard
Arkansas National Guard
The Arkansas National Guard comprises both Army and Air components. The Constitution of the United States specifically charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions. In fact, the National Guard is the only United States military force empowered to function in a state status...

 to aid segregationists in preventing nine African-American students from enrolling at Little Rock's Central High School. After attempting three times to contact Faubus, President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army...

 sent 1000 troops from the active-duty 101st Airborne Division to escort and protect the African-American students as they entered school on September 25, 1957. In defiance of federal court orders to integrate, the governor and city of Little Rock decided to close the high schools for the remainder of the school year. By the fall of 1959, the Little Rock high schools were completely integrated.

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

, the 42nd President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

, was born in Hope, Arkansas
Hope, Arkansas
Hope is a small city in Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2008 United States Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 10,378...

. Before his presidency, Clinton served as the 40th and 42nd Governor of Arkansas, a total of nearly 12 years.

Demographics



As of 2006, Arkansas has an estimated population of 2,810,872, which is an increase of 29,154, or 1.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 105,756, or 4.0%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 52,214 people (that is 198,800 births minus 146,586 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 57,611 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 21,947 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 35,664 people. It is estimated that about 48.8% is male, and 51.2% is female. From 2000 through 2006 Arkansas has had a population growth of 5.1% or 137,472. The population density of the state is 51.3 people per square mile.

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Arkansas had a population of 2,915,918. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 77.0% White, 15.4% Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 3.4% from Some Other Race, and 2.0% from Two or More Races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 6.4% of the population.

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey by the U.S. Census Bureau, sent to approximately 250,000 addresses monthly . It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the decennial census...

, the ten largest ancestry groups in the state African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

 (15.5%), Irish
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

 (13.6%), German
German American
German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

 (12.5%), American
People of the United States
The people of the United States, also known as simply Americans or American people, are the inhabitants or citizens of the United States. The United States is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds...

 (11.1%), English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 (10.3%), French
French American
French Americans or Franco-Americans are Americans of French or French Canadian descent. About 11.8 million U.S. residents are of this descent, and about 1.6 million speak French at home.An additional 450,000 U.S...

 (2.4%), Scotch-Irish (2.1%), Dutch (1.9%), Scottish
Scottish American
Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Scotland. Scottish Americans are closely related to Scots-Irish Americans, descendants of Ulster Scots, and communities emphasize and celebrate a common heritage...

 (1.9%) and Italian
Italian American
An Italian American , is an American of Italian ancestry. The designation may also refer to someone possessing Italian and American dual citizenship...

 (1.7%).

European Americans have a strong presence in the northwestern Ozarks and the central part of the state. African Americans live mainly in the southern and eastern parts of the state. Arkansans of Irish, English and German ancestry are mostly found in the far northwestern Ozarks near the Missouri border. Ancestors of the Irish in the Ozarks were chiefly Scotch-Irish, Protestants from Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

, the Scottish
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 lowlands and northern England part of the largest group of immigrants from Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 and Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland refers to the country of Ireland in the period between the proclamation of Henry VIII as King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 and the Act of Union in 1800. It replaced the Lordship of Ireland, which had been created in 1171...

 before the American Revolution. English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 and Scotch-Irish immigrants settled throughout the backcountry of the South and in the more mountainous areas. Americans of English
English American
English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

 stock are found throughout the state.

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, 93.8% of Arkansas' population (over the age of five) spoke only English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 at home. About 4.5% of the state's population spoke Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 at home. About 0.7% of the state's population spoke any other Indo-European language
Indo-European languages
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia and also historically predominant in Anatolia...

. About 0.8% of the state's population spoke an Asian language
Languages of Asia
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising a number of families and some unrelated isolates. Many languages have a long tradition of writing.-Central and North Asian languages:*Turkic**Azeri**Kazak**Kyrgyz**Tatar**Turkish...

, and 0.2% spoke other languages.

In 2006, Arkansas has a larger percentage of tobacco smokers than the national average, with 24.0% of adults smoking.

Religion


Arkansas, like most other Southern states, is part of the Bible Belt
Bible Belt
Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the southeastern and south-central United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.The...

 and is predominantly Protestant. The religious affiliations of the people are as follows:
  • Christian
    Christianity
    Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

    : 86.0%
    • Protestant: 78.0%
      • Baptist
        Baptist
        Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

        : 39.0%
      • Methodist: 9.0%
      • Pentecostal: 6.0%
      • Church of Christ: 6.0%
      • Assemblies of God: 3.0%
      • Other Protestant: 15.0%
    • Roman Catholic
      Roman Catholicism in the United States
      The Catholic Church in the United States is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, the Christian Church in full communion with the Pope. With more than 68.5 registered million members, it is the largest single religious denomination in the United States, comprising about 22 percent of the population...

      : 7.0%
    • Eastern Orthodox
      Eastern Orthodox Church
      The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

      : <1.0%
    • Other Christian: <1.0%
  • Non-religious: 14.0%
  • Other religions: <1.0%
  • Jewish
    Judaism
    Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

    : <1.0%
  • Muslim
    Islam
    Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

    : <1.0%

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
The Southern Baptist Convention is a United States-based Christian denomination. It is the world's largest Baptist denomination and the largest Protestant body in the United States, with over 16 million members...

 with 665,307; the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination which is both mainline Protestant and evangelical. Founded in 1968 by the union of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley...

 with 179,383; the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 with 115,967; and the American Baptist Association
American Baptist Association
The American Baptist Association , formed in 1924, is an association of nearly 2,000 theologically conservative churches that are Landmark Baptist in their missions and teachings...

 with 115,916.

Economy




The state's gross domestic product for 2010 was $103 billion. Its per capita household median income (in current dollars) for 2004 was $35,295, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. The state's agriculture outputs are poultry and eggs, soybeans, sorghum, cattle, cotton, rice, hogs, and milk. Its industrial outputs are food processing, electric equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, paper products, bromine, and vanadium.

As of August 2011, the state's unemployment rate is 8.3%.

Several global companies are headquartered in the northwest corner of Arkansas, including Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

 (the world's largest public corporation by revenue in 2007), J.B. Hunt and Tyson Foods
Tyson Foods
Tyson Foods, Inc. is a multinational corporation based in Springdale, Arkansas, that operates in the food industry. The company is the world's second largest processor and marketer of chicken, beef, and pork only behind Brazilian JBS S.A., and annually exports the largest percentage of beef out of...

. This area of the state has experienced an economic boom since the 1970s as a result.

In recent years, automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

 parts manufacturers have opened factories in eastern Arkansas to support auto plants in other states.

Tourism is also very important to the Arkansas economy; the official state nickname "The Natural State" was originally created (as "Arkansas Is A Natural") for state tourism advertising in the 1970s, and is still regularly used to this day.

According to Forbes.com Arkansas currently ranks 21st for The Best States for Business, 9th for Business Cost, 40th for Labor, 22nd for Regulatory Environment, 17th for Economic Climate, 9th for Growth Prospects, 34th in Gross Domestic Product, and positive economic change of 3.8% or ranked 22nd.

Largest employers


According to the Arkansas Economic Development Commission, the following are the largest employers in Arkansas by number of in-state employees as of 2010:
Rank Company
1 State of Arkansas
2 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
3 Federal government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

4 Tyson Foods, Inc.
Tyson Foods
Tyson Foods, Inc. is a multinational corporation based in Springdale, Arkansas, that operates in the food industry. The company is the world's second largest processor and marketer of chicken, beef, and pork only behind Brazilian JBS S.A., and annually exports the largest percentage of beef out of...

5 Baptist Health
Baptist Health
Baptist Health, based in Jacksonville, Florida, is a network of five hospitals, affiliated with 34 primary care offices located throughout Northeast Florida and Southeast Georgia...

6 Acxiom Corporation
7 Arkansas Children's Hospital
Arkansas Children's Hospital
The Arkansas Children's Hospital is a pediatric hospital in Little Rock, Arkansas. It is the only pediatric Level I trauma center in Arkansas and the sixth largest in the United States, serving children from birth to age twenty-one...

8 J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc.
9 Sisters of Mercy Health System
10 The Kroger Company
11 Arvest Bank Group, Inc.
12 Community Health Systems, Inc.
13 Simmons Foods, Inc.
14 USA Truck, Inc.
15 Georgia-Pacific Corporation
16 Lowe's Companies, Inc.
17 St. Vincent Infirmary Medical Center
18 FedEx Corporation
19 Entergy Corporation
20 Verizon Communications, Inc. (Cellco Partnership)
21 Union Pacific Railroad Company
22 Dillard's, Inc.
Dillard's
Dillard's, Inc. is a department store chain in the United States, with 330 stores in 29 states. Headquartered in Little Rock, Arkansas, Dillard's locations are concentrated in Texas and Florida; with a major presence in other states including Arizona, Iowa, Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, Missouri,...

23 PAM Transportation Services, Inc.
24 Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation
25 AT&T
AT&T
AT&T Inc. is an American multinational telecommunications corporation headquartered in Whitacre Tower, Dallas, Texas, United States. It is the largest provider of mobile telephony and fixed telephony in the United States, and is also a provider of broadband and subscription television services...

26 Baldor Electric Company
Baldor Electric Company
Baldor Electric Company markets, designs, and manufactures industrialelectric motors, drives, and generators. It has recently been announced that ABB will be acquiring Baldor in an all cash deal of 4.2 billion USD - History :...

27 United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service
United Parcel Service, Inc. , typically referred to by the acronym UPS, is a package delivery company. Headquartered in Sandy Springs, Georgia, United States, UPS delivers more than 15 million packages a day to 6.1 million customers in more than 220 countries and territories around the...

28 St. Bernard's Medical Center
29 Dollar General Corporation
Dollar General
Dollar General Corp. is a U.S. chain of variety stores headquartered in Goodlettsville, Tennessee. As of January 2011, Dollar General operated over 9,300 stores in 35 U.S. states....

30 Arkansas Blue Cross & Blue Shield
31 Whirlpool Corporation
32 George's, Inc.
33 Husqvarna Home Products
34 Sparks Health System
35 Dassault Aviation Group
36 OK Industries, Inc.
37 Jefferson Regional Medical Center
38 Harps Food Stores, Inc.
39 Walgreen Company
40 University of Central Arkansas
University of Central Arkansas
The University of Central Arkansas is a state-run institution located in the city of Conway, the seat of Faulkner County, north of Little Rock and is the fourth largest university by enrollment in the U.S. state of Arkansas, and the third largest college system in the state. The school is most...

41 Cooper Tire & Rubber Company
Cooper Tire & Rubber Company
Cooper Tire & Rubber Company is a United States based company that specializes in the design, manufacture, marketing and sales of replacementautomobiles and truck tires, and subsidiaries that specialize in medium truck, motorcycle and racing tires...

42 Washington Regional Medical Center
Washington Regional Medical Center
Washington Regional Medical Center is a not-for-profit health care system located in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It includes an acute care hospital, a rehabilitation hospital, assisted living and long-term care facilities, kidney dialysis centers, an outpatient surgery center, and clinics devoted to...

43 JC Penney Company, Inc.
44 Nucor Corporation
45 The Heritage Company
46 ConAgra Foods, Inc.
47 Riceland Foods, Inc.
48 Home Depot, Inc.
49 McKee Foods Corporation
50 American Greetings Corporation


The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is part of the University of Arkansas System, a state-run university in the U.S. state of Arkansas...

, including the UAMS Medical Center
UAMS Medical Center
UAMS Medical Center is a major tertiary university hospital located in Little Rock, Arkansas. It is the only academic teaching hospital and the only designated Level I trauma center in the state of Arkansas.-Overview:...

, is included in the State of Arkansas' numbers, and would rank in the top ten if listed separately.

Aquaculture


The state also ranks third in terms of channel catfish
Channel catfish
Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is North America's most numerous catfish species. It is the official fish of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Tennessee, and is informally referred to as a "channel cat". In the United States they are the most fished catfish species with approximately 8...

 aquaculture
Aquaculture
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the...

, with about 19200 acres (77.7 km²) under catfish farming in 2010. The peak of catfish farming in the state was in the year 2002, when 38000 acres (153.8 km²) were under farming. In 2007, the state’s catfish producers generated sales of $71.5 million – 16 percent of the total U.S. market. Arkansas was the first state to develop commercial catfish farms in the late 1950s. The number of catfish farms in the state grew through the 1990s as farmers entered the catfish business as a way to provide additional income during a time of low prices for cotton and soybeans. Banks loaned money to support what they saw as a stable source of revenue.

Taxation



Arkansas imposes a state income tax
State income tax
State and local income taxes are imposed in addition to Federal income tax. State income tax is allowed as a deduction in computing Federal income tax, subject to limitations for individuals. Some localities impose an income tax, often based on state income tax calculations. Forty-three states...

 with six brackets, ranging from 1.0% to 7.0%. The first $9,000 of military pay of enlisted personnel is exempt from Arkansas tax; officers do not have to pay state income tax on the first $6,000 of their military pay. Retirees pay no tax on Social Security
Social Security (United States)
In the United States, Social Security refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program.The original Social Security Act and the current version of the Act, as amended encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs...

, or on the first $6,000 in gain on their pensions along with recovery of cost basis
Cost basis
Basis , as used in United States tax law, is the original cost of property, adjusted for factors such as depreciation. When property is sold, the taxpayer pays/ taxes on a capital gain/ that equals the amount realized on the sale minus the sold property's basis.The taxpayer deserves a tax-free...

. Residents of Texarkana, Arkansas
Texarkana, Arkansas
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,448 people, 10,384 households, and 7,040 families residing in the city. The population density was 830.5 people per square mile . There were 11,721 housing units at an average density of 368.1 per square mile...

 are exempt from Arkansas income tax; wages and business income earned there by residents of Texarkana, Texas
Texarkana, Texas
Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, Texas, United States. It effectively functions as one half of a city which crosses a state line — the other half, the city of Texarkana, Arkansas, lies on the other side of State Line Avenue...

 are also exempt. Arkansas's gross receipts (sales
Sales tax
A sales tax is a tax, usually paid by the consumer at the point of purchase, itemized separately from the base price, for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale....

) tax and compensating (use
Use tax
A use tax is a type of excise tax levied in the United States. It is assessed upon otherwise "tax free" tangible personal property purchased by a resident of the assessing state for use, storage or consumption of goods in that state , regardless of where the purchase took place...

) tax rate is currently 6%. The state has also mandated that various services be subject to sales tax collection. They include wrecker and towing services; dry cleaning and laundry; body piercing, tattooing and electrolysis; pest control; security and alarm monitoring; self-storage facilities; boat storage and docking; and pet grooming and kennel services.

Along with the state sales tax, there are more than 300 local taxes
Tax
To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer by a state or the functional equivalent of a state such that failure to pay is punishable by law. Taxes are also imposed by many subnational entities...

 in Arkansas. Cities and counties have the authority to enact additional local sales and use taxes if they are passed by the voters in their area. These local taxes have a ceiling or cap; they cannot exceed $25 for each 1% of tax assessed. These additional taxes are collected by the state, which distributes the money back to the local jurisdictions monthly. Low-income taxpayers with a total annual household income of less than $12,000 are permitted a sales tax exemption
Tax exemption
Various tax systems grant a tax exemption to certain organizations, persons, income, property or other items taxable under the system. Tax exemption may also refer to a personal allowance or specific monetary exemption which may be claimed by an individual to reduce taxable income under some...

 for electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

 usage.

Sales of alcoholic beverage
Alcoholic beverage
An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption...

s account for added taxes. A 10% supplemental mixed drink tax is imposed on the sale of alcoholic beverages (excluding beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

) at restaurant
Restaurant
A restaurant is an establishment which prepares and serves food and drink to customers in return for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on premises, but many restaurants also offer take-out and food delivery services...

s. A 4% tax is due on the sale of all mixed drink
Mixed drink
A mixed drink is a beverage in which two or more ingredients are mixed. Some mixed drinks are alcoholic beverages that contain liquor; others are non-alcoholic.-Types:Some popular types of mixed drinks are:...

s (except beer and wine
Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

) sold for "on-premises" consumption. A 3% tax is due on beer sold for off-premises consumption.

Property tax
Property tax
A property tax is an ad valorem levy on the value of property that the owner is required to pay. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located; it may be paid to a national government, a federated state or a municipality...

es are assessed on real and personal property; only 20% of the value is used as the tax base.

Transportation


The Interstate Highway system in Arkansas includes
  • Interstate 30
    Interstate 30
    Interstate 30 is an Interstate Highway in the southern United States. I-30 runs from Interstate 20 west of Fort Worth, Texas, northeast via Dallas, Texas, and Texarkana, Texas, to Interstate 40 in North Little Rock, Arkansas. The route parallels U.S. Route 67 except for the portion west of...

  • Interstate 40
    Interstate 40
    Interstate 40 is the third-longest major east–west Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90 and I-80. Its western end is at Interstate 15 in Barstow, California; its eastern end is at a concurrency of U.S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina...

  • Interstate 55
    Interstate 55
    Interstate 55 is an Interstate Highway in the central United States. Its odd number indicates that it is a north–south Interstate Highway. I-55 goes from LaPlace, Louisiana at Interstate 10 to Chicago at U.S. Route 41 , at McCormick Place. A common nickname for the highway is "double...

  • Interstate 430
    Interstate 430
    Interstate 430 is a long Interstate highway in Pulaski County, Arkansas that bypasses the cities of Little Rock and North Little Rock. I-430 begins at an interchange southwest of Downtown Little Rock with I-30, U.S. Route 67 and U.S. 70 and travels north to cross the Arkansas River and...

     Connector Route
  • Interstate 440
    Interstate 440
    Interstate 440 may refer to:*Interstate 440 , a partial loop near Little Rock*Interstate 440 , a loop route in Raleigh*Interstate 440 , now part of I-44 in Oklahoma City*Interstate 440 , a loop in Nashville...

     Connector Route
  • Interstate 530
    Interstate 530
    Interstate 530 in Arkansas is a spur route of the Interstate highway system, traveling from Little Rock at the junction of Interstate 30 and Interstate 440 in the northwest, to Pine Bluff in the southeast.-Route description:...

  • Interstate 540
    Interstate 540
    Interstate 540 may mean:*Interstate 540 , a spur to Fort Smith, Arkansas and Bentonville, Arkansas*Interstate 540 , an incomplete loop route in Raleigh, North Carolina...

  • Interstate 630
    Interstate 630
    Interstate 630 in Arkansas is an east–west connector within Little Rock. It is also known as the Wilbur D. Mills Freeway and starts at Interstate 30/US Route 65/US Route 67/US Route 167 traveling west through downtown Little Rock to Interstate 430 and an at-grade intersection with...

     Connector Route


Also Additional Future Interstate Highways in Arkansas under construction such as:
  • Interstate 49
    Interstate 49
    Interstate 49 is currently an intrastate Interstate Highway located entirely within the state of Louisiana in the southern United States. Its southern terminus is in Lafayette, Louisiana, at Interstate 10 while its northern terminus is in Shreveport, Louisiana, at Interstate 20.-Route...

  • Interstate 69
    Interstate 69
    Interstate 69 is an Interstate Highway in the United States. It exists in two parts: a completed highway from Indianapolis, Indiana, northeast to the Canadian border in Port Huron, Michigan, and a mostly proposed extension southwest to the Mexican border in Texas...

  • Interstate 555
    Interstate 555
    Interstate 555 is a future Interstate Highway that is slated to connect Turrell, Arkansas at Interstate 55 to Jonesboro, Arkansas at Highway 91. I-555 is currently under construction as U.S...



There are 20 U.S. Routes in Arkansas, and over 200 Arkansas state highways.

There are four airports with commercial service: Little Rock National Airport
Little Rock National Airport
Little Rock National Airport , officially Little Rock National Airport/Adams Field, is located 2 miles east of the central business district of Little Rock, a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States. It is Arkansas' largest commercial service airport, serving more than 2.1 million...

,
Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport
Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport
Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is an airport located in Highfill, Arkansas, near Bentonville, Rogers, Fayetteville, Springdale, and Siloam Springs, Arkansas...

,
Fort Smith Regional Airport
Fort Smith Regional Airport
Fort Smith Regional Airport is a joint civil-military public commercial service airport located three miles southeast of the central business district of Fort Smith, a city in Sebastian County, Arkansas, USA. FSM is governed by the Fort Smith Airport Commission as established by the City of...

, and
Texarkana Regional Airport, with dozens of smaller airports in the state. The Texas Eagle
Texas Eagle
The Texas Eagle is a 1306-mile passenger train route operated by Amtrak in the central and western United States. Trains run daily between Chicago, Illinois, and San Antonio, Texas, and continue to Los Angeles, California, 2728 miles total, three days a week...

, an Amtrak passenger train, serves five stations in the state: Walnut Ridge
Walnut Ridge (Amtrak station)
The Walnut Ridge Amtrak station is a train station in Walnut Ridge, Arkansas, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system...

,
Little Rock
Little Rock (Amtrak station)
The Little Rock Amtrak station is a train station in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system....

,
Malvern
Malvern (Amtrak station)
The Malvern is located at 200 E. First Street in Malvern, Arkansas, in the former Missouri Pacific Railroad station. This 24-foot by 82-foot red brick depot was originally constructed in 1916. Malvern is served by one daily passenger train in each direction, Amtrak's Texas Eagle. Malvern Amtrak...

,
Arkadelphia
Arkadelphia (Amtrak station)
The Arkadelphia is located at 798 S. Fifth Street in Arkadelphia, Arkansas, in the restored Missouri Pacific Railroad station. The station also serves as the headquarters for the regional transit agency....

, and
Texarkana
Texarkana (Amtrak station)
Texarkana Union Station or the Texarkana Amtrak station is a historic train station in Texarkana, Arkansas, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system...

. About two dozen railroads carry freight in the state. Public transit and community transport services for the elderly or those with developmental disabilities are provided by agencies such as the Central Arkansas Transit Authority
Central Arkansas Transit Authority
The Central Arkansas Transit Authority, operating as The CAT, provides public transportation for Little Rock, Arkansas and suburban Pulaski County, Arkansas. Several other areas outside these region are served by commuter routes...

 and the Ozark Regional Transit
Ozark Regional Transit
Ozark Regional Transit is the provider of mass transportation in the cities of northwestern Arkansas, including Fayetteville, Springdale, Rogers, and Bentonville. The roots of the organization are in a 1974 project by the Economic Opportunity Agency of Washington County to provide rural transportion...

, organizations that are part of the Arkansas Transit Association
Arkansas Transit Association
The Arkansas Transit Association provides services for more than 200 members, consisting of public transit systems and agencies, non-profit human service agencies, related commercial businesses and vendor associate members....

.

Law and government


The current Governor of Arkansas is Mike Beebe, a Democrat
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

, who was elected on November 7, 2006.

One of Arkansas's U.S. Senators is Democrat Mark Pryor
Mark Pryor
Mark Lunsford Pryor is the senior United States Senator from Arkansas, serving since 2003. He is a member of the Democratic Party and former Attorney General of Arkansas....

, and the other one is Republican John Boozman
John Boozman
John Nichols Boozman is the junior U.S. Senator for Arkansas . A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the U.S. Representative for .Born in Shreveport, Louisiana, he was the brother of state Senator Fay Boozman...

. The state has four seats in U.S. House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

. One seat is held by Democrats: Mike Ross (map), and three are held by Republicans: Rick Crawford (politician)
Rick Crawford (politician)
Eric Alan Rick Crawford is the U.S. Representative for . He is a member of the Republican Party. Before he was elected to Congress, Crawford was a radio announcer, businessman and U.S. Army veteran.-Early life and education:...

, (map), Tim Griffin(map), and Steve Womack
Steve Womack
Stephen Allen "Steve" Womack is the U.S. Representative for . He is a member of the Republican Party. He is the former mayor of Rogers, Arkansas.- Early life, education, and career :Womack was born in Russellville, Arkansas...

(map).
Presidential elections results
Year Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

Democratic
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

2008 58.72% 638,017 38.86% 422,310
2004 54.31% 572,898 44.55% 469,953
2000 51.31% 472,940 45.86% 422,768
1996 36.80% 325,416 53.74% 475,171
1992 35.48% 337,324 53.21% 505,823
1988 56.37% 466,578 42.19% 349,237
1984 60.47% 534,774 38.29% 338,646
1980 48.13% 403,164 47.52% 398,041
1976 34.93% 268,753 64.94% 499,614
1972 68.82% 445,751 30.71% 198,899
1968* 31.01% 189,062 30.33% 184,901
1964 43.41% 243,264 56.06% 314,197
1960 43.06% 184,508 50.19% 215,049
*State won by George Wallace
George Wallace
George Corley Wallace, Jr. was the 45th Governor of Alabama, serving four terms: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. "The most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter and Stephan Lesher, he ran for U.S...


of the American Independent Party
American Independent Party
The American Independent Party is a right-wing political party of the United States that was established in 1967 by Bill and Eileen Shearer. In 1968, the American Independent Party nominated George C. Wallace as its presidential candidate and retired Air Force General Curtis E. LeMay as the vice...

,
at 38.65%, or 235,627 votes


The Democratic Party holds majority
Majority
A majority is a subset of a group consisting of more than half of its members. This can be compared to a plurality, which is a subset larger than any other subset; i.e. a plurality is not necessarily a majority as the largest subset may consist of less than half the group's population...

 status in the Arkansas General Assembly
Arkansas General Assembly
The Arkansas General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The legislature is a bicameral body composed of the upper house Arkansas Senate with 35 members, and the lower Arkansas House of Representatives with 100 members. All 135 representatives and state senators...

. A majority of local and statewide offices are also held by Democrats. This is rare in the modern South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

, where a majority of statewide offices are held by Republicans. Arkansas had the distinction in 1992 of being the only state in the country to give the majority of its vote to a single candidate in the presidential election—native son Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

—while every other state's electoral votes were won by pluralities of the vote among the three candidates. Arkansas has become more reliably Republican in presidential elections in recent years. The state voted for John McCain
John McCain
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

 in 2008 by a margin of 20 percentage points, making it one of the few states in the country to vote more Republican than it had in 2004. (The others were Louisiana, Tennessee, Oklahoma and West Virginia.) Obama's relatively poor showing in Arkansas was likely due to a lack of enthusiasm from state Democrats following former Arkansas First Lady Hillary Clinton's failure to win the nomination, and his relatively poor performance among rural white voters. However, the Democratic presence remains strong on the state level; in 2006, Democrats were elected to all statewide offices by the voters in a Democratic sweep that included the Democratic Party of Arkansas
Democratic Party of Arkansas
The Democratic Party of Arkansas is the local branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of Arkansas. It is responsible for promoting the ideologies and core values of the national Democratic Party in Arkansas.-History:...

 regaining the governorship, and in 2008, freshman Senator Mark Pryor was re-elected with nearly 80% of the vote against Green candidate Rebekah Kennedy
Rebekah Kennedy
Rebekah Kennedy is an Arkansas politician affiliated with the Green Party and was a candidate for U.S. Senate in the 2008 election cycle. She unsuccessfully ran for State Attorney General during the 2006 and 2010 election cycles....

 with no Republican opposition.

Most Republican strength lies mainly in the northwestern part of the state, particularly Fort Smith
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. With a population of 86,209 in 2010, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents which encompasses the Arkansas...

 and Bentonville
Bentonville, Arkansas
Bentonville, Arkansas is a city in Northwest Bahamas, and county seat of Benton County, Arkansas, United States The population was 35,301 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area...

, as well as North Central Arkansas around the Mountain Home
Mountain Home, Arkansas
Mountain Home is a city in and the county seat of Baxter County, Arkansas, United States, in the southern Ozark Mountains.It was recently listed in the top 20 cities in the U.S. for sportsmen in the current edition of Outdoor Life magazine, was recently ranked #2 for Field and Stream's Best Fishing...

 area. In the latter area, Republicans have been known to get 90 percent or more of the vote. The rest of the state is more Democratic. Arkansas has only elected two Republicans to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction, Tim Hutchinson
Tim Hutchinson
Young Timothy Hutchinson, known as Tim Hutchinson is a Republican politician and former senator from the state of Arkansas.Hutchinson was born in Bentonville, Arkansas, and he graduated from Bob Jones University...

, who was defeated after one term by Mark Pryor
Mark Pryor
Mark Lunsford Pryor is the senior United States Senator from Arkansas, serving since 2003. He is a member of the Democratic Party and former Attorney General of Arkansas....

 and John Boozman
John Boozman
John Nichols Boozman is the junior U.S. Senator for Arkansas . A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the U.S. Representative for .Born in Shreveport, Louisiana, he was the brother of state Senator Fay Boozman...

, who defeated incumbent Blanche Lincoln
Blanche Lincoln
Blanche Meyers Lambert Lincoln is a former U.S. Senator from Arkansas and a member of the Democratic Party. First elected to the Senate in 1998, she was the first woman elected to the Senate from Arkansas since Hattie Caraway in 1932 and, at age 38, was the youngest woman ever elected to the...

. The General Assembly has not been controlled by the Republican Party since Reconstruction and is the fourth most heavily Democratic Legislature in the country, after Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Court
The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name "General Court" is a hold-over from the Colonial Era, when this body also sat in judgment of judicial appeals cases...

, Hawaii, and Connecticut
Connecticut General Assembly
The Connecticut General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is a bicameral body composed of the 151-member House of Representatives and the 36-member Senate. It meets in the state capital, Hartford. There are no term limits for either chamber.During...

. Arkansas was one of just three states among the states of the former Confederacy
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 that sent two Democrats to the U.S. Senate (the others being Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 and Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

) during the first decade of the 21st century.

Although Democrats have an overwhelming majority of registered voters, Arkansas Democrats tend to be slightly more conservative than their national counterparts, particularly outside Little Rock. Arkansas' Democratic congressman is a member of the Blue Dog Coalition, which tends to be more pro-business, pro-military, and socially conservative than the center-left Democratic mainstream. Reflecting the state's large evangelical population, the state has a strong social conservative bent. Under the Arkansas Constitution
Arkansas Constitution
The Constitution of the State of Arkansas is the governing document of the U.S. state of Arkansas. It was adopted in 1874, shortly after the Brooks-Baxter War replacing the 1868 constitution that had allowed Arkansas to rejoin the Union after the conclusion of the American Civil War; the new...

 Arkansas is a right to work state, its voters passed a ban on same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or social gender. Supporters of legal recognition for same-sex marriage typically refer to such recognition as marriage equality....

 with 75% voting yes, and the state is one of a handful with legislation on its books banning abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

 in the event Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade, , was a controversial landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. The Court decided that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution extends to a woman's decision to have an abortion,...

 is ever overturned.

In Arkansas, the lieutenant governor is elected separately from the governor and thus can be from a different political party.

Each officer's term is four years long. Office holders are term-limited to two full terms plus any partial terms before the first full term. Arkansas governors served two-year terms until a referendum lengthened the term to four years, effective with the 1986 general election. Statewide elections are held two years after presidential elections.

Some of Arkansas's counties
County (United States)
In the United States, a county is a geographic subdivision of a state , usually assigned some governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 of the 50 states; Louisiana is divided into parishes and Alaska into boroughs. Parishes and boroughs are called "county-equivalents" by the U.S...

 have two county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

s, as opposed to the usual one seat. The arrangement dates back to when travel was extremely difficult in the state. The seats are usually on opposite sides of the county. Though travel is no longer the difficulty it once was, there are few efforts to eliminate the two seat arrangement where it exists, since the county seat is a source of pride (and jobs) to the city involved.

Arkansas is the only state to specify the pronunciation of its name by law (AR-kan-saw).

Article 19 (Miscellaneous Provisions), Item 1 in the Arkansas Constitution
Arkansas Constitution
The Constitution of the State of Arkansas is the governing document of the U.S. state of Arkansas. It was adopted in 1874, shortly after the Brooks-Baxter War replacing the 1868 constitution that had allowed Arkansas to rejoin the Union after the conclusion of the American Civil War; the new...

 is entitled "Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness," and states that "No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any Court." However, in 1961, the United States Supreme Court in Torcaso v. Watkins
Torcaso v. Watkins
Torcaso v. Watkins, was a United States Supreme Court case in which the court reaffirmed that the United States Constitution prohibits States and the Federal Government from requiring any kind of religious test for public office, in the specific case, as a notary public.-Background:In the early...

 (1961), held that a similar requirement in Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

 was unenforceable because violated the First
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering...

 and Fourteenth
Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the Dred Scott v...

 Amendments to the US Constitution. The latter amendment, per current precedent, makes the federal Bill of Rights
United States Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. These limitations serve to protect the natural rights of liberty and property. They guarantee a number of personal freedoms, limit the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and...

 binding on the states. As a result, this provision has not been known to have been enforced in modern times, and it is understood that it would be struck down if challenged in court.

Metropolitan areas


The Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff combined statistical area
The Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area is made up of ten counties in central Arkansas. The statistical area consists of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area, and the Searcy Micropolitan Area...

 had 877,091 people in the 2010 census. It is the largest in Arkansas.

The Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers metropolitan area
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area
The Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Statistical Area as defined by the United States Census Bureau is a four-county area including three Arkansas counties and one Missouri county...

 is increasingly important to the state and its economy. The US Census showed the population of the MSA to be 463,204 in 2010 (up from 347,045 in 2000), making it one of the fastest growing areas in the nation.

See also Arkansas Metropolitan Areas
Arkansas Metropolitan Areas
The State of Arkansas has a total of eight metropolitan statistical areas that are fully or partially located in the state. Twenty of the state's 75 counties are classified by the United States Census Bureau as metropolitan....

.

Cities with 10,000 or More Residents as of 2010
Rank City 2010 Pop. Region
1. Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 699,757 people in the 2010 census...

 
193,524 Central
2. Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. With a population of 86,209 in 2010, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents which encompasses the Arkansas...

 
86,209 Northwest
3. Fayetteville, Arkansas
Fayetteville, Arkansas
Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County, and the third largest city in Arkansas. The city is centrally located within the county and is home to the University of Arkansas. Fayetteville is also deep in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks...

 
73,580 Northwest
4. Springdale, Arkansas
Springdale, Arkansas
As of the census of 2010, there were 69,797 people, 22,805 households, and 16,640 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.7% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 1.8% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 5.7% Pacific Islander, 22% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more...

 
69,797 Northwest
5. Jonesboro, Arkansas
Jonesboro, Arkansas
Jonesboro is a city in and one of the two county seats of Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. According to the 2010 US Census, the population of the city was 67,263. A college town, Jonesboro is the largest city in northeastern Arkansas and the fifth most populous city in the state...

 
67,263 Northeast
6. North Little Rock, Arkansas
North Little Rock, Arkansas
the city was 62.55% White, 33.98% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from other races, and 1.26% from two or more races...

 
62,304 Central
7. Conway, Arkansas
Conway, Arkansas
Conway is the county seat of Faulkner County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 58,908 at the 2010 census, making Conway the seventh most populous city in Arkansas. It is a principal city of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area which had...

 
58,908 Central
8. Rogers, Arkansas
Rogers, Arkansas
Rogers is a suburban city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city has a population of 55,964. The city is located in the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, in the northwest corner of the state.-History:...

 
55,964 Northwest
9. Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Pine Bluff, Arkansas
Pine Bluff is the largest city and county seat of Jefferson County, Arkansas, United States. It is also the principal city of the Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff, Arkansas Combined Statistical Area...

 
49,083 Southeast
10. Bentonville, Arkansas
Bentonville, Arkansas
Bentonville, Arkansas is a city in Northwest Bahamas, and county seat of Benton County, Arkansas, United States The population was 35,301 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area...

 
35,301 Northwest
11. Hot Springs, Arkansas
Hot Springs, Arkansas
Hot Springs is the 10th most populous city in the U.S. state of Arkansas, the county seat of Garland County, and the principal city of the Hot Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area encompassing all of Garland County...

 
35,193 Southwest
12. Texarkana, Arkansas
Texarkana, Arkansas
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,448 people, 10,384 households, and 7,040 families residing in the city. The population density was 830.5 people per square mile . There were 11,721 housing units at an average density of 368.1 per square mile...

 
30,681 Southwest
13. Benton, Arkansas
Benton, Arkansas
Benton is a city in and the county seat of Saline County, Arkansas, United States and a suburb of Little Rock. It was established in 1837. According to a 2006 Special Census conducted at the request of the city government, the population of the city is 27,717, ranking it as the state's 16th largest...

 
29,919 Central
14. Sherwood, Arkansas
Sherwood, Arkansas
Sherwood is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, and a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 29,523...

 
29,523 Central
15. Jacksonville, Arkansas
Jacksonville, Arkansas
Jacksonville is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, and a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 28,364. It is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area....

 
28,364 Central
16. Russellville, Arkansas
Russellville, Arkansas
Russellville is the county seat and largest city in Pope County, Arkansas, United States, with a population of 27,920, according to the 2010 Census. It is home to Arkansas Tech University and Arkansas Nuclear One, Arkansas' only nuclear power plant...

 
27,920 Northwest
17. Bella Vista, Arkansas
Bella Vista, Arkansas
Bella Vista is a city in Benton County, Arkansas. It previously was the largest unincorporated community in the state of Arkansas; however, in November 2006 it voted to incorporate and form a municipality. The Bella Vista Property Owners Association estimates that there are currently 24,000...

 
26,461 Northwest
18. West Memphis, Arkansas
West Memphis, Arkansas
West Memphis is the largest city in Crittenden County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 27,666 at the 2000 census, with an estimated population of 28,181 in 2005, and 31,329 in 2011 ranking it as the state's 11th largest city, behind Hot Springs...

 
26,245 Northeast
19. Paragould, Arkansas
Paragould, Arkansas
-Health & Education:Paragould is home to Arkansas State University Paragould, Arkansas Northeastern College, Black River Technical College, and Crowley's Ridge College. Paragould has two public school districts, the Greene County Technical School District and the Paragould School District, as well...

 
26,113 Northeast
20. Cabot, Arkansas
Cabot, Arkansas
As of the census of 2000, there were 15,269 people, 5,432 households, and 4,329 families residing in the city. The population density was 798.2 people per square mile . There were 5,712 housing units at an average density of 298.8 per square mile...

 
23,776 Central
21. Searcy, Arkansas
Searcy, Arkansas
Searcy is the largest city and county seat of White County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 20,663. It is the principal city of the Searcy, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of White County...

 
22,858 Central
22. Van Buren, Arkansas
Van Buren, Arkansas
Van Buren is the second largest city in the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area and the county seat of Crawford County, Arkansas, United States. The city is located directly northeast of Fort Smith at the Interstate 40 - Interstate 540 junction...

 
22,791 Northwest
23. El Dorado, Arkansas
El Dorado, Arkansas
El Dorado , a multi-cultural arts center: South Arkansas Arts Center , an award-winning renovated downtown, and numerous sporting, shopping, and dining opportunities. El Dorado is the population, cultural, and business center of the 7,300 mi² regional area...

 
18,884 Southwest
24. Maumelle, Arkansas
Maumelle, Arkansas
Maumelle is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States and a suburb of Little Rock. Founded by Jess Odom with federal assistance from the Urban Growth and New Community Development Act, it is a master-planned community....

 
17,163 Central
25. Bryant, Arkansas
Bryant, Arkansas
Bryant is a city in Saline County, Arkansas, United States and a suburb of Little Rock. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,185...

 
16,688 Central
26. Blytheville, Arkansas
Blytheville, Arkansas
Blytheville is the largest city in and one of the two county seats of Mississippi County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 15,620 at the 2010 census....

 
15,620 Northeast
27. Forrest City, Arkansas
Forrest City, Arkansas
Forrest City is a city in and the county seat of St. Francis County, Arkansas, United States. It was named for General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who used the location as a campsite for a construction crew completing a railroad between Memphis and Little Rock, shortly after the Civil War. The...

 
15,371 Northeast
28. Siloam Springs, Arkansas
Siloam Springs, Arkansas
Siloam Springs is a city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,990...

 
15,039 Northwest
29. Harrison, Arkansas
Harrison, Arkansas
Harrison is a city in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. It is the county seat. According to 2007 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,108. Boone County was organized in 1869, during reconstruction after the civil war. Harrison was platted and made the county seat. It is...

 
12,943 Northwest
30. Mountain Home, Arkansas
Mountain Home, Arkansas
Mountain Home is a city in and the county seat of Baxter County, Arkansas, United States, in the southern Ozark Mountains.It was recently listed in the top 20 cities in the U.S. for sportsmen in the current edition of Outdoor Life magazine, was recently ranked #2 for Field and Stream's Best Fishing...

 
12,448 Northwest
31. Marion, Arkansas
Marion, Arkansas
Marion is a city in Crittenden County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 8,901 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Crittenden County, and is part of the Memphis metropolitan area...

 
12,345 Northeast
32. Helena-West Helena, Arkansas
Helena-West Helena, Arkansas
Helena-West Helena is the county seat of and the largest city within Phillips County, Arkansas, United States. The current city represents a consolidation, effective on January 1, 2006, of the two Arkansas cities of Helena and West Helena. West Helena is located on the western side of Crowley's...

 
12,282 Northeast
33. Camden, Arkansas
Camden, Arkansas
Camden is a city in and the county seat of Ouachita County in the southern part of the U.S. state of Arkansas. Long an area of American Indians villages, the French also made a permanent settlement here because of its advantageous location above the Ouachita River. According to 2007 Census...

 
12,183 Southwest
34. Magnolia, Arkansas
Magnolia, Arkansas
Magnolia is a city in Columbia County, Arkansas, United States, that was founded in 1853. At the time of its incorporation in 1858, the city had a population of about 1,950. The city grew slowly as an agricultural and regional cotton market until the discovery of oil just east of the city in March,...

 
11,577 Southwest
35. Arkadelphia, Arkansas
Arkadelphia, Arkansas
Arkadelphia is a city in Clark County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 10,548. The city is the county seat of Clark County. The city is situated at the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Two universities, Henderson State...

 
10,714 Southwest
36. Malvern, Arkansas
Malvern, Arkansas
Malvern is the county seat of Hot Spring County, Arkansas. The city had a population of 10,318 at the time of the 2010 census and is also called the "Brick Capital of the World" because of the three Acme Brick plants in the area...

 
10,318 Southwest
37. Batesville, Arkansas
Batesville, Arkansas
Batesville is the county seat and largest city of Independence County, Arkansas, United States, 80 miles northeast of Little Rock, the state capital. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 9,556...

 
10,248 Northeast
38. Hope, Arkansas
Hope, Arkansas
Hope is a small city in Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2008 United States Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 10,378...

 
10,095 Southwest

These population numbers are according to the 2010 US Census.

Cities and towns





Names in bold have populations greater than 20,000.
  • Alma
    Alma, Arkansas
    Alma is a city in Crawford County located in the western part of U.S. state of Arkansas, along I-40 about 13 miles from the Oklahoma border. Alma's population is 4,734, making it the sixth largest city in the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area...

  • Alpena
    Alpena, Arkansas
    Alpena is a town in Boone and Carroll counties in the U.S. state of Arkansas. The population was 371 at the 2000 census.The Boone County portion of Alpena is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-History:...

  • Arkadelphia
    Arkadelphia, Arkansas
    Arkadelphia is a city in Clark County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 10,548. The city is the county seat of Clark County. The city is situated at the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Two universities, Henderson State...

  • Avoca
    Avoca, Arkansas
    Avoca is a town in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 423 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Avoca is located at ....

  • Batesville
    Batesville, Arkansas
    Batesville is the county seat and largest city of Independence County, Arkansas, United States, 80 miles northeast of Little Rock, the state capital. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 9,556...

  • Bay
    Bay, Arkansas
    Bay is a city in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,800 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Bay is located at ....

  • Beech Grove
    Beech Grove, Arkansas
    Beech Grove is an unincorporated community in Greene County, Arkansas, United States. Beech Grove is located on Arkansas Highway 141 northwest of Paragould. Beech Grove has a post office with ZIP code 72412....

  • Beebe
    Beebe, Arkansas
    Beebe, Arkansas is a city in White County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 4,930 at the 2000 census, making it the second most populous in the county after Searcy. The city is home to a branch campus of Jonesboro-based Arkansas State University. It was named for Roswell Beebe, a...

  • Bella Vista
    Bella Vista, Arkansas
    Bella Vista is a city in Benton County, Arkansas. It previously was the largest unincorporated community in the state of Arkansas; however, in November 2006 it voted to incorporate and form a municipality. The Bella Vista Property Owners Association estimates that there are currently 24,000...

  • Bellefonte
    Bellefonte, Arkansas
    Bellefonte is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 400 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Bellefonte is located at ....

  • Benton
    Benton, Arkansas
    Benton is a city in and the county seat of Saline County, Arkansas, United States and a suburb of Little Rock. It was established in 1837. According to a 2006 Special Census conducted at the request of the city government, the population of the city is 27,717, ranking it as the state's 16th largest...

  • Bentonville
    Bentonville, Arkansas
    Bentonville, Arkansas is a city in Northwest Bahamas, and county seat of Benton County, Arkansas, United States The population was 35,301 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area...

  • Bergman
    Bergman, Arkansas
    Bergman is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 407 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Bergman is located at ....

  • Berryville
    Berryville, Arkansas
    Berryville is a city in Carroll County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 4,433 at the 2000 census. Along with Eureka Springs, it is one of the two county seats of Carroll County...

  • Biggers
    Biggers, Arkansas
    Biggers is a town in Randolph County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 355 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Biggers is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of...

  • Black Oak
    Black Oak, Arkansas
    Black Oak is a town in Craighead County, Arkansas, USA. The population was 286 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area...

  • Black Rock
    Black Rock, Arkansas
    Black Rock is a city in Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States, along the Black River. The population was 717 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Black Rock is located at ....

  • Blytheville
    Blytheville, Arkansas
    Blytheville is the largest city in and one of the two county seats of Mississippi County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 15,620 at the 2010 census....

  • Bono
    Bono, Arkansas
    Bono is a city in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,512 at the 2000 census. Population estimate as of 2008 was 1,599. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area...

  • Booneville
    Booneville, Arkansas
    Booneville is a city in Logan County, Arkansas, United States, and the county seat of its southern district. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 4,082....

  • Bryant
    Bryant, Arkansas
    Bryant is a city in Saline County, Arkansas, United States and a suburb of Little Rock. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,185...

  • Brookland
    Brookland, Arkansas
    Brookland is a town in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,332 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Brookland is located at ....

  • Cabot
    Cabot, Arkansas
    As of the census of 2000, there were 15,269 people, 5,432 households, and 4,329 families residing in the city. The population density was 798.2 people per square mile . There were 5,712 housing units at an average density of 298.8 per square mile...

  • Camden
    Camden, Arkansas
    Camden is a city in and the county seat of Ouachita County in the southern part of the U.S. state of Arkansas. Long an area of American Indians villages, the French also made a permanent settlement here because of its advantageous location above the Ouachita River. According to 2007 Census...

  • Caraway
    Caraway, Arkansas
    Caraway is a town in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,349 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Caraway is located at ....

  • Cash
    Cash, Arkansas
    Cash is a town in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 294 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Cash is located at ....

  • Conway
    Conway, Arkansas
    Conway is the county seat of Faulkner County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 58,908 at the 2010 census, making Conway the seventh most populous city in Arkansas. It is a principal city of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area which had...

  • Clinton
    Clinton, Arkansas
    Clinton is the county seat of Van Buren County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 2,283 at the 2000 census. The city was named for DeWitt Clinton, the New York governor who built the Erie Canal; he previously was also a U.S. Senator from New York. Clinton is located at...

  • College City
    College City, Arkansas
    College City is a town in Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 269 at the 2000 census. It is the site of Williams Baptist College, a four-year liberal arts college.-Geography:College City is located at ....

  • Corning
    Corning, Arkansas
    Corning is a city in Clay County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 3,679 at the 2000 census. It is one of the two county seats of Clay County, along with Piggott.-Geography:Corning is located at ....

  • Cotter
    Cotter, Arkansas
    Cotter is a city in Baxter County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 970 at the 2010 census.-History:Originally, the river bend was known as Lake's Ferry. In 1905, the Missouri Pacific Railroad bought the area and sold over one thousand lots, mostly to railroad employees. The city was...

  • Crossett
    Crossett, Arkansas
    Crossett is the largest city in Ashley County, Arkansas, United States, with a population of 5,507, according to 2010 Census Bureau estimates. Combined with North Crossett and West Crossett, the population is 10,752...

  • Delaplaine
    Delaplaine, Arkansas
    Delaplaine is a town in Greene County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 127 at the 2000 census.-History:Delaplaine was incorporated as a town in April 1912 but has a history that dates back to the time of the French explorations. Early settlers found remains of a French-Indian trading...

  • Dell
    Dell, Arkansas
    Dell is a town in Mississippi County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 251 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Dell is located at ....

  • DeQueen
  • De Witt
    De Witt, Arkansas
    De Witt is a city in Arkansas County, Arkansas, United States, which also serves as the county seat of the county's southern district. The population was 3,239 at the 2010 census.- History :...

  • Diamond City
    Diamond City, Arkansas
    Diamond City is a city in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 730 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Diamond City is located at ....

  • Earle
    Earle, Arkansas
    Earle is a city in Crittenden County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 3,036 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Earle is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , all land....

  • El Dorado
    El Dorado, Arkansas
    El Dorado , a multi-cultural arts center: South Arkansas Arts Center , an award-winning renovated downtown, and numerous sporting, shopping, and dining opportunities. El Dorado is the population, cultural, and business center of the 7,300 mi² regional area...

  • Egypt
    Egypt, Arkansas
    Egypt is a town in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 101 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Egypt is located at ....

  • Eureka Springs
    Eureka Springs, Arkansas
    Eureka Springs is a city in Carroll County, Arkansas, United States. Along with Berryville, it is one of the two county seats for the county. It is located in the Ozark Mountains of northwest Arkansas. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the town is 2,350...

  • Everton
    Everton, Arkansas
    Everton is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 170 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Everton is located at ....

  • Fayetteville
    Fayetteville, Arkansas
    Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County, and the third largest city in Arkansas. The city is centrally located within the county and is home to the University of Arkansas. Fayetteville is also deep in the Boston Mountains, a subset of The Ozarks...

  • Forrest City
    Forrest City, Arkansas
    Forrest City is a city in and the county seat of St. Francis County, Arkansas, United States. It was named for General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who used the location as a campsite for a construction crew completing a railroad between Memphis and Little Rock, shortly after the Civil War. The...

  • Fort Smith
    Fort Smith, Arkansas
    Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. With a population of 86,209 in 2010, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents which encompasses the Arkansas...

  • Flippin
    Flippin, Arkansas
    Flippin is a city in Marion County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,357 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Flippin is located on a major non-interstate highway, US 412/62, in the Ozark Mountains near the South Shore of Bull Shoals Lake...

  • Gassville
    Gassville, Arkansas
    Gassville is a city in Baxter County, Arkansas, United States. According to the 2000 census, the city population was 1,706.-Geography:Gassville is located at ....

  • Greenwood
    Greenwood, Arkansas
    Greenwood is a city in and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County, Arkansas, United States, perhaps best known locally for its Arkansas high school football...

  • Grubbs
    Grubbs, Arkansas
    Grubbs is a town in Jackson County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 438 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Grubbs is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.4 km² , all land....

  • Gurdon
    Gurdon, Arkansas
    Gurdon is a city in Clark County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 2,276 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Gurdon is located at ....

  • Harrison
    Harrison, Arkansas
    Harrison is a city in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. It is the county seat. According to 2007 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,108. Boone County was organized in 1869, during reconstruction after the civil war. Harrison was platted and made the county seat. It is...

  • Horatio
    Horatio, Arkansas
    Horatio is a city in Sevier County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 997 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Horatio is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , all of it land.-Demographics:...

  • Helena-West Helena
    Helena-West Helena, Arkansas
    Helena-West Helena is the county seat of and the largest city within Phillips County, Arkansas, United States. The current city represents a consolidation, effective on January 1, 2006, of the two Arkansas cities of Helena and West Helena. West Helena is located on the western side of Crowley's...

  • Hope
    Hope, Arkansas
    Hope is a small city in Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2008 United States Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 10,378...

  • Hot Springs
    Hot Springs, Arkansas
    Hot Springs is the 10th most populous city in the U.S. state of Arkansas, the county seat of Garland County, and the principal city of the Hot Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area encompassing all of Garland County...

  • Hoxie
    Hoxie, Arkansas
    Hoxie is a city in Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 2,817 at the 2000 census. Hoxie lies immediately south of Walnut Ridge.-Geography:Hoxie is located at ....

  • Imboden
    Imboden, Arkansas
    Imboden is a town in Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 684 at the 2000 census. It is named after a family of settlers.- History :The community was first settled around 1828 and was incorporated in 1887....

  • Jasper
    Jasper, Arkansas
    Jasper is a city in Newton County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 498 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Newton County.Jasper is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:...

  • Jacksonville
    Jacksonville, Arkansas
    Jacksonville is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, and a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 28,364. It is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area....

  • Jonesboro
    Jonesboro, Arkansas
    Jonesboro is a city in and one of the two county seats of Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. According to the 2010 US Census, the population of the city was 67,263. A college town, Jonesboro is the largest city in northeastern Arkansas and the fifth most populous city in the state...

  • Lafe
    Lafe, Arkansas
    Lafe is a town in Greene County, Arkansas on Crowley's Ridge. The population was 385 at the 2000 census.- History :The first settler of Lafe was Mr. Herman Toelken, a German immigrant who had been living in New Haven, Missouri and was seeking new opportunities in an unsettled area...

  • Lake City
    Lake City, Arkansas
    Lake City is a town in Craighead County, Arkansas in the United States, along the St. Francis River. The population is 2,082 according to the 2010 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area...

  • Lake Village
    Lake Village, Arkansas
    Lake Village is a city in Chicot County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 2,823 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Chicot County.Lake Village is named for its location on Lake Chicot, an oxbow lake formed from the Mississippi River...

  • Leachville
    Leachville, Arkansas
    Leachville is a city in Mississippi County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,981 at the 2000 census. Leachville was incorporated in 1916.-Geography:Leachville is located at ....

  • Lead Hill
    Lead Hill, Arkansas
    Lead Hill is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 287 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Lead Hill is located at ....

  • Little Rock
    Little Rock, Arkansas
    Little Rock is the capital and the largest city of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 699,757 people in the 2010 census...

  • Lonoke
    Lonoke, Arkansas
    Lonoke is the second most populous city in Lonoke County, Arkansas, United States, and serves as its county seat. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 4,553...

  • Lockesburg
    Lockesburg, Arkansas
    Lockesburg is a town in Sevier County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 711 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Lockesburg is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of , all land....

  • Magnolia
    Magnolia, Arkansas
    Magnolia is a city in Columbia County, Arkansas, United States, that was founded in 1853. At the time of its incorporation in 1858, the city had a population of about 1,950. The city grew slowly as an agricultural and regional cotton market until the discovery of oil just east of the city in March,...

  • Malvern
    Malvern, Arkansas
    Malvern is the county seat of Hot Spring County, Arkansas. The city had a population of 10,318 at the time of the 2010 census and is also called the "Brick Capital of the World" because of the three Acme Brick plants in the area...

  • Marion
    Marion, Arkansas
    Marion is a city in Crittenden County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 8,901 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Crittenden County, and is part of the Memphis metropolitan area...

  • Marked Tree
    Marked Tree, Arkansas
    Marked Tree is a city in Poinsett County, Arkansas in the United States, along the St. Francis River, at the mouth of the Little River. The population was 2,800 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area....

  • Maumelle
    Maumelle, Arkansas
    Maumelle is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States and a suburb of Little Rock. Founded by Jess Odom with federal assistance from the Urban Growth and New Community Development Act, it is a master-planned community....

  • Mena
    Mena, Arkansas
    Mena is a city in Polk County, Arkansas, United States. It is also the county seat of Polk County.It was founded by Arthur Edward Stilwell during the building of the Kansas City, Pittsburg and Gulf Railroad . It was Stilwell who decided Mena would be the name of this new town along the route to...

  • Midway
    Midway, Arkansas
    Midway, Arkansas may refer to any one of many locations in the U.S. state of Arkansas:*Midway, Baxter County, Arkansas, an unincorporated community in Baxter County*Midway, Clark County, Arkansas, an unincorporated community in Clark County...

  • Monticello
    Monticello, Arkansas
    Monticello is a city in Drew County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 9,327. The city is the county seat of Drew County. It is the home of the University of Arkansas at Monticello.-History:...

  • Morrilton
    Morrilton, Arkansas
    Morrilton is a city in Conway County, Arkansas, United States, northwest of Little Rock. The town was home to Harding College, now Harding University of Searcy, Arkansas, for about a decade in the 1920s and 1930s. The population was 6,550 at the 2000 census...

  • Monette
    Monette, Arkansas
    Monette is a city in Craighead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,247 at the 2009 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Monette is located at ....

  • Mountain Home
    Mountain Home, Arkansas
    Mountain Home is a city in and the county seat of Baxter County, Arkansas, United States, in the southern Ozark Mountains.It was recently listed in the top 20 cities in the U.S. for sportsmen in the current edition of Outdoor Life magazine, was recently ranked #2 for Field and Stream's Best Fishing...

  • Mountain View
    Mountain View, Arkansas
    Mountain View is the largest city in and the county seat of Stone County in the north-central region of the U.S. state of Arkansas. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 2,998. The town's name comes from its location in a valley surrounded by the eastern Ozark...

  • Natural Steps
    Natural Steps, Arkansas
    Natural Steps is an unincorporated census-designated place in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, just 18 miles northwest of Little Rock along the southern bank of the Arkansas River, on Arkansas Highway 300. As of the 2010 census, its population is 426. Today, it is a small farming community...

  • Newport
    Newport, Arkansas
    Newport is a city in Jackson County, Arkansas, northeast of Little Rock, on the White River. In 1900, 2,866 people lived in Newport, Arkansas; in 1910, 3,557. The population was 7,811 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Jackson County....

  • North Little Rock
    North Little Rock, Arkansas
    the city was 62.55% White, 33.98% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from other races, and 1.26% from two or more races...

  • Omaha
    Omaha, Arkansas
    Omaha is a town in Boone County, Arkansas. As of the 2000 census the population stood at 165. It is a rural community located approximately 10 miles from Branson, Missouri and 15 miles from Harrison, Arkansas...

  • Osceola
    Osceola, Arkansas
    -Notable natives & residents:* Bill Alexander, U.S. Representative from First Congressional District, 1969–1993* David Barrett, New York Jets cornerback* Maurice Carthon, former NFL and USFL player and NFL assistant coach...

  • Otwell
  • Paragould
    Paragould, Arkansas
    -Health & Education:Paragould is home to Arkansas State University Paragould, Arkansas Northeastern College, Black River Technical College, and Crowley's Ridge College. Paragould has two public school districts, the Greene County Technical School District and the Paragould School District, as well...

  • Parkin
    Parkin, Arkansas
    Parkin is a city in Cross County, Arkansas, in the United States, along the St. Francis River. The population was 1,602 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Parkin is located at ....

  • Pine Bluff
    Pine Bluff, Arkansas
    Pine Bluff is the largest city and county seat of Jefferson County, Arkansas, United States. It is also the principal city of the Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff, Arkansas Combined Statistical Area...

  • Pleasant Hill
  • Pocahontas
    Pocahontas, Arkansas
    Pocahontas is a city in Randolph County, Arkansas, United States, along the Black River. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, its population of the city is 6,765. The city is the county seat of Randolph County....

  • Pyatt
    Pyatt, Arkansas
    Pyatt is a town in Marion County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 253 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Pyatt is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of , all land....

  • Ravenden
    Ravenden, Arkansas
    Ravenden is a town in Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 511 at the 2000 census.Spring River flows near Ravenden. Spring River originates at Mammoth Spring, AR, its flow coming from a very large spring there. Spring River flows into Black River near Black Rock, AR.U.S....

  • Ravenden Springs
    Ravenden Springs, Arkansas
    Ravenden Springs is a town in Randolph County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 137 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Ravenden Springs is located at ....

  • Rea Valley
  • Rogers
    Rogers, Arkansas
    Rogers is a suburban city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city has a population of 55,964. The city is located in the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, in the northwest corner of the state.-History:...

  • Russellville
    Russellville, Arkansas
    Russellville is the county seat and largest city in Pope County, Arkansas, United States, with a population of 27,920, according to the 2010 Census. It is home to Arkansas Tech University and Arkansas Nuclear One, Arkansas' only nuclear power plant...

  • Searcy
    Searcy, Arkansas
    Searcy is the largest city and county seat of White County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 20,663. It is the principal city of the Searcy, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of White County...

  • Sherwood
    Sherwood, Arkansas
    Sherwood is a city in Pulaski County, Arkansas, United States, and a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 29,523...

  • Sheridan
    Sheridan, Arkansas
    Sheridan is the largest city and county seat in Grant County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 3,872 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area. .-History:Robert W...

  • Siloam Springs
    Siloam Springs, Arkansas
    Siloam Springs is a city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. According to 2005 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city was 13,990...

  • Smackover
    Smackover, Arkansas
    Smackover is a city in Union County, Arkansas. According to the 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city stands at 1,929.The name Smackover comes from an anglicization of the French "Sumac Couvert" which translates to "covered in sumac"...

  • Springdale
    Springdale, Arkansas
    As of the census of 2010, there were 69,797 people, 22,805 households, and 16,640 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.7% White, 0.82% Black or African American, 1.8% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 5.7% Pacific Islander, 22% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more...

  • South Lead Hill
    South Lead Hill, Arkansas
    South Lead Hill is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 88 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:South Lead Hill is located at ....

  • Stuttgart
    Stuttgart, Arkansas
    Stuttgart is a city in and the county seat of the northern district of Arkansas County, Arkansas, United States. It is located on U.S. Route 79 about miles southeast of Little Rock. According to 2006 Census Bureau estimates, the population of the city is 9,376.The town proclaims itself the "Rice...

  • Summit
    Summit, Arkansas
    Summit is a city in Marion County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 586 at the 2000 census.-Geography:Summit is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , all of it land....

  • Swifton
    Swifton, Arkansas
    Swifton is a city in Jackson County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 871 at the 2000 census. Swifton was the hometown of Baseball Hall of Famer George Kell.-Geography:Swifton is located at ....

  • Texarkana
    Texarkana, Arkansas
    As of the census of 2000, there were 26,448 people, 10,384 households, and 7,040 families residing in the city. The population density was 830.5 people per square mile . There were 11,721 housing units at an average density of 368.1 per square mile...

  • Trumann
    Trumann, Arkansas
    Trumann is a city in Poinsett County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 6,889 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Trumann is located at ....

  • Tuckerman
    Tuckerman, Arkansas
    Tuckerman is a city in Jackson County, Arkansas, USA. The population was 1,757 at the 2000 census.Each year on the second weekend of May, Tuckerman hosts Hometown Days, a festival for the town and fundraiser for the Tuckerman Fire Department.-Geography:...

  • Valley Springs
    Valley Springs, Arkansas
    Valley Springs is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 167 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Valley Springs is located at ....

  • Van Buren
    Van Buren, Arkansas
    Van Buren is the second largest city in the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area and the county seat of Crawford County, Arkansas, United States. The city is located directly northeast of Fort Smith at the Interstate 40 - Interstate 540 junction...

  • Waldron
    Waldron, Arkansas
    Waldron is a city in Scott County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 3,508 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Scott County.-Geography:Waldron is located at ....

  • Walnut Ridge
    Walnut Ridge, Arkansas
    Walnut Ridge is a city in Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 4,925 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Lawrence County. Walnut Ridge lies immediately north of Hoxie, Arkansas. The two towns form a contiguous urban area with approximately 8,000 residents...

  • Warren
    Warren, Arkansas
    Warren is a city in and the county seat of Bradley County, Arkansas, United States. The United States Census Bureau estimated population in 2006 was 6,219....

  • West Memphis
    West Memphis, Arkansas
    West Memphis is the largest city in Crittenden County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 27,666 at the 2000 census, with an estimated population of 28,181 in 2005, and 31,329 in 2011 ranking it as the state's 11th largest city, behind Hot Springs...

  • Weiner
    Weiner, Arkansas
    Weiner is a city in Poinsett County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 760 at the 2000 census. It is included in the Jonesboro, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Weiner is located at ....

  • Western Grove
    Western Grove, Arkansas
    Western Grove is a town in Newton County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 407 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Western Grove is located at ....

  • Wynne
    Wynne, Arkansas
    Wynne is the county seat and largest city of Cross County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 8,615 at the 2000 Census. Nestled between the Arkansas Delta and Crowley's Ridge, Wynne is home to the largest state park in Arkansas, Village Creek State Park.-Geography:Wynne lies at , the...

  • Yardelle
  • Yellville
    Yellville, Arkansas
    Yellville is a city in Marion County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 1,312 at the 2000 census. The city is the county seat of Marion County.-History:...

  • Zinc
    Zinc, Arkansas
    Zinc is a town in Boone County, Arkansas, United States. The population was only 76 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area.-Geography:Zinc is located at ....


  • Centers of research

    • National Center for Toxicological Research
      National Center for Toxicological Research
      The National Center for Toxicological Research is the branch of the United States Food and Drug Administration which conducts research to define biological mechanisms of action underlying the toxicity of products regulated by the FDA....

    • University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture
      University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture
      The University of Arkansas is the primary research and information support agency for the agricultural sector in Arkansas and also conducts statewide programs in support of environmental sustainability; 4-H, youth, family and community development; food safety and security; and human nutrition and...


    Colleges and universities


    • Arkansas Baptist College
      Arkansas Baptist College
      Arkansas Baptist College is a private, historically black liberal arts college located in Little Rock, Arkansas. Founded in 1884 as the Minister's Institute, ABC was initially funded by the Colored Baptists of the State of Arkansas. It is the only Baptist HBCU west of the Mississippi...

    • Arkansas State University System
      Arkansas State University System
      The Arkansas State University System is a collection of ten campuses located across northeast and central Arkansas, USA. The system offices are located on the main campus in Jonesboro, Arkansas....

      • Arkansas State University – Jonesboro
        Arkansas State University
        Arkansas State University is a public university and is the flagship campus of the Arkansas State University System, the state's second largest college system and third largest university by enrollment. It is located atop on Crowley's Ridge at Jonesboro, Arkansas, USA...

      • Arkansas State University Beebe
        Arkansas State University Beebe
        Arkansas State University-Beebe is a public two-year college system located in central Arkansas, with its flagship campus in Beebe, Arkansas. The ASU-Beebe system is a subset of the Arkansas State University System.- Campuses :...

      • Arkansas State University - Mountain Home
    • Arkansas Tech University
      Arkansas Tech University
      Arkansas Tech University is a comprehensive regional institution located in Russellville, Arkansas, United States. The university offers programs at both baccalaureate and graduate levels in a range of fields. As of 2004, the University also operates a small satellite campus in the town of Ozark...

    • Central Baptist College
      Central Baptist College
      Central Baptist College is a four-year, private liberal arts college in Conway, Arkansas. Majors are available within the fields of behavioral science, business, general education, missions, music, religion, and science. Located on a campus , CBC was founded in 1952 and awards both associate and...

    • Harding University
      Harding University
      Harding University is located in Searcy, Arkansas, in the United States, about north-east of Little Rock. It is a private liberal arts Christian university associated with the Churches of Christ. The university takes its name from James A...

    • Henderson State University
      Henderson State University
      Henderson State University, founded in 1890 as Arkadelphia Methodist College, is a four-year public liberal arts university located in Arkadelphia, Arkansas, United States. It is Arkansas's only member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges...

    • Hendrix College
      Hendrix College
      Hendrix College is a private liberal arts college located in Conway, Arkansas. The student body averages around 1,400 and currently represents forty-three states and fourteen foreign countries. In US News and World Report's America's Best Colleges, Hendrix is ranked annually in the top tier of...

    • John Brown University
      John Brown University
      The main campus in Northwest Arkansas has been the site of the university since it was founded in 1919. JBU has 2,183 students as of the 2011-2012 school year, 1,279 of which are traditional undergraduates. Of these, 878 live on campus. The Graduate School has 468 students...

    • Lyon College
      Lyon College
      Lyon College is an independent, residential, co-educational, undergraduate liberal arts college affiliated with the Presbyterian Church . Founded in 1872, it is the oldest independent college in Arkansas...

    • Ouachita Baptist University
      Ouachita Baptist University
      Ouachita Baptist University is a private, liberal arts, undergraduate institution located in Arkadelphia, Arkansas, which is about 65 miles southwest of Little Rock. The university's name is taken from the Ouachita River, which forms the eastern campus boundary. It is affiliated with the Arkansas...

    • Ozarka College
      Ozarka College
      Ozarka College is a two-year public post-secondary institution located primarily in Melbourne, Arkansas, with satellite campuses in Mountain View and Ash Flat, and class offerings in Mammoth Spring, Salem and Viola...

    • Philander Smith College
      Philander Smith College
      Philander Smith College is a private, historically black college that is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. It is located in Little Rock, Arkansas. The student body averages around 850 attendees, with around 30% of that figure attending part time. Although known historically as a school...

    • Southern Arkansas University
      Southern Arkansas University
      Southern Arkansas University is a public four-year institution located in Magnolia, the seat of Columbia County in Arkansas, United States, not far from the Louisiana state line.-Location:Southern Arkansas University is located in Magnolia, which, as of the census...


    • University of Arkansas System
      University of Arkansas System
      The University of Arkansas System comprises six main campuses within the state of Arkansas; a medical school; two law schools; a unique graduate school focused on public service; statewide research, service and educational units for agriculture, criminal justice and archeology; and several...

      • University of Arkansas at Fayetteville
      • University of Arkansas at Fort Smith
      • University of Arkansas at Little Rock
        University of Arkansas at Little Rock
        University of Arkansas at Little Rock , is a public research university located in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States, and the second largest university by enrollment in the state of Arkansas....

      • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
        University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
        The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is part of the University of Arkansas System, a state-run university in the U.S. state of Arkansas...

      • University of Arkansas at Monticello
        University of Arkansas at Monticello
        The University of Arkansas at Monticello is a public university and college for vocational and technical education located in Monticello, Arkansas, United States....

      • University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
        University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
        The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff is a historically black university located in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, United States. Founded in 1873, it is the oldest HBCU and the second oldest public institution in the state of Arkansas . UAPB is a member school of the Thurgood Marshall Scholarship Fund...

      • University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville
        University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville
        The University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville is a public community college located in Batesville, Arkansas. It is an accredited two-year university offering various Associates of Arts and Associates of Science degrees.- History :...

      • University of Arkansas Community College at Morrilton
        University of Arkansas Community College at Morrilton
        The University of Arkansas Community College at Morrilton is a two-year, state-supported institution which offers university-transfer and career-specific training programs, as well as adult education, workforce education, and community outreach programs....

    • University of Central Arkansas
      University of Central Arkansas
      The University of Central Arkansas is a state-run institution located in the city of Conway, the seat of Faulkner County, north of Little Rock and is the fourth largest university by enrollment in the U.S. state of Arkansas, and the third largest college system in the state. The school is most...

    • University of the Ozarks
      University of the Ozarks
      The University of the Ozarks is a private, four-year liberal arts, comprehensive university located in Clarksville, Arkansas, a community of just over 9,000 people and the county seat of Johnson County. U of O is located at the foot of the Ozark Mountains, about west of Little Rock...

    • Williams Baptist College
      Williams Baptist College
      Williams Baptist College is a private, coeducational four-year college located in the northeast corner of Arkansas near the town of Walnut Ridge. Founded in 1941, this institution began its life as a two year school. It began granting bachelor's degrees in the 1980s...


    Notable residents


    • Joey Lauren Adams
      Joey Lauren Adams
      Joey Lauren Adams is an American actress who has appeared in more than thirty films. She is known for her distinctive, raspy voice and for her roles in View Askewniverse films, particularly Mallrats and Chasing Amy, with the latter giving her a Golden Globe for Best Actress nomination.-Career:She...

    • Homer M. Adkins
    • Bill Alexander
    • Dale Alford
      Dale Alford
      Thomas Dale Alford, Sr. was an ophthalmologist and politician from the U.S. state of Arkansas who served as a conservative Democrat in the United States House of Representatives from Little Rock from 1959 to 1963....

    • Kris Allen
      Kris Allen
      Kristopher Neil "Kris" Allen is an American musician and singer-songwriter from Conway, Arkansas, and the winner of the eighth season of American Idol...

    • Maya Angelou
      Maya Angelou
      Maya Angelou is an American author and poet who has been called "America's most visible black female autobiographer" by scholar Joanne M. Braxton. She is best known for her series of six autobiographical volumes, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first and most highly...

    • Beryl Anthony
    • Morris Arnold
    • Harry Ashmore
      Harry Ashmore
      Harry Scott Ashmore was an American journalist who won a Pulitzer Prize for his editorials in 1957 on the school integration conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas....

    • Wayne H. Babbitt
      Wayne H. Babbitt
      Wayne H. Babbitt was a Republican politician in the U.S. state of Arkansas, who in 1972 became the only member of his party ever to oppose the reelection of entrenched Democratic U.S. Senator John L. McClellan.-Family:...

    • Gilbert Baker
      Gilbert Baker (Arkansas politician)
      Gilbert R. Baker is a Republican State Senator from Arkansas' 30th District. In 2010, Baker was an unsuccessful candidate for the United States Senate seat formerly held by the Democrat Blanche Lincoln. He has been a member of the Arkansas State Senate since 2001.Baker holds degrees from Louisiana...

    • Daisy Bates
      Daisy Bates (civil rights activist)
      Daisy Lee Gatson Bates was an American civil rights activist, publisher and writer who played a leading role in the Little Rock integration crisis of 1957....

    • Bruce Bennett
      Bruce Bennett (Arkansas politician)
      Bruce Bennett was a Democratic politician from El Dorado, Arkansas, who served as his state's attorney general from 1957–1960 and from 1963–1966...

    • Robert Marion Berry
    • Edwin R. Bethune
    • Len Blaylock
    • Brian Bohrer
      Brian Bohrer
      Brian Lester Bohrer is a pastor and author. He is best known for his book called, “Word Therapy” a teaching on the creative power of your words.- History :...

    • Fay Boozman
      Fay Boozman
      Fay W. Boozman was a Republican politician from the U.S. state of Arkansas, a close friend of former Governor Mike Huckabee and a brother of U.S...

    • John Boozman
      John Boozman
      John Nichols Boozman is the junior U.S. Senator for Arkansas . A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the U.S. Representative for .Born in Shreveport, Louisiana, he was the brother of state Senator Fay Boozman...

    • Vickey Boozman
    • Henry M. Britt
      Henry M. Britt
      Henry Middleton Britt, III , was a Hot Springs lawyer who was a pioneer in the revitalization of the Republican Party in the heavily Democratic state of Arkansas, primarily during the 1960s and 1970s. He was the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1960, having been decisively defeated by Orval...

    • Maurice L. Britt
    • Lou Brock
      Lou Brock
      Louis Clark "Lou" Brock is an American former professional baseball player. He began his Major League Baseball career with the Chicago Cubs but, spent the majority of his career as the left fielder for the St. Louis Cardinals. Brock was best known for breaking Ty Cobb's all-time major league...

    • Frank Broyles
      Frank Broyles
      John Franklin Broyles is a former American football player and coach, athletics administrator, and broadcaster. He served as the head football coach the University of Missouri in 1957 and at the University of Arkansas from 1958 to 1976...

    • Dee Brown
    • Helen Gurley Brown
      Helen Gurley Brown
      Helen Gurley Brown , is an author, publisher, and businesswoman. She was editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine for 32 years.-Personal life and career:...

    • Paul "Bear" Bryant
    • Dale Bumpers
      Dale Bumpers
      Dale Leon Bumpers is an American politician who served as the 38th Governor of Arkansas from 1971 to 1975; and then in the United States Senate from 1975 until his retirement in January 1999. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Senator Bumpers is currently counsel at the Washington, D.C...

    • Preston Bynum
      Preston Bynum
      Preston Conrad Bynum is a high-powered lobbyist in Little Rock, Arkansas, who served as a Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from January 1969 to December 1980. On his first election, Bynum was one of only four Republicans in the 100-member House; when his party's...

    • Glen Campbell
      Glen Campbell
      Glen Travis Campbell is an American country music singer, guitarist, television host and occasional actor. He is best known for a series of hits in the 1960s and 1970s, as well as for hosting a variety show called The Glen Campbell Goodtime Hour on CBS television.During his 50 years in show...

    • Hattie Caraway
      Hattie Caraway
      Hattie Ophelia Wyatt Caraway was the first woman elected to serve as a United States Senator. Senator Caraway represented Arkansas.-Biography:...

    • Johnny Cash
      Johnny Cash
      John R. "Johnny" Cash was an American singer-songwriter, actor, and author, who has been called one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century...

    • Francis Cherry
      Francis Cherry
      Francis Adams Cherry was the 35th Governor of Arkansas, elected as a Democrat for a single two-year term from 1953 to 1955. He was only the second governor in Arkansas history to have been denied a second term—the first was Tom Jefferson Terral, who was defeated in 1926. After the...

    • Norris Church (Barbara Jean Davis)
    • Wesley Clark
      Wesley Clark
      Wesley Kanne Clark, Sr., is a retired general of the United States Army. Graduating as valedictorian of the class of 1966 at West Point, he was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford where he obtained a degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics, and later graduated from the...

    • Jerry Climer
      Jerry Climer
      Jerome Francis Climer, known as Jerry Climer , is the founder of two Washington, D.C.-based "think tanks", the Congressional Institute and the Public Governance Institute, which were established in 1987 and 2001, respectively...

    • Bill Clinton
      Bill Clinton
      William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

    • Chelsea Clinton
      Chelsea Clinton
      Chelsea Victoria Clinton is a television journalist, currently serving as Special Correspondent for NBC News, and philanthropist, working through the Clinton Global Initiative. She is the only child of former U.S...

    • L. L. Clover
      L. L. Clover
      Leander Louis Clover, known as L. L. Clover , was an American Baptist Association clergyman who in 1952 established Louisiana Missionary Baptist Institute and Seminary in Minden, Louisiana...

    • Ken Coon
      Ken Coon
      Kenneth Lloyd "Ken" Coon, Sr. , is a Little Rock educator, professional psychologist, and counselor who was also a pioneer in the development of the Republican Party in the U.S. state of Arkansas. He was the GOP state chairman from 1988—1990...

    • James Cotten
      James Cotten
      -Early life:Cotten was born in Fort Smith, Arkansas. Following his 8th grade year in Arkansas, his parents moved to Sallisaw, Oklahoma where they owned a movie rental store...

    • Maud Crawford
      Maud Crawford
      Maud Robinson Crawford was the first woman attorney in Camden, Arkansas; her disappearance and presumed death sparked attention for more than three decades. The case remains officially unsolved.-Background:...

    • Fulham Davies
      Fulham Davies
      Fulham Fairchild Davies, known as Ki Davies , was an Arkansas businessman who in 1923 opened the Merrill Lynch office in Little Rock...

    • Lynn A. Davis
      Lynn A. Davis
      Lynn Arthur Davis is a retired attorney in Little Rock, Arkansas, who lectures and writes nonfiction crime thrillers based on his past law enforcement experiences. He is a former agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, short-term director of the Arkansas State Police, and U.S. marshal for...

    • "Dizzy" Dean
      Dizzy Dean
      Jay Hanna "Dizzy" Dean was an American Major League Baseball pitcher. He was the last National League pitcher to win 30 games in one season. Dean was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953....

    • Elizabeth R. Deans
    • Bill Dickey
      Bill Dickey
      William Malcolm Dickey was a Major League Baseball catcher and manager.He played his entire 19-year baseball career with the New York Yankees . During Dickey's playing career, the Yankees went to the World Series nine times, winning eight championships...

    • Jay Dickey
      Jay Dickey
      Jay W. Dickey, Jr. is a former U.S. Representative from the Fourth Congressional District of Arkansas. He served in Congress from 1993 to 2000...

    • Beth Ditto
      Beth Ditto
      Mary Beth Patterson, known by her stage name Beth Ditto , is an American singer-songwriter, most famous for her work with the indie rock band Gossip.-Personal life:...

    • David O. Dodd
    • Jimmy Driftwood
      Jimmy Driftwood
      James Corbitt Morris , known professionally as Jimmy Driftwood or Jimmie Driftwood, was a prolific American folk music songwriter and musician, most famous for his songs "The Battle of New Orleans" and "Tennessee Stud"...

    • Duggar family
    • Jimmy Dykes
      Jimmy Dykes
      James Joseph Dykes was an American third and second baseman, manager and coach in Major League Baseball who played for the Philadelphia Athletics and Chicago White Sox from 1918 to 1939...

    • Orval Faubus
      Orval Faubus
      Orval Eugene Faubus was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court by ordering the...

    • Derek Fisher
      Derek Fisher
      Derek Lamar Fisher is an American professional basketball point guard for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association . His NBA career has spanned more than 14 years, during which he has won five NBA Championships...

    • John Gould Fletcher
      John Gould Fletcher
      John Gould Fletcher was an Imagist poet and author. He was born in Little Rock, Arkansas to a socially prominent family. After attending Phillips Academy, Andover Fletcher went on to Harvard University from 1903 to 1907, when he dropped out shortly after his father's death.Fletcher lived in...

    • Connie Franklin
      Connie Franklin murder case
      Connie Franklin became widely known in the United States for testifying at his own murder trial in 1929. Franklin was known in the popular press as the "Arkansas Ghost".-Background:...

    • Woody Freeman
      Woody Freeman
      Elwood A. Freeman, known as Woody Freeman , is a businessman in Jonesboro, Arkansas, who was the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1984. He lost 63-37 percent to the incumbent Governor Bill Clinton, the Democrat who eight years later was elected President of the United States...

    • J. William Fulbright
      J. William Fulbright
      James William Fulbright was a United States Senator representing Arkansas from 1945 to 1975.Fulbright was a Southern Democrat and a staunch multilateralist who supported the creation of the United Nations and the longest serving chairman in the history of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee...

    • Augustus Garland
    • Tyson Gay
      Tyson Gay
      Tyson Gay is an American track and field sprinter. His primary events are the 100 meters and 200 meters. His personal bests establish him as the second fastest athlete in the 100 meters and the fifth fastest athlete in the history of the 200 meters, with times of 9.69 and...

    • David Delano Glover
      David Delano Glover
      David Delano Glover was a U.S. Representative from Arkansas.-Life and work:Born in Prattsville in Grant County, Glover attended the public schools of Prattsville and Sheridan, the seat of Grant County....

    • Robert W. Glover
      Robert W. Glover
      Robert W. Glover, sometimes known as Bob Glover , was a Baptist pastor and a Democratic politician from Sheridan in Grant County in south Arkansas.-Background:...

    • Leon Griffith
      Leon Griffith
      Louis Leon Griffith was a master plumber from North Little Rock, who was the Arkansas Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1976, losing the election to Democratic incumbent Governor David H. Pryor....

    • John Grisham
      John Grisham
      John Ray Grisham, Jr. is an American lawyer and author, best known for his popular legal thrillers.John Grisham graduated from Mississippi State University before attending the University of Mississippi School of Law in 1981 and practiced criminal law for about a decade...

    • E. Lynn Harris
      E. Lynn Harris
      Everette "E." Lynn Harris was an American author. Openly gay, he was best known for his depictions of African American men who were on the down-low and closeted...

    • John Paul Hammerschmidt
      John Paul Hammerschmidt
      John Paul Hammerschmidt is an American politician from the U.S. state of Arkansas. A Republican, Hammerschmidt served for thirteen terms in the U.S. House of Representatives from the northwestern Arkansas district before he retired in 1993...

    • Ronnie Hawkins
      Ronnie Hawkins
      Ronald "Ronnie" Hawkins is a Juno Award-winning rockabilly musician whose career has spanned more than half a century. Though his career began in Arkansas, USA, where he'd been born and raised, it was in Ontario, Canada where he found success and settled for most of his life...

    • Brooks Hays
      Brooks Hays
      Lawrence Brooks Hays was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of Arkansas....

    • Levon Helm
      Levon Helm
      Mark Lavon "Levon" Helm , is an American rock multi-instrumentalist and actor who achieved fame as the drummer and frequent lead and backing vocalist for The Band....

    • Ernest Hemingway
      Ernest Hemingway
      Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American author and journalist. His economic and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the...

    • Kim Hendren
      Kim Hendren
      Kim D. Hendren is the Republican minority leader and the chairman of the Energy Committee of the Arkansas State Senate. A native and resident of Gravette in Benton County in northwestern Arkansas, Hendren represents District 9. He is a former Democrat in the most Republican part of the state....

    • Peyton Hillis
      Peyton Hillis
      Hillis was selected by the Denver Broncos in the seventh round of the 2008 NFL Draft.-2008 Season:At the start of the 2008 season, Hillis was listed as the Broncos' starting fullback...

    • Harlan Holleman
      Harlan Holleman
      Harlan Harmon "Bo" Holleman was a farmer and seed merchant from Wynne, the seat of Cross County in eastern Arkansas, and a pioneer in the development of the modern Republican Party in his home state. He was the Arkansas state GOP chairman from December 6, 1980, until his death some sixteen months...

    • Mike Huckabee
      Mike Huckabee
      Michael "Mike" Dale Huckabee is an American politician who served as the 44th Governor of Arkansas from 1996 to 2007. He was a candidate in the 2008 United States Republican presidential primaries, finishing second in delegate count and third in both popular vote and number of states won . He won...

    • Johnnie Bryan Hunt
      Johnnie Bryan Hunt
      Johnnie Bryan Hunt, Sr. , better known as J. B. Hunt, was an American entrepreneur who founded J.B. Hunt Transport Services, the largest publicly owned trucking company in the USA. His company is based in Lowell, Arkansas.- Personal background :Hunt was born in Heber Springs, Arkansas...

    • Torii Hunter
      Torii Hunter
      Torii Kedar Hunter is a Major League Baseball right fielder for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim.Hunter has taken away many home runs throughout his 13-year major league career by "climbing the fence" in the outfield. He has won nine consecutive Gold Glove Awards as an outfielder.Hunter resides...

    • Asa Hutchinson
      Asa Hutchinson
      William Asa Hutchinson is a former U.S. Attorney for the Fort Smith-based Western District of Arkansas, U.S. Congressman from the Third District of Arkansas, Administrator of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and the first-ever Under Secretary for Border & Transportation Security at the U.S...

    • Tim Hutchinson
      Tim Hutchinson
      Young Timothy Hutchinson, known as Tim Hutchinson is a Republican politician and former senator from the state of Arkansas.Hutchinson was born in Bentonville, Arkansas, and he graduated from Bob Jones University...

    • Joe Jackson
    • Keith Jackson
    • Travis Jackson
      Travis Jackson
      Travis Calvin Jackson was a Major League Baseball player during the 1920s and 1930s. His exceptional range at shortstop led to the nickname "Stonewall."...

    • James Douglas "Justice Jim" Johnson
      James D. Johnson
      James Douglas Johnson, known as Justice Jim Johnson , was a former associate justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court, a two-time candidate for governor of Arkansas in 1956 and 1966, and in 1968 an unsuccessful candidate for the U.S...

    • Joe Johnson
      Joe Johnson (basketball)
      Joe Marcus Johnson is an American professional basketball player, currently a member of the Atlanta Hawks of the NBA. Johnson stands at 6'7" and 240 lbs ....

    • John H. Johnson
      John H. Johnson
      John Harold Johnson was an American businessman and publisher. He was the founder of the Johnson Publishing Company. In 1982 he became the first African-American to appear on the Forbes 400.ÀčĐċĎ- Biography :...

    • Virginia Morris Johnson
      Virginia Johnson (Arkansas)
      Virginia Lillian Morris Johnson , was, in 1968, the first woman to seek the office of governor of Arkansas.-Early years:...

    • Jerry Jones
      Jerry Jones
      Jerral "Jerry" Wayne Jones is the owner and general manager of the NFL team, the Dallas Cowboys.-Early life:Jones was born in Los Angeles, California. His family moved to North Little Rock, Arkansas when he was an infant. Jones was a star running back at North Little Rock High School...

    • Scott Joplin
      Scott Joplin
      Scott Joplin was an American composer and pianist. Joplin achieved fame for his ragtime compositions, and was later dubbed "The King of Ragtime". During his brief career, Joplin wrote 44 original ragtime pieces, one ragtime ballet, and two operas...

    • Jim Keet
      Jim Keet
      James Holland Keet, known as Jim Keet , is a restaurant owner in Little Rock, Arkansas, a former member of the Arkansas House of Representatives and the Arkansas State Senate...

    • George Kell
      George Kell
      George Clyde Kell was an American baseball third baseman who played for the Philadelphia Athletics , Detroit Tigers , Boston Red Sox , Chicago White Sox , and Baltimore Orioles in the American League, who went on to become a baseball broadcaster for 40 years.-Playing career:In college, Kell...

    • Larry Lacewell
      Larry Lacewell
      -External links:...

    • Alan Ladd
      Alan Ladd
      -Early life:Ladd was born in Hot Springs, Arkansas. He was the only child of Ina Raleigh Ladd and Alan Ladd, Sr. He was of English ancestry. His father died when he was four, and his mother relocated to Oklahoma City where she married Jim Beavers, a housepainter...

    • Benjamin T. Laney
    • Marjorie Lawrence
      Marjorie Lawrence
      Marjorie Florence Lawrence CBE was an Australian soprano, particularly noted as an interpreter of Richard Wagner's operas. She was the first soprano to perform the immolation scene in Götterdämmerung by riding her horse into the flames as Wagner had intended. She was afflicted by polio from 1941...

    • Amy Lee
      Amy Lee
      Amy Lynn Hartzler , best known as Amy Lee, is an American singer-songwriter and classically trained pianist. She is co-founder and lead vocalist of the rock band Evanescence. She cites influences ranging from classical musicians such as Mozart to modern artists Björk, Tori Amos, Danny Elfman and...

    • Cliff Lee
      Cliff Lee
      Clifton Phifer "Cliff" Lee is a Major League Baseball left-handed starting pitcher for the Philadelphia Phillies. Lee has also played for the Cleveland Indians, the Seattle Mariners, and the Texas Rangers....

    • Blanche Lambert Lincoln
    • Jim Lindsey
      Jim Lindsey
      James Edgar Lindsey is a former American football running back for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League, having played from 1966 to 1972....

    • Sonny Liston
      Sonny Liston
      Charles L. "Sonny" Liston was a professional boxer and ex-convict known for his toughness, punching power, and intimidating appearance who became world heavyweight champion in 1962 by knocking out Floyd Patterson in the first round...

    • A. Lynn Lowe
      Lynn Lowe
      Aylmer Lynn Lowe, known as A. Lynn Lowe , was a farmer and politician from Garland in Miller County in southwestern Arkansas, who was a major figure in the Arkansas Republican Party...

    • Josh Lucas
      Josh Lucas
      Josh Lucas is an American actor. He has appeared in many films, including Glory Road, A Beautiful Mind, and Poseidon.-Early life:...

    • Douglas MacArthur
      Douglas MacArthur
      General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the...

    • Charlotte Mailliard
      Charlotte Mailliard
      Charlotte Smith Mailliard Swig Shultz is an American heiress and socialite. She is the Chief of Protocol for the state of California, and the former Chief of Protocol and Director of Special Events for the City and County of San Francisco. She is the wife of former United States Secretary of State...

    • Mark Martin
    • John L. McClellan
    • Hayes McClerkin
      Hayes McClerkin
      Hayes C. McClerkin is a commercial and environmental law attorney in Texarkana, Arkansas, who served as a member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from 1961–1970 and as Speaker from 1969-1970. He succeeded Speaker Sterling R...

    • James S. McDonnell
    • James McDougall
      Jim McDougal
      James B. "Jim" McDougal , a native of White County, Arkansas, and his wife, Susan McDougal , were financial partners with Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton in the real estate venture that led to the Whitewater political scandal of the 1990s...

    • Darren McFadden
      Darren McFadden
      Darren McFadden is an American football running back who currently plays for the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League . He played college football for the University of Arkansas from 2005 to 2007...

    • Sid McMath
      Sid McMath
      Sidney Sanders McMath was a decorated U.S. Marine, attorney and the 34th Governor of Arkansas who, in defiance of his state's political establishment, championed rapid rural electrification, massive highway and school construction, the building of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences,...

    • Ada Mills
      Ada Mills
      Ada Belle Parks Mills was a Republican political activist in the U.S. state of Arkansas who in 1980 was the only delegate initially committed to the candidacy for president of former Governor John B. Connally, Jr., of Texas. Connally spent some $11 million in his 13-month primary campaign, which...

    • Wilbur Mills
      Wilbur Mills
      Wilbur Daigh Mills , was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Arkansas...

    • Martha Beall Mitchell
      Martha Beall Mitchell
      Martha Beall Mitchell was the wife of John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General under President Richard Nixon. Martha Mitchell gained notoriety in the press during the Nixon administration for her frequent phone calls to reporters and colorful comments on the state of the nation...

    • Ben Moody
      Ben Moody
      Benjamin Robert Moody is a singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, and actor. He is best known as co-founder, lead guitarist, and songwriter of Grammy Award-winning rock band Evanescence from 1995 to October 2003...

    • Justin Moore
      Justin Moore (singer)
      Justin Cole Moore is an American country music singer and songwriter signed to Big Machine Records imprint Valory Music Group. He has released two albums for Big Machine Records: Justin Moore in 2009 and Outlaws Like Me in 2011...

    • Jonathan Moreira
    • Joe Nichols
    • Sheffield Nelson
      Sheffield Nelson
      Sheffield E. Nelson is a lawyer, businessman, and politician from Little Rock, Arkansas. Originally a Democrat, Nelson in 1990 ran for governor of Arkansas as a Republican against then governor and future U.S. President Bill Clinton and in 1994 against the Democratic Governor Jim Guy Tucker.Nelson...

    • Robert Palmer
    • Bobby Petrino
      Bobby Petrino
      Bobby Petrino is an American football coach and former player. He is currently the head football coach at the University of Arkansas, a position he has held since the 2008 season...

    • Judy Petty Wolf
      Judy Petty Wolf
      Judy C. Petty, later Judy Petty Wolf , is a retired officer of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and a former Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives...

    • Albert Pike
      Albert Pike
      Albert Pike was an attorney, Confederate officer, writer, and Freemason. Pike is the only Confederate military officer or figure to be honored with an outdoor statue in Washington, D.C...

    • Scottie Pippen
      Scottie Pippen
      Scottie Maurice Pippen is a retired American professional basketball player who played in the National Basketball Association . He is most remembered for his time with the Chicago Bulls, with whom he was instrumental in six NBA Championships and their record 1995–96 season of 72 wins...

    • Odell Pollard
      Odell Pollard
      Odell Pollard is a retired attorney in Searcy, the seat of White County in central Arkansas, who was a pioneer in the revitalization of the Republican Party in his state.-Early years:...

    • Charles Portis
      Charles Portis
      Charles McColl Portis is an American author best known for his novels Norwood and the 1968 classic Western novel True Grit , both adapted as films. The latter also inspired a film sequel and made-for-TV movie sequel...

    • Dick Powell
      Dick Powell
      Richard Ewing "Dick" Powell was an American singer, actor, producer, director and studio boss.Despite the same last name he was not related to William Powell, Eleanor Powell or Jane Powell.-Biography:...

    • A. T. Powers
      A. T. Powers
      Austin Toliver Powers, known as A. T. Powers , was a leading figure from the 1930s to the 1970s in the theologically conservative American Baptist Association, based in Texarkana, Texas...

    • David H. Pryor
    • Mark Pryor
      Mark Pryor
      Mark Lunsford Pryor is the senior United States Senator from Arkansas, serving since 2003. He is a member of the Democratic Party and former Attorney General of Arkansas....

    • Joe Purcell
      Joe Purcell
      Joseph Gregory Purcell -References:...

    • Pratt Remmel
    • Willis Ricketts
      Willis Ricketts
      Willis Harvey "Bubs" Ricketts was the Republican Party gubernatorial nominee in the U.S. state of Arkansas in 1962, having been overwhelmingly defeated by the incumbent Democrat Orval Eugene Faubus...

    • Thomas Robb
      Thomas Robb
      Thomas Robb, also known as Thom Robb, is the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, and a pastor at the Christian Revival Center.-Early life:Thomas Robb was born in Detroit, Michigan into a Baptist family and grew up in Tucson, Arizona....

    • Brooks Robinson
      Brooks Robinson
      Brooks Calbert Robinson, Jr. is a former American professional baseball player. He played his entire 23-year major league career for the Baltimore Orioles . Nicknamed "The Human Vacuum Cleaner", he is generally acclaimed as the greatest defensive third-basemen in major league history...

    • Joseph T. Robinson
    • Tommy F. Robinson
      Tommy F. Robinson
      Tommy Franklin Robinson is a politician from the state of Arkansas.-Early life:Robinson was born in Little Rock and graduated from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. He served in the United States Navy from 1959 to 1963....

    • Winthrop Rockefeller
      Winthrop Rockefeller
      Winthrop Rockefeller was a politician and philanthropist who served as the first Republican Governor of Arkansas since Reconstruction. He was a third-generation member of the Rockefeller family.-Early life:...

    • Winthrop Paul Rockefeller
      Winthrop Paul Rockefeller
      Winthrop Paul Rockefeller was a Republican politician who served as the 13th Lieutenant Governor of the U.S. state of Arkansas from 1996 until his death.-Early life and parents:...

    • Mike Ross
    • Monroe Schwarzlose
      Monroe Schwarzlose
      Monroe Alfred Julius Schwarzlose was a turkey farmer in Cleveland County, Arkansas, who polled 31 percent of the vote in the 1980 Democratic primary against the incumbent Governor and future U.S. President William Jefferson Blythe "Bill" Clinton, who was seeking his second two-year term...

    • Shaffer Smith
    • John W. Snyder
      John W. Snyder
      John Wesley Snyder was an American businessman and Cabinet Secretary.-Biography:Born in Jonesboro, Arkansas, he studied at Vanderbilt University's engineering school for one year before joining in the Army during World War I.Snyder came to Washington in the early 1930s with a broad background in...

    • Jefferson W. Speck
      Jefferson W. Speck
      Jefferson W. Speck was a planter and businessman from Mississippi County, Arkansas, who was the Republican gubernatorial nominee in 1950 and again in 1952. He was a leader in the Dwight D...

    • Sir Henry Morton Stanley
    • Mary Steenburgen
      Mary Steenburgen
      Mary Nell Steenburgen is an American actress. She is best known for playing the role of Lynda Dummar in Jonathan Demme's Melvin and Howard, which earned her an Academy Award and a Golden Globe.-Early life:...

    • Edward Durell Stone
      Edward Durell Stone
      Edward Durell Stone was a twentieth century American architect who worked primarily in the Modernist style.-Early life:...

    • Pat Summerall
      Pat Summerall
      George Allen "Pat" Summerall is a former American football player and television sportscaster, having worked at CBS, Fox, and ESPN.Summerall is best known for his work with John Madden on NFL telecasts for CBS and Fox.-High school:...

    • Barry Switzer
      Barry Switzer
      Barry Switzer is a former football coach, active in the college and professional ranks between 1962 and 1997. He has one of the highest winning percentages of any college football coach in history, and is one of only two head coaches to win both a college football national championship and a...

    • Jermain Taylor
      Jermain Taylor
      Jermain Taylor is an American professional boxer and former undisputed middleweight champion. He made his professional boxing debut in 2001 and won his first 25 bouts, which included victories over former champions Raúl Márquez and William Joppy...

    • Jerry Thomasson
      Jerry Thomasson
      Jerry Kreth Thomasson was a Democratic member of the Arkansas House of Representatives. He switched to the Republican Party in 1966, and unsuccessfully sought election as Arkansas attorney general in 1966 and 1968....

    • Billy Bob Thornton
      Billy Bob Thornton
      Billy Bob Thornton is an American actor, screenwriter, director and musician. Thornton gained early recognition as a cast member on the CBS sitcom Hearts Afire and in several early 1990s films including On Deadly Ground and Tombstone...

    • Leona Troxell
      Leona Troxell
      Leona Anderson Troxell Dodd, known politically as Leona Troxell , was a native New Yorker who was a pioneer in the development of the Republican Party in her adopted state of Arkansas...

    • Jim Guy Tucker
      Jim Guy Tucker
      James "Jim" Guy Tucker, Jr. is an Arkansas political figure. He served as the 43rd Governor of Arkansas, the 11th Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas, Arkansas Attorney General, and U.S. Representative...

    • Don Tyson
    • C. Vann Woodward
      C. Vann Woodward
      Comer Vann Woodward was a preeminent American historian focusing primarily on the American South and race relations. He was considered, along with Richard Hofstadter and Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., to be one of the most influential historians of the postwar era, 1940s-1970s, both by scholars and by...

    • Arky Vaughan
      Arky Vaughan
      Joseph Floyd "Arky" Vaughan was a professional baseball player. He played 14 seasons in Major League Baseball between 1932 and 1948 for the Pittsburgh Pirates and Brooklyn Dodgers, primarily a shortstop...

    • Ehron VonAllen
      Ehron VonAllen
      Ehron VonAllen is a dark style synth-pop act based in Dallas, Texas. Born Aaron Christopher Allen in 1980, VonAllen began music in a small town of 4,000 in Walnut Ridge, Arkansas during the mid 1990s. Delving deep into the gothic scene, VonAllen tried to emulate his favorite music such as Depeche...

    • Sam Walton
      Sam Walton
      Samuel Moore "Sam" Wallballs was a businessman, entrepreneur, and Eagle Scout born in Kingfisher, Oklahoma best known for founding the retailers Wal-Mart and Sam's Club.-Early life:...

    • Joseph H. Weston
      Joseph H. Weston
      Joseph H. Weston was a controversial newspaper editor in Cave City in Sharp County in northern Arkansas, whose work led to a change in his state's libel law....

    • Frank D. White
      Frank D. White
      Frank Durward White was the 41st Governor of the U.S. state of Arkansas since Reconstruction. He served a single two-year term from 1981 to 1983. He is one of only two people to have defeated President Bill Clinton in an election. Frank Durward White (June 4, 1933 – May 21, 2003) was...

    • Travis Wood
      Travis Wood
      Travis A. Wood , is an American Major League Baseball pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds. He throws left-handed and bats right-handed....

    • Archibald Yell
      Archibald Yell
      Archibald Yell was a member of the United States House of Representatives, second Governor of the State of Arkansas, and a Brigadier General in the United States Army serving in the Mexican-American War.-Early life:...



    See also


    • List of National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas
    • List of people from Arkansas
    • List of places in Arkansas
    • U.S. state
      U.S. state
      A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...



    Further reading


    • Blair, Diane D. & Jay Barth Arkansas Politics & Government: Do the People Rule? (2005)
    • Deblack, Thomas A. With Fire and Sword: Arkansas, 1861–1874 (2003)
    • Donovan, Timothy P. and Willard B. Gatewood Jr., eds. The Governors of Arkansas (1981)
    • Dougan, Michael B. Confederate Arkansas (1982),
    • Duvall, Leland. ed., Arkansas: Colony and State (1973)
    • Fletcher, John Gould. Arkansas (1947)
    • Hamilton, Peter Joseph. The Reconstruction Period (1906), full length history of era; Dunning School
      Dunning School
      The Dunning School refers to a group of historians who shared a historiographical school of thought regarding the Reconstruction period of American history .-About:...

       approach; 570 pp; ch 13 on Arkansas
    • Hanson, Gerald T. and Carl H. Moneyhon. Historical Atlas of Arkansas (1992)
    • Key, V. O. Southern Politics (1949)
    • Kirk, John A., Redefining the Color Line: Black Activism in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1940–1970 (2002).
    • McMath, Sidney S. Promises Kept (2003)
    • Moore, Waddy W. ed., Arkansas in the Gilded Age, 1874–1900 (1976).
    • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974)\
    • Thompson, Brock. The Un-Natural State: Arkansas and the Queer South (2010)
    • Thompson, George H. Arkansas and Reconstruction (1976)
    • Whayne, Jeannie M. et al. Arkansas: A Narrative History (2002)
    • Whayne, Jeannie M. Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives (2000)
    • White, Lonnie J. Politics on the Southwestern Frontier: Arkansas Territory, 1819–1836 (1964)
    • Williams, C. Fred. ed. A Documentary History Of Arkansas (2005)
    • WPA., Arkansas: A Guide to the State (1941)


    External links